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Over-current and Earth Fault Protection  Introduction

As the fault impedance is less than load impedance, the fault current is more than load current. If a short circuit occurs the circuit impedance is reduced to a low value and therefore a fault is accompanied by large current. Over-current protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. The basic element in Over-current protection is an Over-current relay. The Over-current relays are connected to the system, normally by means of CT's. Over-current relaying has following types: 1. High speed Over-current protection. 2. Definite time Over-current protection. 3. Inverse minimum time Over-current protection. 4. Directional Over-current protection (of above types). Over-current protection includes the protection from overloads. This is most widely used protection. Overloading of a machine or equipment generally) means the machine is taking more current than its rated current. Hence with overloading, there is an associated temperature rise. The permissible temperature rise has a limit based on insulation class and material problems. Over-current protection of overloads is generally provided by thermal relays. Over-current protection includes short-circuit protection. Short circuits a be phase faults, earth faults or winding faults. Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short-circuits. When a machine is protected by differential protection, the over-current is provided in addition as a back-up and in some cases to protect the machine from sustained through fault. Several protective devices are used for over-current protection these include: 1. Fuses 2. Circuit-breakers fitted with overloaded coils or tripped by over-current relays. 3. Series connected trip coils operating switching devices. 4. Over-current relays in conjunction with current transformers. The primary requirements of over-current protection are:

The protection should not operate for starting currents, permissible over-current, and current surges. To achieve this, the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). If time delay cannot be permitted, high-set instantaneous relaying is used. The protection should be coordinated with neighboring overcurrent protections so as to discriminate.

 Applications of Over-current Protection Over-current protection has a wide range of applications. It can be applied where there is an abrupt difference between fault current within the protected section and that outside the protected section and these magnitudes are almost constant. The over-current protection is provided for the following:  Motor Protection Over-current protection is the basic type of protection used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motors. Inverse time and instantaneous phase and ground over-current relays can be employed for motors above 1200 H.P. For small/medium size motors where cost of CT's and protective relays is not economically justified, thermal relays and HRC fuses are employed, thermal relays used for overload protection and HRC fuses for short-circuit protection.  Transformer Protection Transformers are provided with over-current protection against faults, only, when the cost of differential relaying cannot be justified. However, over-current relays are provided in addition to differential relays to take care of through faults. Temperature indicators and alarms are always provided for large transformers. Small transformers below 500 kVA installed in distribution system are generally protected by drop-out fuses, as the cost of relays plus circuit-breakers is not generally justified Line Protection. The lines (feeders) can be protected by (1) Instantaneous over-current relays. (2) Inverse time over-current relays. (3) Directional over-current relay. Lines can be protected by impedance or carrier current protection also. Protection of Utility Equipment The furnaces, industrial installations commercial, industrial and domestic equipment are all provided with over-current protection.  Relays used in Over-current Protection The choice of relay for over-current protection depends upon the Time / current characteristic and other features desired. The following relays are used. 1. For instantaneous over-current protection. Attracted armature type, moving iron type, permanent magnet moving coil type and static.

2. For inverse time characteristic. Electromagnetic induction type, permanent magnet moving coil type and static. 3. Directional over-current protection. Double actuating quantity induction relay with directional feature. 4. Static over-current relays. 5. HRC fuses, drop out fuses, etc. are used in low voltage medium voltage and high voltage distribution systems, generally up to 11 kV. 6. Thermal relays are used widely for over-current protection. Not: Now Digital Numerical Relay you can used for all types  Characteristics of relay units for over current protection There is a wide variety of relay-units. These are classified according to their type and characteristics. The major characteristic includes: 1. Definite characteristic 2. Inverse characteristic 3. Extremely Inverse 4. Very Inverse In definite characteristic, the time of operation is almost definite i.e. I0 * T = K Where: I = Current in relay coil T = Relay lime K = Constant. In inverse characteristic, time is inversely proportional to current i.e. I1 * T = K In more inverse characteristic In * T = K Where n can be between 2 to 8 the choice depends on discrimination desired. Instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time lag sod which operate in less than 0.1 second, usually less than 0.08 second. As suck they are not instantaneous in real sense. The relays which are not instantaneous are called Time Delay Relay'. Such relays are provided with delaying means such as drag magnet, dash poss. bellows, escape mechanisms, back-stop arrangement, etc. The operating time of a relay for a particular setting and magnitude actuating quantity can be known from the characteristics supplied by the manufacturer.

The typical characteristics are shown in (Fig. 1) An inverse curve is one in which the operating time; becomes less as the magnitude of the actuating quantity is increased. However for higher magnitudes of actuating quantity the time is constant. Definite time curve is one in which operating time is little affected by magnitude of actuating current. However even definite time relay has a characteristic which is slightly inverse The characteristic with definite minimum time and of inverse type is also called Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics (Fig.1).

(Fig.1) Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics Next

Principle of trip circuit Referring to (Fig. 2) the three current transformers and relay coils connected in star and the star point is earthed. When short circuit occurs in the protected zone the secondary current of CT's increases. These current flows through relay coils and the relay picks-up, the relay contacts close, thereby the trip circuit is closed and the circuit breaker-operates The over-current protection scheme with three over-current relays (Fig. 2) responds to phase faults and earth faults including single-phase to earth fault. Therefore such schemes are used with solidly earthed systems where phase to phase and phase to earth faults are likely to occur. For proper functioning of over-current and earth fault protection, the choice of CT's and polarity connections should be correct.

Fig.2) Over Current protection with three phase OC relays Methods of CT Connections in Over-current Protection of 3-Phase Circuits  Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays

Over-current protection can be achieved by means of three over-current relays or by two over-current relays (See Table 1). Table 1 Fig Description Note 1 One OC with For balanced one CT for load only. over load protection.

Two OC relays with two CT's for phase to phase fault protection. Three OC relays with three CT's for phase to phase fault protection. Three OC relays with three CT's for phase to phase fault protection and phase to earth fault. Two OC and one EF relays for phase to phase and phase to earth fault protection Earth-Fault Protection EF current > two time pick-up phase current

EF setting less than phase fault setting

When the fault current flows through earth return path, the fault is called Earth Fault. Other faults which do not involve earth are called phase faults. Since earth faults are relatively frequent, earth fault protection is necessary in most

cases. When separate earth fault protection is not economical, the phase relays sense the earth fault currents. However such protection lacks sensitivity. Hence separate earth fault protection is generally provided. Earth fault protection senses earth fault current. Following are the method of earth fault protection.  Connections of CT's for Earth-fault Protection 1. Residually connected Earth-fault Relay Referring to Fig. 3 In absence of earth-fault the vector sum of three line currents is zero. Hence the vector sum of three secondary currents is also zero. IR+I Y +I B =0 The sum (IR+I Y +I B ) is called residual current The earth-fault relay is connected such that the residual current flows through it (Figs.3 and Fig. 4), in the absence of earth-fault, Therefore, the residually connected earth-fault relay does not operate. However, in presence of earth fault the conditions is disturbed and (IR+I Y +I B ) is no more zero. Hence flows through the earth-fault relay. If the residual current is above the pick-up value, the earth-fault relay operates. In the scheme discussed here the earth-fault at any location near or away from the location of CT's can cause the residual current flow. Hence the protected zone is not definite. Such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection

(Fig.3) Earth-fault Relay connected in Residual Circuit.

(Fig.4) Earth fault protection combined with phase fault protection Previous Next

2. Earth-fault Relay connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit (Fig. 5). Another method of connecting an earth-fault relay is illustrated in Fig 5. The relay is connected to secondary of a CT whose primary is connected in neutral to earth connection. Such protection can be provided at various voltage levels by connecting earth-fault relay in the neutral-to-earth connection of that voltage level. The fault current finds the return path through the earth and then flows through the neutral-to-earth connected. The magnitude of earth fault current is dependent on type of earthing (resistance, reactance or solid) and location of fault. In this type of protection, The zone of protection cannot be accurately defined. The protected area is not restricted to the transformer/generator winding alone. The relay senses the earth faults beyond the transformer/generator winding hence such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection. The earth-fault protection by relay in neutral

to earth circuit depends upon the type of neutral Earthing. In case of large generators, voltage transformer is connected between neutral and earth

(Fig. 5) Earth-fault protection by earth-faultrelay connected in neutral-to-earth circuit.  Combined Earth-fault and Phase-fault Protection

It is convenient to incorporate phase-fault relays and earth-fault relay in a combined phase-fault and earth-fault protection. (Fig. 4) The increase in current of phase causes corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. The secondary current flows through respective relay-units Very often only two-phase relays are provided instead of three, because in case of phase faults current in any at least two phases must increase. Hence two relayunits are enough.  Earth-fault Protection with Core Balance Current Transformers. (Zero Sequence CT) In this type of protection (Fig. 6) a single ring shaped core of magnetic material, encircles the conductors of all the three phases. A secondary coil is connected to a relay unit. The cross-section of ring-core is

(Fig.6) Principle of core-balance CT for earth fault protection Ample, so that saturation is not a problem. During no-earth-fault condition, the components of fluxes due to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the secondary current is negligible. During earth faults, such a balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary. Core-balance protection can be conveniently used for protection of low-voltage and medium voltage systems. The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding factors. Very large crosssection of core is necessary for sensitivity less than 10 A. This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static relays due to the fewer burdens of the latter. Instantaneous relay unit is generally used with core balance schemes.  Theory of Core Balance CT

. Let Ia, Ib and I c , be the three line currents and a, b and c be corresponding components of magnetic flux in the core. Assuming linearity, we get resultant flux as, =k (Ia + Ib + I c ) where k is a constant = K * Ia. Referring to theory of symmetrical components

(Ia + Ib + I c )= 3 I c= I n Where, Io is zero sequence current and In, is current in neutral to ground circuit. During normal condition, when earth fault is absent, (Ia + Ib + Ic) = 0 Hence r = 0 and relay does not operate During earth fault the earth fault current flows through return neutral path. For example for single line ground fault,

If = 3Iao = In Hence the zero-sequence component of I o produces the resultant flux r in the core. Hence core balance current transformer is also called as zero sequence current transformers (ZSCT).  Application for Core Balance CT's with Cable Termination Joints

The termination of a three core cable into three separate lines or bus-bars is through cable terminal box. Ref. (Fig. 7), the Core Balance Protection is used along with the cable box and should be installed before making the cable joint. The induced current flowing through cable sheath of normal healthy cable needs particular attention with respect to the core balance protection. The sheath currents (Ish) flow through the sheath to the cover of cable-box and then to earth through the earthing connection between cable-box. For eliminating the error due to sheath current (Ish) the earthing lead between the cable-box and the earth should be taken through the core of the core balance protection. Thereby the error due to sheath currents is eliminated. The cable box should be insulated from earth. 1. Cable terminal box 2. Sheath of 3 core cable connection to (1) 3. Insulator support for 1 4. Earthing connection passing through 5 5. Core balance CT

Fig (7) Mounting of Core Balance

CT with Cable Terminal Box  Frame-leakage Protection The metal-clad switchgear can be provided with frame leakage protection. The switchgear is lightly y insulated from the earth. The metal-frame-work or enclosure of the switchgear is earthed with a primary of a CT in between (Fig. 8). The concrete foundation of the switchgear and the cable-boxes and other conduits are slightly insulated from earth, the resistance to earth being about 12 ohms. In the event of an earth fault within the switchgear, the earth-fault current finds the' path through the neutral connection. While doing so, it is sensed by the earth fault relay.

(Fig. 8) Principle of frame-leakage protection of metal-clad-switchgear Circulating current differential protection also responds to earth-faults within its protected zone.  Earth-fault protection can be achieved by following methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Residually connected relay. Relay connected in neutral-to-ground circuit. Core-balance-scheme. Frame leakage method. Distance relays arranged for detecting earth faults on lines. Circulating current differential protection. Previous Next

Directional Over-current Protection

The over-current protection can be given directional feature by adding directional element in the protection system. Directional over-current protection responds to over-currents for a particular direction flow. If power flow is in the opposite direction, the directional over-current protection remains un-operative. Directional over-current protection comprises over-current relay and power directional relay- in a single relay casing. The power directional relay does not measure the power but is arranged to respond to the direction of power flow. Directional operation of relay is used where the selectivity can be achieved by directional relaying. The directional relay recognizes the direction in which fault occurs, relative to the location of the relay. It is set such that it actuates for faults occurring in one direction only. It does not act for faults occurring in the other direction. Consider a feeder AC (Fig. 9) passing through sub-section B. The circuit breaker CB3 is provided with a directional

(Fig. 9) Principle of directional protection Relay `R' which will trip the breaker CB3 if fault power flow in direction C alone. Therefore for faults in feeder AB, the circuit breaker CB3 does not trip unnecessarily. However for faults in feeder BC the circuit-breaker CB3 trips Because it's protective relaying is set with a directional feature to act in direction AC Another interesting example of directional protection is that of reverse power protection of generator (Fig. 10). If the prime mover fails, the generator continues to run as a motor and takes power from bus-bars.

(Fig. 10) Reverse powers protection against motoring action of a generator Directional power protection operates in accordance with the direction of power flow. Reverse power protection operates when the power direction is reversed in relation to the normal working direction. Reverse power relay is different in construction than directional over-current relay.

In directional over-current relay, the directional element does not measure the magnitude of power. It senses only direction of power flow. However, in Reverse Power Relays, the directional element measures magnitude and direction of power flow.  Relay connections of Single Phase Directional Over-current Relay : The current coils in the directional over-current relay are normally connected to a secondary of line CT. The voltage coil of directional element is connected to a line VT, having phase to phase output (of 110 V). There are four common methods of connecting the relay depending upon phase angle between current in the current coil and voltage applied to the voltage coil.

Fig.11 Numerical Over current, and Overload Protection Relay 3-Phase Directional over current relays When fault current can flow in both directions through the relay location, it is necessary to make the response of the relay directional by the introduction of directional control elements. These are basically power measuring devices in which the system voltage is used as a reference for establishing the relative direction or phase of the fault current. Although power measuring devices in principle, they are not arranged to respond to the actual system power for a number of reasons: 1. The power system, apart from loads, is reactive so that the fault power factor is usually low. A relay

V a , Vb and Vc. Normal system voltages V b 1 and V c 1 Voltages at fault location on faulted phases V b 2 and V c 2 Voltages remote from fault location Fig.12 Phase voltages for a B-C fault

Responding purely to the active component would not develop a high torque and might be much slower and less decisive than it could be. 1. The system voltage must collapse at the point of short circuit. When the fault is single-phase, it is the particular voltage across the shortcircuited points which are reduced. So a BC phase fault will cause the B and C phase voltage vectors to move together, the locus of their ends being the original line be for a homogeneous system, as shown in (Fig.12) At the point of fault the vectors will coincide, leaving zero voltage across the fault, but the fault voltage to earth will be half the initial phase to neutral voltage. At other points in the system the vector displacement will be less, but relays located at such points will receive voltages which are unbalanced in their value and phase position. The effect of the large unbalance in currents and voltages is to make the torques developed by the different phase elements vary widely and even differ in sign if the quantities applied to the relay are not chosen carefully. To this end, each phase of the relay is polarized with a voltage which will not be reduced excessively except by close three-phase faults, and which will remain in a satisfactory relationship to the current under all conditions.

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Relay connections This is the arrangement whereby suitable current and voltage quantities are applied to the relay. The various connections are dependent on the phase angle, at unity system power factor, by which the current and voltage applied to the relay are displaced.  Relay maximum torque The maximum torque angle (MTA) is defined as the angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce maximum torque. Although the relay element may be inherently wattmetric, its characteristic can be varied by the addition of phase shifting components to give maximum torque at the required phase angle. A number of different connections have been used and these are discussed below. Examination of the suitability of each arrangement involves determining the limiting conditions of the voltage and current applied to each phase element of the relay, for all fault conditions, taking into account the possible range of source and line impedances.  30 relay connection (0 MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage V ac. In this case, the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied Vac voltage by 90, so the maximum torque occurs when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 30. For unity power factor and 0.5 lagging power factor the maximum torque available is 0.866 of maximum. Also, the potential coil voltage lags the current in the current coil by 30 and gives a tripping zone from 60 leading to 120 lagging currents, as shown in (Fig. 13a). The most satisfactory maximum torque angle for this connection, that ensures correct operation when used for the protection of plain feeders, is 0, and it can be shown that a directional element having this connection and 0 MTA will provide correct discrimination for all types of faults, when applied to plain feeders If applied to transformer feeders, however, there is a danger that at least one of the three phase relays will operate for faults in the reverse direction; for this reason a directional element having this connection should never be used to protect transformer feeders. This connection has been used widely in the past, and it is satisfactory under all conditions for plain feeders provided that three phase elements are employed. When only two phase elements and an earth fault element are used there is a probability of failure to operate for one condition. An inter-

phase short circuit causes two elements to be energized but for low power factors one will receive inputs which, although correct, will produce only a poor torque. In particular a BC fault will strongly energize the B element with l b current and Vba voltage, but the C element will receive Ic and the collapsed Vcb voltage, which quantities have a large relative phase displacement, as shown in (Fig. 13b). This is satisfactory provided that three phase elements are used, but in the case of a two phase and one earth fault element relay, with the B phase element omitted, operation will depend upon the C element, which may fail to operate if the fault is close to the relaying point.

A phase element connected l a Va c B phase element connected l b Vb a C phase element connected Ic Vcb (a) Characteristic and inputs for phase A element

(b)

B-C Fault with voltage distortion

(Fig. 13) Vector diagrams for the 30 connection

60 No. 1 connection (0 MTA)

The A phase relay is supplied with lab current and Vac voltage. In this case, the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage to the relay by 90, so maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60. This connection, which uses Vac voltage with delta current produced by adding phase A and phase B currents at unity power factor, gives a current leading the voltage Vac by 60, and provides a correct directional tripping zone over a current range of 30 leading to 150 lagging. The torque at unity power factor is 0.5 of maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0.866; see (Fig.14). It has been proved that the most suitable maximum torque angle for this relay connection, that is, one which ensures correct directional discrimination with the minimum risk of mal-operation when applied to either plain or transformer feeders, is 0. When used for the protection of plain feeders there is a slight possibility of the element associated with the A phase mal-operating for a reversed BC fault.

A phase element connected lab V a c B phase element connected I bc V ba

C phase element connected Ic a V c b (Fig.14) Vector diagram for the 60 No. 1 connection (phase A element) However, although the directional element may mal-operation, it is unlikely that the over current element which the directional element controls will receive sufficient current to cause it to operate. For this reason the connection may be safely recommended for the protection of plain feeders. When applied to transformer feeders there is a possibility of one of the directional elements mal-operation for an earth fault on the star side of a delta/star transformer, remote from the relay end. For mal-operation to occur, the source impedance would have to be relatively small and have a very low angle at the same time that the arc resistance of the fault was high. The possibility of mal-operation with this connection is very remote, for two reasons: first, in most systems the source impedance may be safely assumed to be largely reactive, and secondly, if the arc resistance is high enough to cause mal-operation of the directional element it is unlikely that the over current element associated with the mal-operation directional element will see sufficient current to operate. The connection, however, does suffer from the disadvantage that it is necessary to connect the current transformers in delta, which usually precludes their being used for any other protective function. For this reason, and also because it offers no advantage over the 90 connection, it is rarely used. Previous Next

 60 No. 2 connection (0 MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage In this case, the flux of the voltage coil lags the applied voltage by 90 so the maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60. This connection gives

A phase element connected Ia Vc B phase element connected Ib Va C phase element connected Ic Vb (Fig.15) Vector diagram for the 60 No. 2 connection (phase A element). a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30 leading to 150 lagging. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0.866; see (Fig.15). The most suitable maximum torque angle for a directional element using this connection is 0. However, even if this maximum torque angle is used, there is a risk of incorrect operation for all types of faults with the exception of three-phase faults. For this reason, the 60 No. 2 connection is now never recommended.

A phase element connected Ia Vbc B phase element connected Ib Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig.16) Vector diagram for the 9030 connection (Phase A element)

 90 relay quadrature connection This is the standard connection for the type CDD relay; depending on the angle by which the applied voltage is shifted to produce the relay maximum torque angle, two types are available.  90- 30 c ha rac te ri st ic (30 MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with la current and Vbc voltage displaced by 30 in an anti-clockwise direction. In this case, the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 60, and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30 leading to 150 lagging; see (Fig.16). The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0.866. A relay designed .for quadrature connection and having a maximum torque angle of 30 is recommended when the relay is used for the protection of plain feeders with the zero sequence source behind the relaying point.  90- 45 c ha rac te ri st ic (45 MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage Vbc displaced by 45 in an anti-clockwise direction. In this case, the flux due to the voltage

coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 45, and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 45. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 45 leading to 135 lagging. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.707 of the maximum torque and the same at zero power factor lagging; see (Fig.17).

A phase element connected Ia ,Vbc B phase element connected Ih Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig.17) Vector diagram for the 90-45 connection (Phase A element) This connection is recommended for the protection of transformer feeders or feeders which have a zero sequence source in front of the relay. The 90- 45 connection is essential in the case of parallel trans-formers or transformer feeders, in order to ensure correct relay operation for faults beyond the star/ delta transformer. This connection should also be used whenever singlephase directional relays are applied to a circuit Theoretically, three fault conditions can cause mal-operation of the directional element: a phase-phase ground fault on a plain feeder, a phaseground fault on a transformer feeder with the zero sequence source in front of the relay and a phase-phase fault on a power transformer with the relay looking into the delta winding of the transformer. It should be remembered, however, that the conditions assumed above to establish the maximum angular displacement between the current and voltage quantities at the relay, are such that, in practice, the magnitude of the current input to the relay would be insufficient to cause the over current

element to operate. It can be shown analytically that the possibility of maloperation with the 90- 45 connection is, for all practical purposes, nonexistent.

(Fig.18) Directional relays applied to parallel feeders. Previous Next

Parallel feeders If non-directional relays are applied to parallel feeders, any faults that might occur on any one line will, regardless of the relay settings used, isolate both lines and completely disconnect the power supply. With this type of system configuration it is necessary to apply directional relays at the receiving end and to grade them with the non-directional relays at the sending end, to ensure correct discriminative operation of the relays during line. faults. This is done by setting the directional relays R'1 and R'2 as shown in (Fig.18) with their directional elements looking into the protected line, and giving them lower time and current settings than relays R1 and R2. The usual practice is to set relays R'1 and R'2 to 50% of the normal full load of the protected circuit and 0.1 TMS, but care must be taken to ensure that their continuous thermal rating of twice rated current is not exceeded.  Ring mains

Directional relays are more commonly applied to ring mains. In the case of a ring main fed at one point only, the relays at the supply end and at the midpoint substation, where the setting of both relays are identical, can be made non-directional, provided that in the latter case the relays are located on the same feeder, that is, one at each end of the feeder. It is interesting to note that when the number of feeders round the ring is an

even number, the two relays with the same operating time are at the same substation and will have to be directional, whereas when the number of feeders is an odd number, the two relays with the same operating time are at different substations and therefore do not need to be directional. It may also be noted that, at inter-mediate substations, whenever the operating times of the relays at each substation are different, the difference between their operating times is never less than the grading margin, so the relay with the longer operating time can be non-directional.  Grading of ring mains

The usual procedure for grading relays in an inter-connected system is to open the ring at the supply point and to grade the relays first clockwise and then anti-clockwise; that is, the relays looking in a clock-wise direction round the ring are arranged to operate in the sequence 123456 and the relays looking in the anti-clockwise direction are arranged to operate in the sequence 1'2'3'4'5'6', as shown in (Fig.19)

(Fig.19) Grading of ring mains The arrows associated with the relaying points indicate the direction of

current flow that will cause the relays to operate. A double-headed arrow is used to indicate a non-directional relay, such as those at the supply point where the power can flow only in one direction, and a single-headed arrow a directional relay, such as those at intermediate substations around the ring where the power can flow in either direction. The directional relays are set in accordance with the invariable rule, applicable to all forms of directional protection that the current in the system must flow from the substation bus-bars into the protected line in order that the relays may operate. Disconnection of the faulty line is carried out according to time and fault current direction. As in any parallel system, the fault current has two parallel paths and divides itself in the inverse ratio of their impedances. Thus, at each substation in the ring, one set of relays will be made inoperative because of the direction of current flow, and the other set operative. It will also be found that the operating times of the relays that are inoperative are faster than those of the operative relays, with the exception of the mid-point substation, where the operating times of relays 3 and 3' happen to be the same. The relays which are operative are graded downwards towards the fault and the last to be affected by the fault operates first. This applies to both paths to the fault. Consequently, the faulty line is the only one to be disconnected from the ring and the power supply is maintained to all the substations. When two or more power sources feed into a ring main, time graded over current protection is difficult to apply and full discrimination may not be possible. With two sources of supply, two solutions are possible. The first is to open the ring at one of the supply points, whichever is more convenient, by means of a suitable high set instantaneous over-current relay and then to proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed, the second to treat the section of the ring between the two supply points as a continuous bus separate from the ring and to protect it with a unit system of protection, such as pilot wire relays, and then proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. Previous Next

Directional Earth-Fault Protection In the directional over-current protection the current coil of relay is actuated from secondary current of line CT. whereas the current coil of directional earth fault relay is actuated by residual current. In directional over-current relay, the voltage coil is actuated by secondary of line

VT. In directional earth fault relay, the voltage coil is actuated by the residual voltage. Directional earth fault relays sense the direction in which earth fault occurs with respect to the relay location and it operates for fault in a particular direction. The directional earth fault relay (single phase unit) has two coils. The polarizing quantity is obtained either from residual current I RS = (Ia + Ib + Ic) or residual voltage VRs = V a + V b + V c

Where V a , V b and Vc are phase voltages. Referring to (Fig. 11) the directional earth-fault relay has two coils. One to the coils is connected in residual current circuits (Ref. Fig. 5). This coil gets current during earth-faults. The other coil gets residual voltage, V RS= V a + V b + V c Where V a , V b a n d V c are secondary voltages of the potential transformer ('Three phase five limb potential transformer or three separate single phase potential transformers connected as shown in Fig. 20). The coil connected in potential-transformer secondary circuit gives a polarizing field.

(Fig. 20) Connections of a directional earthfault relay. The residual current I RS i.e. the out of balance current is given to the current coil and the residual voltage VRs is given to the voltage coil of the relay. The torque is proportional to T = I RS * V RS * cos ( - ) = angle between I RS and VRs = angle of maximum torque.  Summary Over-current protection responds to increase in current above the pick-up value over-currents are caused by overloads and short-circuits.

The over-current relays are connected the secondary of current transformer. The characteristic of over-current relays include inverse time characteristic, definite time characteristic. Earth fault protection responds to single line to ground faults and double line to ground faults. The current coil of earth-fault relay is connected either in neutral to ground circuit or in residually connected secondary CT circuit. Core balance CTs are used for earth-fault protection. Frame leakage protection can be used for metal clad switchgear. Directional over-current relay and Directional Earth fault relay responds to fault in which power flow is in the set direction from the CT and PT locations. Such directional relays are used when power can flow from both directions to the fault point.  Co-ordination Correct current relay application requires knowledge of the fault current that can flow in each part of the network. Since large scale tests are normally impracticable, system analysis must be used. It is generally sufficient to use machine transient reactance X'd and to work on the instantaneous symmetrical currents. The data required for a relay setting study are: 1. A one-line diagram of the power system involved, showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated current transformers. 2. The impedances in ohms, per cent or per unit, of all power transformers, rotating machines and feeder circuits. 3. The maximum and minimum values of short circuit currents that are expected to flow through each protective device. 4. The starting current requirements of motors and the starting and stalling times of induction motors. 5. The maximum peak load current through protective devices. 6. Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by the generators. 7. Performance curves of the current transformers. 8. The relay settings are first determined so as to give the shortest operating times at maximum fault levels and then checked to see if operation will also be satisfactory at the minimum fault current expected. It is always advisable to plot the curves of relays and other protective devices, such as fuses, that are to operate in series, on a common scale. It is usually more convenient to use a scale corresponding to the current expected at the lowest voltage base or to use the predominant voltage base. The alternatives are a common MVA base or a separate current scale for each system voltage. 9. The basic rules for correct relay co-ordination can generally be stated as follows: 10. Whenever possible, use relays with the same operating characteristic in series with each other. 11. Make sure that the relay farthest from the source has current

settings equal to or less than the relays behind it, that is, that the primary current required operating the relay in front is always equal to or less than the primary current required operating the relay behind it.  PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING Among the various possible methods used to achieve correct relay coordination are those using either time or over current or a combination of both time and over-current. The common aim of all three methods is to give correct discrimination. That is to say, each one must select and isolate only the faulty section of the power system network, leaving the rest of the system undisturbed. 1. Discrimination by time In this method an appropriate time interval is given by each of the relays controlling the circuit breakers in a power system to ensure that the breaker nearest to the fault opens first. A simple radial distribution system is shown in (Fig. 21) to illustrate the principle.

(Fig. 21) Radial systems with time discrimination Circuit breaker protection is provided at B, C, D and E, that is, at the infeed end of each section of the power system. Each protection unit comprises a definite time delay over current relay in which the operation of the current sensitive element simply initiates the time delay element. Provided the setting of the current element is below the fault current value this element plays no part in the achievement of discrimination. For this reason, the relay is sometimes described as an 'independent definite time delay relay' since its operating time is for practical purposes independent of the level of over current. It is the time delay element, therefore, which provides the means of discrimination. The relay at B is set at the shortest time delay permissible to allow a fuse to blow for a fault on the secondary side of trans-former A. Typically, a time delay of 0.25s is adequate. If a fault occurs at F, the relay at B will operate in 0.25s, and the subsequent operation of the circuit breaker at B will clear the fault before the relays at C, D and E have time to operate. The main disadvantage of this method of discrimination is that the longest fault clearance time occurs for faults in the

section closest to the power source, where the fault level (MVA) is highest. 1. Discrimination by current

Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the fault current varies with the position of the fault, because of the difference in impedance values between the source and the fault. Hence, typically, the relays controlling the various circuit breakers are set to operate at suitably tapered values such that only the relay nearest to the fault trips its breaker. (Fig. 22) illustrates the method.

(Fig. 22) Radial system with current discrimination For a fault at F1, the system short circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1) A

Where Zs = source impedance = 11 2 / 250 = 0.485 ohms ZL1= cable impedance between C and B = 0.24 ohms Hence I=6350/0.725 = 8800 A So a relay controlling the circuit breaker at C and set to operate at a fault current of 8800 A would in simple theory protect the whole of the cable section between C and B. However, there are two important practical points which affect this method of co-ordination. 1. It is not practical to distinguish between a fault at Fl and a fault at F 2, since the distance between these points can be only a few meters, corresponding to a change in fault current of approximately 0 .1%. 2. In practice, there would be variations in the source fault level, typically from 250 MVA to 130 MVA. At this lower fault level the fault current would not exceed 6800 A even for a cable fault close to C, so a relay set at 8800 A would not protect any of the cable section concerned.

Discrimination by current is therefore not a practical proposition for correct grading between the circuit breakers at C and B. However, the problem changes appreciably when there is significant impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned. This can be seen by considering the grading required between the circuit breakers at B and A in (Fig. 22). Assuming a fault at F 4, the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) Where ZS = source impedance =112 / 250 = 0. 485 ohms ZL1 = cable impedance between C and B 0.24 ohms ZL2 = cable impedance between B and 4 MVA transformer 0.04 ohms ZT = transformer impedance =0.07(112 /4) =2.12 ohms Hence I = 6350/ 2.885 = 2200 A For this reason, a relay controlling the circuit breaker at B and set to operate at a current of 2200 A plus a safety margin would not operate for a fault at F4 and would thus discriminate with the relay at A. Assuming a safety margin of 20% to allow for relay errors and a further 10% for variations in the system impedance values, it is reasonable to choose a relay setting of 1.3 x 2200, that is, 2860 A for the relay at B. Now, assuming a fault at F3, that is, at the end of the 11 kV cable feeding the 4 MVA transformers, the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) I = 6350 /(0.485 + 0.24 + 0.04)=8300 Amp. Alternatively, assuming a source fault level of 130 MVA: I = 6350 /(0.93 + 0.24 + 0.004)=5250 Amp. In other words, for either value of source level, the relay at B would operate correctly for faults anywhere on the 11 kV cable feeding the transformer. Previous Next A

Discrimination by both time and current 3 Discrimination by both time and current

Each of the two methods described so far has a fundamental disadvantage. In the case of discrimination by time alone, the disadvantage is due to the fact that the more severe faults are cleared in the longest operating time. Discrimination by current can only be applied where there is appreciable impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned. It is because of the limitations imposed by the independent use of either time or current co-ordination that the inverse time over current relay characteristic has evolved. With this characteristic, the time of operation is inversely proportional to the fault current level and the actual characteristic is a function of both 'time' and 'current' settings. The advantage of this method of relay Co-ordination may be best illustrated by the system shown in (Fig.23) which is identical to that shown in (Fig.21) except that typical system parameters have been added. In order to carry out a system analysis, before a relay co-ordination study of the system shown in (Fig. 23), it is necessary to refer all the system impedances to a common base and thus, using 10 MVA as the reference base, we have: 4MVA transformer percentage impedance on 10MVA base=7X (10/4) =17.5% 11 kV cable between B and A percentage impedance on10 MVA base = (0.04 X 100 X 10) / 112= 0.33% 11 kV cable between C and B percentage impedance on 10 MVA base = (0.24 X 100 X10) /112 =1.98 % 30 MVA transformer percentage impedance on 10 MVA base =22.5 X 10 / 30 =7.5 % 132 kV overhead line percentage impedance on10 MVA base = (6.2x100x10)/ 1322 =0.36% 1 3 2 kV source percentage impedance on 10 MVA base = (100 x 10) /3500 =0.29% The graph in (Fig.23) illustrates the use of 'discrimination curves', which are an important aid to satisfactory protection co-ordination. In this example, a voltage base of 3.3kV has been chosen and the first curve plotted is that of the 200 A fuse, which is assumed to protect the largest outgoing 3.3kV circuit. Once the operating characteristic of the highest rated 3.3kV fuse has

been plotted, the grading of the over current relays at the various substations of the radial system is carried out as follows: Substation B CT ratio 250/5A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse, as for the type CDG 14 relay. This relay must discriminate with the 200A fuse at fault levels up to: (10 x 100) / (17.5+0.33+1.98+7.5+0.36+0.29) = 35.7 MVA That is, 6260 A at 3.3kV or 1880 A at 11 kV. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%, that is, 250 A and 4.76 MVA at 11 kV, and at a time multiplier setting of 0.2, suitable discrimination with the 200 A fuse is achieved. Substation C CT ratio 500/5A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse, as for the type CDG 14 relay. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation B at fault levels up to: (10 X 100) / (1.98 +7.5 +0.36 +0.29) = 98.7MVA That is, 17,280 A at 3.3kV or 5180 A at 11 kV. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%, that is, 500 A and 9.52 MVA at 11 kV, and at a time multiplier setting of 0.7, suitable discrimination with the relay at substation B is achieved.

(Fig.23) Time and current grading Substation D CT ratio 150/1A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse, as for the type CDG 14 relay. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation C at fault levels up to (10 X 100) / (7.5 + 0.36 + 0.29) = 123 MVA

That is, 21,500 A at 3.3kV or 538 A at 132 kV. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%, that is, 150 A and 34.2 MVA at 132 kV and at a time multiplier setting of 0.25, suitable discrimination with the relay at substation C is achieved. Substation E CT ratio 500/1 A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse, as for the type CDG 14 relay. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation D at fault levels up to: (10 x 100) / (0.36+ 0.29) = 1540 MVA That is, 270,000 A at 3.3kV or 6750 A at 132 kV. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%, that is, 500 A and 114 MVA at 132 kV, and at a time multiplier setting of 0.9, suitable discrimination with the relay at sub-station D is achieved. A comparison between the relay operating times shown in (Fig. 21) and the times obtained from the discrimination curves of (Fig. 23) at the maximum fault level reveals significant differences. These differences can be summarized as follows: Relay Fault level (MVA) 98.7 123 1540 3500 Time from Fig.12 (seconds) 0.25 0.65 1.05 1.45 Time from Fig.14 (seconds) 0.07 0.33 0.07 0.25

B C D E

These figures show that for faults close to the relaying points the inverse time characteristic can achieve appreciable reductions in fault clearance times. Even for faults at the remote ends of the protected sections, reductions in fault clearance times are still obtained, as shown by the following table: Fault Time from level Fig.14 (MVA) (seconds) B 35.7 0.17 C 98.7 0.42 D 123 0.86 E 1540 0.39 To finalize the co-ordination study it is instructive to assess the average Relay

operating time for each extremely inverse over current relay at its maximum and minimum fault levels, and to compare these with the operating time shown in (Fig.21) for the definite time over current relay. Relay Fault level (Max./Min MVA) 98.7/35.7 123/98.7 1540/123 3500/1540 Time from Fig.14 (seconds) (Max./ Min) 0.07/0.17 0.33/0.42 0.07/0.86 0.25/0.39 Average time (seconds) 0.12 0.375 0.465 0.32

B C D E

This comparison clearly shows that when there is a large variation in fault level all along the system network the overall performance of the inverse time over current relay is far superior to that of the definite over current relay. 4 GRADING MARGIN The time interval between the operations of two adjacent relays depends upon a number of factors: 1. The fault current interrupting time of the circuit breaker. 2. The overshoot time of the relay. 3. Errors. 4. Final margin on completion of operation. A. Circuit breaker interrupting time The circuit breaker interrupting the fault must have completely interrupted the current before the discriminating relay ceases to be energized. B. Overshoot When the relay is de-energized, operation may continue for a little longer until any stored energy has been dissipated. For example, an induction disc relay will have stored kinetic energy in the motion of the disc; static relay circuits may have energy stored in capacitors. Relay design is directed to minimizing and absorbing these energies, but some allowance is usually necessary. The overshoot time is not the actual time during which some forward operation takes place, but the time which would have been required by the relay if still energized to achieve the same amount of operational advance. C. Errors All measuring devices such as relays and current transformers are subject to some degree of error. The operating time characteristic of either or both relays involved in the grading may have a positive or negative error, as may the current transformers, which can have phase and ratio errors due to the

exciting current required to magnetize their core. This does not, however, apply to independent definite time delay over current relays. Relay grading and setting is carried out assuming the accuracy of the calibration curves published by manufacturers, but since some error is to be expected, some tolerance must be allowed. D. Final margin After the above allowances have been made, the discriminating relay must just fail to complete its operation. Some extra allowance, or safety margin, is required to ensure that a satisfactory contact gap (or equivalent) remains. E. Recommended time The total amount to be allowed to cover the above items depends on the operating speed of the circuit breakers and the relay performance. At one time 0.5s was a normal grading margin. With faster modern circuit breakers and lower relay overshoot times 0.4s is reasonable, while under the best possible conditions 0.35s may be feasible. In some instances, however, rather than using a fixed grading margin, it is better to adopt a fixed time value, to allow for the operating time of the circuit breaker and relay overshoot, and to add to it a variable time value that takes into account the relay errors, the CT errors and the safety margin. A value of 0.25s is chosen for the fixed time value, made up of 0.1 s for the fault current interrupting time of the circuit breaker, 0.05s for the relay overshoot time and 0.1 s for the safety margin. Considering next the variable time values required, it is first assumed that each inverse time over current relay complies with Error Class E7.5 defined as normal British practice in BS 142:1966. The normal limits of error for an E7.5 relay are 7.5% but allowance should also be made for the effects of temperature, frequency, and departure from reference setting. A practical approximation is to assume a total effective error of 2 x 7.5, that is, 15%, this to apply to the relay nearest to the fault, which shall be considered to be slow. To this total effective error for the relay a further 10% should be added for the overall current transformer error. Hence, for the time interval t' required between inverse time over current relays it is proposed to adopt the equation: t' = 0.25t + 0.25 seconds Where t = nominal operating time of relay nearer to the fault. As far as the independent definite time delay over-current relays are concerned, it is assumed that these comply with Error Class El 0, defined as normal British practice in BS 142:1966. The normal limits of error for an El 0

relay are 10%, but allowance should also be made for the effects of temperature, voltage, frequency and departure from reference setting. A practical approximation is to assume a total effective error of 2 x 10, that is, 20%, this to apply to the relay, nearest to the fault, which shall be considered to be slow. However, unlike the inverse time over current relay, it is not necessary to add a further error for the current transformers. Hence, for the time interval t' required between independent definite time delay over current relays, it is proposed to adopt the equation: t' = 0.2t + 0.25 seconds Where t = nominal operating time of relay nearest to the fault.  STANDARD I.D.M.T. OVER CURRENT RELAY (TYPE CDG 11) Limits of accuracy have been considered by various national committees and (Fig.24) shows a typical example of the limits set by the British Standards Institution specification BS 142:1966 for the standard inverse definite minimum time over current relay. The discriminating curves shown in (Fig.25) illustrate the application of such a relay to a sectioned radial feeder; it will be seen that with the assumed relay settings and the tolerances allowed in BS 142:1966 the permissible grading margin between the over current relays at each section breaker is approximately 0.5s. With the increase in system fault current it is desirable to shorten the clearance time for faults near the power source, in order to minimize damage. It is therefore necessary to reduce the time errors, which are in this situation disproportionately large when compared with the clearance time of modern circuit breakers; this can only be achieved by improving the limits of accuracy, pick-up and overshoot

(Fig. 24) Typical limits of accuracy set by BS 142: 1966 for an inverse Definite Minimum Time over current relay NORMAL BRITISH PRACTICE ACCURACY CLASS E7.5% TIME/CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC ALLOWABLE LIMIT At 2 times setting 222E At 5 times setting 1.13E At 10 times setting 1.01E At 20 times setting 1.00E NOTE: The allowance error in operating time should not be less than 100ms All this must be obtained without detriment to the general performance of the relay; in other words, there must be no reduction in the operating torque or weakening of the damper magnets or contact pressures, and the construction must remain simple with the minimum number of moving parts. While these requirements present considerable difficulties in manufacture, owing to variations in materials and practical tolerances, the progress made in the GEC Measurements relays has made it possible to discriminate more closely by reducing the margin between both the current and the time setting of the relays on adjacent breakers.

(Fig.25) application of an IDMT over current relay to a sectioned Radial feeder These relays will thus enable the time setting of the relay nearest the power source to be reduced, or, alternatively, make it possible to increase the number of breakers in series without increasing the time setting of the relays at the power source. Previous Next