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ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

ON

INTEGRATED FOR

PLANNING TOURISM

DEVELOPMENT

UNITED

NATIONS

New York, 1999

SUSTAINABLE GUIDELINES

ST/ESCAP/2019

Guidelines on integrated planning for sustainable tourism developmentwere undertakenwith financial assistance from the Governmentof Japan. The report was prepared by Mr. Walter Jamieson,Consultant. The views expressedin the report do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations. The designations employed and the presentationof the material in this publication do not imply the expression any opinion whatsoeveron the part of the of Secretariat the United Nations concerningthe legal status of any country, territory, of city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. This publication has been issued without formal editing.

ii

CONTENTS Page INTRODUCnON


L SUSTAINABLE INTEGRATED TOURISM PLANNING

3
3

The costsand benefitsof tourism ...


Sustainable tourism defined .." ,...,.,..., ,."., ,.,.,.,.,.,...

3.1. 4. 2

Principlesdefinition Relationships basis The A

for of

of sustainable sustainable sustainable

tourism tourism tourism

6 6

7
9
10
c. Strategic 2 1. Need Means integrated for of integratedachieving sustainable tourism strategic tourismplanning action planning

13 13
19

D.

3.5. Institutional 4.

Physical oriented Developing Implementation

ftamework development integrated

the

of tourism

tourism

tourism

strategy

plan

policy

plan

22
26 28 29

STRATEGIC PLAN ELEMENTS


Tourism-related 5. 2 Waste Energy Transportation and Post Pollution Water supply control power systemsmechanisms disposaltelecommunication 1. systems and infrastructure 3. services 6. .,.""""., , 4. ,...".,., ,.,...".,.,.

31 32 34 37 38 43 44
'...

B.

Facilities 3. 5. 1. 4. 2

and

services in precincts '...'.'..'...'.'.'.' ' '

' "'.'.'.'.'.'.

Facilities Basic Accommodation and and tour services Travel Shopping characteristics services

6. 7.

Health Recreation

care,

and emergency entertainment

and

safety

systems

46 47 48 50 55 58 59 60

iii n. 31 A. 1
B.

CONTENTS (continued)
Page

4. 1. Visitor 2

Attractions Other Special

attractions

attractions interest

based

attractions on

cultural natural

resources 3. resources

61 62

63 65 65
D.
21. Resort Resortsplanning Site planning

and requirements development

66
67 72

4. 3. Destination Urban 2 1. A Ecotourism Rural destination destinations destinations destinations management management

model

75 75 76 77 79

m IMPACT APPRAISAL Background


B. 4.1. Economic 2 3. Economic Local Regional Impact appraisal development economic impacts methodology development

83
83 88 8995
97

99
c. 4. 1. 6. 3. 5. Environmental 2 Carrying Environmental Impact Potential Tourism Impact appraisal assessment environmental and capacity impact environmental conservation methods appraisal methodology impacts (EIA) impact

102 103 106 111 113 115


3. Socio-cultural 2 I. Heritage Protection Host-visitor Potential Impact assessment of resources impacts appraisal relationships 4. authenticity 5. methodology conservation

118 119 120 124 127 129

iv

D. 101 A.
E.

CONTENTS (continued)
Page Iv: IMPLEMENTATION
6. 1. 5. 2 3. Financing 4. Domestic Foreign Incentive Foreign Investment mechanisms aid private investment requirements types sources investment

131

132 133 134 135 138 143


B. 3.2 4. 5. 1. Marketing Roles Marketing Tourism Situational Tourism and marketinganalysis of promotion publicpromotion targets and private agencies

144 144 147 151 154 156 158 158 161 164 164165

c.

1. 2 Tourism

Basic Sources

infonnation of data

programmes infonnation

systems

21. 3. Tourism

Programme Objectives Target

awareness

audiences

content

programmes

HumanAssessment 1. resources

of development current

status

v. REGIONAL COOPERATION
Background 1. 2 Foundations of regionalcooperation Potential areas for for .cooperation cooperation

171

B. Modalitiesof regionalcooperation
C Regional organizations

172 175 175

D. Benefitsof regionalcooperation

171171171 A. E. 165166 163 D. 131


A.

INTRODUCnON
TheseGuidelinesare intendedto provide assistance Asian and Pacific to countries in developing strategies to achieve sustainable, strategic and integrated tourism planning and development. The intention of the Guidelines is to provide a systematicframework of factors to be considered when developing a sustainable, strategic and integrated tourism plan. To provide an operational context for achieving regional coordination and integration, the Guidelines have been designedto have a high degree ofgeneral applicability. They may be considered as a menu of potentially relevantmatters. For any strategy,only those matters of particular relevance should be incorporated,and a rigid framework should not be imposed. The underlying expectation is that users are committed to the basic philosophy of sustainable,strategic and integrated tourism planning. There is no attemptto replacethe professional judgementand experience of tourism planners and policymakers, nor are the Guidelines to be seenas a substitute for textbooks and handbooks. The Guidelines recognize the complexity of the tourism planning process and the many dimensions that must be considered in order to achieve sustainableand integrated tourism planning. Developing guidelines for an area as diverse and large as Asia andthe Pacific involves challenges. One must deal with extremes in climate from tropical to cold climates of the northern part of the region, from landlocked countries to island communities,to communities with almost no seasonal variationsto others with significant differencesin climatic conditions throughout the year. The countries also have a diverse range of governmentaland economic systems. The impact of these differences is obvious on the operation of tourism systems. Some countries are experienced in tourism development and have significant experience in achieving sustainability. Others are just starting their process of tourism development. The private and public sector infrastructuresvary significantly throughoutthe region. These realities make the development of the Guidelines difficult, and yet it is useful in looking for common elementsof any planning process.

The Guidelinesalso look at the range of areasfrom rural placesfar from the capital city, to the fringes of metropolitan areasto mega urban areas. It also recognizes that for some countries and regions, tourism is a very important part of the community or region's economic activity, while for others it is part of a larger series of economic initiatives. The nature ofthe planning responseis often a function of the role that tourism plays inthe economy and the political and bureaucratic view of how tourism developmentshould be managed. For some countries a highly centralized form of decision-makingis seenas the best way of managingchange,while in others the market is the mechanism that is chosen to allow tourism developmentto occur. There is also a wide range of regulatory and approval processes. Some countries have highly developed and strictly-enforced environmental regulations, while others are less developed. There are also a number of cultural factors that affect the approach taken to tourism planning. Given the realities and constraints discussed above, the Guidelines presented here are a starting point. Various published sources provide detailed evidence of useful methods, concepts, techniques,procedures and practices. For special purposesthere are detailed manualsavailable. Many of the issues considered in the Guidelines can be incorporated in preparing a tourism plan while some matters require specialist advice and input. The Guidelines are indicative of the components of an efficient and comprehensiveapproachto integrated tourism planning. These Guidelines should be used with other manuals and reports, such as: .Guidelines for the Production of a Standard TourismSector Paper (ESCAP, 1990). .Guidelines on Input-Output Analysis of Tourism(ESCAP,1990).

It has drawn si~ficantly from the ESCAP report Guidelines on Integrated Tourism Planning in Pacific Island Countries, 1996. Some sections are based on material from Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development at the Local Level: A Workbook prepared by a team of tourism specialists,from the University of Calgary,Canada.

SUSTAINABLE INTEGRATED TOURISM PLANNING


The costs and benefits of tourism
As the largest industry in the world, tourism has the potential to help deal with the key issues facing many parts of the globe and therefore can be seen as a positive and negative force. If the costs and benefits of tourism are understood from the outset, strengths and opportunities can be maximized while weaknesses and threats can be minimized. Each tourism planning situationwill be differentin terms of its tourism characteristics. The costs and benefits of tourism will vary in each destination,and these can change over time, depending on tourism and other activities in the local and regional context. Tourism can be seenas having the following benefits and costs. EconomicBenefits: .Tourism generateslocal employment,both directly in the tourism sector and in various support and resourcesmanagement sectors. .Tourism stimulates profitable domestic industries -hotels and other lodging facilities, restaurants and other food services, transportationsystems,handicrafts, and guide services. .Tourism generates foreign exchange for the country and injects capital and new money into the local economy. .Tourism diversifies the local economy, particularly in rural areas where agricultural employmentmay be sporadic or insufficient. .Increased tax revenuesfrom tourists can be reapedif a local sales tax is added to the provincial and federal taxes already in place. .Employment opportunities will be created in the business communities due to the influx of tourists who will need goods and services. .Increased entrepreneurial opportunities will provide goods and services not already available in the community and create new tourist products. .Improved road systemsand infrastructurecan be financed through tourism attractions. 3

A. I.

EconomicCosts: .The jobs createdthrough tourism may be low paying and require few skills. .Inflated prices may result from local businessesattempting to raise profits or cover the cost of extra employees. .Inflated property values may occur if the community becomes a tourist 'hot spot'. This will result in higher property taxes that may be unfavourable for local residents. .If tourism is seasonalat a destination,so too will be the injection of income into the community.

.Health service provision and police services can increase during the tourist seasonat the expenseof the local tax base. .Affordability and availability of staff housing can be problematic.

Social Benefits:.The quality of life of a community can be enhancedby economic diversificationthrough tourism,following the principles of sustainable development. .Tourism creates recreational and cultural facilities that can be used by local communities as well as domestic and international visitors..Public spaces may be developed and enhancedthrough tourism activity. .Tourism enhances local community esteem and provides the opportunity for greater understandingand communication among peoples of diverse backgrounds. Social Costs: .Rapid tourism growth can result in the inability to meet the capacities of local amenities and institutions; quality of amenity services can be diminished by over-use. .Litter, vandalism, and crime are concernsassociatedwith tourism developmentthat will be the responsibility of the community. .Tourism can bring overcrowdingand traffic congestion. Congestion can result in the perception of inconvenience by the residents, which is interpreted as a negative impact on their quality of life. .Foreigners bring with them material wealth and apparentfreedom. Young members of the host community are particularly susceptible
4

to these economic expectations that tourists bring. The result can be a complete disruption of the traditional way of life in the community. An increase in crime may result from tourism. The community structure may change(including community bonds, demographics, and institutions). The authenticity of the social and cultural environment can be changed. Organized events for tourists based on local social behaviour and culture can become distorted in their authenticity,which may not be a valid representationof the local environment. Lifestyles may be disrupted beyond levels acceptable to the host community. Cultural Benefits: .Tourism can enhancelocal cultural awareness, eventuallymight but distort it. .Tourism can generate income to help pay for preservation of archaeologicalsites, historic buildings, and districts. .Despite many criticisms about alteration of culturesto unacceptable levels, the sharing of cultural knowledge and experiencecan be beneficial for both the hosts and the guests at tourist destinations, and could result in the revival of local traditions and crafts. Cultural Costs: .Youth in the community could begin to emulate the speechand attire of tourists..Loss and damage to historic sites may occur through tourism

development pressures. and


.Long-term damage to cultural traditions, and erosion of cultural values, resulting in cultural contamination beyond the level acceptableto the host destination. EnvironmentalBenefits:.Nature tourism encourages productiveuse of lands that are marginal for agriculture, enabling large tracts to remain covered in natural vegetation..Parks and nature preserves may be created, and ecological preservationsupported as a necessity for nature-based tourism.
5

waste management be achieved. can Increasedawareness and concernfor the environmentmay develop. EnvironmentalCosts: .Negative changesin the physical integrity of the area may occur. .Rapid development, over development, and overcrowding can forever changethe physical environmentand ecosystem an area. of .Litter, erosion, overtaxed sewage,and waste management systems may occur. .Sensitive areas and habitat may be lost. .Degradation of parks and preservesthrough over-use and poor management may result. .Excessive .Water .Wear waste may be generated.

and air pollution may occur. and tear on infrastructure is accelerated.

Sustainable tourism defined


With the recent United Nations' directives on sustainabletourism, it is important to begin this section on tourism planning with a definition of some principles of sustainabletourism. Theseprinciples will fonn the basis for the guidelines and commentsin this document.

1. A definition of sustainable tourism


the tourism industry must be profitable and environmentally sustainable if it is to provide long-term benefits, but this will not be achieved without a new and different approachto industry planning and development." PATA, Endemic Tourism: A profitable industry in a sustainable environment,Kings Cross, NSW, Australia, 1992.

Clearly, sustainabletourism implies an approachto developmentaimed at balancing social and economic objectives with environmentally sound management. It is not synonymous with unlimited growth of tourism development. Although we use the phrase"sustainabletourism development", this terminology can be considered misleading because it emphasizes continued and increasing growth rather than the long-term viability or sustainability of tourism, environments,and cultures. Tourism development
6

"... B. Improved

implies tradeoffs and, in fact, planning for sustainable tourism requires identifying possible constraintsor limits for tourism development. While tourism is welcomed almost universally for the benefits and opportunities it creates,there is a growing recognition of the need to see tourism in its environmentalcontext, to acknowledgethat tourism and the environment are interdependent, and to work to reinforce the positive relationship between tourism and the environment. Maurice Strong stated in the 1993 Report of the World Tourism and Travel Council:
"Protecting the environmentis both a moral obligation and a business imperative for the Travel and Tourism Industry. As the world's largest industry it can effectively reach millions of customers with a coherent, compelling environmental message. And the leadership of the industry can and must persuadeits membersto adopt ecologically sound businesspractices. After all, a healthy environmentis the travel industry's core product. If you can get it right, Travel and Tourism can truly become environmentallysustainable."

The basis of sustainable tourism


Over the past two decades, inter-relatedness all earth systemsand the of human systemshas become abundantlyclear. We have clearly understood that no human action ever occurs in total isolation from other natural systems, and we have appreciated the reality that humans are dependent on the earth's limited resources. We have realized the fundamental importance of somehowfinding ways to live within the carrying capacity of the earth. Over the last twenty years, the global communityhas been primed for some fundamentalchanges,including a searchfor "sustainabledevelopment" that is based on new modes of resource allocation and accounting, new attitudes toward the preservationof environmentalintegrity, and new ways of making decisions in all sectors. Among the imperatives that promote and enhance the vision of sustainablefutures, including that of a sustainable future for tourism, are the following: prudent use of the earth's resources within the limits of theplanet's carrying capacity; devolution of top-down decision-making responsibilities and capabilities to a broader range of the destination'sstakeholders;the abatementof poverty and gender inequalities,and respect for fundamentalhuman rights;
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2.

.enhancement of the quality of life through improved health care, shelter, nutrition, and accessto education and income-generating skills; .preservation of biodiversity and life supportsystemsfor all natural habitats; and .preservation of indigenous knowledge and ways of living, and respect for the spiritual and cultural traditions of different people. In fulfilling these imperatives, governmentsand other societal agents must struggle to find an appropriate balance between different, sometimes apparently conflicting needs and value systems. Sustainabledevelopment must meet three fundamentaland equal objectives,namely: .economic: production of goods and services (the overriding criterion in fulfilling this objective is efficiency); .environmental: conservation and prudent managementof natural resources (the overriding criterion is the preservation biodiversity of and maintenanceof ecological integrity); and .social: the maintenanceand enhancementof the quality of life (equity is the main consideration in meeting this objective) and inter-generational, as well as intra-generational equity in the distribution of wealth. Achieving sustainable tourism developmentrequires that the private sector and the public sector cooperate as partners in working toward a sustainablesociety. Making decisions about sustainabletourism development also requires that governmentswork within a broader framework than mayhave been used traditionally, working toward decisions that are: .longer-term: to better anticipate and prevent problems;

.multi-sectoral: to include the full range of functions of the tourism environment; .ecosystem based: to recognize the cumulative and synergistic effects of actions; .wider: to recognize the impacts of their actions on other sectors, regions, and communities; .deeper: to recognize that the causes and consequencesof the problems they seek to solve may involve others and other institutions; and .full-cycle: to considerthe full context of resourceuse from initial extraction to end use.
8

Individual tourist resource managementdecisions will have to be taken with increased understandingof all these dimensions if the goal of sustainable futures is to be attained. Achieving sustainable futures requires the development of appropriate tourism on a continuum where growth decisions, development viewpoints and sustainability issues are balanced with environment and economy. In order to achieve profitability and environmental sustainability in the tourism industry, the tourism industry as a whole must take a different approach to planning and development.

Relationships
We can examine the interdependentrelationships between tourism and the environment in terms of the interaction of the visitor, the place, and the host community, using the framework of the tourism system described in Section I. These three elements interact with each other and are affected by external influences. The relationships are essentiallytwoway and can be either positive or negative. In tenDs of visitors, we are aware of the range of impacts that growing numbers of visitors and their growing demands have on the places and host communities where tourism opportunities exist, and we know that an increasing number of visitors are searching for higher quality and more satisfying experiences. These trends can bring positive results if there is appropriate and sustainable tourism development in order that the health and well-being of visitors and local residents is ensured, so that communication, education, awareness,and understanding grow from tourism opportunities provided by a community and its location. If tourism is poorly managed, negative results -such as scarred landscapes from overuse, crowding, and traffic problems -will reduce the quality of the tourism experience and quite possibly lead to a hostile and/or exploitative host community. The concept of sustainabilitycan be interpreted in a number of ways, for example, as a philosophy, as a set of principles and/or values to guide development, or as criteria or tests for determining sustainability. Sustainability is possible only if tourism resources (natural, human-made or cultural) can be maintained over time. The idea of stewardship/ trusteeship -to hold the resources of a country in trust for future generationsand the responsibility to pass them on in good condition -is applicable here. This means that we want to achieve a situation that can be maintained without depleting the resource, cheating the visitor or exploiting the local population. Achieving sustainability(economic,political,
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3.

social, cultural, and environmental) requires an ability to accept and accommodatechange. It implies, also, that mechanismsare in place to mediate between different interests, which mayor may not be true in any particular setting or situation. In general, the terminology associated with sustainable tourism is inconsistent and frequently confusing. In spite of this variability in terminology, various actors, and interests have attempted to define their perspectiveson goals, practices, effects, and expectationsof tourism.

Principles for sustainable tourism


Many destinations are now pursuing strategies that aim to ensure a sensitive approach when dealing with tourism. Many of these strategies are based on a formal expression of principles for sustainable tourism. Planners and others can use these principles as basi~ guidelines when attempting to incorporate the broad vision of sustainability into local policies and practices. The list of principles provided below are important for destinations and organizations that wish to be guided by the ethic of sustainableand responsibletourism. of a communitymust maintain control of tourism development by being involved in setting a community tourism vision, identifyingthe resourcesto be maintained and enhanced,and developing goals and strategies for tourism development and management. Equally important, community residents must participate in the implementation of strategies as well as the operation of the tourism infrastructure, services,and facilities.
2

A tourism initiative should be developed with the help of broad-based stakeholderinput. Tourism developmentmust provide quality employment. The provision of fulfilling jobs has to be seen as an integral part of any tourism development. Part of the process of achieving quality employmentis to ensure that, as much as possible, the tourism infrastructure (hotels, restaurants, shops, etc.) is developed and managed by local people. Experience has demonstratedthat the provision of education and training for local residents and access to financing for local businesses and entrepreneursare central to this type of policy. Broad-baseddistribution of the benefits of tourism must occur at the tourism destination. Local linkages and resident participation in
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3.

4.

Residents 4.

the planning, development,and operation of tourism resources and services will help to ensure that a more equitable distribution of benefits will occur amongresidents,visitors, and other serviceproviders. 5. Sustainable tourism developmenthas to provide for intergenerational equity. Equitable distribution of the costs and benefits of tourism development must take place among present and future generations. To be fair to future generations of tourists and the travel industry, society should strive to leave a resource base no less than the onewe have inherited. Sustainabletourism developmentmust, therefore, avoid resource allocation actions that are irreversible. A long-tenD planning horizon needs to be adopted by businesses and destination tourism organizations to ensure that destinations are not used for short-tenD gain and then abandonedas visitor tastes and business interests move elsewhere. A longer-tenD horizon encourages the use of proactive strategies to ensure destination sustainability and the establishment local linkages over time. of Hannony is required between the needs of a visitor, the place, andthe community. This is facilitated by broad stakeholder support with a proper balance between economic, social, cultural, and human objectives, and a recognition of the importance of cooperationamong government, the host communities, and the tourism industry, and the non-profit organizations involved in community development and environmentalprotection. 8. Tourism strategies and plans must be linked with a broader set of initiatives and economic development plans. A need exists for more coordination at both policy and action levels among the various agencies involved and among different levels of government. This is particularly relevant to tourism and environmental policies. Service provisions such as transportation, parking, and water and sewer capacities must also be considered in conjunction with tourism plans and developments.

9.

10. Cooperation among attractions, businesses,and tourism operators is


essentialgiven that one business or operation can be directly affected by the performanceor quality of another. There is a definite need for impact assessment tourism development of proposals. The capacity of sites must be considered, including physical, natural, social, and cultural limits and development should be

11 11. 7. 6.

compatible with local and environmentallimits. Plans and operations should be evaluated regularly with adjustmentsas required. 12. Guidelines have to be established for tourism operations, including requirements for impact assessment. There should be codes of practice established for tourism at all levels -national, regional and local. There is also a need to develop indicators and threshold limits for measuring the impacts and success of local tourism ventures. Protection and monitoring strategiesare essentialif communities are to protect the resourcesthat form the basis of their tourism product. Tourism planning must move away from a traditional growth-oriented model to one that focuses on opportunities for employment, income and improved local well-being while ensuring that development decisions reflect the full value of the natural and cultural environments. The managementand use of public goods such as water, air, and common lands should include accountability on behalf of the users to ensure that these resourcesare not abused.

14. Sustainable tourism development requires the establishment of


education and training programmesto improve public understanding and enhancebusiness,vocational and professionalskills. Sustainable tourism developmentinvolves promoting appropriateuses and activities that draw from and reinforce landscapecharacter,sense of place, community identity and site opportunity. These activities and uses should aim to provide a quality tourism experience that satisfies visitors while adhering to the other principles of sustainable tourism. 16. The scale and type of tourism facilities must reflect the limits of acceptableuse that resourcescan tolerate. Small-scale, low impact facilitie~ and services should be encouraged, for example, through financing and other incentives. The tourism process must also ensure that heritage and natural resourcesare maintainedand enhancedusing internationallyacceptable criteria and standards. 18. Sustainabletourism marketing should include the provision of a high quality tourist experience which adheres to the other principles outlined above, and whose promotion should be a responsibleand an ethical reflection of the destination's tourism attractionsand services.

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17. 15.

These principles are ambitious, and it is fair to say very difficult to achieve so that tourism developmentsthat will always adhere to all of these principles. However, these principles must be seenas targets for all tourism planning.

c. ~rategic integratedsustainable
tourism planning
The nature of sustainabletourism developmentrequires a process ofplanning and managementthat brings together a series of interests and concerns in a sustainableand strategic form of planning and development. Tourism planning continues to be contentious and somewhat nebulous,because most government officials and tourism industry practitioners harbour their own definitions and parameters of the task. By its very nature, planning is multi-dimensionaland is purposelyintegrative. Even in the less complex circumstancesof some Asian and Pacific countries at early phases of tourism development, it is necessary for those with the responsibility to oversee-or administer tourism planning in the public interest to be cognizant of two special dimensions: strategic planning and integrated planning.

1. Need for integrated tourism planning


Although there is evidence that some tourism destinationshave been developed without conscious, strategic and integrated planning, many of them have experienced unforeseen consequencesthat have led to their deterioration.

(a) The needfor planning


Some managersand decision-makersargue that we are overwhelmed with plans and planning processes. Others argue that we require more regulation and planning in order to ensure that the goals of sustainable tourism can be met. There are others who maintain that we require less planning and possibly less regulation. There is no right answer to the level of planning that a particular situation calls for and clearly every societal context will determine what is appropriate. Similarly, though sustainabletourism calls for a high level of local involvement in planning and developing tourism, the amount and quality of resident participation will vary depending on the cultural and political factors in the destination. It is obviously useless to develop a sophisticated planning system if there is no political or community support for it. In these cases, one
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might first have to create an appropriate setting or structure for a planning process that avoids the failures of past planning practices.

(b) The failures of traditional planning


Many people are sceptical about the effectivenessof planning. They see it as a waste of time since most plans never see the light of day and end up on a shelf. In many cases,planning in the past has tended to be very much based on developing regulatory procedures as opposed to creating suitable mechanisms for achieving the goals and objectives developed within the planning process. The failure of traditional and rational approachesto planning can be attributed to a number of factors as discussedbelow. (i) Lack of flexibility

The logical, rational approach to planning, it has been argued, has made plans far too rigorous and unable to adapt to changing conditions. Unless the external environmentis perceived to be quite static, a detailed stepwise approach that is rigorously adhered to could make it very difficult for the organization or destinationto create an optimal fit between its resourcesand the forces influencing tourism in its setting. A dynamic approachas provided through strategicplanning principles enablesa dynamic planning process, better able to adapt to changes. (ii) Lack of strategic thinking and vision

A major criticism has been launched against traditional, rational planning approaches by some researchers who argue that such plans lack leadership vision in the process of formulating strategies. The inclusion of "strategic vision" by leaders and decision-makers (not technical planning experts) ensures that the plan is not merely an operationalplan, but provides direction and concepts for achieving the organizationsbroad goals and interests. (iii) Ineffective top-downplanning

Planning by the destination's planning officials or by retaining planning experts from outside the destination results in a plan which is unable to effectively represent the diverse opinions, needs and attitudes of a range of tourism stakeholders. The chances of successful implementation of such a top-down plan is further inhibited by the lack of community support and involvement in the process, particularly inpolitical systemswhere residents seek greater participation in the decisionmaking of their communitydirection. 14

(iv) Poor linking offormulation and implementation Another major impedimentto planning has been the inability to link formulation of the plan to the outcomes of implementation so as to ensure accountability and to measurethe successof the planning exercise. The lack of clear, easy to implement actions and responsibilitiesto ensure accountability for carrying out the actions, has been a deterrent to effective implementation. A clearly defmed relationship between the planning and implementation of action steps must be present to ensure effective delivery of both the tourism experienceand the sustainability of the destination's assetsand resources.

(c) Strategic tourism planning -an

action planning approach

A strategic planning approach is essential for sustainable tourism, wh~reby the disparate planning and development activities related to tourism are linked to an overall, broad strategic tourism plan to provide an integrated framework for directing tourism. Strategic planning seeks an optimal fit between the system and its environment. Hence, it: is long-term; contains vision; specifies goals (ends); specifies major actions (means)to achieve goals; specifies the major resourceallocationsto arrive at (ways); is dynamic, flexible and adaptable; ensures that formulation and implementationof the strategic plan are not discrete, but linked closely through constant monitoring, environmentalscanning, evaluationand adjustment;and is not a linear process (e.g., constant environmental scanning occurs throughout the process to enable proactive response and adjustment; monitoring can start as soon as target indicators and levels are establishedto provide base line information). A strategic approach to a sustainable community tourism plan alsorequires: close coordination with local and regional legislative and political structures; community participation and support;

a new role for planners as educatorsand providers of technical expertise, but not solely plan designers; the plan is designed primarily by those who have a stake in the outcome; an innovative and inclusive organizational structure for joint planning; a learning community that is informed, educatedand aware; applying the principles of sustainable tourism development to ensure the long-term sustainability of the ecology, the local economy and the socio-cultural values of the host community, while distributing the benefits equitably among the stakeholders. (i) The nature of strategic tourismplans

Sustainable tourism planning requires a strategic planning approach, which seeks an optimal fit between the system and its environment through the creation of a long-term direction (vision), goals and strategies for the allocation of resourcesand monitoring impacts, and detailed actionplans. This is achieved through dynamic, flexible and adaptableplanning,where: The fonnulation and implementation are closely linked through constant environmental scanning, monitoring, evaluation and adjustmentof the strategic plan. The plan is created by a broad and diverse group of actors (stakeholders) whose needs, attitudes and values are closely reflected in the plan's philosophy, vision and contents. There is a clear recognition of the interdependenceamong the various components of the plan, which is considered in the creation and implementationof goals and strategies.

Planning approachesspan a broad spectrum,ranging from a rational, lockstep approach all the way to strategic,broad-based plans. Despite thisproliferation a good plan generally contains the following elements and action steps: .Vision .Situation .Strategic .Evaluation .Strategies and/or mission statement (issues)analysis goals of strategic alternativesto achieving these goals

16

Implementation of strategies (measurableobjectives and detailed action plans) Monitoring and evaluation of implementation strategies and action plans Adjusting the strategic and operationalplans based on information feedback from evaluation and constant scanning of the external environment (ii) Strategic planning principles

Strategic tourism planning requires careful consideration of the goals and principles of sustainabletourism. Some of the goals and principles that should be consideredin tourism planning are: Economic: .Development which takes into accountthe full costs and benefits of the alternatives and decision embarked upon, from an overall economic and social perspective. .Broad-based distribution of benefits among all stakeholders. .Provision of a quality visitor experience that is compatible with the destination's goals and values. .Ensure that fiscal costs of infrastructure provision and marketing do not outweigh the benefits (for example, residents may end up paying higher taxes to subsidize tourism development but may not benefit from improved income, social services,use of or access to the publicly constructed infrastructure, education and training opportunities, etc. Socia/: .Steady employment avoids the underemploymentand unemployment associatedwith seasonal hiring for peak tourism periods. .Better employment opportunitiesthan the low pay positions typically associatedwith tourism services. .Quality jobs that encourage the use of local knowledge, skills and traditions, and offer a sense of fulfilment and satisfactionto

the residents.
.Improved standardof living and equitable distribution of benefits within (and between) generationsin the presentand future.

17

Ecological: .Maintenance of essentialecological processes,biological diversity and non-renewable resources for future generations (through preservation or conservationstrategies). .Planning at a scale and pace that enableseffective and ongoing monitoring and mitigation of long-termimpacts. .Full-cost accounting of environmental resources in cost-benefit analyses. .An environmentaland cumulative impact that analyses important prerequisites to development, and environmental management systemsneeds to be implementedby businesses and organizations.

Cultural: .Tourist activities and behaviours should be respectful of cultural activities, sites and values. .Designs should be compatible with national and local heritage and character and should foster the community's identity or sense of place. Tourist types and activities should match the needs and expectations of the local people, with protection of sensitive and indigenous cultures against any adverseimpact. Political: .Compatibility between overall economic development goals of regional and community interests and tourism goals. .Integration of plans and planning with other relevant community and regional plans and processes. .Balance top-down planning with resident input and participation in planning and development.

(d) Strategic tourism planning -an

action process

The major steps in a strategic planning process for tourism for a community-baseddestination is outlined in the figure that follows. Note that while the steps appear sequential, the process is an iterative one, with feedback loops connectingthe various stages. It is also important to note that this is a recommendedprocess -each nation/destinationmay need to tailor this processto suit its own requirements,norms and values.

18

.
~

Decision to begin a planning process

Detennination overallpolicy goals of Develop stakeholder visions


Situational analysis

Develop planninggoalsandobjectives Analysis Plan formulation Implementation Monitoring

2. Means of achieving strategic action oriented integrated tourism policy


Tourism planning can operate at many levels: .The individual site. (Examplesinclude a beach,heritage site, park or theme park.) .The destination. (In some casesthe site and the destination may be the same, but usually it refers to the larger geographical setting where the site is situated.) .A region within a country. (This can be a geographicor political boundary or it can be based on tourism attraction factors.) nation. (Especiallytrue in the caseof smallerisland countries.)

.The

.Several countries. (A good example is the area around the Mekong River that is being presented as a theme-related destination involving several countries.) There can be little argument that there should be integration within each of the levels and across all levels, so as to achieve balance, aesthetic

10

harmony, cooperation, confidence (for investment), efficiency, identity, sensitivity and most importantly sustainability. These aspirations of integration can be achieved through preparation of a tourism policy, which is a policy for tourism following a systematic

process.
Developing a TourismPolicy: Policies can help guide a government and other stakeholders' programmes of action and provide a frame of reference for the tourism industry's actions. If we are to achieve sustainabletourism, it is always preferable that a set of tourism policies be developed either as a set of distinct tourism objectives or better still that all levels and areas of policy formation integrate tourism directives in their decision-making

process.
Such a policy should: .provide .specify .specify .identify a set of guidelines for the actions of all stakeholders; the broad objectives to be achieved; action plans; and areasof responsibilityand power for policy implementation.

Tourism objectives should be the product of stakeholderparticipation and recognize the complexity of tourism developmentand management. It is rare where there will be a classic policy developmentprocess. Political priorities, power realities, economic developmentrequirementsand industry pressureswill very much influence what occurs in the policy development process. Ideally at least, the role that tourism should play in the overall national as well as regional developmentshould be clearly articulated and understood. Only then can other areas of public and private development reflect tourism objectives and priorities. The officials responsible for economic development, environmental protection and tourism are just examples where the policy and decision-making areas of activity meet or should meet. Each objective should be tested for its general applicability and contribution to broad objectives related to overall sustainable development with specific attention to: .energy and water conservation; .employment; .economic growth; .infrastructure plans;

20

enviromnentaland resource conservation; urban and rural revitalization; heritage conservation; consumerprotection; communitywelfare;business creation. A commitment to the achievementof a satisfactory tourism policy requires a set of objectives that focus on the following issues: Economic: It is necessary optimize the contribution of tourism and recreationto to economic prosperity, full employment,regional economic development,and improved internationalbalance of payments. Socio-cultural: It is essentialto contribute to the personal growth and education of the population and encourage their 'appreciation of the local geography,history, and ethnic diversity. Social policy should also seek to avoid activities that have the potential to undennine or denigrate the social and cultural values and resourcesof the area and its traditions and lifestyles. Market developmentoriented: Policies must encourage the free entry of foreign visitors, whilebalancing this goal with the need to monitor persons and goods enteringthe country with laws protecting public health. Resource protection and conservation: Policies must protect and preserve the historical and cultural foundations as a living part of community life and development and to ensure future generationsan opportunity to enjoy the rich heritage of the area. Thesepolicies will also ensurethe compatibility of tourism, recreational, and activity policies with other broader interests in energy development and conservation, environmental protection, and judicious use of natural resources. Hwnan resourcedevelopment: It is important to ensure that tourism has an adequate supply of professionally-trained skilled and managerial staff to meet future needs. Hwnan resourcepolicies should also ensure that the educationand training programmesand materials are available to meet the needs of tourism.

21 ..

...

Governmentoperationsconcerns: Policies must help to coordinate government activities related to tourism while allowing the public sector to take a leadership role by supporting the needs of tourists, residents and tourism businesses with appropriate legislation and administration. Most countries will have developed their own style of policy-making. It is important that the policy for tourism be consistentin its general aim and orientation and be readily integrated with other policy areas. Lateral (with other policy areas)and vertical (internal) linkages must be integrated. A policy processprogresses strategies, to plans, programmes, legislationand regulations. It is important that each stage at any level (national/ regional/local) be carefully integrated laterally and vertically.

3. Developing the tourism plan

There is no single model of tourismplan or one process. Thereare manyvariations in content, style, approachand emphasis,and some possibilitiesare identified here.

(a) Alternative plan approaches


A master plan is the principal instrwnent of planning for tourism. Such a plan may be comprehensiveand wide-ranging, or it may focus on one or a combination of: .physical/environmental issues; .economic issues; .promotion and marketing; .conservation (of environment or heritage resources); .socio-cultural issues; .investment; .human resourcesdevelopment. On a temporal scale, the master plan may focus on a short-term time scale (five years, perhaps to coincide with the cycles of the national economic strategy), or it may focus on an indeterminate scale with indications of preferred end-states or achievements,not associated with particular time periods. Other differences in approachmay cover: .attitudes to spontaneous development(strict or flexible planning); .degree of incentives and technical assistance; .apportionment of benefits;
22

integration with tourism-relatedactivities; certainty of site prescription; supervision; regulation and strategy support. An important element in any tourism plan is the degree to which itis integrated with the nation-wide or region-wide economic, welfare andphysical developmentplan. Tourism plans prepared in recent years, and those to be prepared, should include specific referenceto: .ecological sustainability; .environmental conservation; .heritage (built environment)and cultural heritage conservation; .sustainable developmentof heritage resources.

(b) Content
For any particular nation, the plan could adopt a particular focus,perhaps for only one of the review phases. However,a generalized prospectus of contents would include: .the institutional or organizationalframework,setting out: .the principal organizations; .the principal responsibilities; .the legislative framework; .the roles and functions of the private and public sectors. principal plan elements,such as: .infrastructure; .facilities and services; .visitor attractions. implications -economic, environmental,and socio-

.the

.development cultural; .the

principal means of securingimplementation,including: .financing and investment; .incentives; .marketing; .promotion; .tourism infonnation systems; .tourism awareness programmes; .human resourcesdevelopment.

23

...

The plan of any nation may refer to regional cooperation in the various aspects of tourism planning and development,and the contribution which can be made to the regional circumstances. In some cases,the emphasisof the plan may direct the considerations away from the physical dimensions of the tourism development. This would be unfortunate, because no matter what form the development takes, the tourism experience of the visitor will take place in a region, in a destination, at a site. Therefore, it is important that these particular aspects of tourism planning are given due attention.

(c) Theform and structure ofphysical plan elements


Tourism planning may focus on the nation, the region, a destination, or a site. Integration of all these will achieve the most satisfactory outcome. In the context of physical development, tourism planning at any level can be conducted with attention to spatial form and structure. (i)

Regional

There are various operationalissueslinked to the principal detenninants of regional fom and structure. Experimentationis ongoing, but there are some constantprinciples. The basic options include: .using .creating existing developments as magnets and regional control new developments; factors; .creating a hierarchical network of tourism destinationsby devising a balanced strategy; .developing a region-wide strategy, eliminating those areas that have little tourism potential, devising a destination-focused strategy, devising a tour or circuit strategy; and .developing a strategy of complementary tourism destinations, with each destination specializing in focus or market segment. basic fonD and structural patterns include: .concentration of tourism developmentand cotTidorslinking:

.major resorts; .tourism destination areas; and .base camps on the threshold of a tourism region. gateways or points of entry into the destinationareas.

24

The

Variants on this basic spatial formula exist in tourism planning literature and in many case studies worldwide. The dilemma for the Asian and Pacific region is to re-interpret the land-based concepts of regional form and structure into a region specific idiom. (ii) Destination area

The destination area contains the critical mass of resources,facilities and amenities that contribute to the satisfaction of tourists. The basic elementsof a tourism destinationarea or zone are: .one or more communities to supply the utilities, services and facilities; one or more attraction complexes; transportationlinkagesbetweenthe communitiesand the attractions;

and
.an entrance or gateway at the destination.

An importantprinciple in the planning and design of tourism destinations is that they be distinctive places with unique internal relationships between the various parts (other places and the various facilities and services). The destination is what attracts the tourist. To be successful,the tourism destinationshould be planned to maximize: .the .the .the locational advantage; product advantage(in comparisonwith competitordestinations); advantage of proximate cultural resources and natural resources; transport linkages; and hospitable host attitudes. There is no single formula for successfuldestinationtourism, but there are planning and design principles appropriate to the destination scale. These include: .the .the destination should be integrated into a region-wide strategy; destinationshould attract (or create)a distinctive image; destinationplanning will involve: partnership; and
25

.successful

.public-private .integration;

progressive accumulation of the critical mass of attractions, services, facilities, amenities, and transport linkages -all within carrying capacitylimits. (iii) Site scale The scale of this tourism planning is a particular challenge,becauseat this scale a single, functional or aesthetic problem can seriously disrupt the image of a tourism destination. If the tourism businesson any site fails, it becomes a monwnent to bad decision-making that may affect an entire destination by association. At this level, "place" takes on a particular important meaning. It is not only the contribution each place makes to the entire destination, but also a geographicalreferencepoint and landmark. It is at the site scale that regional and destination tourism planning yield concrete outcomes, and at this level the projections and predictions of demand for facilities, services and experiencesmaterialize. Therefore, a special understanding of the site characteristics, their potential and constraints, and the contribution of the site to the wider destination area become crucial. It is also critical that the planning, management and monitoring processes efficient at this scale. In order to avoid the repetition be of inappropriate design and development, post-development evaluation should become an integral part of the planning process, especially to determine the validity of the predevelopment design decisions.

4. Physical development strategy


In order to implementthe tourism developmentproposalsexamined at the various levels (national, regional, destination and site), it is necessary to provide a suitable physical development planning strategy. An important element of any physical development strategy is land use planning. It is important to recognize that many countries may have land use strategies but they are unevenly enforced and lack support at local levels. In some cases,there may not yet be a policy. There are four different approaches land use planning: to .Blueprint planning, which is based on the expectation that the full plan as prepared will be implemented exactly and in its entirety. Such an expectation is unrealistic, because no plan ever starts with complete information and functions within a completelycontrolled operationalenvironment. Sucha plan type is too inflexible.
26

.Regulatory planning, which relies upon the application of development perfonnance standards with the possibility of all developmenteventually conforming to previously set model codes and standards. While easy to implement, the built environment may become monotonousand repetitive. Even so, some fonD of regulatory planning is inevitable. .Market-driven planning, which is best suited to individual projects, rather than to planning strategiesfor entire communities or regions. .A systems-driven approach to planning which is becoming more common, especially as planning functions are needed to address increasingly complex situations involving threats to the environment and as development is increasingly scrutinized according to ecologically-sustainable principles. This approach provides for review, monitoring and adjustmentas circumstances change in the plan.

The land use planning systemmost likely will combine the compatible elements of the systems-drivenmethodology and the regulatory approach to planning.

In many cases, the system of land use planning control is derived from standard European or North American codes of planning practice and then modified to meet the needs of national governments and administrative systems. Usually, a land use planning control system in force for the planning system is backed by appropriate legislation whichprovides for control over land use and development, specified administrativeprocedures and necessaryinfrastructure development. For tourism development, the most important issues in land use planning and developmentwill include: .location .accessibility .development .design .traffic .quality of tourism uses; to and travel within tourism districts/zones; standards;

standards; problems; of the built environment; of tourism developments; major developments;


27

.landscaping .free-standing

.tourism

attractions in rural environments;

.location of the major transport interchanges such as airports, and bus/coachterminals; and .impact of tourism development on local architectural styles and important areas of heritage. To achieve a good standard of land use development,the planning

systemshould:
coordinate development-related infrastructurerequirements; implement appropriate concepts and ideas in order to achieve acceptable,conventionalstandardsof aesthetics, health,convenience and diversity (of interest, experience,and culture); promote development where and when appropriate; provide the developer with prior knowledge of the development requirements(in the form of performancestandards); prevent prejudicial development (by type, location, timing, or quality); reflect acceptablechanges in standardsand fashions; and facilitate innovation. It may be claimed that the best plans and developmentshave been the outcome of deliberate planning using a systematic planning and decision-making process, but there are examples of successfulplans and developments which have not emerged from the application of a systematic process. Such development may be consideredto have been fortuitous, fragile, or both. In any case, the pursuit of a systematic process should offer the best chance of successful and harmonious tourism development.

Implementation of a tourism plan


It is preferable to consider the planning process as a continuum that integratesthe steps of plan creation with its implementation. Stagesof implementationcan include the following: .preparing and putting into practice guidelines, regulations and policies necessaryto bring the plan to fruition; .undertaking .supervising developmentin accordancewith the plan; that development; 28

.
5.

preparing the community for the impact of tourism development; preparing and providing training facilities for those intending to work in the tourism/travel/hospitality industry; .collecting infonnation to monitor the progress of the plan as it is put into practice; .undertaking marketing and promotion to ensure that the tourism destinationis known and appreciatedfor what it has to offer. A tourism plan is a tool to guide development. Little, if anything, will happen without: a suitable legislative and administrative structure; suitable sourcesof finance; suitable entrepreneurialinterest; evidence of demand for the tourism product at the destination;and certainty of accessby visitors. In addition, a tourism plan At any level, especially at national and regional levels, will need desegregation that the various resource so needs -land/water, labour and capital -are seen in their spatial, temporal, financial, infrastructure, and social inter-relationships. An additional consideration is the likely impact of forces external to the destination area, especially the impact of decisions, international airlines that service the region, and the international tour operators who facilitate the arrival of tourists.

Institutional framework
There is considerableevidence of the need for an effective institutional framework if tourism development to be coordinated,efficiently supervised, is monitored and integrated into the overall scope of national economic, environmental and social planning. It is important that the institutional framework encompasses organizations from both the public and the private sector. A coordinated framework is necessary because of the fragmentednature of the tourism industry. The tourism plalUling process provides the catalyst for inputs from the various stakeholders with the outcome of decisions affecting tourism development. Even after the preparationof a tourism development plan, the final outcome is dependentupon the integrated realization of a series of independent development decisions based upon the pursuit of individual opportunities.

29

..

D. ...

The public ~ector, the private sector, non-profit organizations, the community, and tourists play important roles in tourism planning and development. In each case, there will be particular perspectives on tourism development, the need for tourism planning, and the shape of that planning. The principal perspective of the public sector is to manage developmentto achieve community goals in the public interest. For the private sector, the principal function is to provide facilities and services to tourists while maximizing returns on investment. The private sector has also come to accept that it has social and environmental responsibilities. It is recognized that entrepreneurialflair may create tourism development opportunities beyond those identified in the prepared tourism plan. The formal plan should be composedwith sufficient flexibility to accommodate such initiatives, especially if it is responding to shifts in tourist preferences. Some changes in preferencesmay be identified through the constant monitoring and evaluation of tourism activity by consultants, market research investigators, design professionals and project managers. Financial institutions and corporate lending agencieswill have a particular interest in the changes of fashion and the dicates of the tourism market. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has described the distinct roles of the public and private sector by the principle that governments should not seek to do what the private sector is able and willing to do. However, in many cases of large-scaledevelopment,the private sector and government may work in a partnership. Other partnerships may develop where governments assist indigenous landowners to start an enterprise that will be managedeventually by indigenouscommunities. The perspective of the tourist on tourism planning is different fromthe other stakeholders. The interests of every tourist cut across the various independent decisions made by governments and the private sector, and the tourist is concernedwith the experiencethat can be gained. One of the main purposesof tourism planning is to createa harmonious balance between the different interests of the various stakeholders. This balance may be achieved through the establishment of an appropriate multi-facetedinstitutional framework. In some tourism development plans, an effective institutional framework is consideredto be one of the principal determinantsof successfultourism development.

30

STRATEGIC PLAN ELEMENTS


Tourism-related infrastructure
The operation and functioning of tourism facilities, services and amenitiesare often dependenton a number of travel infrastructurenetworks. These networks may include transportation, water supply, energy/power,waste disposal, and telecommunications. In addition, so that the quality ofthe environment is monitored at an acceptable level, tourism facilities must have mechanisms, procedures,and regulationsconcernedwith pollutioncontrol. There is some ambivalence towards the expectation that all the infrastructure networks must be in place before tourism activity can take place. The reasonis that in some developing countries,resort developments seemto function adequatelyand to the satisfactionof their clients without full infrastructure systemsbeing in place. In the case of some forms of tourism development,the lack of a complete network of modem highways may be advantageous,because the absence of the network acts as a deterrent to the penetration of mass tourism to environmentally sensitive areas. For some isolated tourism development,such as the independent and sometimes remote integrated resorts, all the basic operating infrastructure systems are incorporated in the overall design, and in respect of infrastructure,the resort may be self-sufficientwithout needingany connection to any more general urban or regional systems. The problem with the independent resort unit may be that it solves satisfactorily all of its infrastructure needs within its own territory, but by doing so, may "export" some of the water supply and waste disposalproblems to other areas. The usual case in tourism planning is for infrastructure development to precede the completion of the tourism facilities. This may mean that the installation of the infrastructure becomesa public sector responsibility, with some escalation of the cost for developmentas a contribution to the overall costs of tourism development. A rationale for the infrastructure services being a public sector responsibility includes consideration of the fact that: the network of services is most likely available to both tourists and residents of the area; achievementof consistencyin standardsis desirable;

~1

. ll.

A.

.the .the .the

construction of an integratedsystemmay facilitate non-tourism developmentwithin the region; network will facilitate developmentwhich contributes to the economic welfare of the resort or region; network will needto be maintainedby public agencies ensure to that prescribed standardsare met.

Sustainabletourism development plans should set stringentinfrastructure guidelines in order to meet environmental and social objectives. The following section reviews many of these objectives.

1. Transportation
It is generally considered that easy access to tourism destinations in terms of international transport and facilities for easy movement within the destinations are prerequisites for the development of tourism. In addition, these two elementsare best consideredas complementaryand as part of a comprehensive communicationssystem. One of the forces that may impede the cohesivenessand comprehensiveness of a communications strategy is the fragmentation of responsibility for the various modes of transportation and the different route systems and networks. In the Asia-Pacific region for planning and managementpurposes, transportationinfrastructure is composedof: .international air servicesand international airports; .domestic air services; .land transport systemsand routes; and .water transport.

(a) International air services

One of the controlling factors of the nature and magnitude ofthe international visitor market is the availability of international air access. The significant determinantsof international visitor numbers using international air services are flight schedulesand frequency, seat capacity of aircraft on the routes, proportion of seat capacity dedicated tointermediat points, flight routes and linkages (through hubs), journey times,fares, flight origins (and onward destinations)and choice of airline. Some of these detenninants are affected by such factors as the operating characteristicsof the international tenninal, including:

32

operationaltime-frame (hours per day); operational category; operational characteristics-navigation system-runway -apron (standingarea for aircraft)and handling capacity -passenger tenninal capacity -cargo handling capacity -fuel storage-car parking; facilitation processes (immigration, customs,quarantine); specialfacilities (administration,emergency services,VIP lounge). A satisfactoryperfonnance level of all these factors will only partially detennine the successof tourism activity. Servicesand facilities described in the following sections must match the passenger level.

(b) Domestic air services


Some countries have a poorly developed and serviced internal or domestic air network, where others have a reasonable network of airports. It is clear that if the full economic benefits of tourism are to berealized, then a viable network of airports is necessaryto accommodate growth and distribute tourism activity. Encouragementmust be providedto the private sector to set up safe and reliable service to outer regions.

(c) Land transport systemsand routes


It is necessary to develop an efficient land transport system to complementa land use strategy in order that: .major
for ,

circulation systemscan be identified, planned and budgeted centres and points of tourism can be linked; systemscan be placed into appropriatehierarchical categories;

.major .road

.routes can be used to open new areas, properly service emerging tourism resorts, provide accessto natural tourism attractions,and provide circuits for tours. It is not necessary to achieve a comprehensiveroad network to service tourism. In fact, some routes may be left undevelopedto restrict and limit visitor access. In a comprehensive land transport system, there need to be assessmentsof the availability for tourists of adequate private vehicles,buses, taxis, private rental vehicles, and any indigenous "means oftransport". These are matters best left to private enterprise and market forces, with licensing controls by the government. 33

(d) Water transport


From the point of view of tourism development, water-based transport is an important item. It can be used to provide access to areas with no road connections, restrict development at other destinations, and in some instances provide a unique and indigenous tourism experience. In the development of the water transport component of the transport strategy, due recognition should be given to the different types of vessels and their distinct purposes, which include: .Inter-transport and tourists). .Circuit transport (primarily by tourists) access vessels, to transport tourists from the "mainland" to offshore resorts. .Day trip, sight-seeing and excursion boats. cruise transport. boats for diving, snorkelling, offshore marine pursuits, (for residents, business people, government officials,

.Short-duration .Specialized

sport fishing, lagoon cruising, and underwater viewing. The nature of water-based transport requires that a specialized government agency should be responsible for licensing operators.

2. Water supply systems


One of the most important reqUirements for the development oftourism facilities is an adequate and continuous supply of safe water for drinking purposes and for domestic and recreational use. In some developing countries, the responsibility for the supply and treatment of water lies with the tourism development project. In other cases, it is a responsibility accepted by the government in the interests of both the visiting and the residential communities. For some countries, there is an uneven quality and quantity of water in the major townships, smaller townships, and rural areas. Upgrading the various aspects of the water systems then becomes a responsibility of the tourism developer, and there may be a benefit to the adjoining local community. Water needs are diverse and increasing. tourism developmentsinclude water for: .domestic .hotels purposes; and restaurants;
34

Supply requirements for

laundries; swimming pools and other recreationaluses (such as for watering golf courses); street cleaning; irrigation; and fire fighting. There are basic quantitative measurements which, while useful, do nottake into account the special demands generated by particular factors.These factors can include such things as: climatic conditions; the tendencytowards extravagance water use by holiday-makers; in the increased levels of water use in food and drink preparation in remote locations; and the tendency for corporate and governmentagenciesto be more lavish in their use of water in the maintenanceof sites in areas which experiencehigh levels of tourist visitation. Assessment of the capacity of systems is sometimes frustrated by acts of vandalism, by leakageand breakdown of inefficient systemsleadingto reduction in water pressure,and failures.

(a) Water demand


Tourism activity demands a high per capita consumption of water. A general standard used throughout Asia and the Pacific (in the early 1990s) is about 6,000 litres per hotel room per day (for 2 or 3-star hotels), including water needs for restaurants, swimming pools, hotel site irrigationand direct visitor usage. Most areas in locations with particularly humidclimates and higher-grade hotels may experience higher water demandlevels. Areas with many golf courses may experience a demand level that is up to 2.5 million litres per day. The demand for water is not constant regarding quality. Treatment of water for drinking purposes produces a different quality than waternecessary for the purposes of irrigation, site cleaning, recreation areawatering, or fire fighting. Some of the various quality requirements include: .for drinking, cooking and dishwashing, sterilized water free from contamination is required;

35

for other domestic uses, including personal washing and laundry, water must be free from contaminants but treated underground supplies may be acceptable in some circumstances; swimming requires clean, sterilized, filtered water, including filtered sea water; and irrigation needs can be met with recycled and filtered waste water.

(b) Water sources


Principal water sources include rainfall, underground aquifers, and river systems. The sources can vary considerably. Water supply is dependent on rainfall, catchment and aquifer recharge, and storage capacity.

If weather patterns are variable, good storage and treatment becomes critical. It may be that due to the variable nature of the sources, newbe tourism developments may need to self-reliant in terms of sources, catchment,and treatment.
If major tourism developments such as hotels and integrated resorts are required to become self-reliant in their sources, a number of planning and design safeguards need to be introduced, including: .protection .assurance of the water source; of supply from the source; and

.appropriate treatment of water from the source, careful maintenance of water storage facilities, selection of sources well away from waste discharge and built-up areas.

In general, there is a preference for centralized water systems that draw on a public supply system in which the protective measureslisted above may be pursued consistentlyand monitored.
Resort locations may be determined by the proximity of clean andreliable water supplies, with augmentation of the supply from streams, underground aquifers, and innovative solutions for catching and storing rainwater (such as using zinc-aluminium roofs rather than traditional leaf roofs).

(c) Water storage and distribution


Storage systems are needed to ensure adequate supply, constant pressure, and to provide a reserve against interruptions of flow and for emergency and flre- fighting requirements. The location and siting of reservoirs is critical and must be incorporated into the integrated infra36

structure plan. Capacity criteria of water storage varies between 8 andlocations 72 hours supply, although on some a greater capacity may be needed if there is any likelihood of intermittent flow or shortfall due to weather patterns. Distribution systems will be detennined by the factors of source and storage. In 'developed areas with major townships, the water distribution system may be a public responsibility, so that a reticulated system linking many of the developed sectors of the urban areas is in place or is being constructed. For other situations, a direct flow system from storage to usage points such as resorts or hotels may be the only feasible option. In some countries, especially those with visitors or with dispersed townships or communities, it may be necessaryfor each major resort and tourism facility to make provision for its own water supply, treatment, storage and distribution. F or some resorts, desalinationplants may offer the only realistic source of usable water. The principal tourism development areas need an integrated infrastructure developmentplan, so that the services provided to resort areas may be accessed improve the infrastiucture circumstancesof the resident to community.

Energy and power


Power needs reflect the expectations of international visitors, which reflect the standard of services to which they are accustomed. Important considerationsare the adequacyof supply to meet peak-load requirements, certainty of service, and compatible power supply types (especially asregards voltage). If each major resort and hotel is not required to be responsible forits own power supply, then the public systemneeds to be designed so asto meet the demandsof tourism development createdby such requirements as: .air conditioning; pool, spa and other water circulation systems;

.swimming

.cooking and food preparation, dish washing, laundry, dry-cleaning, lighting, entertainment, including videos, TV, radio, night clubs, and discos basic hotel ~ervicing cleaning, and elevators; and .residents' needs.

Generating capacity for many countries may often be at a crucial threshold, becauseavailable supply creates its own increasingdemand. In some countries and regions, it may be necessary for each of the major
37

3.

tourism developments to incorporate their own generating facilities to cover the circumstancesof local power generating or supply failure. In many cases, the existing power systems are operating close to maximum load conditions, so that major power users such as hotels and integratedresorts need emergency generating capacity. There needs to be a requirement that all new major developmentsshould proceed only after consultation with any national or regional electricity or power generating authority to ensure that demands for supply are within the capacity ofthe existing system, or that suitable alternative plans can be prepared. Power distribution systems can be either underground or above ground. There are significant aesthetic, operational, maintenance and cost differentials between the systems, and these need to feature in the preparation of any integrated power distribution plan. In sensitive environmental areas and prestigious tourism districts, it may be that the adoption of underground distribution systems is determined according to aesthetic, rather than cost and operational factors. There must be stringent safety codes relating to power generationand power distribution. A crucial matter in the planning of distribution systems is the problem of routes through communalland. Conventionaloil-poweredgenerators dependent imports with cost are on structures that are beyond the capacity of many countries. Any additional generation source is often considered to be an augmentationof existing systems. The climatic conditions of Asia-Pacific countries would seem to be conducive to a more widespread adoption of solar power systems in small tourist resorts, solar power could meet almost all power needs. An additional energy source is liquefied petroleumgas (LPG).

disposal systems
The disposal of waste of various kinds is a matter of critical concern given that the adequacy of the methods chosen for the disposal of liquid waste (sewage) and solid waste will playa significant role in the protection of the health of the tourists and the resident community.The adequacyof the method will influence the condition of the environment in general, and reefs, lagoons, beaches, streams, lakes and groundwater in particular. Tourism destinations retain attractiveness if, among other things, the environment is clean, pleasant, and pollution-free. If the methods 38

Waste 4.

of waste disposal prove to be inadequate, then the environment will deteriorate as the result of pollution and the outcome could be a reduction in tourist visitation levels, with reduced economic benefits. In addition, environmentaldegradationwill be unacceptable local communities. to The principal objectives of all waste disposal systemsshould be the complete elimination of health risks and environmentaldamage. This issue should be considered at two levels: .the policy level, where the principal considerationis to achieve the highest level of effective waste disposal and the lowest level of environmentaldegradation; technical level, where the choice and design of the most effective system should be in the hands of planners/architects/ engineersworking within the framework of environmentalimpact

.the

assessment procedures.
As with all strategic plan elements,there needs to be a consolidated infrastructure system. There is considerable work in waste management, and local specialists should be consulted in designing infrastructure systems. This section gives a potential checklist of concerns to be

addressed. (a) Liquid waste (sewage)


Sewage is the combined liquid waste from toilets, sinks, swimming pools, kitchens, and laundries. These wastes are composedalmost entirely of water, but have considerable potential to cause a range of adverse environmental effects and health hazards. The pollution potential from these wastes is very high and planning needs to ensure that health and environmental conditions are safeguarded. The degree of harm to health and the environment depends on the volume of the waste, the quality the treatment, and the method (and location) of disposal. Major problems arise from the releaseinto the environmentof organic compounds, nutrient salts, pathogenic bacteria, and toxic compounds. These products are capable of causing health problems, causing changes to the natural ecosystem, destroying coral areas, reducing the aesthetic appeal of a tourism area, and causingthe loss of its principal attraction for visitors. The principal dangers from the four groups of liquid waste are: .Organic compounds: If large amounts of eflluent with a high organic content are released into marine waters, the subsequent 39

bacterial action may cause a depletion in oxygen levels so that fish, coral and plants may be killed. The objectives of sewage treatment and disposal are to maintain high oxygen levels and to releasethe effluent in such a way as to achieve rapid dilution to sites where there is no wildlife. .Nutrient salts: Water-borne effluents may contain fertilizing chemicalsused in agriculture, suchas phosphateand nitrate. Their discharge may damagemarine plants which will tend to smother existing growth in lagoons, lakes and even coral reefs. .Pathogens: Pathogenic bacteria are disease-causingorganisms. The task in effluent disposal is to control the release so that the risk of contamination of downstream water supplies is not unacceptablyhigh..Toxic compounds: These will be present if chemical wastes are disposed of through the sewage system.
(b)

Treatmentand disposal of liquid waste

Treatment may involve three levels of processing, with the adoption of any level determined by the quality of the eflluent, the financial resources available, the technical resources available, and the site characteristics of the resort or resort area. Primary treatment consists of removing floating solid materials and allowing time for the partial bacterial decomposition of organic materials. The septic tank is the most commonly used type of primary treatment, and the most suitable method in most cases in Asia and the Pacific, together with carefully monitored disposal of the effluent. Many resorts have their own, independent septic tank systems. Engineering manuals provide guidance on the design and operation of septic systems. Secondary treatment involves forced aeration of effluents and solids in special tanks. Tertiary treatment includes the addition of chemicals to dispose of remaining heavy metals, nutrients and other potentially hannful compounds. The quality of the effluent at the completion of the third level of treatment is highly acceptable by most standards. However, achieving that quality depends on the operation of expensive technology and the availability of trained personnel.

In general, the expectation is that in less developed countries secondary and tertiary levels of treatment are unlikely because of their comparative expense, dependence on complicated technology, and high energy costs.
40

The effluent from the treatment systems may pose health and environmental problems. Therefore, the choice of disposal options becomes critical. There are a number of options that can be considered, depending on budget and environmental issues. The following suggestions are meant to provide indications for disposal, but before any action is taken careful impact studies should be carried out. .Ocean Outfall

Dilution is achieved by mixing the eflluent with seawater. The method is expensive to install, but inexpensive to operate. The outfall site should avoid popular swimming and diving locations, and should take advantage of currents and tides carrying the eflluent away from the beach. The outfall disposal areas should not be sited in lagoons, lakes, or small rivers. .Subsurface Irrigation

The eflluent is discharged into drainage trenches. Efficiency is dependent on the permeability of the soil. This method is not suitable if the potential irrigation area coincides with the area from which a resort draws its groundwater. Contamination of surface water could occur if the drainage area becomes flooded. .Evapotranspiration The eflluent is taken up by surface vegetation and the water content is expelled through the leaves. This method is unsuited to areas liable to flooding. In developed areas with reticulated systems of water collection and disposal, the location of sewage disposal works becomes a critical planning issue, especially so that the chosen location is sustainable through later phases of expansion of tourism activity and development. The general recommendation is that any installed system must have the capacity to: .exceed .be .be present demand; extended without serious disruption; and augmented by the addition of new capacities adapted to new technology.

(c) Solid waste


The methods and processesof solid waste management are no less important than liquid waste management. The principal issues of concern are storage, collection, treatment, and disposal. Tourism resorts

41

and integrated resorts generate large quantities of food waste, paper, plastic, chemical products, bottles, and metal. Each has the potential of causing a health hazard, and if the disposal method is inadequate can be the cause of environmental degradation, aesthetic disruption and danger to foraging animals and fish life. The principal hazards and problems associated with solid wastes

breeding grounds for diseasecarrying insects; rat and other pest infestations; fire and fumes; odour from rotting waste; and environmental degradation, especially visual pollution of surface and groundwater caused by rainwater run-off.
There are separate guidelines available for storing various fonns of solid waste, in many cases to contribute to ease of collection and disposal. The principal collection systems include delivery of domestic, commercial and tourism-generated waste to central collection points and collection by a public agency or by private contractor from the points of waste creation. Solid waste disposal is critical for maintaining environmental quality. When preparing the waste disposal strategy, the following factors needto be considered: .the .the nature, quantity and quality of the waste; land available for disposal, including its physical suitability and appropriateness; options to land fill methods; and costs of the various options.

.technological .economic

The disposal options include controlled tipping, where waste is dwnped and covered by inert material (soil, sand, gravel, or sawdust), covered pits, special toxic material dwnps, and incineration plants. There areparticular engineering requirements and guidelines for each method.

(d) Recycling
There is a world-wide trend towards processiilg and recycliilg solid .The reasons for this are ecological, economic and geographical.

42

The ecological reasons for solid waste recycling are linked to the likely environmentaldamageand pollution which may occur if the procedure has been to dump solid waste products in the ocean, in close proximity to coral reefs and in locations not aided by wave and sea change patterns. In addition, even if the disposal is at land fill sites, there is considerable doubt that the ecological processes acting on the waste will not cause detrimental impact to the area of the sites, especially to any water sources within close proximity. The eco~nomic rationale is that it is proving to be more sound economically to develop other means of waste disposal than to incur the costs of environmental rehabilitation. The third reason lies in the eventual loss of all suitable and available land sites as they become filled to capacity. For various reasons, processes solid waste disposalfocus increasingly of on recycling as the most suitable means of operation. The processes include separation of the solid waste products which can be recycled (paper, plastic, glass, and some metals) and creation of appropriatemethods of collection, storage,compaction,and incineration. In the case of developed mainland countries, there may be little difficulty in achieving appropriate methods of collection, distribution and reformulation, because there is a ready market for recycled products in various industries. The same may not be true of small island countries. However, investigations of appropriate methods for recycling particular forms of solid waste may lead to new developmentsor export opportunities, reduced pressure on sensitive environments which are being used to store the solid wastes, and new materials for new types of local manufacturing.

Post and telecommunication services


The accessibility of post and telecommunicationservices is crucial across the wide region of Asia and the Pacific. The ease and reliability of communicationis especiallycritical for the businesstraveller. The infrastructure system of post and telecommunication services includes postal services, telephones,telexes, facsimile and other electronic machines, radio relay, and television relay. In addition to the public networks for these services, some large resorts may operate internal systems of their own. Infrastructure plans for this group of servicesneed to identify transmission routes, exchanges and relay stations, antenna systems and relays. This is an area of infrastructure susceptibleto rapid technological changes, with progress into advanced technology requiring new skills in management and operation.
11~

5.

The postal service linking any tourism destination with locations outside the Asian and Pacific region is dependent on the international airlines, with domesticcarriers (air or sea)linking remote areas. The pace of change in telecommunication and infonnation technology may make it necessaryto incorporate these concerns in a sub-strategyof the overall tourism plan and strategy.

Pollution control mechanisms


It is recognized that the need to achieve and maintain a clean environment. is imperative. In general, the degree of environmental cleanliness,the extent to which the environment (especially water and air) is pollution-free, and the degree to which the aesthetic environment is pleasant will influence the tourism attractiveness of a destination. If adequatefacilities and infrastructures are not provided to cope with solid and liquid waste products, and if there are inadequatecontrol mechanisms, then it is likely that the pre-visit expectationsof the international visitors will not be met. As a consequence, the tourist potential and expected economic benefits will be reduced. Not only will environmentalpollution have incurred reduced economic benefits from tourism (through the loss of attractivenessand reduced visitor numbers), but the quality of the environment will also have declined for all users,including the local community.

Environmental sanitation and pollution control is often included in health ordinances, water control regulations, waste discharge standards, local council by-laws, and generalinfrastructurestandards. In some countries,there is Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) legislation that includesregulatio about acceptable standards and measures that may lessen the impact of various forms of pollution. Some legislation provides for environmentalmonitoring programmes. The monitoring and enforcementof pollution control measuresare often assignedto government departments or responsible agencies concerned with public health, public works, lands and conservation,and environmentand conservation. In addition, specialized agenciesconcerned with fishing protection may become involved. The principal matters which may be subjected to pollution control measuresinclude water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, and land pollution, with the pollution being caused by inappropriate or inadequately policed controls over such matters as: .waste .litter; .sewage disposal; waste disposal; 44

6.

outfall sites; landfill sites; odour emission; exhaustemission; industrial noise. Modem procedures for refuse/garbage and solid waste collection include the separation of items into categories of waste so that, where appropriate,the materials can be incorporated in recycling processes. To be effective, pollution control mechanismsneed the support of a structure that includes: appropriate legislation, supported by laws/ordinances/regulations; an agency or group of agencies with the statutory authority to provide leadershipto monitor practices and enforce regulations; a set of performancestandards; an organized system of suryeillance, probably managed by the public sector; and a set of penalties for violations and poor performance. The aim of the structure would be to safeguard and enhance the quality of the micro-enviromnentof a resort or destination area and the more general quality of the macro-enviromnent the tourism area. of In some countries, a pollution control structure may not exist, may be outdated, may suffer from inadequate statutory support, may lack adequate financing, and personnel, or may lack visibility and strength. Many countries have inadequateforms of pollution control. However, the degree of attention paid to potential and actual levels of pollution indicates the preference of some govermnentsto champion developmentof any kind and with any consequenceat the expense of enviromnental sanitation and public health. It is necessary for govermnents to understand that the measures of pollution control should not be interpreted as barriers to development,but rather as a useful planning tool to be used for the benefit of the developer, the resident community and, in the case of tourism, the

visitors.
Countries beginning tourism development and those already experiencedwith such development,but with limited capabilities to detect, measureand control various forms of pollution, need to initiate legislation which provides for the creation of an agency with the special responsibility to oversee pollution issues, the proper funding for such an agency, and 45

..

...

realistic powers of supervisionand control. Such a structure,with a manual of performance standards and guidelines, should place the responsibility for environmental protection on site and facility developers and users rather than on recovering from unsatisfactoryperformancewith costs borne by the community. Although the decision to introduce and maintain measuresof pollution control is political, the operation of these measures technical. Therefore, is any acknowledgementof the need to create an efficient monitoring and control system will imply recognition of the need to create a new technical agency.

B.

Facilities and services

In the context of an integrated tourism strategy, it is necessaryto know the potential uses and capacities of resources,the types of facilities that will be required and the appropriate standards. It has been claimed that the various tourism facilities and services hold an important key to the success of a tourism destination. This is true in the way that they contribute to the image of the destination which may induce visitors and tourists to stay longer or return for a repeatvisit. This section makes a summary of basic considerations for which tourism planning proposals may be framed when providing tourism facilities and services. This covers the range of facilities and services that support the attractivenessof the tourism destination. It concentrates on tangible, physical elements, their geographical distribution, and some spatial standards. Attention is directed to such geographicaland planning issues as: the basic description of the principal facilities and amenities; the location, distribution, scaleand scope of the facilities, amenities and services; the spatial standards(as appropriate);and the opportunities for integration. When a plan is already in operation in a region, it is suggested that the higher the standards and quality of facilities and services, the greater will be the appeal of the country as a tourist destination. This indicates the importance given to three groups of matters: .Primary tourist facilities and services: (accommodation/hotels, restaurants,and travel and tour services;
46

Secondary tourist facilities and services: shopping, recreation, entertainment,and visitor infonnation services;and Tertiary tourist facilities and services: health services and care, emergency and safety services, financial services, and personal

services. Basic characteristics


When planning systematically and methodically for facilities and services, it is necessary to be aware of their basic characteristics and the opportunities to plan for them in an integrated fashion. The basic facilities and services can occur in various combinations and geographical arrangements in most tourism resort areas. In some cases, they are concentrated into precincts, in other cases many of the facilities and services may be separated from each other. This makes it difficult to advocate specific planning advice. In addition, the variations may be the outcome of differences in the scale of tourism activity between countries that attract few tourists and others that attract many. This becomesa matter for users of these guidelinesto interpret. A further complication may be the underlying attitude of national governmentsabout the conceptand processof planning. For somecountries, the planning philosophy may be market driven, so that the existence of various facilities and services, their quality and quantity and their geographical distribution and association is the outcome of the interplay of market forces. In contrast, some countries with a commitment to government guidance or control over tourism development may prefer to pursue policies and practices fitting any development to a carefully prepared land use and economic strategy. This section is generally relevant to both approaches,although its application is more likely in the controlled approachto tourism planning. For tourism resort areasplanned on an integratedbasis, it is possible to rationalize the provision of facilities and services so that they are complementary in standard,range, distribution, and scale. In general, the basic characteristicsof tourism facilities and servicesinclude: .diversity in range, scope, scale, quality, and quantity;

.enclaves or precincts, with some tendency towards linear arrangements along principal linkages and routes; .common featuresof architecture,advertising,or site preferences; and

47

dominance of "magnet" facilities, either in the form of a major enterprise (such as a major hotel), a distinctive district or precinct of similar enterprises(suchas a collection of banking outlets), or in the form of a major retail store. There is a tendency for facilities and services to be concentrated accordingto type, quality, standard,status,and historic legacy. In addition, depending upon local attitudes and visitor expectations, the distribution of facilities and amenities may be determined by outlets for indigenous crafts, arts and performances. Another matter reflecting local circumstances is the degree to which the conventional facilities and the services are augmented by loose arrangementsof open-air markets, which may occur at a defined time of day or perhaps on a particular day in the week inpublic market places. The range of tourism planning opportunities and possibilities will be dictated as much by the peculiarity of local circumstancesas by the claimed efficiency of these guidelines.

2. Facilities and services in precincts


Before considering each of the facilities and services, it is appropriate to consider, as a guideline, a useful planning tactic or device that may be used to bring about planned geographical cohesion. Integrated planning of tourism facilities and services may be achieved by a planning device such as the Tourism Business District (TBD). This planning device is derived from: .the conventional Central Business District (CBD) in which the principal commercial activities (shopping, entertainment, and offices) are commonly concentrated;and Recreational Business District (RBD) derived from a North American study of commercialactivities in a number of tourismoriented towns.

.the

The TBD may take one of three fonns: .an .a .a entire coInnlercial district, especially in a small resort town, where it may be geographically same as the conventionalCBD; the special concentration of tourism-related enterpriseswhich fonn a definite, observableand distinct precinct, similar to the RBD; or linear corridor linking two coInnlercial districts, or a corridor running parallel to the coast of a beach resort or along a route to a particular tourist attraction.
48

In each case, the TBD needs special attention becausethe planning standards applied to the development and the planning concept applied to the physical arrangement of the facilities and services may have a significant impact on the image of the tourism resort. There may be a strong argwnent that market forces should be left to define their own clusters and arrangementsof facilities and services. That may be the preferred planning strategy and a reasonablecourse of action to take, provided there are controls on building construction, traffic circulation, health conditions, and aesthetics. Whether or not the laissezfaire, market-driven approach has been adopted, it is worth considering whether the alternative tourism planning approach based on a precinct form of TBD may contribute positively to the overall attractiveness, efficiency and customersatisfactionof the tourism commercialcentre. The TBD, despite being a focal point for tourism-related facilities and services, would not be for the exclusive use of visitors and tourists. It would be accessible and usable by the resident population. In some views, this specialized TBD is considered as a social phenomenon as well as an economic one where visitors and residents may mingle and congregate to window-shop, enjoy open air/street entertainment, have

accessspecialized shopping,and use open-airrestaurants and side-walk


cafes. This precinct could become the focal point of the tourism land use and activity strategy, in one of three forms -a concentratedcommercial district, a discrete tourism-relatedprecinct, or a linear corridor of tourism activity. The precinct is not a planning device for use only in major resort areas. The principle of the precinct is to organize tourist-related facilities and services so that they form a distinctive zone in the resort with characteristicsof attractiveness, efficiency and convenience. The TBD as a planning device may be used to achieve cohesionand give a conspicuous identity to the collection of facilities and services that are created to meet the needs of tourists. It is a device that does not need to be prescribed and implemented at one time or over an extensive area. For some countries with a progressiveapproach the requirementsof to tourism activity, the precinct could be created as a planning concept to which developmentmay conform.

49

3. Accommodation
In terms of investment, especially private investment, tourist accommodationrepresentsthe most expensive facility in tourist resorts. It is essential in the early stages of plan preparation to have a detailed survey of existing tourist accommodationand a projection of trends and requirements. In addition, at this early stage of an integrated plan assessments need to be made of preferred geographical positioning and arrangement (as isolated elements or clustered into precincts) and preferred architectural styles. There is evidence that the character and composition of tourist accommodation has undergoneconsiderablechange in the last few decades. New types of accommodation, such as self-catering units, budget hotel accommodation,and camping sites, have evolved to meet market demand for increasedlevels of independence, self-sufficiency, informality, economy, and convenience. Such changes have been influenced by new types of travellers and tourists who invest in a holiday home or unit at a preferred tourism destination. There have been changes in the requirements of traditional hotel accommodation as the spectrum of travellers has undergone transformation. Some of these changes include developmentto meet special purposes: .the .the .the specific needs of the short-term traveller- motels and concentrationsof hotels at airports; specific recreation needs, such as marina-hotels, sports and health resort hotels; specific needs of the business traveller, including delegates to conferencesand conventions; apartmentsand other investments;and

.time-share

.comprehensive commercial development in which the tourist accommodation is one element of a complex that includes shopping, entertainment,and offices.

(a) Survey of existing accommodation


The principal infonnation needed in a survey is: .the .the .the number of registeredestablishments, rooms, and bed spaces; geographical distribution by location, type and standard,and number of registered establishments, rooms, and bed spaces;and range of services and amenities available to guests on-site (restaurants, recreationfacilities) and off-site (transportlinkages). and
50

In addition, it is necessaryto clarify at the outset of the survey the classification of tourist accommodation, which may include: .hotels -downtown and in CBD and TBD locations, independent resort hotels in isolated settings, transit hotels, at airports, or along highways; .apartment hotels -especially for absentee owners/part-time occupants, investors, and timeshares; .condominiums; .boarding houses, guest houses, small private hotels and houses with rooms for rent to travellers; .hostels .camping .camping, for backpackers; sites; and lodges, including forest lodges, and safari lodges.

(b) Realistic interpretation of demand


Countries with a well-developed or developing level of tourism activity may be able to make confident projections based upon recent visitor levels and investment commitments, but other countries need to be more careful in their expectationsof growth. This paper does not give a detailed examination of the demand forecasting process or how to translate that into physical accommodation requirements. However, a few points can be made. The high proportion of capital tied up in the fixed assets of hotels and similar accommodations means that there is little scope for flexibility for short-term changes to meet variations in market conditions. As the operational break-even point is often finely balanced, the imposition of

severe constraintsby governments may cause a development proposal


to fail at the conceptual or feasibility stage. This does not mean, however, that building and planning regulationsneed not be stringent. In particular, tourist accommodations should be expected to cope with predictable climatic or other natural problems. Demand projections should take into account: .the .the general attractivenessof the destination; availability of easyaccess internationaltravellers(international by air routes, schedules,and cost structures); competition;

.regional

51

the general flows of international visitors; the accommodation types suited to the expectedmarket; the preferred type of international visitor; and seasonalvariations. For some countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the magnitude of possible future tourism developmentis determined less by market demand and its potential and more by the capacity of the country to develop tourism facilities and services to support natural and cultural visitor attractions: The real test is the ability to create a tourism product, which is the supply side of the equation. In some cases,realistic demandprojections needs to take into account: .the .the .the existing level of tourism developmentand overseasinterest in the tourism opportunities; availability of visitor attractions; availability of governmentand private capital to support the introduction of new tourism accommodationcapacity with the complementaryfacilities, servicesand amenities;

.physical constraints on development, such as suitable locations and sites; and .the local availability of basic construction materials, manpower and technical and managerialcompetence.

In some cases, the level and pace of tourism development will be determined by the capacity to build hotels and resorts, and to complement the tourist accommodation with facilities, services,amenitiesand attractions. If there is little to see and do, why should travellers visit? The systematiclinkage in the assessment as follows: in the demandis supply equation, it will be the availability of the tourism product that is the determining factor. The creation of that product becomesthe crucial first step. This product will be led by the development of suitable tourist accommodationand will determine the number of visitors. After that has been determined, it will be possible to link assessmentsof demand for transport, travel and tour services, and the related tourism facilities and restaurants,and entertainment. Assessmentsmay be demand-driven,(where there is an established tourism product and there can be a reasonable expectation of further growth) or supply-driven, (where any developmentdepends on the primary construction of tourism accommodation). 52

F or many small countries where the present visitor arrival numbers are relatively low, it is most likely that the tourism planning strategy will be supply-driven. In these cases,the importance of the scope and scale of tourist accommodationis crucial in the preparation of the planning strategy.

(c) Development of tourist accommodation


There are manuals that recommend spatial and design standards for different types of accommodation.
The scale and concentration of tourist accommodation will be determined to a significant degree by the basic tourism planning development concept and by the planning standards adopted by the resort area. Such concepts and spatial standards will be particularly crucial in areas of high scenic, historical or architectural and cultural value. The character of the buildings and the extent to which the planning and design is integrated into the district and site. often determines the attractiveness of a resort. The crucial questions are related to scale, height, bulk, aesthetic treatment (including landscaping), and the "fit" with indigenous styles. In addition, there are important matters concerning accessibility, serviceability, and on-site circulation (pedestrians and vehicles). For the tourist, there are important on-site issues such as the range of services, availability of public places and spaces, accessibility between various elements of the hoteVresort complex, and standard of accommodation. Planning and design manuals available to architects and planners offer specimens or model spatial standards for room size, ancillary space, circulation space, companion service areas (such as restaurants, shopping), and support services.

Location is an important issue in the development of tourist accommodation. In some cases,the TBD formula may be used to guide the future location of new tourist accommodation. There is considerable evidence that the distribution and location of tourist accommodationis a significant determinant of the extent and pattern of the TBD. This is probably so where the tourist accommodation tends to concentrate at beach frontages. It is a reasonable sub-strategyto identify in advance the crucial spatial and location magnets in the TBD and to induce subsequentvisitor-related service development to fill in the gaps. To achieve this, a principal set of decisions will include: .whether to restrict tourist accommodationto magnet locations within the TBD;

53

whether to devise a nwnber of potential tourist accommodation precincts, either as self-contained precincts or as districts composedof compatible tourism-relateduses; whether to concentratetourist accommodation a single, major in area, or to allow a nwnber of dispersedlocations; whether to concentrate tourist accommodation at beach-front locations; and whether to pursue a strategy of balanced geographical dispersal whether to adopt a strategy of graded exclusivity to defined tourist accommodation precincts. The crucial decision to be made about the geographical pattern willbe whether to concentrate tourist accommodation development at the capital city or to plan for dispersal to a number of other locations. In some cases where the necessaryinvestment will be derived from offshore sources with their own particular locational preferences,the decision will be predetermined. In other cases where the developmentsmay be smallscale and the product of local investment, land ownership and indigenous entrepreneurial willingness may also predetermine the decision. The preparation of a spatial strategy to guide the future development of tourist accommodation may not be easy, but it is a necessary task if such accommodationwould contribute positively to the attractivenessof a destination.

(d) Restaurants
In recent years there have been noticeable changes in the preferences of international tourists. The previous inclination to use the restaurant facilities at the tourist hotel because it formed an integral component of the hotel or resort enclave is being progressivelyreplaced by a trend towards eating in different types of restaurants. It is claimed that the provision of good restaurants and other food outlets is a crucial determinant of visitor satisfaction at a tourist destination. The changing demand is adding local and indigenous cuisine to the range of international cuisine. This demand is being met with the development of restaurants independent of the hotels and integrated resorts. Such restaurants are often based on Asian cuisine, local, indigenous cuisine, and use of local products, especially seafood,vegetables,and fruits. The major concentrations of restaurants catering to international tourists are to be found in the CBD or TBD, with many associatedwith the principal hotels. Other concentrations tend to be at beaches or near airports. 54

Visitor surveys have revealed some concern about the standards of hygiene, the standards of service, the quality of meals, the price of meals, and the quality of the restaurants (furniture, fittings, and decor). These matters have been raised especially about some of the more isolated and allegedly authentic local restaurants, often in remote locations. Asthe restaurant experience contributes significantly to overall visitor satisfaction levels, it is necessary for a government inspector to oversee standards and to recommend training and operating procedures through a system of licensing. This type of enterprise may be within the scope of feasibility of local entrepreneurs. Some tourism plans advocatelocal entrepreneurship with accompanyingtax incentives, duty concessions, loan facilities, and training facilities.

Restaurantsare complementaryservices to accommodation,and their geographical dispersion will be determined largely by the distribution of tourist accommodations. However, favoured locations may include beaches,viewpoints of spectacular scenery, major highways, areas close to major tourist accommodation, major commercialareas,and major transportterminals. Technical manuals are available which offer suggested spatial standardsaccording to expectednumber of visitors. Some spatial standards are classified according to the various types of restaurants, cafes, and bars. In addition, manuals often indicate design parameters for freestanding premises, restaurants within commercial centres or hotels, open-air premises (side-walk cafes), beachside premises, and premises at natural, cultural or other visitor attractions. As eating and drinking is an important element of the visitors' experience, the efficient planning for restaurantsshould be integrated into the general tourism destinationplanning process.

4. Shopping
Shopping is another complementary experience that contributes to the overall attractiveness of a tourism destination, and it should be considered as an element in the integrated tourism plan. In an increasing number of tourism plans, special considerationis being given to improving the attractivenessof shopping by providing more attention to the detailed design of shopping areas, shopping precincts and the hours when shops are open. In terms of the range of merchandise, the attention of tourism planning is commonly given to outlets for imported quality goods, indigenous handicrafts, duty-free merchandiseand leisure wear. There are 55

two principal tourism-planning issues: (a) the location and distribution of shopping facilities and (b) the range of goods available, especially the potential contribution of locally-made goods. As with other aspects or planning and design, there are technical manuals that explain the finer points of designing shopping malls, shopping precincts, shops within hotel and resort complexes, and the conventional shopping street. In general, any tourism destination can be expectedto accommodate a range and number of shops that exceed the per capita expectations of the resident population. This may make a resort vulnerable to an oversupply of shops, especially if the resort experiences seasonalpeaks and troughs. Many tourism destinationsmay have a surfeit of shops. To a large degree,this is a matter best left to market forces. Shopping has become an integral social as well as economic activity in the tourism experience. Either by natural circumstances or as a consequence of planning design, shopping areas in many tourism destinationsare quasi-recreational and entertainment facilities, with a natural or created atmosphereof activity and informality. The exception may be the enclosed shopping mall of up-market boutiques and quality stores where the shopping experiencecan be expectedto be more sophisticated. For the purposes of planning, tourism shopping areas may take any of the following forms: .enclosed, .conventional climate-controlled,shoppingmalls; shopping streets;

.shopping complexes, forming part of a major hotel building or commercialbuilding or airport; .major .covered .district .small .isolated .shops departmentstores; or open-air streetmarkets; shopping centres used mainly by residents; shopping areas along highways; shops; associatedwith a major visitor attraction; or

.shops in areas where indigenous people have shops that feature handicrafts and works of indigenous art.
56

Increasing attention is being given to encouraging and facilitating the establishmentof shop premises as outlets for locally-produced goods. This strategy has the benefit of extending economic benefits of tourism to the village population and, for some very dispersed countries, to remote populations. Such shopping opportunities may provide a stimulus for local production and help to sustain local crafts and culture. Tourism shopping constitutes an important element of the TBD and may provide the agent linking the magnets of major tourist accommodation and integrated resorts. Such shopping strips may be used positivelyas corridors linking other major nodes of activity. Shop premises may beused to form the core of the TBD. A particular problem of tourism shopping areas throughout the world is the danger that authentic locally-made goods may become supplanted by cheap, imported substitutes. This is a matter for governmentregulation and control through customsand excise powers. As shopping has become an integral part of the total tourism experience,it needs attentioncommensurate with that significance. Attention should be paid not only to major shopping complexes and conventional shopping streets, but also to the special features in the Asia-Pacific region -open-air markets, village handicraft stores, and wayside handicraft stalls. In addition to purchasesof souvenirs, leisure-wear, and duty-free goods, it should be remembered that tourists need services of more conventional shops stocked with pharmaceuticals and other provisions. It is also important to consider support services and facilities. These services meet the needs of personal care (pharmacies, hairdressers,~d laundrettes),professionaladvice and care (legal advice, banking,and currency exchange),and maintenance(vehicle repair, fuel, dry-cleaning, and camping requirements). Market forces, through the impact on land values and rents, often cause these facilities and services to move to less visible and less prestigious locations in shopping areas and precincts. It is the same market forces that determinethe need for such services and facilities. A planning strategy may make allowance spatially for these services and facilities to be incorporatedaround the margins of any defined TBD. There is a tendency for banking and cuuency exchange facilities to be concentrated in the capital and major townships, although agencies and services may be available at major resorts and hotels and in some larger villages. This is not a matter that falls easily within the scope of tourism planning, however.
57

Travel and tour services


Travel and tour servicesare essentialelementsin a national integrated tourism plan. These service providers are the intermediaries between tourism destinationsand the potential (and actual) visitors. Their functions include greeting services, airport transfers, sight-seeing tour operations, servicing individual travellers, servicing tour groups, providing ticketing and accommodationreservationservices, and providing links with off-shore tour agencies. In addition, these travel and tour service providers linkthe tourist with the local tourism service and facility operators. A tangible part of travel and tour services is attention to detail, especially in supervising the standard of accommodationthat is booked on behalf of clients and the standard of the vehicles used (buses, coaches, taxis, water taxis, or boats). Another element of travel and tour services that may be of concern is the standardsof tour guiding. Some countries are making rapid progress to a style of training and licensing that ensures quality services. In addition to tour guiding, many activities of travel and tour services are suited to operation by indigenous entrepreneurs. There are many examples, especially in the development of ecotourism operations, that indigenous entrepreneursare seizing opportunities to capitalize on natural and cultural circumstances. It is necessary to emphasize the importance of location and visibility for visitor information services. The visitor advice centre mustbe located centrally, conveniently and visibly. In some cases, visitors' bureaux have adopted conspicuous architectural forms with indigenous styles. Visitors' bureaux are expectedto maintain information about the area, the visitor attractions, the range of accommodation,the transport options, and tours. In addition, such centres are extending services to include perman.entdisplays of traditional arts and crafts, audio-visual displays and visitor souvenirs. There are some problems encountered with the degree of knowledge about the range of tourism activity options and transport and accommodationat the visitor centres. This may show a lack of attention to the training of staff at these centres. It may also be the outcome of a decision to provide minimum information services, although most tourists have an almost insatiable appetite for information. Any mismatch of information supply and demand will affect the visitor experience. 58

5.

The visitor infonnation centre should occupy a core location in the TBD, with complementingservices available at the principal airports or ports.

Recreation and entertainment


It is axiomatic that recreation and entertainmentfacilities should be deliberately arranged to generateinterest, invite participation, facilitate the linkage of complementary tourism land uses and activities, and create an image of vitality and excitement. It may be necessaryto ensure that recreation and entertainmentvenues are buffered from adjoining uses that they might otherwise disturb. This category of uses and activities may prove troublesome to tourism planners, perhaps for unexpected reasons. There is documented evidence that tourists may be more inclined to create their own recreation and entertainmentopportunities than to rely on custom-produced facilities and services, although there is some recent contradictory evidence, especially in connection with golf courses. For example, one. source cites visitor interest levels in the perfonning arts and cinema as 25 per cent and in exhibitions and folk activities as 15 per cent, with only 10 per cent interested in organized sports. However, it should be remembered that the range of preferred activities will depend on the market of visitors, as influenced by the attraction of the destination and its facilities. The range of recreation and entertainmentfacilities will depend not only on the visitors' profile and the related demand, but also on the scale and location of the resort area. The range may include: .cinemas (now mostly replaced by in-house video capacities at hotels); .multi-purpose halls for concerts, theatre, social meetings, and local entertainment; .open-air .libraries theatres (depending on weather conditions); and reading rooms;

.museums and galleries with exhibits of indigenous crafts, art, folklore and history; .night .casinos; .playgrounds .sports halls; 59 and parks; clubs and dance halls;

6.

swimming pools (even though the resort may be coastal); and golf courses. There is such diversity to these various uses (for entertainment, recreation, and culture) that there is little consistencyin tourism planning guidance. For example, some of the indoor facilities for entertainmentin a large tourism destination may be forced by location to form a distinct precinct. Other facilities may gravitate towards the administrative and political core of the township. Extensive land uses, such as for golf courses and playing fields, will naturally be located towards the periphery of the destination. An additional complication for this group of facilities and services is the propensity for some to be combined in one building. In planning teffils, the usual strategiesare to have linear corridors and concentrations, with the corridors often being associated with shopping streets and the concentrations with peripheral precincts. Large tourism resorts may have distinct entertainment precincts.

Health care, emergency and safety systems


This group of services and facilities provide the community support base to the more high profile services of accommodation. restaurants, shopping, entertainmentand recreation. The principal servicesand facilities in this group are: .health care (hospitals, medical centres, accident centres, specialist health care and dental centres, advice on disease prevention, pest eradication, and ambulances);and .emergency and safety (fife prevention, police, beach rescue, and

emergency services).

In addition to the general provision of the physical structures and the service personnel,which usually falls to governmentresponsibility, it is becoming incumbent on major resorts, major hotels and large commercial enterprises to ensure that proper hygiene and sanitary standards aremaintained on the premisesand in the immediateenvirons. There is little commonality in the spatial standards, location and distribution preferences and design details. Few of these facilities and serviceswould be located within the TBD. One common feature,however,would be the preference for each service to be at a location that has
60

.
7.

efficient access to all parts of the tourism destination. Response route criteria may provide locational guidance.

Visitor attractions
Despite the complex decision-makingprocess used by tourists before they commit themselvesto travel, there is considerableevidence that the visitor attractions and activities are the principal elements that stimulate interest and the eventual commitment. This being so, it is the nature, quality and quantity of these attractions which influence the types andnumbers of tourists likely to visit a d~stinationand determinethe duration of their visit. It is the visitor attractions which form the potential tourism product base of most nations in Asia and the Pacific. Recent studies on the source of attraction for potential visitors to Asia and the Pacific refer to: .hospitable people; .fascinating history and customs; .diversity of sites ~d settings; .seaside and undersea adventures; .opportunities to learn and participate; .evidence of pre-independence adminisuation; .mixes of cultural and ethnic groups; and .cultural performances. To maintain marketsharesit is necessary Asian and Pacific countries for to develop additional product advantages. An inventory of present attractions is an important first step. Most inventories of attractions use three general categories: .attractions that depend primarily on special natural resources;

.attractions that depend primarily on special cultural resourcesand history; and .attractions which are primarily special events, general tourist activities (such as special shopping areas), sport and recreationfocused, or to meet the requirements of the conference and convention business. In the preparation of the tourism plan it will be necessary to determine the existing range of attractions, potential additional attractions, and additional attractions which may be necessaryto create a niche market or a product advantageover competitors.

c.
61

It should be recognized that the range, quality and quantity of attractions may not be sufficient to provide a satisfactoryand viable tourism destination.

1. Attractions based on natural resources


Making inventories of natural attractions should be approached on two levels: the general attractiveness of the natural resources and the specific attractiveness of readily identifiable sites and settings. Some studies recognize that natural attractions are both general and specific. In establishing the inventory, it is appropriateto note: .those .those resourceswhich face increasingpressure; resourcesfor which protection measuresare justified; and

.those resources which may require expenditure to maintain, so that there will be visitor interest. If managed efficiently and appropriately, the natural resource base has the potential to be a major attraction for visitors. There are four main categories of natural resource attractions, which can be subdivided into specializedcategories.. The main categoriesare: .land forms, topography,and geology; .marine environments,coasts, rivers, and lagoons; .flora; and .fauna. Any inventory of general resourceswill include these four categories and the specialized categories will reflect particular natural and physical circumstanceswithin the nation. For some Asian and Pacific countries,one strategy has taken the most interesting, sensitive, fragile and vulnerable resourcesand absorbed them into national parks. Visitors generally expect that the natural resourceswill be relatively unspoiled. If there is a particular advantage in marketing the tourism product, the sustainability of its unspoiled state should become a vital element in the national tourism plan. F or many Asia and Pacific countries,the degree of interest in natural phenomenahas developed only recently, so it will be necessary to: .prepare thorough inventories of resources;

.develop an information base on natural history which can be readily accessedby visitors;
62

create special facilities so that the fauna, flora and landfonns can be seen and experiencedby visitors; develop and implement managementpolicies and practices to ensure that the mix of visitor satisfaction and natural resource protection is achieved accordingto principles of sustainability; provide interpretative infonnation at the sites and settings; and develop, at appropriatelocations, infonnation servicesand guiding

services.
In the assessment of the general attractiveness of the natural resources, it should be realized that the naturalness of the setting and the combination of habitats may influence the degree of interest and attractiveness. While the resource may not be spectacular by world or regional standards,it may be of interest because of its endemic qualities and its combination of habitats. Many Asia and Pacific countries have spectacularflora, fauna, marine environments,geology, landscapefeatures,and beach areas. It is necessary to provide appropriate pre-visit information (in print, videos, slides, or colour cards), access,viewing facilities and on-site interpretation in printed form or by guides. It may be the specialand unique ambienceof the natural environment, together with the remotenessand relative isolation of a destination, whichmakes a nation particularly attractive. The environment does not needto be incorporated in formal reserves and national parks to be a tourism attraction. A case can be made that landscapesand natural resources that are intrinsically bound to past and present practices of people will constitute the most significant attractions.

2. Attractions based on cultural resources


Socio-cultural and historic attractions may be manifested in physical structures,living culture, customs,traditions, social organization, art, crafts, architecture, music, dance, or history (indigenous history, wartime relics, and former colonial influences). These attractions may be restricted to traditional villages, sacred sites, archaeological sites, or sites of historic significance. As mentioned, it is important that the socio-cultural and historic attractions retain authenticity. It will be the subtleties of difference and the
63

degree of authenticity that will be the principal attraction for any particular nation, and it will be these forces which will establishcompetitive edge. The main categoriesof socio-culturaland historic attractionare: .traditional culture (dance, music, art, language, literature, and handicrafts); .traditional behaviour (daily lifestyle, ceremonies, rituals, and social organization); .physical structures and architecture; and sites and pre-colonial history.

.archaeological

While many items in these categoriesmay be experiencedin protected sites, others have been collected for presentation in galleries, musewns, cultural centres, performancecentres,and historic homesteads. In addition, many performances (music, dances, rituals, and ceremonies) may take place in up-market hotels and resort complexes or in traditional villages (following scheduleditineraries of tourists). As with natural resources,there may be a need to prepare a thorough inventory and prospectus of socio-cultural and historic resources. In addition, sound management practices will be neededto make the resources accessible to visitors, protect the intimate aspect of culture, make the meaning of what is being witnessed comprehensibleto the visitors, and ensure the visitors do not ~egradethe site or become disrespectfulof the ceremonies. Any strategy to provide visitor accessto socio-cultural and historic resources needs to take into account the need to protect traditional resources, the need to encourage the maintenance of authenticity, the preference to restrict the capacity of visitors, and the need to ensure the longevity of ceremonies,traditions, or customs. As with natural resources,the general features of socio-cultural and historic attractions will be supplementedby special site-specific collections of phenomena. Such site-specific features may refer to particular events in history, special people, peculiar combinations of circumstance, particular forms of buildings or structures, or particular site features. In each case, the managementprocess and practice should ensure that adequate and appropriate access is provided and that there are suitable forms of interpretation available so that what is witnessed has meaning rather than being mere entertainment. Care to maintain the meaning of the socio-cultural or historic features is particularly important. It will be the

64

attraction of the culture that will appeal to visitors, provided the level of authenticity is maintained.

Other attractions
Although the principal attractivenessof an Asian-Pacific destination may be its natural environmentalresourcesor its socio-cultural and historic resources,there may be a combination of other attractions that compliment the principal attractions to improve the competitive edge of the destination. These additional attractions may include: .special events (independence celebrations, pageants, sports tournaments,festivals, and commemorativeevents); .special commercial facilities (casinos, integrated resorts, theme parks, wildlife reserves,and dutY free shoppingcentres); and .government facilities and services (parliament buildings and precincts, specializedtraining or education facilities, and patriotic venues). There may be attractions that have been added to itineraries of tourists, including farms, research stations, breweries and wineries, manufacturing plants, philatelic centres, and religious buildings. If the reason for visiting the Asian-Pacific region is to witness the special natural environments and culture, these additional attractions will provide a balance or provide an alternative form of attraction and interest.

Special interest attractions


The general tourism profile is becomingfragmentedinto mass,general and special interest tourism. There is now pressureon tourism destinations to determine whether they intend to cater to the mass tourism market, the special interest market, the niche market (which may be different from the special interest market), or a combined market of mass tourism, special interest tourism, and niche market tourism. For most Asian and Pacific countries, especiallythose with a small number of visitors, the limited range of resourceson which to base a strategy may restrict choices. Special interest tourism is partly a reflection of dissatisfactionwith the experience of mass tourism, and partly a change to meet the different problems of emerging tourist groups, especially those who wish to learn during their travels. This form of tourism has been characterizedas the tourists' search for novel, authentic and quality tourism experiences.

65

4. 3.

The focus of the special interest tourist includes: .urban tourism; .rural tourism; .nature-based tourism; and .culture-based tourism. Each has an element of challenge, adventure, knowledge-acquisition, experiential learning, exposure to naturalism and authenticity, access to pristine or culture-specific environments,and ons~teparticipation (especially with indigenous peoples).

Resort planning and development


There may be some confusion about the use of the term resort. In order to clarify the planning implications, it is necessaryto differentiate between a single, major hotel-resort complex and a major development within a tourism destination area, and a tourism destination area in which there may be many hotel-resortcomplexes. A resort, especially the hotel-resort style of independentcomplexes, can be expectedto: .offer .provide rest and relaxation; a base for exploring a region;

.provide an ecological area of familiar standards in an exotic setting; .provide .provide an experienceof different cultural settings; and a managedset of recreationalexperiences.

The basic designprinciples should provide a convenient,safe, structured environment in which the tourist may pursue a prescribed pattern of activities or an individual programme. The resort planning processis similar to the general planning process already considered. A properly planned and designed resort can contribute positively to the image and tourism development capability of a destination area. A regional tourism strategy may incorporate a number of integrated resorts into a consolidated pattern of facilities, services and attractions. Alternatively, a strategy may recognize the independent contribution of particular resorts to the general image of a region. In particular, integrated resorts will be expected to exhibit the special
66

D.

characteristicsof the nation. For the pw-posesof tourism planning, it may be appropriate for Asian and Pacific governments to resist developing resort complexes which are too removed in concept and design from the characteristicsof the nation where they are located.

Site planning requirements


Good design is an important aspect of tourism resort development, because it will contribute significantly to a tourist's perception of the destination and satisfaction with the experience. The scope of planning and design includes: .siting of buildings, especially their relationship with the site, the setting and the surrounding environment; .views .the .the within and outside the resort; use of particular topographic features of the site; use and incorporation into the design of site flora, beach areas (or pool areas,if the resort is not on a beach), and water and recreation areas; arrangementof buildings, density of development,grouping of buildings, and their relationships with beach; to the site; and

.the

.accessibility

.choice of architecturalstyle, with a preferencefor local styles, the degree of visitor clustering or separation(visitor carrying capacity). In addition to these external matters, the developmentrequirements include attention to the internal standardsof water supply and availability, construction, decor and furnishings, air-conditioning, and effluent and waste disposal.

(a) Site planning process


Resorts and their facilities are developed to provide satisfaction for a number of different and sometimesincompatible experiential requirements of visitors: relaxation, peaceand quiet; freedom from congestion; recreation (individual and group); and social gatherings.

67

.. 1.

The steps in the site planning processare: .market researchto determine the type of clients to be serviced by the resort (setting resort objectives); .selection of general locations, consider accessibility, scenic attraction, capacity to be developed,capacity of being serviced by infrastructure,and potential labour pool; .site selection; concept creation (based on market research); preliminary detailed site assessment(accommodating the best features of the site, incorporating responses to engineering requirements, and allocation of sites for buildings, spaces,and communicationlinks); and refinement of the concept and the detailed proposals 10 achieve disposition of principal activities, disposition of building types, and confmnation of architectural parameters, including design, height, and site use.

(b) Site planning requirements


The site planning of a resort proceedsfrom: .the .the .the creation of an image; preparationof a conceptplan to achieve that image; and specification of site developmentdetails to match the concept.

A principal planning and design requirement will be to provide a distinctive image for the resort. This may be achievedby: .adapting the plan componentsto the site (rather than imposing the plan on the site); .incorporating buildings individually and in groups into the scale of the site, so that the site dominates,rather than the buildings; .use of local constructionmaterials; of local, vernacular design styles;

.adoption

.innovative linkages of accommodation service areas,service areas with site features, and people areas to natural areas to take advantageof landscapefeatures and the climate; and .close proximity to local villages where mixing with villagers is acceptablebehaviour.
68

There are no specific designs for planning tourist resorts. situation requires individual appraisaland interpretation.

Each

(c) Concept plan


Some principles underpinning the conceptplan include: .contact .integration with nature; with the natural environment;

.authenticity in the arrangementof buildings, spaces,access,and building styles; .clustering, rather than uniform distribution or isolated pockets of development; .expectations of clients; and

.size and scale as determined by the intention for the resort and its market position.
The basic approach to preparing the concept plan should be to systematically: .list .define .short-list reasonable alternative concepts and designs; the possibilities and constraints; those alternatives limited by the least constraints;

.make a comparative assessmentof the short-listed alternatives taking into account marketability, competition, and cost implications; and .select the best alternative for further assessment and preparation of detailed site and building plans. Practice has shown that concepts must adapt to changing circumstances (such as market preference changes), and, therefore, accommodate modifications without seriously disrupting the original concept.

Within the parametersof the basic concept, preferencesof developers may include: protection of panoramicviews of distant landmarks; integration of resort facilities with beachside,lakeside or similar physical detenninants; low-rise and low density development,so as to avoid dominating the local landscapewith buildings;

69

clusters of buildings and activities in order to leave as much of the site untouched by developmentas is possible; providing a resort as a centre of gravity; variable densities and arrangements across the site to avoid monotony and repetition; providing areasof relief from extremesof climate; and creating a natural landscape if the site lacks one and creating interesting forms if the site has few spectacularfeatures of its own. Even at the conceptual stage, the design policy should aim at overcoming any poor natural site and setting features and avoid the creation of an artificial development. The key features of the conceptplan will be: .hannony .individuality .arrangement .internal with the site; and image; of buildings and activities;

accessand communication;and for satisfactoryexperiencesfor visitors.

.opportunities

(d) Site plan


The detailed specifications of the site plan are designed to achieve the basic intentions of the conceptplan as far as possible. In the attempt to adapt the concept to the available site, some aspects of the concept may have to be forgone or modified.
Efficient and appropriately prepared site plans are necessary to ensure that the concept is faithfully implemented, the site circumstances are taken into account at the detailed level, and the planning and construction specifications are adopted. The plan will need to include all development (including natural areas) within the perimeter of the resort for: .buildings; .facilities,

and amenities;

.non-built-up areas; .infrastructure services; .access points; .circulation system; and .landscaping plans. 70

In addition, the intended long-tenn use of the entire site must be specified, even though developmentmay take place in phases. There is a need to ensure rational future developmentof the site.
Design manuals and government siting specifications are available in many cases. There are few universal performance standards, andtherefore, no precise spatial standards to be listed. Governments shouldbe careful about importing spatial and building standards that have been developed elsewhere and in different circumstances for use locally. However, such performance standards may be used as convenient starting points from which purpose-designed national or local standards can be created. The following list indicates only the range of issues for which spatial and construction standards will be necessary: .Siting of buildings (relationship to beach, space between buildings, clusters, ribbons, isolation, relationship to site landscape features, density, and site coverage.) .Building .Access construction (building materials, design, and height.) (gateways, internal circulation system, and links between

facilities. ) .Landscaping (indigenous species, planting patterns, retention of original landscape, transplantation, and environment planning to supplement or repair vistas, natural corridors, and variation in open and closed spaces.) It is expected that the site plan will be adjusted to the integration of circumstances considered by most visitors to be typical of a tropical life-style and experience. To achieve this, the site plan needs to include: .a functional and visual relationship between interior and exterior environments achieved by the resort layout, clustering of facilities, orientation of buildings to use climate advantages, covered passages, arcades, colonnades, and viewpoints;

.grouped facilities recognizing the unique site characteristics of topography, flora, vistas, social group preferences, opportunities and variations, servicing and maintenance efficiency; and .simplicity of layout to help a visitor's orientation within the resort, achieved by route systems, clustering of facilities, a centre of gravity, landscape corridors, and signs.

71

At the site planning stage, detailed consideration should be given to the resort carrying capacity as determinedby: .land space to be developed; .special site features to be conserved; .allowable site coverage; .density; .building forms; .types of visitor; and .ancillary on-site activity nodes. In some cases, the prices charged for accommodationand use of the resort may be a detennining constraint on capacity.

Some resorts will be independent, isolated, and remote. In such cases, the degree of resort integration will be very high, because most of the visitors' needs and experiences will have to be met within the confines of the resort. The most obvious case is the island resort. In the design of such resorts, the market research, site conditions, and site design potential will need to be compatible. There may still be linkages to other resorts for complementary services, amenities, and experiences. However, such resorts present a challenge in planning and design which is different from mainland resorts. In particular, the resort will need to be integrated in its design and range of servicesand facilities.

(a) Resort enclaves


The completely independent resort has been described as contributing to an experience referred to as "parachute tourism", when the tourist flies into the international airport, spends the vacation at the resort, and then flies home. Such a vacation experience excludes interaction with any environment, culture or amenity that lies beyond the walls of the resort. Part of the fascination when visiting tropical locations should be the possible interactions with the local natural environment, culture, life-style and indigenous peoples. Vigilance may be necessary by governments to ensure that tourists are able to experience some of the richness of the destination area. It may be this opportunity which gives one destination a competitive advantage over another. This is a particular challenge for integration in tourism planning.

The phenomenonof the resort enclave is becoming common in two different forms: (1) as an integrated beach resort area, where there may
72

Resorts 2.

be more than one independent resort hotel and (2) as an isolated, separate self-contained and significantly integrated single resort. The second form is common on small islands.

The basic rationale for the resort enclave includes the following

factors:
a consistentambience; a pre-detenninedor createdimage and identity; economiesof scale; coordination of activities; ease of marketing; and preferences of tourists for a protected, comfortable, recognizable environmentwith managedsecurity. There are distinct planning advantages for the resort enclave, not only in meeting the preferencesof visiting tourists, but also in providing a controlled model that is easy to manage. The advantages include: .a .a comprehensiveplan in terms of land use and activities to meet the requirementsof the tourists; balanced plan in which the various elementsachieve harmony in quantitative terms, spatial distribution of activities, and in relation to the environment; systematic plan in which tourism impact and tourism demand is spatially concentrated; opportunity to create a resort image and identity; coordinated plan, especially linking points of entry to the destination area of the resort(s); and basis for integrating infrastructure systems and providing services commensurate with tourist needs.

.a .an .a .a

There will be a point of critical mass appropriate for each resort and for a combination of resorts in a resort enclave. For the resort enclave,the critical mass of services,attractions,amenities,accommodation, and transport services will be determined by the aggregateoccupancy of all resorts in the destinationarea. This aggregationof potential clients provides the basis for extended quality and quantity of services. For the isolated, integrated resort, the critical mass may be determined by a combination of factors, including the spaceavailable,numbersand types of visitors, visitor expectations and requirements,and the willingness of the visitors to pay for the services. Attaining a critical mass is important in viable integrated destination resort development.
73

.....

Each integrated resort may be considered as either an enclave, in which all the requirements of the tourist are met, so that there is no necessity for the tourists to leave the resort once they have arrived; or as a base from which to go out and experiencethe natural environment, features of the local culture and heritage, and the life-styles and villages of the indigenous people. (b)

Resorts
The common characteristicsof tourism developmentfor resorts are: .usually concentratedin one coastal location;

.either remote and isolated, or linked in some way to existing townships or villages; .located within convenient driving/flying/ferry principal internationalgateway; time from the

.tendancy to cluster in precincts along favoured stretches of coastline, along major highway links to townships, or at transshipmentpoints; .located .located on sheltered coastlines; on accessibleoff-shore areas or reefs;-and

often distinguished by costs, range of facilities, and freedom of accessto other resorts, and the preferencesof their visitors. For planning purposes, concentration in one or a few locations is a preferred strategy since: .the .the .the .the .the environmental setting will be less disturbed and remain manageable; critical mass can be predicted; infrastructure needs can be calculated with some accuracy; intrusivenessof tourism can be managed;and quality of the resort complex can fit with the quality of the site and setting.

Developmentof the resort may encounterparticular problems, such as: .space for expansion; .distribution of buildings and activities; .water supply; .waste disposal;

74

servicing (labour pool); circulation;

access;and
sustaining visitor interest and satisfaction. These problems may be exacerbated if the resorts are in remote locations, unless this isolation is recognized and built into its image, promotion, and special attraction. Some Asian and Pacific countries have prepared model guidelines for integrated resort development,with recommendations about: .preferred locations; .environmental conservation; .uses of adjacentareas and sites; .siting of buildings and activities; .architectural design; .infrastructure standards; .land tenure arrangements; .creating an image; .interaction with nearby villages; and .access arrangements. It should be recognized that the basic model of resort development may be generally applicable, but the isolated resort needs special consideration so there is a harmonious relationship between the expectations of the visitor and the amenities and services provided. In planning terms, the challenge is to achieve integration at the resort site and integration of resorts across a region.

Destinationmanagement
Emerging trends leave no doubt that urban and rural destinations and cultural and ecotourism niches are important in meeting a range of special market interests. It is possible to identify the significant characteristics of such areas and the factors that should be considered in their planning and management. It is also important to consider that many tourists quest for a healthy blend of urban, rural and natural activities on any vacation.

Urban destinations
Urban destinations can vary from mega-urban cities to smaller human settlements. Each carries a special blend of characteristicsthat help

75

1. E. ..

to meet certain levels of tourist interest. Featurescommonto many urban destinationsinclude the following: .Food and drink .Historic buildings and districts .Markets .Lifestyles and traditions .Religion .Sense of community .Sense of place .Festival events .Theatre/music .Conventions .Arts and crafts .Education .Health .Museums .Shopping The challenge for an urban destination is to ensure that the needs and concerns of the host population are respectedwhile opportunities are created for economic and social development. Many improvements and amenities provided for the urban tourist may also benefit the residents of the city. It is essential that urban tourism developmentbe incorporated into the larger process of planning and development. A number of different forms of intervention help to ensure successin urban destination management.
Specific be considered .Cultural .Arts urban are: arts districts master plans partnerships :; t,;!i.. 11iJ:ll: : .; ::' i:-J1: ,I;]j';:';;' rights : :;; t(, "i ;n~';',1;;~i! ~ jil:;1!"",:! '.);11 '"':)LI-' ,;']1[ (J: ,ffif:rfl tourism destination management initiatives that may

.Public/private .Lands trusts .Zoning .Transfer .Design

of development controls

2. Rural destinations
F or many rural areas, tourism can be one ingredient for economic growth and commwrity well being. While urban areas are more often diversified in their economic activity, in rural areas tourism can playa

76

significant role. It can also have significant negative impact with longlasting costs to the local population and its enviromnent. There are two types of rural tourism. The first is tourism activity that occurs in rural areas, while the second is concerned with attractions that the rural environ,nent possesses. These rural attractions can includethe following: .rural ways of life; .a different cultural context; .vernacular architecture; .rural landscapes;and .alternative value systems. The challenge is how to present these attractions to the visitor for enjoyment while at the same time respecting local cultural and social values and patterns. Many forms of rural tourism can be considered as part of the strategic planning process in rural areas. Sustainable tourism planning should seek to integrate a wide range of activities into an overall tourism

plan.
The many different fonns of rural tourism include: .cultural; .aboriginal; .ecotourism; .sports related (skiing, swimming etc.); .adventure; .handicrafts; .camping game/hunting; .shopping; .leisure; .fann/ranch holidays; .festivals; .reenactments; .conferences; and .home stays.

3.

Ecotourism destinations

Ecotourism is becoming an increasingly important segment of the overall travel market. However, it is important to stress that ecotourismis not necessarily sustainable tourism and not all nature tourism is
77

ecotourism. Some principles that underlie ecotourism activity can be considered. It becomes obvious that if sustainableand integrated plans for ecotourism are to be produced, a number of different activities must take place in order to ensure quality activity and conservation.

(a) Ecotourism principles


Ecotourismprinciples generallyinclude the following: .It .It must promote positive environmentalethics, fostering preferred behavior in participants. does not degrade the resource, and there is no consumptive erosion of the natural environment visited. While sport hunting and fishing may be counted under the broad heading of wild land (green) tourism, they are classified under the division of adventure tourism rather than ecotourism. Facilities and services may facilitate encounterswith the intrinsic resource, but they never become attractions in their own right, nor do they detract from the natural attraction. .It is biocentric rather than homocentric in philosophy. Ecotourists enter the environment and accept it on its terms, not expecting it to change or be modified for their convenience. must benefit the wildlife and environment. If the environment has not achieved at least a net benefit toward its sustainability and ecological integrity, then the activity is not ecotourism. is a first-hand experiencewith the natural environment. Movies and zoological parks do not constitute an ecotourismexperience. is measured in terms of education and/or appreciation, rather than in thrill-seeking or physical achievement;the latter being more characteristicof adventuretourism.

.It

.It .It

.Ecotourism involves a high level of preparation and knowledge from both leaders and participants.

(b) Planning for ecotourism


In order to properly plan for ecotourism,there is a need to understandthe nature of the ecotourist. The characteristics include: .Not satisfied with traditional sightseeing; .Seeing life enhancement an important goal; as .Desire for authenticity;

78

Desire to experiencenovelty and uniqueness;and Seekingunique, alternativeaccommodation. The planning process for ecotourismmust deal with a range of issues: .The quality and authenticity of the visitor experience development conservation vs. (environmentas commodity) that economic benefits stay in the local community

.Economic .Ensuring

.Deciding who should have accessto nature (real ecotourists vs. casual visitors) (local vs. international visitors) .Detennining .The .The how to define carrying capacity

need for cumulative impact assessment conflict betweenscienceand economic imperatives

These niche characteristics and the nature of the planning issues present ecotourism with special challenges,including: .The need for scienceand sharing of that scientific information

.The development of a realistic role for the private sector in operational aspects .The definition of a new role for the public sector in product developmentand quality control .The .A importance of training, especiallyin interpretation reorientation of marketing to reflect ecotourismprinciples of best practices

.Documentation .A .The

better understandingof economic dimensions need to explore physical design options (e.g. the ecolodge)

A destination management model


One mechanism used to insure the success of urban and rural tourism is a model of destination management. There is significant literature about destination management that can provide a better understanding of this form of planning. It is clear that destination management in the tourism industry requires that the host community, the environment and tourists must be consideredand cared for. Figure I illustrates the nature of a destination management model. The important insight is the range of activities necessary to ensure quality tourism.

79

4. ..

Many of these factors are considered later. The major categories stress the need for: sound organizationand management; planning for the physical and social dimensions of a destination; the essential role of marketing to ensure economic success as well as to attract the right kind of tourist; the imperative to develop a range of products that will meet the needs of the visitor as well as respect the integrity of the resource itself; and the need to be concerned with the planning and management of the operationaldimensions of urban and rural destinations. The crucial factor overall is the complexity of the process and theneed to consider the needs of a wide range of stakeholders.

80

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81

IMPACT APPRAISAL
Background
Measuring and understanding the impacts of tourism development is difficult and expensive. As our knowledge of...the impacts of tourism increases so does the complexity of measurement. While it is relatively straightforward to identify a range of positive and negative impacts, gathering the necessaryinfonnation and carrying out the impact assessments can be very complex. There is no doubt that in almost all instances, experts working within an establishedset of parametersmust carry out the impact assessment.The intent here is to identify the range of impacts and briefly describe tools available to measurethem. It is important to note that there is a significant amount of judgement that must be used in tenns of using the results of any impact assessment. Given the complexity of tourism development and social and economic pressures,there is a need to balance the impacts on the environment and society in economic tenns and the need to achieve economic and communitydevelopment. No process of impact assessmentcan replace the need for carefully thought-out policy decisions and inclusive stakeholderdecision-makingprocesses. The impacts of tourism activity can have both positive and negative dimensions. There are few instances where the lines between costs and benefits are clear-cut, thus making the assessment processa difficult one.

Negative Social Impacts Cultural(humanand artefacts) Ecological

Positive

x x

x x x x

Much of the commitment to tourism developmentis based on an almost unqualified belief that the impact of tourism will be invariably positive by including the following benefits: .increased .increased .increased business activity; employment; export earnings; 83

A. ill.

improved flows of foreign exchange; an increased country/communityprofile leading to investment in non-tourism areas; increasedfunds for nature and heritage conservation; support for local handicrafts; retention of traditions and lifestyle through tourism interest; new activity for constructionand developmentindustries; infrastructure improvement;and regional development. However, experienceabout the impact of tourism activity leads to the realization that some impacts may be adverse,including: .detrimental impact on fragile and sensitiveenvironments; .irritation to host communities; .negative effects on some indigenous cultures and customs; .site and destination congestion; .escalating demandsfor infrastructure services; .challenges to land ownership; .disruption of the social fabric of communities; .pollution of beaches; .inappropriate hotel development; .prostitution; .commodification of culture; .depletion of water tables; .over-reliance on tourism activity; .loss of community; .stress on the local population; .loss of privacy; .increased crime; .increased taxes; .inauthentic development; .low status/payingjobs; .inflation; .increased costs (land, housing, food, services); and .pollution. Experience has also shown that the impacts of tourism may be conspicuous and evident in the short-term and amenableto close scrutiny and easy evaluation; or they may be subtle, not immediately apparent and difficult to assessin the conventionalprocessesof project planning.
84

In addition, in the haste to achieve development,governmentdecisionmaking methods and processeshave condoned situations where impact assessmentsmay have been limited. Under such circumstances, any requirementto produce a systematic,comprehensiveimpact assessment may disrupt and delay. However, unconstraineddevelopmenthas a capacity to causeunacceptablelevels of damageto the environment,the local economy, or the local community. In some circumstances, either the projects have been abandoned or they have been disrupted by local communities and interest groups.

Impact assessments provide systematicpredictions about future statesand the consequences of intended development. As the capacity tounderstand and apply impact assessment studies has become more widely appreciated, the methodology has been used to help understand the complexity of environmental, economic and social systems in order tomanage the impact to achievepredeterminedgoals. Impact assessment methodology, despite some inherent defects, is a way to apply a rational and logical process and follow processes that reveal the consequences pursuing alternative courses of action. of It is important to realize that impact assessments not constitute do decisions. Rather, they provide assistance and decision-making inputs to those responsible for making decisions. Some government decisionmaking systems require impact assessments (usually, but not exclusively, environmental assessments). The preparation process may be used as a general method for making recommendationsthat then become decisions through normal consultative and political processes. An impact assessment predicts future states of the environment, the local or regional economy,or local communitiesas a consequence proposed of developments. It is a managementsystem to gather, analyze, interpret and present information, predict outcomes,taking uncertaintiesinto account, identify alternative ways to achieve desired goals and indicate strategies which may be necessary easeor minimize environmental, to economicor social disruption.

It should be noted that there is no best method for preparing impactassessmen However, the commitmentto conduct an impact asseSsmentis an acknowledgement to think through each management issue systematically and design an enquiry process commensurate with theneeds, available resourcesand time available.

85

Impact assessment essentially a common-sense is methodology. The degree of expertise required will be determined by the nature of the task. If decision-makers want to know the likely outcomes and consequences of a proposed development, the preparation of an impact assessment is unavoidable. The three areas of impact most often used are economic, environmentaland socio-cultural. Economic assessment: The purpose of economic impact assessment isto determine the effect of particular activities and development on adefmed geographical area in terms of employment, income and wealth.The outcome of the appraisal indicates the benefit and cost, or benefit-costratio, of the tourism proposal to the economic well-being of the area. Environmental assessment: There is a close relationship between the physical qualities of a tourism destination and its adjoining area and its attractiveness for tourism. Potential impact to the environment and its ecosystems is disturbance from tourism development and activity.Although individual disturbances may be small, in the aggregate they may become serious threats to environmentalquality. It is necessaryfor environmental impact assessments reveal the nature, scale and likely to consequencesof any environmental disturbance in order to identify the management regimesnecessary minimize friction betweenthe environment to and development. Social assessment: Tourism is an agent that changes social, cultural and political systems. Some of these changesmay take considerabletime to emerge. However, it is increasingly necessaryto monitor changes in the society and culture that may be attributed to the impact of tourism so as to safeguardthose qualities that a community wishes to protect. The focus of each appraisalof impact may be categorizedas positive or negative. The challengeto integrated tourism planning is to incorporatethe best features of tourism developmentand minimize or exclude the worst features. This approach has led to the development of increasingly sophisticated impact appraisalmethods. The efficient application of these methods is best left to trained experts. In this set of guidelines, only general methods are presented. For appropriate appraisals, with high confidence levels in the outcomes, the assessments should be made by economists, and econometricians, environmental scientists (of various specializations),and social scientists (of various specializations). The aggregate assessment a matter for community and political is judgement, with the results of the technical appraisalsserving as inputs to the decision-makingprocess. In some cases,the technical appraisalsmay

86

action mandatory. However, in most casesthe decision will involvetrade-offs, and that is the domain of communityand political decision-making. A summary of types of positive and negative impacts, of tourism developmenton the society, economyand environmentis set out below.

Negative Society
.social mix; .mix of cultures; .evidence of cultures; .support of cultures, and crafts. .visitors outnumberresidents; .conflicts; .congestion; .irresponsible visitor behaviour; .commercialization of cultures; .crime; .prostitution. .poor job spectrum; .seasonal unemployment; .export of profits from area; .increased demand for infrastructure; .neglect of other economic opportunities. .congestion and visitor over-use; .vandalism; .threat to flora and fauna habitats; .visual pollution; .uncertainty.

Economy

.money to local economy; .job and local wealth creation; .multiplier impact; .improved service levels; .variety and scale; .additional income source; .new investment.

Environment

.environmental improvement

schemes;
.management of natural areas; .renovation and rehabilitation; .built environment conservation; .money for conservation.

In the appraisal process it is necessaryto be aware of the factors which affect the degree of impact, such as the: .numbers of visitors; .resilience of the ecosystem; .visitor responsibility; .accessibility; and .management methods. challengesfor impact appraisalsare that:.no assessment should be considered in isolation; .the assessments are inputs to processesof ongoing monitoring and management and not ends in themselves;

87

The Positive make

post-project audits of impact should be made to determine the accuracy of the predictions and as an incentive for revised management action; they may need to be carried out with incompleteinformation; and they should be part of a process of integrated planning and resourcesmanagement.

B.

Economic appraisal

The purpose of economic impact assessment to detenninethe effects is of particular activities and development in a defined geographic area on income, wealth and employment. Impact assessments may be conducted for periods of a year, particular seasons,or for particular short-tenn events (such as international expositions or sports events). The outcome of theappraisal indicates the benefit and cost, or benefit-costratio, of the tourism activity to the economic well-being of the residents. The economic impact of tourism activity is usually conductedthrough studying employment, income, business activity, and government activity. This usually means examining estimates of travel spending,although some proportion of that spending may leak from the area in which it is spent, so that the economic advantageof that spending will be outside the area where it takes place. F or example,a hotel in an underdevelopedeconomy may be owned and staffed by non-residents and may be serviced substantially by imported goods. In this case,no matter what the level of expenditure by hotel guests, the direct contribution to local wealth maybe very small. The argument, therefore, is that impact assessment using travel expenditures as the principal input in the analysis may produce misleadingresults. In the economic appraisalit is necessary include: to .primary, or direct costs and benefits -the tourism activity in the area; direct consequence of

.secondary, or indirect costs and benefits -such as expenditureby tourism entrepreneurson new equipment, or additional services and goods to meet customerexpectations;and .induced costsand benefits-such as the expenditures government by as a consequenceof income generated by taxes and levies on tourism activity.

88

Many items in the scope of an economic appraisalare complex and not clear. Despite the apparent statistical and scientific precision of economic impact assessments, must be realized that the outcome of the it appraisalis only indicative and not assured. Some of the difficulties of economicappraisalin tourism are related to: .defining precisely the nature and scope of tourism;

.defining precisely the tourism industry -complicated by the commonpractice of defining any industry by its primary activities as determined by the principal product or group of products; .differentiating the end-use in tourism activity; and

.defining precisely the terms traveller, visitor, and tourist, or at least achieving consistencyin definition and usage. Further complications are derived from the characteristics of the methods used in economic appraisal.

1. Impact methodology
The choice of impact assessment method may be deternlined by its characteristics: .relevance (measurement of the impact of tourism activity; specifically, the need to differentiate types/sources of impact and to ensure data refers to the area under study); .coverage (range of activities considered, inclusion of anticipatory purchases,and expendituresin the area under study); .efficiency (choice of data to be used compared to costs of collecting primary data, and confidence in data); and .applicability (appropriateness study area, subject and area). to

Tests should be applied to the impact assessment method to be selected regarding its estimation procedure, input data, and results, including tests of the various procedural tools such as sample design, questionnaires, interview models, and weighting of data.

(a) Economic characteristics of tourism industry


Tourism activity has a number of features that create difficulties for conventional impact assessment methods: .The tourism industry is not a single, homogenous industry.

89

Tourism is essentially enjoying goods and services at the point of consumption; thus, except for souvenirs and memorabilia, there is no tangible product that is transported from the point of production. As with the product, the service is consumedat the point of its production. There is a multiplier effect, as tourists demand ancillary goods and services -a secondaryimpact. Tourismis fragmentedinto various experiential,serviceand product categories. Tourism is dynaInic, even unstable, respondingto market forces, changes in fashion, circumstances such as threats to political stability and safety, competition, and unpredictable circumstances such as cyclones, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Tourism lies within the spectrum of discretionary activity, and therefore is susceptible to factors at the point of origin of the travellers (such as economic recession). Motivation for travel and tourism are complex, and dynaInic, yet may be simplistic and conservative. Tourism is price and income elastic, with significant fluctuations respondingto small changesin price structures. Tourism complementsother economic activity and may be used to diversify the economicprofile of a region. Tourism may heightenthe profile of a region and nation and may be pursued for that reason. These circumstancesby no means exhaustthe catalogue of peculiari-ties in tourism.

methods (b) Impact assessment


The methods available to measure the economic impact of tourismshould not be treated superficially. Many purport to produce exact outcomes, but there are no synoptic methods of measuringeconomicbenefits and costs of tourism. Reference should be made to the extensive literature in economics for detailed examinations,step-by-step descriptions of alternative methods, and case studies in tourism and other spheres of economic activity. Referencecan be made to Guidelines on Input/Output Analysis of Tourism,ESCAP, 1990, which was the outcome of a workshop on economic

90

impact analysis for tourism convened by ESCAP in 1983 and finalized at an Expert Group Meeting in 1988. There is also a series of case studies of economic impact published by ESCAP. The measurement of economic benefits and costs of travel and tourism must meet a range of objectives,including: .information on likely outcomesof investmentin tourism facilities;

.distribution of costs and benefits between stakeholders and geographical areas; .evaluation of outcomes of marketing strategies; .impacts of ;idditional facilities, amenities and services on the existing stock; .basis for negotiation in partnershipdevelopment(especiallypublic and private business partnerships); .revelation of costs and benefits to communities considering embarking upon or expandinginvolvementin tourism development;

and
provision of indicators of where legislation and regulation may be necessaryto best promote and safeguardcommunity welfare. In swnmary, the purpose of measuring economic benefits and costsis to improve the efficiency of decision-making.

(c) Methods of measuring economic benefits


Data input for the measurement process may be derived from direct observation and survey of tourist purchasesand expenditure, estimates of expenditure based on business receipts, or sample surveys of travellers and tourists (entry or exit surveys, visitor surveys, en route surveys, and household surveys). From these and complement~ data sources, one can estimatethe economic benefits of tourism in terms of; .travel activity; .expenditures; .employment; .earnings (by businesses); .profits; and .tax revenue. The factors determining choices will be availability of data, the degree of complexity required, availability of resources (time, money,and personnel),and demand for projection of impact on the residentcommunity.
01

(d) Tourism satellite accounts


Tourism satellite accounts provide comprehensiveinformation on a field of economic activity and are generally tied to the economic accounts of a nation or region. The Tourism Satellite Account is a relatively new approach now officially encouraged by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) based on the results of the "World Conferenceon the Measurement of the Economic Impact of Tourism" held in June 1999.

According to WTO, the Tourism Satellite Account sets a series of global standardsand definitions that measurethe industry's true contributionto national economies in terms of: percentage of GDP; jobs; capital; investment tax revenues; and the role of tourism in a nation's balance ofpayments. In compliance with United Nations recommendations,it runsalongside national accounts and provides internationally comparable datadeveloped by a country's own statistical institutions that puts tourism forthe first time on an equal footing with other economic sectors. A Tourism Satellite Account has also been developed by Statistics Canada in order to assessthe significance of tourism to Canada (its size, structure, and economic importance). The Canadian account uses concise definitions of tourism and attempts to provide a clear and real measure of tourism-related economic activity. Both direct and indirect tourism activities are accounted for in areas such as, but not limited to, demand, supply, employment,and taxes. Such a tool is crucial to help determinethe complex spending patterns of visitors and the goods and services that cater to their needs in Canada. of the advantagesof the Tourism Satellite Accounts are: .Tourism Satellite Accounts help governments and businesses determine the value of tourism to the economy, and thereby help to develop strategiesfor ensuringcompetitive advantage. .Tourism Satellite Accounts identify the amount of benefits enjoyed by various sectors and the employment, income, taxes, and other benefits that flow from these sectors.

(e) Impact multipliers


The multiplier is the ratio of the sum of primary and secondary impact to primary impact alone. Although often referred to in a static context, the impact multiplier is more likely to be dynamic, responding to the volatility of any of the factors considered in its creation and formulation.

92

Some

There are two types of impact multiplier:.The ratio multiplier facilitates calculating the effect of secondary impacts. For example, an employment ratio of 2.0 would mean that for every job in a primary activity in tourism, a second would be generated in a secondary activity..The normal multiplier relates the total measure of impact. For example, a ratio of earnings from foreign visitor spending of 0.779 means that for every dollar spent by visitors, 77 .9~ becomes wage and salary income (across direct, indirect and induced categories). Ratio multipliers only reveal the ratio of total to direct impact and do not tell the full story. The normal type multipliers, by focusing on the relationship of travel expenditures to employment, earnings, taxes and profits, make it possible to directly estimate the total economic benefits of attracting additional increments of tourist spending. In all cases, generalizations can be misleading, and it may be hazardous to apply a multiplier developed from one area to another area. Two consistencies can be recognized: multipliers estimated for a coun~ as a whole will always be larger than those estimated for anyone region of that coun~, and the more tourists spend on goods and services withhigh labour content, the higher will be the multiplier. In all multiplier calculations it is necessary to be aware of the turnover factor. In the turnover effect, a dollar spent by the traveller becomes a receipt to a business, which in turn, spends part of it on goods and services. This recycles the original expenditure until, with leakages, the original sum is reduced to zero. It is important to calculate the portion which is being recycled, and not assume that spending from the first recipient is discrete and new money. The decreasing proportion available for spending means that the initial unit of expenditure is reduced at each cycle, so that if there are eight cycles of distribution, for example, the actual multiplier is not 8.0, but the original plus the proportion left at each stage.

(f)

Methods of measuring economic costs

Concentrating on the benefits of the project and ongoing costs can produce outcomes that overlook damage to the environment, escalating costs of public services, and declining quality of life for residents. The credibility of tourism developments rests on an assessment of both benefits and costs.

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There are two principal cases for measuring costs: (1) examination ofthe existing situation and a measurement of the additional costs consequent upon proposed tourism development, and (2) examination of the costs bell1g imposed on the present situation because of the demand placed on the existing resources. In these assessments there are two types of costs: fiscal costs and quality of life costs. There is a relationship and capacity for trade-off between these two types. Alleviating a deterioration 1l1 the quality of life of residents depends on government expenditures (fiscal costs). The prospect of additional tourism development may appear to principally benefit an increase in the number of businesses. However, increased demand for labour, increased money flows in the local economy, and increased residential population to service the additional visitors will lead to additional fiscal and quality of life costs. These additional residentinduced costs, as secondary costs, need to be measured and included in the economic assessment. Within these costs is a particularly difficult category -the indirect cost of welfare maintenance, including health, educational and security services. There are also threshold costs commensurate with increased levels of population, and the additional facilities and services to which they are entitled. Thus, additional tourism activity and increased visitor numbers will create a demand for public expenditure programmes to meet the requirements of both the visitors and the additional resident population, so that the economic costs of additional tourism activity includes a component for additional resident activity. There needs to be clarity in the distribution of these additional costs between tourism-related development, the community augmentation to meet the new demands, and the residual community. In this way, there will be a more appropriate distribution of costs. The final estimates of tourism-related costs will be sensitive to the measurement methods used. In addition, some off-setting of costs may be built into the assessment, such as admission charges or user fees to publicplaces (such as historic sites, national parks, and museums), or license fees. The apportionment of overhead costs remains a problem. In the assessment of quality of life costs, there is the ongoing difficulty of applying unit measurements.

Much tourism-related development will have a redistribution effect for benefits and costs. This needs to be recognized, and allowance isrequired to compensate those social groups that may have become disadvantaged. Those groups which have gained disproportionatelyneedto be taxed or have chargeslevied.

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Once the economic benefits and costs of tourism-related developmenthave been computed on a sound and consistent basis, it is possible todetermine: whether the development is a net good for the community; whether additional tourism will generate more benefits than costs; whether public money spent on supporting tourism-related development provides a positive benefit to the community; whether users of tourism-related development will be required to contribute to the development and operating costs, so as to neutralize the disadvantage and penalty to the host community.

Techniques of measurement better developed to measurebenefitsthan are costs. This results in an unbalanced assessment outcomes, and of often leaves potentially worthwhile developmentssubject to attack. The underlying point is that the present methodology of economic impact appraisalcan be improved before relying on the outcomes.

Economic impacts
The economic impacts of tourism and tourism-related development consist broadly of benefits and costs. Studies of tourism around the world reveal that many countries have embarked upon economic development strategies that include the establishment or expansion of the tourism sector. The experience of many countries has shown that tourism is capable of bringing substantial economic benefits. The money spent by foreign tourists can benefit the national economy by improving the balance of payments and can benefit local economies through increased income and opportunities of employment. In addition, governmentscan generateincome from taxes on tourism activity, and communitiescan benefit from the multiplier demand for goods and services. The ledger may be balanced by the creation of costs to the community through increased import of goods from overseas and the need to spend large sums on installing or upgrading infrastructure and utility services such as airports, roads, telecommunications, water, electricity, and waste disposal. However, the resident community may benefit from access to a wider range of goods (imports) and to improved infrastructure and utility services. Thus, the net benefit or net cost is a complicated issue. impactsinclude:.foreign exchangeearnings;
95

Economic 2.

income level changes; employment (changes employment in opportunities, direct employment, indirect employment, genderand age spectrum,and seasonality); investment-changes in focus; investment multiplier to secondaryindustry; stimulation of industry categories -(construction, stitution, crafts, and handicrafts); balance of payments changes; government action broadeningthe tax base, new tax targets, and infrastructure development; property value changes; support of conservation activities -(natural historic assetprotection); stimulation to local entrepeneurship; improvementto the national image. Many of these impacts have both positive and negative dimensions. For example, employment opportunities will increase with the further development of the tourism industry, but these additional opportunities may require low skill levels, be suitable for women, be seasonaland be low wage occupations. In such a situation, the overall benefit to the local or national employment structure may be questioned. CommitJ;nents to develop infrastructure (water systems, and waste disposal systems) may be advantageousto both tourism development and local communities. However, the assessment should include an interpretation of whether the increment of expenditure to support tourism activity might have created greater local welfare if spent on health care systems and education facilities. environment.and import sub-

Improvements to development may lead to increased governmentrevenues through increased taxation and levies. However, the increasedcharges and land prices have to be borne by local communities andentreprene unless the government can facilitate and implement a differential schemeof taxation. economic outcome of tourism developmentmight be:.shared unequally;.multi-faceted;

96

The

differentially advantageous; complicated; distributed along different time horizons to different stakeholdergroups; andrequire new resourcesto achieve development.

Regional development
Most considerations of economic impact focus attention on the general, nation-wide benefits and costs of tourism development. However, it should be recognized that no matter how beneficial (or costly) the outcomes of tourism development are in the aggregate,there will be a differential impact. Thus, the impacts will be unequal. This gives rise to considerations of tourism and regional development and tourism and local economic development. These two matters may be considered fromthe points of view of the impact of tourism developmentor the potential strategic use of tourism to stimulate economic developmentin regions and local communities. There are regional disparities in tourism development because: .there are regional differences in the availability of resourceswhich are attractions for tourism; .there are clear tourism preferences for particular types of locations; .tourism entrepreneurs seekto maximize the mix of the availability of resourcesand the preferencesof customers; .there will be differencesin easeof access the preferredlocations; to

and
.there will be differences in the degreeto which local communities support tourism activity. The implications of the disparities are that tourism activity is likely to concentrate at particular advantageouslocations, on "ribbons" along coastalmargins or along major route systems,and on particular, rather than all areas. This tendency towards nodal or linear concentration has a number of strategic implications for the development of infrastructure systems(mainly a charge on public agencies), and supportservices(especiallytransport, commercial services, and emergencyservices). The geographical concentrationspose problems of: .timing and phasing of development;
97

3.

responsibility to be assumed for the development-whether should be private or public or a public/private partnership;

it

linkages (such as infrastructure networks and transport systems

and services);
convenienceof local support from agricultural suppliers; and availability of an adequatelabour supply. There is a misunderstanding among non-tourism specialists that tourism is an easy means of economic developmentand that tourism can flourish anywhere. Worldwide evidence shows that tourism will flourish only under appropriate conditions that are planned for and managedefficiently. Tourism development is dependent upon more than skilful advertising and promotion campaigns. It must be remembered thattourists may change their allegiance or interest in a region for reasons that may be very superficial. Tourism regions must be planned to retainthe interest and support of tourists. This very focused planning and management should ensure continuity with regional economic prosperity. The significance of regional tourism development includes: .improved standards and range of infrastructure, which supports both the tourists and the residents (unless the infrastructure is purpose-designed meet only the requirements of an integrated to resort); .improved range of retail, commercial and support services to which both tourists and residents have access; .a raised profile of the region; for public investmentin the region;

.rationale

.attraction of higher-order public services, which then attracts higher order commercial services (following strategic hierarchical principles); and .creation of complementary services with higher order skills in organizing, planning and marketing. Tourism development,if deliberately regionalized, may provide incen-tives for: environmentalimprovement; heritage conservation; population concentration;

98

improved educationand training facilities; transport services; property development; cultural improvement;and the creationof local economic development opportunities,especially for indigenous groups. Although there will be a tendency for foreign interests to assumea significant role in regional development,the governmenthas a responsibility to pursue policies and practices so that: .the economic structurescan accommodate indigenous investment; opportunities are available to local residents;

.employment .any

necessaryskill upgrading is available to local residents;

.any cost-of-living increasesare not seriously detrimental to local communities;and .profits derived from tourism activity are recycled through the local economyto the benefit of the local community.

4. Local economic development


Tourism activity is often considered to be an obvious opportunity for local economic development. The matter is not that simple becausefor each community the principles of comparative economic advantage and carrying capacity defme the realistic opportunities and limits of local tourism activity.
(a)

Comparative economic advantage

In terms of comparative economic advantage, communities need to recognize they are part of an interdependent economic system which may be local, regional (within the nation), national or regional (the AsiaPacific region) in scope. Each community will optimize its performance if it concentrates on those areas of production and service in which it has competitive advantage. Each community will not be self-sufficient in every respect, and this may be a dramatic contrast to the conventional and traditional economic rationale underpinning many indigenous communities. It is usually argued by economists that if the development of a tourism industry can help a community achieve a better return from the application of its human, natural and other resources than by pursuing some other form of economic activity (including self-sustaining subsistence), then it

99

should focus on the tourism opportunities. socio-cultural and historical issues.

Such an approach ignores

Local competitive advantage in tourism may come from:.local resources (especially natural and cultural, which can form the principal tourism attraction);.ease of accessibility from major tourism origins; .availability of adequate and appropriate infrastructure;.human resources who contribute to the various tourism services; .availability of suitable accommodation and support services;

.tourism experience opportunities (this may be particularly crucial in the development of special interest tourism and ecotourism); and .interest in the local community to develop a tourism industry.

There will be a tendency to measure comparative advantage only in economic terms. Clearly, environment, heritage, politics, and social (community) preferences must be taken into account. Even though many (if not all) of the economic prerequisites for a satisfactory tourism industry may exist, it may be that other prerequisites, including the willingness of the local community to be committed to that activity, may preclude the development of tourism activity. Though enjoying many of the necessary prerequisites, some traditional communities will not be willing to participate in the development of tourism activity.

(b) Carrying capacity


Specifying the tourism carrying capacity of a tourism destination is a very complex task given that there are many variables in the calculation.F or each aspect of local tourism development, it would be appropriate to at least attempt an interpretation of the carrying capacity levels. This could then progress to a management strategy of restricting total visitor numbers to the lowest capacity levels of an attraction, or devising means of increasing the capacity of the lowest level of attraction to that of higher levels so that a higher optimum may be achieved.

(c) Integrated and complimentary development

At the local level (and at the regional level), there are two types of tourism development: (1) integrated, exclusive development, or (2) catalytic,complemen development. 100

Integrated developmentoccurs where: .a single resort is developed by a single promoter or company;

.local participation may be excluded, except for constructionlabour and service labour on completion of the project; and .unity of managementgives the project a focus, coherence and balanced,rapid developmentof the project.
Complimentary development is characterized as: .a .a major development project which acts as a stimulus complementary development in the community; to

location that has community confidence that the location is worth visiting, the local area has attractions, and local labour is capable of meeting the servicing requirements of tourism;

.stimulating the growth of complementary services, facilities, amenities and infrastructure which, while being designed initially to service tourism, has the capacity to extend advantage and opportunity to the local community; and .a tourism project that is added on to an existing township.

Each fonD has its advantages and disadvantages. Government decision-making will need to recognize the opportunities and problems of each before lending support to a particular project. The apparent attractivenessof any developmentshould be resisted. Each development project should be judged on its merits and within the context of a regional/national strategy.
Expert advice should be sought to determine the multiplier impact on the local economy of a locally-generated and managed tourism project. The multiplier impact should extend beyond fmancial considerations to include job opportunities created, impacts on social community structures, impacts on local morale and self-esteem, and the ability of an initial project in building confidence towards more ambitious projects.

Environmental impact appraisal (EIA)


There is an indisputable close relationship between the physical qualities of a destination and its attractiveness for the purposes oftourism. The obvious features of interesting scenery, amenable climate,unique landscape features, and unique flora and fauna are significant for

101

c.

detennining levels of interest and visitation to a destination. While the overall impact of tourism may be less than other industries developed to a similar scale, the impact is significant because it frequently impinges on particularly fragile, sensitive and interesting parts of a destination area. Therefore, .,..hat in absolute terms may normally contribute a minor environmental disturbance will be of considerablesignificance because ofwhere it occurs. One outcome may be that small environmental disturbances become aggregatedinto a serious environmentalimpact, and it is the more dramatic impact, potential or actual, which becomesthe focus of attention. As the scale of tourism developmentincreases,an appraisal of its potential environmental impact becomes a necessity for planning and management. The need to understandthe environmental impact of tourism is becoming recognized increasingly, and in some cases it is a legal requirement. The need for information on the environmental effects of tourism, and a framework for conducting the appraisal are thus becoming more urgent. Without such frameworks, decision-making in tourism development planning will lack credibHity.

Tourism and environmental impact


Tourism is such a highly differentiated phenomenon because it occurs in a wide variety of environments,so it is appropriate to refer to the environmentaleffects of tourism in generalterms. It is more appropriate to isolate the factors peculiar to the tourism situation and to evaluate the impact of each factor. One inadequacyof current theory and practice is the capacity to integrate the fmdings of the separate evaluations. The environmental impact of tourism can be related to the intensity of site development,the resilience of the ecosystem,the time perspective, and the degree of site/area transformationbecauseof tourism development. The sources of concern about potential envirorunentalimpact include: .disturbance .time .effect of ecological balance;

lapse before consequences impact are apparent; of on especially sensitive envirorunents;

.lack of complete understanding about the impact of site transformation; and .awareness of the need to include principles in tourism planning and design about the impact of vandalism,pollution, and waste.

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1.

Three types of tourism-environment relationshipare evident: .Where tourism activity remains separate and isolated from sensitive environments. .Where tourism activity is carefully planned, designed and operated so that it reinforces the quality of the area in a mutually supportive, symbiotic relationship. .Where tourism activity and the need to protect the environment are in a state of tension and conflict. Good practices of resource managementcan cope with the second type, but the fIrst type is preferred. The third type is an outgrowth of poor decision-makingand intransigenceon the part of vested interests. The strategy of promoting symbiotic relationships is a management approach that underpins much of the worldWide preference for adopting principles of ecologically sustainabledevelopment. These principles have been reinforced at many international meetings organized by the United Nations in recent years. For tourism, the symbiotic relationship underlies the approach to planning that assumesthe natural environmentto be one of the foundations of the tourism industry. To achieve this symbiotic relationship, the folloWing featuresare required: .guided .authorized tours through conservationareas; trails; educationcentres;

.environmental .heritage .scenic

protection; area protection;

.expenditure on conservation activities, such as rehabilitation of sites and buildings, transformationand rehabilitation of sites and site protection; and .environmentally sensitive strategiesof planning and management.

2. Potential environmentalimpacts
Environmental impact must be identified, evaluated, and handled by appropriate management decisions. This can be achieved in two possible ways: .by examining the natural environment in its component parts, (flora, fauna, water, air and landscapes)and interpreting the various types of impact on each component; or 103

by determining the range of impacts and interpreting each of these for each componentof the natural environment. The final outcome of a thorough investigation should be a consistent evaluation of the impact on a range of factors.

(a) Flora
The potential detrimental impacts of tourism developmentand activity include the following: .physical d~age through removing samples,carelessuse of fires, logging by fires, clearing for camping, dumping of waste, or

vehicleuse;
.loss of fragile species; .sustainability of only the most resilient species,thereby disturbing the ecological balance; .disturbing .disrupting .reducing regenerationand growth rates; soil creation processes;and vegetation cover and speciesdiversity.

To ameliorate or regulate these impacts may require excluding tourism activity from the most sensitive and vulnerable areas. If, however, it is this category of natural resources which is the real cause of tourism attractiveness,then strict practices of site management will be needed. (b)

Water quality

The potential detrimental impact of tourism development and activity includes water pollution as a result of waste disposal, swimming, boating, and oil spills (from small boats). In addition to the reduction in the quality of the water, repercussions may include contamination of fish and reef life, and 'eutrification, leading to weed growth tllat stifles oxygen levels.

Besides the detrimental impacts of some tourism activity on the natural environment of water areas, there may be health hazards to users in these areas.

(c) Air quality


The polluting impacts of tourism activity will include carbon monoxide emission from vehicles and motor boats, and exacerbation 9f local air quality problems because of congestion in areas of difficult topography.

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(d) Fauna
Much of the tourism interest in some destination areas focuses on native animals, with the fascination being the animals in their natural habitat. The direct negative impacts are the outcome of unacceptablevisitor behaviour, leading to: .disturbance of the habitat (the animals may vacate the site);

.disturbance of the animal's behaviourpatterns(interrupting feeding, or breeding); .deliberate habitats; .collection .poaching; .accidental .disruption killing of the animals or their removal from their of souvenirs;

killing of the animals; and of the predator-preyrelationship.

The degree of direct impact will be detennined by the resilience of the species, the intensity and frequency of the visitor attention, and the adaptability of the species. In addition to the direct impacts, there are indirect impacts when the animals respond to visitor intrusion by: .dislike being herded into reserves,and therefore, changing their behaviour; .becoming dependenton visitor-related resources(such as feeding); .migrating to other habitats at increasing distances from visitors, thereby causing strains on the new locations; .foraging .changing .disrupted around camp sites; their predator-preyrelationships; and migration paths.

Establishing nature or animal reserves does not always reduce the serious disruption to animal habitats or to the species themselves. In addition, while world-wide attention is focused on big animals referred to as the meta-fauna, there are similar disruptions for the small animals, birds, and butterflies.

105

(e) Landscape
Sites of geological interest, especially sculptured landscapes, fonn the focal points of some tourism destinations. This may be in particular sites or in spacious areas of spectacular scenery. While the broader scope of scenic areas may not be disturbed, other than by large-scale forest clearing, or hillside scarring by quarries, particular sites may be disturbed by collecting rock samples as souvenirs, vandalism, tracks, or repeatedabrasionsfrom mountain-climbing.
In addition, in order for tourism development to take place, sites may be disturbed by recontouring to accommodate particular tourism facilities or panoramas, enclaves created on sites as viewing areas, creation of access to tourism lodges, or rainwater run-off because of site clearance, recontouring, and access.

Detrimental impacts may be avoided or reduced if the tourism activity does not take place, if the tourism activity is introduced after careful site appraisal, or if the tourism activity is managed efficiently. The degree of environmental impact can be evaluated through various methods of impact assessment.

Impact assessmentmethodology
The process of assessingthe impact of tourism development and activity on the natural environment has undergone extensive testing and refinement in recent years, and this form of appraisal has become a formidable tool in decision-making. It has been estimatedthat a reasonable environmentalimpact assessment (EIA) processwill cost 0.5 to 1.0 per cent of the total project costs. If this is so, then it is a relatively insignificant cost if the outcome creates knowledge that the proposed project has been subjected to rigorous assessmentand that, as a result, the project is acceptable. It may be that an outcome of the EIA process requires that additional or different work be undertaken to prevent or at leastreduce the prospect of environmentaldisturbanceor damage. EIA should be considered as an integral part of the planningdevelopment-management cycle, not as an option. Information from theEIA will be critical in the decision-makingprocess and may be needed at various stages in the project cycle. EIA has become an important tool in the decision-makingprocess. Referenceshould be made to the many manualsavailable to put the process into operation. It should be rememberedthat although the inputs to theEIA are technical and the various outcomesmay be presentedscientifically,
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3.

in the end the decision becomes a political one made by a government weighing and trading-off the various interests.

(a) Rationale for EIA


The purpose of the EIA is to make sure that potential environmental problems are identified and solved at an early stage in project development. The following points provide the rationale for the EIA: .It is easier and more economicalto identify and rectify environmental problems in a project before it is implemented.

.Environmentally unacceptable projects are not implemented, thereby saving money and effort to protect the environment. .A poorly planned and implemented project may degrade the environmentto such an extent that the viability of the project is threatened. This is particularly relevant to tourism projects that are specifically intended to exploit areas of outstanding beauty and natural interest such as beaches,reefs, and forests.

.Projects designed to suit local environments are more likely to be completed on time and within their budget, thus avoiding problems during and after construction. .Projects that satisfy their objectives without environmental problems reflect well on the developersand the country. Impact on the environment needs broad interpretation and may include problems, conflicts or natural resource linritations that may affect project viability and potentially harmful effects to people, fauna, flora, soil, water, atmosphere,landscapes,cultural sites, and land uses that are in or affected by the project area. In addition to predicting possible enviromnentaldamage as a consequence of tourism development,the EIA may signal procedures that may prevent or reduce any harmful effects. The EIA does not detennine whether or not a project should proceed. It predicts the likely enviromnental consequencesof proposed action, presents the predictions clearly and precisely (depending on the state of knowledge of the particular impact and the component of the natural enviromnent), and provides a basis for political decision-makersto weigh the evidence.

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(b) Stakeholderinterest in the outcome of EIA


Infonnation about the potential consequences a particular tourism of project is of interest to several stakeholdergroups: .The developerrequires full infonnation on environmentalaspects of approval procedUres necessaryto reduce harmful effects. .The reviewers need to be able to decide whether to allow the project to proceed. .The investors need to know that the project is environmentally viable and sustainableto ensure returns on investment. .Government agencies need to know implications of the project (if any) for their sectoralinterests. .The local community needs to know impacts (if any) on their way of life. .Politicians who are inter~sted in wider national and political issues and concernswill need infonnation. .Special groups (societiesand clubs) will be concernedwith various aspects of the project.

,(c) Steps in the EfA process


(i) Screening

Screeningis the first and simplest level of assessment. It is intendedto identify those projects that are likely to have minimal environmental impact and may not need a full-scale EIA. The criteria used include: .scale of the project;

.location (whether areas are environmentallysensitive, fragile and environmentallysignificant); .level of impact (spatial extent of the impact, including secondary impacts); and .impact (ii) longevity or durability (short or long-term).

Preliminary assessment

Preliminary assessment takes the investigation into further detail and scope of consideration. The assessment will: .identify the project's potential key impacts on the local environment (pollution, loss of aesthetics,conflict with other land uses, and threats to species of scientific or subsistence importance); 108

describe and predict the extent, severity, and pennanence of these effects; and evaluatetheir significance in tenns of local, provincial and national importance. (iii) Full EIA implementation Full EIA implementation likely to include the following: is .Description of the developmentactivity:

.reasons for the project and how it fits with national requirements and objectives (as outlined in National Development Plans or Tourism Master Plans); .competence of the developer to fulfil (technical and financial); these objectives

.direct benefits expected (services, jobs, fmancial return to local and national economy,and protection of nature); .location and extent of the project, including secondarytourism considerations; .brief description of the project buildings and associated developments(number, size, style and capacity of buildings); .additional local infrastructure required (jetties, roads, paths, airstrips, power supplies, telephones,health and educational facilities); .labour and resource requirements, and whether locally available; and .duration and number of phases.

Existing environmentalconditions: .current land uses in the area (forestry, agriculture, tourism, or nature reseryes); .location .present .social and size of human settlementsin the area; economic activities in the area; and cultural organizationin the area; snd

.description of naturalresources (geology,soils, climate, weather patterns, land forms, water resources,flora, fauna, aesthetics, and cultural sites.)

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Prediction and evaluation of changesto the environment: .which existing environmentalconditions will be affected by the development(improved or worsened); .if predicted changeslead to conflicts or contravene existing legislation (on pollution or site protection);

.what ways and to what extent will human health, welfare and culture be affected; and .in what way and to what extent will existing natural resources be affected.

Actions to reduce any harmful impacts (mitigation): .feasible alternatives to the proposed development that will reduce or eliminate predicted hannful impacts but still enable objectives to be realized (pollution control, waste treatment, phased implementation, landscaping, personnel training, new social services, species protection, public education, and guidelines for visitor b~haviour); .if .if alternativesare not possible, should the project be re-sited; re-siting is not possible, should the project be abandoned;

and
.compensation required for people whose natural resources

are degraded.
Sustainability: .description and evaluation of any irreversible loss or damage to the natural environment, cultural sites, and gardening land;

and
.comparison of impacts (good and bad, short or long) with impacts on human welfare and environmental conditions, (short-term harmful impacts such as erosion could precede long-term benefits from tourism, or short-term benefits from temporary jobs may lead to long-term harm such as loss of local culture with no adequatereplacement.). It should be kept in mind throughout the EIA process that the aim is to answer four questions: .What will happento the environmentif the project proceeds? .What will be the degree of inlpact and change? .Are the changesand impacts significant? .If they are, how could they be mitigated, ameliorated, controlled? or 110

In addition, the final report should draw attentionto: .the level of accuracy of the assessment; .the level of information adequacy; .any further information needs; .recommended courses of action; and .recommended monitoring and audit.

(d) Review of EIA


In the review, the following questionsshould be addressed: .Are both beneficial and hannful environmentalimpacts presented, explained and evaluated?

.Does the EIA cover all impacts of the tourism project, including those that may arise from secondary tourism in the surrounding areas? .Does the EIA consider a reasonabletime scale and not just the construction phase? .Are there any impacts on areas of wildlife interest, endangered species, recreational areas for local residents, cultural sites, and aestheticsof the area? damaging impacts predicted and what suggestionsare made for alternativesto reduce these impacts? comparisonsmade with other similar tourism projects? there any unavoidable adverse impacts and how significant are these?

.Are .Are .Are

.During the EIA preparation, are all interested groups and individuals consulted? .Have all interested groups and individuals been given the opportunity to comment on the completedEIA? .How is the project to be monitored for environmental effects during and after implementation?

4. Impact appraisal methods


In the appraisalprocess, it is necessaryto be aware of a number of methodologicalproblems,including: .determination of the base-levelstate, from which the changesare to be interpreted;

isolating the impacts attributable only to tourism development; differentiating natural processesfor human-inducedchanges; spatial discontinuity (the "downstream" effects); temporal discontinuity (the impact of time lag/lapse);and environmental interaction complexity -cause and effect, primary, secondary and subsequentimpacts. Three types of methodological approaches are distinguishable and each contributes to the overall assessmentwith each having its own relevant techniques.

(a) Identification
These functions are designedto assist in: .describing the existing environmentalcircwnstances; the environmental components which may be

.differentiating affected; and .specifying

the range of impacts that might occur.

The techniques and methods used in this approach are checklists, matrices, and networks.

(b) Prediction
These methodologies are designed to forecast the quantity, quality and spatial dimensions of environmental impact. They determine the significance of modification and impact, forecast the degree of change, and estimate the probability of the predicted change. The predictive methodologies include simulations and attempt to interpret the impact of visitor use levels.

(c) Evaluation
These methodologies seek to detennine the costs and benefits of proposed developmenton the affected environmentsby determiningimpacts on particular user groups, identifying possible trade-offs, and comparing alternative solutions and outcomes. There are evaluative and systematic analytical proceduresin common use for these tasks. The adoption of any particular methodologicalapproach or technique does not guaranteeincontrovertible outcomes. Environmental impact assessments often a matter of degreerather than a single decision. are

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5. Carrying capacity
Changes the environment inevitable consequences. is important to are It for any development purpose, and especially for tourism, to assessthe carrying capacity of the environmentwithin a management regime. Once a carrying capacity has been established,controls and management policies can be put in place to ensure that the capacity is not exceededto the detriment of the environmentit is intended to protect. Carrying capacity is a key, but controversial, concept and it is a tool used with the planning and managementof tourism areas. It can be defined as the maximum number of tourists that can be cateredto while making full use of the tourism facility and amenity without causing undue damageto the environment. Capacityis determinedby the assessed limits of acceptablechange (LAC) to the environment, Identification of the optimum carrying capacity of a tourism destination or particular tourism site is critical in planning and management for determiningthe levels of protection for the environmentand for maximizing the economic benefits of visitation levels. There is a threshold level in any tourism situation involving the minimum environmentaldamage,maximum visitor enjoyment,and maximum economic gain. Carrying capacity calculations involve determining a continuum of intensity of use suited to the particular environmentor site, with no direct tourism use at one pole to unfettered (and potentially seriously destructive) use at the other pole. In a prescriptive sense,carrying capacity statements can be used for a particular tourism site to specify the preferred type of use and the intensity of use (amount of visitors). The most common characteristic of carrying capacity statementsis establishinga level of tourism use commensurate with a determinableimpact on the environment. It would be hazardous for the carrying capacity assessment result in a single statistic. Rather, a range of use intensities to should be used related to expected environmental states and required managementstrategies. There is a tendency for carrying capacity assessments be framed to within the context of a single focus or range of criteria rather than with an integrated approach with multiple criteria. The most commonly used capacity approachesrefer to physical carrying capacity, biological carrying capacity, and socio-cultural carrying capacity.

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(a) Physical carrying capacity


The physical carrying capacity of the level of visitation which can be available natural resources, exceeding the services, causing visual deterioration, experience to be jeopardized. a tourism area is detennined by achieved without exceeding the available or potential infrastructure or causing the desired tourism

In some Asia-Pacific countries, the carrying capacity of the area may be ll1fluencedor determinedby: .available space, such as usable beach space; .available water supply; .facility of adequatesolid and liquid waste disposal; .available transport links, accessand circulation; and .permissible building types and densities.
Visual pollution and poorly-designed and located buildings may reduce the attractiveness of some tourism destinations. In addition, the capacity of areas to accommodate numbers of visitors before congestion is reached may act as a visual carrying capacity. This impact is reflected in the capacity of the tourism area to achieve and maintain a level of visitor satisfaction with the experience. In some planning and design manuals, there are tentative spatial standards (usually expressed as numbers of units per unit area) which are offered to prove the range of tolerance before the visitor enjo~ent of an area is put at risk.

(b) Biological carrying capacity


This approach to carrying capacity indicates the maximum level of visitors before significant site and resource degradationoccurs.

It is difficult to generalize about the effects of tourism on naturalphenomena, because flora, fauna, landscapes, water and air have different levels of tolerance to visitor impact. Even within each of these categories, there will be different tolerance levels. In addition, visitor impacts may be beneficial rather than detrimental in encouraging and supporting measures of conservation, scientific study and general public interest. Some habitats are more resilient than others, even within the same category. Thus, the management regimes should be purpose-designed. One hazard of carrying capacity assessment is that the upper limit (the point at which regeneration does not occur) may be discovered only through experience, because scientific prediction is likely to be imprecise.

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There are general management approaches to reduce carrying capacity thresholds (such as limiting or preventing access or by opening up competing or alternative sites), and to increase site capacities (by improving access, providing visitor education, or by avoiding sensitive areas).

(c)

Using carrying capacity measurements

The results generated by carrying capacity assessments need to be used with caution, because:
the estimates merely indicate a range of alternatives;the assessments are usually extremely focused; the assessments may include factors which are not of equal significance; interaction between man and the environment is constantly changing; no carrying capacity threshold will remain constant over a long time period; there are few (if any) thresholds which are universally applicable; and scientific precision may not be possible in each assessment and subjective considerations will intrude.

It has been suggestedthat it is highly unlikely that precise nwnericalcalculated which will meet the needs indices of carrying capacity can be of all tourism-related circumstances. Therefore, any previously drawn capacity thresholds and parameters will need adjustment to meet the peculiarities of time and place. For Asia-Pacific countries, there has been little study of any aspect of carrying capacity. Any threshold capacitiesused are likely to be imported, and will therefore need modification to fit the special circumstancesof the region.

Environmental conservation
Among the principal attractions of the Asian and Pacific region are its natural beauty, the areas and sites of biological and cultural interest, and the coastal areas. International tourists to the region experience and explore the natural areas in locations which are adjacent to resort areas or remote from the population in destination areas. It is clear that the natural attractions are assetsthat need careful management. If the actions of tourists steadily degrade the natural resources,the conventional resort 115

.
6.

developmentswill become less attractive. There is a need to provide early warning of potential degradation, to highlight development-environment interaction sensitivity, and to point to possible managementstrategies to protect the environment when EIA studies are undertaken. The need for careful considerationand construction of suitable management strategiesis essential in tourism destinationsthat are not designatedas protected areas. The need to manage resources in a way that allows for planned development at the cost of minimal natural environment degradationand depletion is an acceptedprincipal of ecologically sustainabledevelopment that is now advocatedworldwide. The principal task is the conservation of environmentalquality. This can be achieved by integrating tourism and environmentalmanagement. The adoption and implementation of the following principles may achieve enVironmentalconservation: .constitutional requirementsto protect natural resourcesand traditional ways of life; .national tourism plans;

.specific legislation covering such matters as natural environment protection and natural resourcesmanagement; .guidelines as a framework for the operation of tourism development; and .guidelines for the management tourist behaviour. of

(a) Environmental guidelines


In order to achieve environmental conservation, guidelines should include:
the protection of natural ecosystems by avoiding any development process or form of development which degrades or physically destroys the natural environment; the protection of natural processes by prohibiting and preventing any form of action which interrupts such processes as water flow, species regeneration, predator-prey relationships, and natural animal processes of feeding, mating, and migrating; the maintenance of physical and biological diversity, by avoiding events and activities which may deplete species variety; the education of visitors to help them appreciate the fauna, flora, geology, history, and culture of the area being visited;

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.the .the

prevention of erosion leading to the degradation of beaches, reefs, rivers, streams and hillsides; protection of cultural sites such as burial grounds, caves, stones and sites of religious cultural significance, especially by placing them out of bounds to tourists without proper supervision; and protection of the aesthetic appeal of the tourism area.

.the

There may be guidelines for the behaviour of tourists, so that any conservation-related tourism activity is encouraged and facilitated. In particular, tourists should be made aware of the problems for local ecosystems as a consequence of poor behaviour towards the environment. Environmental guidelines for visitor behaviour may include: .bans on collecting souvenirs (coral, shells, and marine organisms, either alive or dead) from reefs, mangroves, rocky shores, beaches and associated areas; .a .a .a ban on the use of hammers and crowbars to break coral; ban on spear fishing; ban on line fishing; of damage by anchors;

.prevention

.control over diving which may cause unintentional damage to fragile corals, including a closed season to allow reefs to recover; .control .control .control and .identifying over small boats which may cause damage at low tide; of walking on reefs; of searching for marine life by moving underwater boulders; restricted areas.

(b) Designation of protected natural areas


Protected areas are designated primarily for the purposes of environmental conservation. In some cases, the protection of natural areas may mean prohibiting access to and use by tourists. In other cases,the management strategy may be to restrict use levels rather than prohibit use altogether. Tourism, if properly managed, can be compatible with the conservation of natural areas, and can become a justifiable alternative use. In addition, managed tourism activity may become a source of revenue to meet the costs of conservation area management through access fees to protected areas, viewing privileges, and use of facilities and amenities in the protected area.
11'7

A network of protected areas may channel visitor access and use of sensitive natural environments, and by so doing, contribute to the exclusion of particularly sensitive ecosystems,habitat and landscapeareas. In many Asia-Pacific countries, customary land would be conducive to such a network, ~articularly as many traditional owners would support environmentalconservation. When designatingprotected areas,decisions should make conservation as the primary land use and tourism as the secondary use. The ideal circumstance would be a nation-wide system of natural reserves or protected areas that would serve the purpose of conserving all unique ecosystems and represent all habitat types. Effective measures of environmental conservation depend on systematic environmental education programmesand tourism awareness programmes.

D. Socio-cultural appraisal
Tourism can be an agent for major change in the social, political and cultural system of a destination area. This change is in addition to the impact of tourism on the economy and environment. As the tourism industry develops and grows, the interpretation of its impact and the degree of its successmost often focuses strongly on the manifest economic benefits. In the early phases of development, tourism is accepted as a net benefit. However, in all phasesof development, there is an accumulation of social and cultural consequences which may eventually manifest in a number of social tensions between groups in the community with the inevitable involvement of the government. The social changes which are the outcome of pursuing tourism development a deliberate government as strategy aided by sections of the private sector, may occur slowly, or they may be rapid and on a large scale. Governmentsare beginning to realize that the welfare of the local community should be given significant considerationin formulating any tourism developmentstrategy.

The tensions that can arise in local communities when developmentpreference seem to favour the needs of tourists and investors can be the catalyst for riots and civil disturbances. In the pursuit of a strategy of tourism development, governments must ensure that the benefits are distributed throughout the community rather than concentratedon a small sector. In addition to any animosity which may emerge,the changeswhich come over local society can induce social stress and disorganization. This is especially true in traditional societies faced with the pressure to adapt rapidly to ideas, values, behaviour and technology that may be alien.

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Only in recent years has it become apparent that when evaluatingthe benefits and costs of tourism developmentit is necessaryto determine the impacts on local society and culture. The assessment social and of cultural impacts is very complex, because it is very difficult to quantify many critical social impacts, or to subtract costs from benefits and arrive at a balance sheet comparable to conventional economic cost-benefit analysis. Many costs and benefits are intertwined and difficult to untangle. In addition, becauseof the complex nature of tourism, it is not possible to translate the outcome of impacts from one society to another. Against this background, assessments can be attempted of the potential social and cultural impacts of tourism developmentand related activity.

1. Potential impacts
The potential socio-cultural impacts of tourism are directly evident in degrees of economic independence,changes in employment structures, and changesto standardsof living. There can also be more subtle impacts on value systems, behaviour and relationships, moral standards, and attitudes towards customs and traditions. The study of these impacts as conducted by sociologists and social anthropologists is often descriptive and idiosyncratic. This situation makes it more difficult to transfer experiences and recommendationsfrom one case study to another. For this reason, the development of social impact methodology has lagged behind impact methodologiesin economic and environmentalappraisals. impacts may include:.increased economic independence of groups in the population who were previously dependent (employment opportunities for women and young people); .displacement of local communities(to vacate sites to be used for prestige tourism developments), and disruption of their traditional economic domain, (accessto fishing grounds, hunting areas, and forests); .changes from traditional occupationalstructures(in agriculture and fishing~ to new forms of employment in hotels and restaurants, where the emphasis changes from self-sufficiency to servicing other people; .changes in land value patterns, which may cause conflict over land use and displace local residents to make way for a resort development;

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Potential

changes in living standards as local communities are able to benefit from accessto improved infrastructure systems in health care, transport, water supply, waste disposal, and recreation; and other changes in living standards, such as the move to a cash economy, giving local residents accessto facilities and amenities (such as shopping) created especially to meet the demands of tourists and shifts in political and economic power from the traditional groups to new businesselites. In addition to these overt socio-economic consequences tourism of development,there are many socio-cultural changes that concern governments, traditional leaders, and particular groups in the community such as churches. Such socio-cultural impacts include: .growth of undesirableactivities in the local communities(gambling, drug trafficking, prostitution, and petty crime); .premature modernization when local communities adopt foreign values and ideologies at a revolutionary rather than evolutionary pace, leading to social dualism in which people are caught in a transition from traditional to new values and behaviour systems; .the demonstrationeffect, when local residents attempt to emulate the behaviour, attitudes and consumptionpatterns of the visitors, a circumstance which may create frustration in the local community if people do not have acCess the resourcesnecessary to to participate and copy the actions and activities of the visitors; reduced significance of traditional art, music, rituals and ceremoniesas they becomeperformances meet the expectations to of tourists; and

.the

.growing resentmentand hostility that local communitiesmay have towards tourists. To a significant degree, the impact tourism developmentand tourists on local communities is influenced by the characteristicsof the visitors and the characteristicsof the tourism destinationarea. These matters need to be included in the socio-cultural assessment that decisions can be so made on how to cope.

Impact assessmentmethodology
Social impacts can be examined and assessed a variety of ways. in Many assessmentsare very difficult to measure statistically with any significant degree of confidence, so most methods are non-statistical.
1.20

2.

However, investigation of trade-offs and cross-referencing with assessments of economic and environmentalconsequences, which are more amenableto quantitative assessment, make a degree of statistical assessment necessary. Forecasting potential outcomes of tourism development on social and cultural matters and identifying mitigating actions are difficult. These difficulties make retrospective assessments easier than prospective assessments. At least retrospective assessments may be used as inputs to later phases,reviews and revisions of the tourism developmentstrategy. There are two groups of characteristicsthat need to be recognized and incorporated in the assessment process. These are: Visitor characteristics:.Volume: A major factor is the volume of tourists. A small number of visitors to a country with a large population will have little effect, while a large number of tourists visiting a small locale or resorttown, especiallyover a shortseason, will have a major impact..Length of stay: The longer the visitors stay, the greater will be their contact with the host population and their socio-economic penetration. .Racial characteristics: The greater the differences between the tourists and local people in terms of race, language,and culture, the greater will be the impact..Economic characteristics: The greater the difference in levels of affluence, the stronger may be the resentment and desire for equality on the part of local residents..Activities of tourists: Tourists' activities determinethe amount of contact, for example, visiting local venues versus spending a week on the beach in tourist areas. The type of tourist is also a factor. The institutionalized mass tourist seeks familiarity and does not stray from what has been called his "environmental bubble" to mix with locals, while the explorerwishes to experience other cultures fully. Characteristicsof the destinationarea: .Economic development: A generalrule is that the more developed the local economy, the less the dependence on the tourism industry and the less its impact. .Spatial characteristics: This includes the size of the destination area, size of population, location of resorts (close to or distant

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from local settlements), capacity of facilities, number of hotels, number of roads, and other physical variables. Ratios are then calculated between arrivals and the population and land area (including total and peak arrivals), and between tourist nights to land areas, beach areas, roads and restaurant capacity. The higher the ratios, the more likely it is that friction will occur. The concept involved here is the absorptive capacity of the host country. Degree of local involvement: The amount of contact is also a function of whether tourist enterprises are run and owned by local or foreign companies. The former situation may be better for the economy. Strength of the local culture: The stronger the local culture (with unique, clear traits), the better the ability to withstand the impact of a foreign culture. In addition, the political attitudes and degree of nationalismin the host country, as well as its historical background, may have an impact on host-guest relationships. Each of these factors will have an impact on the daily life of the local residents in tourism destination areas. It should be recognized that the physical and psychological saturation points will be different, require different managementresponses,occur at different stages of development, and have different impacts on the local community. It may be the detennination of these saturation points, equated with measurements carrying capacity and limits of acceptablechange in the of assessment environmental impacts, which will be among the principal of required outputs of socio-cultural impact assessment methods. Two basic guidelines need to be recognized. First, the most useful data will come from study of the precise socio-cultural group experiencing the impact of tourism development. Second, more than one methodology

shouldbe used.
The reasons for these guidelines are: .generalizations from studies, especially the transfer of outcomes from one study to another, will miss nuances and subtleties of a particular socio-cultural group, which may have stronger or weaker traditions, stronger or weaker resilience to external. influences, and a different degree of susceptibilityto change;

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.the

adoption of more than one methodology is necessary because much of the data will be qualitative, the definition and quantification process will be difficult, and no single methodology is completelysatisfactory. There can be doubt aboutthe credibility of qualitative data, the data collection is likely to be incomplete, and the sources of data (the respondents)may have conflicting interests, values, and perceptions.

The principal sourcesused as input into impact assessments include: .direct surveys and interviews (conducted as personal interview, mail, or telephone, and conducted by random selection or intentionally biased by using a particular sector of respondents); .benchmark surveys to establish an initial basis for subsequent assessments reveal changes; to .attitudinal, opinion surveys;

.relational surveys, cross-referencing information from surveys with socio-economicand demographicvariables; .use of key informants for factual data, as well as opinions and attitudes; .polling expert opinion using Delphi techniques; .participant observation to observe actual occurrences, behaviour and attitudes, gather factual data, and find previously unknown or unexpectedresponses;and .analysis of secondary sources (media, professional and academic literature, and governmentstatistics). Problems with interpreting socio-cultural impact involve: .accuracy of the information; .relevance of the information; .independence of the information; .perspective of the interpreter; and.knowledge of the interpreter (especially about nuances and peculiarities of the group surveyed). To meet these challenges, the infonnation and its interpretation should be collected from as many methods as possible, cross-referenced, and synthesized. The nature of this type of study is such that the assessment more likely to be qualitative than quantitative,and therefore, is can be indicative rather than prescriptive or proscriptive.

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3.

Host-visitor relationships

A number of factors, which are important for understandinghostvisitor relationships and developing strategiesto achieve harmony include: .the .the .the .the .the points of interaction; types of interaction and encounters; responsesof hosts to visitors; determinantsof host community tolerance levels; and potential transformationalimpact of visitors.

(a) Points of interaction


The principal points of interaction between members of the host community and tourists include: .the .the .the points of principal tourism use (tourist accommodations, the tourism business district, entertainmentdistricts, and transport); points where facilities are used jointly by the host community and tourists (transport, the beach, and shops); and points staffed by members of the host community and used most by visitors (information centres, exchanges,banks, tourism businesses,and emergencyservices.)

In addition, tourists use space that was either previously unu$ed orused for a non-tourism purpose. It may be that such spaces andprevious uses were more acceptable to the local conununity, and their transformation for tourism use may cause some antagonism.

(b) Types of interactions and encounters


There are three levels of interaction and encounter: .encounters which are essentiallytransitory, in which the residents' allegiance and responsibility for the destination may contrast sharply with tourists' attitudes, which will be influenced by the temporary, transient nature of the stopover in the destination; .encounters derived from curiosity and inquiry, with enthusiasm to witness local culture being superficial and with little effort to understand the depth of meaning behind local traditions and customs. In addition, tourists' curiosity may be offensive to local residents if it interferes with their regular life-styles; and .encounters most likely to occur in what may be spatially differentiated as the tourism business district or contiguous districts.

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This congestion of tourist amenities and facilities is preferred by the tourist who may wish to see and do as much as possible within the available time scale, so that a dispersionof attractions and services may be an irritation.

(c) Host responses


The responses of the host community to the presence of tourists will be influenced by factors such as: .the .the .the .the nwnber of tourists; types of tourists; impact of tourism on such matters as the environment,land prices, service charges,and costs of shopping; degreeto which the government(national, provincial or local) adjusts its decision-makingto favour tourism over the interests of local residents; degree of change in the destination area which can be attributed to tourism developmentand tourists; perception of threats to the prevailing quality of life; and perception of tourist responsibility for various social disorders within the local community.

.the .the .the

There is evidence of change throughout the development cycle ofthe tourism destination, across the spectrum from enthusiastic support forincreased levels of tourism developmentto xenophobia and resistanceto any further tourism development.

(d) Host community responsedeterminants


The attitude of host communities to tourism development and tourists is influenced significantly by the characteristics of the tourists. In particular, the "demonstration effect" may provoke imitations and adoption of external standards, attitudes, and value systems, social disorder, and black markets in goods and services. The degree to which the visitor population dominates the localcommunity, the physical saturation level, may influence responses tothe tourist that may not be justified. The problem will seemworse because of the conspicuousnature of the intrusion and concentration. The tourism planning responsemay be:

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to mix and match tourism development with other forms of commercial developmentto avoid the conspicuous concentration of tourists and tourism buildings; to ensure ease of access to the facilities for both visitors and residents; and to develop strategiesof integrating pedestrianflows, retail nodes, public buildings, and transport nodes to create mutual interest and interaction in accessto facilities and amenities. Measurement of potential host community reaction to tourism and tourists extends across a spectrum of issues: .initial euphoria and acceptance;

.apathy, in which tourism and tourists are acceptedas an integral element of the destination; .signs of irritation as tourist levels approach physical and psychological saturation points, especially when exceeding the resident population by a considerable margin and when the tourist behaviour disturbs the host community; .the onset of antagonism as tourists and tourism are held responsiblefor many social, economic and environmentalproblems which occur and, as a result, the host community may decide to exploit the visitors; and

.points of confrontation, when the host community becomesaware of quality of life features that have been sacrificed to meet the demandsof tourism. It is the responsibility of tourism planning to guide the host community-visitor interaction in such a way that integration is achieved and the more serious reactions can be avoided by appropriate measures of land use planning, tourism-awareness programming, impact appraisaland resourcesmanagement.

(e) Potential transformation


Many host communities, especially community leaders and traditional societies,are concerned that the impact of tourism on the local community will be subtle and progressively transform establishedcodes of behaviour to new codes developed in other societal and cultural contexts. The principal transformationsinclude: .housing and accommodationstyles;

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language;
skills and education; labour requirements; seasonalityof employment,political and community values;religious values;the basic way of life (customs,habits) art, music and folklore; and consumptionpatterns and attitudes about ownership.

4. Protection of authenticity
Broadly defmed, culture encompasses the whole way of life of a society. Clearly, any penetration of culture for the purposes of tourism needsto be handled carefully with a pro-active approach planning. Culture to is founded on customsand traditions that are dynamic and respond to both internal and external forces and adapt continually. In the context of the Asia-Pacific region generally, and for many countries, culture adaptationis not restrictedto one expression. Culture in the region, and in many countries is pluralistic and characterized by diversity rather than uniformity. Of all the influences which have come to playa role in shaping the present smte of culture in Asian and Pacific countries, exposureto the rest of theworld may be most significant for reducing isolation. The principal socio-cultural characteristicson which tourism has an impact are traditional socio-cultural phenomena (such as ceremoniesand artefacts), which may become trivialized and commercializedto meet the expectations of tourists. It is appropriate to consider what aspects of local culture may become vulnerable to tourism developmentand how that vulnerability maybe reduced, if not resisted. The most vulnerable aspectsof culture include: .handicrafts; .language; .traditions and customs; .food; .art, music, dance, and sculpture; .work practices; .architecture; and .religious dress. Each of these aspects of local culture has meaning, particular expressions,and rationales. They also have an intrinsic authenticity. The problem for many tourists is that they have insufficient time at a tourism destination to familiarize themselveswith these aspects of culture. There
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a danger that local communities will concentrate on external shows atthe expenseof the underlying meaningsand rationales. Particular difficulties occur when tourism schedules try to include authentic experiences in circumstances that are not compatible with traditional life schedules. For example, some ceremoniesare seasonal,but many tourism groups will wish to experiencetheseceremoniesout of season.

Planned action to achievethe twin objectivesof maintaining authenticity and meeting tourist expectations, in order to protect the integrity of theindigenous culture may include the following: .creation of heritage museums and galleries to display artefacts and items; .creation of workshops adjoining museumsor in native villages so that the production process can be wimessed(the handicrafts and artefacts must be genuine items used in local communities); .creation of outdoor museumsin which the real world has been simulated with no pretensions of realism or exacmess by the actors or assumedby the visitors (this may provide opportunities for out-of-season ceremoniesas examplesof cultural practice); .creation of cultural centres in which various facets of life-styles can be presentedand staged in isolation; .use of traditional buildings, styles and designs, arrangements, materials,decoration,and furnishing;

.export of traditional art forms (art, painting, sculpture, music, and dance) on worldwide tours to demonstratethe best quality product, staged with interpretations, explanation, and authentic instruments.and sound; and .evidence that a nation's heritage can survive the introduction and development of a tourism industry. The keys in any strategy are to ensure that the projected image is authentic, the participation of indigenous people will benefit, and the activity does not degrade the meaning. In order for such a strategy to be successful,it is necessaryto develop a monitoring system: .to .to .to identify problems before they becomemajor; develop means to solve the problems; identify possible reductions in authenticity and seriousness, imitation, and substitution; and

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provide opportunities for the affected society to voice its opinions about changes.

Heritage resources conservation

The conservation and managementof heritage have become major concerns of governments and particular interest groups in recent years. Special concern is focused on the conservationof buildings, historic sites, features of townscapes, indigenous artefacts, and cultural activities. The reasons for this increased interest in conservationinclude the desire for keeping historic links to previous periods of cultural development, creating a national identity and making a commitment to husbandingresources, realizing the intrinsic value of the resources, and seeing theeconomic potential (fees for use.) If there is a growing consensusthat heritage resources conservation is desirable, it may be difficult to achieve agreementon what should be conserved and why. The principal questions to be addressed in any programme of resourcesconservationinclude: .What, .How .How if any, is the intrinsic value of the resources? does it contribute to the sustainabilityof the cultural heritage? should it be conserved;with or without public accessand/or

use?
.How should it be managed so that its qualities are maintained and not put at risk by public accessor use? .How should the meaning of the resourcebe communicated?

There is a view among heritage resource managersthat although the resource could be conserved best by refusing visitor accessand participation, there is an obligation to create circumstances for positive visitor experiences. In the long-term, this will contribute to popular support for the heritage movement, contribute funds to meet the costs of maintenance, ensure the maintenanceof interest in the resources,and ensurethe commitment of the government and the nation that its heritage is recognized abroad.

(a) Scope of resources


Until recent times, the concept of heritage was relatively narrow with a focus on architectural preservation, archaeological sites, and archive collections of artefacts. The current emphasis on heritage resource conservation includes:

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5. to

.components of the cultural environment which have aesthetic, historic, scientific or social significance; .evidence of past cultural practices of indigenous people;

.evidence of pre-colonial activity (government buildings and precincts, parklands, gardens, landing sites and early settlements); and .evidence of current cultural practices of indigenous peoples (domestic and public buildings, villages, meeting places, and sites of religious significance.) In every case, if the heritage source is to contribute to tourism and provide a positive tourism experience, then the resource must be accessible, evident, conspicuous, interpreted at the site and experienced.

Different cultures have different methods of presenting their heritage to outsiders. This being so, the presentationmust take into account the need for the viewer to be well-informed about what is being presented, why it is significant, and what meaning or messageshould be taken away by the visitor. Tourists and travellers, especiallythose of wide experience, will evaluate the presentationagainst their own criteria of experience and knowledge satisfaction. The community may evaluate the presentation against criteria of how well the visitors responded, how the visitors behaved, and how the visitors contributed to ongoing maintenance and

upkeep.
Both groups, the community and the tourists, are inextricably linked in the process of heritage management. It is a strategic process that will need careful design and implementationto achieve the various aspirations of these groups.

(b) Conservation process


A nwnber of international agencies, including the World Heritage Convention, have developed procedures for examining the potential of heritage resourcesand declaring their conservation. In most cases, the conservation process should include objectives that are: specific;project-focused; able to be evaluated; achievable;bound by a time frame; assignedto a responsible agency.

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IMPLE:MENTAllON
Financing mechanisms
With the maintenanceand, in some cases,increasinglevels of interest in tourism opportunities available in Asia and the Pacific, the potential for investmentis significant. This potential is often facilitated and encouraged by deliberate policies of governments. In addition to general opportunities for investment and development, the range of opportunities are of two types. First, there are opportunities in already-established tourism destinations or in new, less-developed destinations. Second,opportunities exist to invest in accommodation (from major hotels and integrated resorts to small, modest and low-cost accommodation, and accommodation with indigenous communities), ancillary services (restaurants, bars, entertainment, shopping and transport), support services (travel brokering, visitor adviceand professional services), and tourism enterprises (diving, snorkelling,fishing, sailing, and visits to historical sites). Despite the presentand potential tourism activity in Asian and Pacific countries, available hotel and tourism facilities in many areas are limited. In addition to limited facilities, potential investors may be discouragedby the difficulty of dealing with some government agencies, inadequate infrastructure,the difficulties of tackling a complex land tenure system,and insufficient investment incentives. These difficulties are being addressed, and often overcome in most countries in the region, particularly because governments realize that if they do not, the economic benefits for their countries may be at risk. Many governmentshave introduced investment promotion incentives, investment legislation, and trade and business directories. The region, as a whole presentsthe potential investor with a number of differences: .the .the .the different governmentsystems in Asian and Pacific coWltries, each with its own approachto investmentand development; differences in tourism developmentneeds; and differences in the range of information available about investment support, incentive, promotion, and application procedures.

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A. IV.

This section presents a general picture of practices and opportunities for the developmentof fmancing mechanismsthat may provide an informed or satisfactorybasis to support and promote tourism activity. To finance tourism development, several strategiesand sources may be tapped. Among the sourcesconsideredhere are domesticprivate investment, foreign private investment sources, and foreign aid (international or government sources). In addition, appropriate reference will be made to developmentincentives, relevant legislative structures,governmentdecisionmaking processes,fiscal incentives, and financial incentives. Examining investmentrequuirementswill be consideredfirst.

Investment requirements
Most Asia-Pacific countries are at a stage of developmentwhere it is necessaryto prepare formal development plans with establishedobjectivesto facilitate the mobilization of resources. For many Asia-Pacific countries, development strategies emphasize the need to encourage foreign direct investment. This emphasisis based on the large capital requirementsfor many large-scale, technicallycomplex,up-marketforms of tourism development. For many smaller economies,there is insufficient domestic investment to support large projects. As a result, many countries have introduced variousforms of assistance to encourage foreign investment based on special legislation, administrative guidelines,and regulations. The scope for significant tourism expansion in the immediate futureexists in most countries and areas of Asia and the Pacific. However,achieving this expansion will require considerable funds to overcome major constraints, such as: .air transportation; .basic infrastructure services; .suitable accommodation facilities; .recreational facilities, (including secondary tourism); .promotion and marketing; and .support services and industries. Preparation of a tourism strategy should give due recognition to the cost implications and, by inference, the investment requirements. The precision of the cost structures and the investment requirements willalways be subject to fluctuations in the costs of construction, materials, services and supporting activities, and professional services, all of which will be influenced by exchange rates, the costs of raising finance, and general inflationary pressures.
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Investmentin tourism hardware will include: .new and/or refurbished tourism accommodations (hotels, integrated resorts, guesthouses, and camping sites); .specialized ethnic or regional restaurantsas the expectations of tourists expand; .transport parks); facilities (airports, ports, harbours,road systems,and car

.transport vehicles (motor vehicles, ferries, other maritime vessels, aircraft, helicopters, and bicycles); and .visitor attractions, natural attractions, cultural attractions, and recreationalfacilities. In addition to this hardware, considerableinvestmentwill be required in such software items as: .tourism administrationin governments;

.ancillary administrationin governments(customs,immigration, and quarantine); .marketing .information .travel and promotion; exchange;

and tour agencies; and training facilities and services;and and membershipsin regional and international organ-

.education .affiliations izations.

Investment sources
The basic sources of investment available to Asian and Pacific countries include: .domestic private capital; .foreign private capital; .foreign aid (bilateral and multilateral assistance); and .government finance (which may be from any or all of the above sources). Foreign investment has played a crucial development role in the leading economic sectors in many countries of the region. The reasonsinclude: scarcity of local capital funds; 133

2.

scarcity of local technical and professionalexpertise; lack of preparedness private investors to take risks; by the legacy of colonial funding; the willingness of multilateral agencies focus particular assistance to on the n~eds of the region; the emergence capital sources(private or public) in neighbouring of developed countries based on the belief in a responsibility to assist regional development. 3, Foreign aid For most Asia-Pacific countries, foreign aid continues to playa vital role in meeting government budgetary and development needs and in providing foreign exchange. Official development assistanceis bilateral (including targeted aid from a donor nation to a recipient nation) or multilateral (including targeted aid to a recipient nation or group of nations from international or multinational agencies). In the case of both sources, dependencyon foreign aid may limit' the freedom of recipient nations to act on a number of dimensions: .structures .flexibility are imposed on the local economy; in those structuresis limited (becauseof accountability);

.large public sector agenciesare needed to maintain and manage the aid as a result; .inefficiencies occur in the private sector;

.strains occur in the local economy (because it looks stronger than it really is); .self-reliance .inflationary .consumer is reduced; pressuresoccur; demandis inflated (especiallyfor tourism and hospitality); face pressuresfrom donors. However, many countries have few, if any, options to foreign aid, nomatter what the perceived disadvantages are. Sources of foreign aid may not be stable, especially as donor sources periodically review their commitments,priorities, interests,and availability of funds. Bilateral sources, in particular, may be subjectto changesdue to variation in political priorities of the donor nation.
1~4

and

recipients

Foreign aid to the region comes from multilateral aid, bilateral aid (on a government-to-government basis), and special aid arrangements. Special aid arrangements may be negotiated on a government-togovernment or government-to-agency basis for particular prestige projects, schemesof environmentalrehabilitation, or schemesof regional cooperation. Governmentsin Asian and Pacific countries need to pursue aggressive strategiesto gain accessto funding or technical assistance. In addition to the national and international aid agencies,the national or reserve banks of many countries around the Pacific Rim support foreign aid programmes, particularly in bank-to-bank lending support. It is important for national tourism offices to raise the profile of their claims for aid assistance within the total package being negotiated by senior economic advisors. Unless the negotiation team is convinced ofthe need for aid support for tourism projects and development(including institutional support), it is unlikely that tourism matters will achieve high enough priority to gain funding. If the national governmentseemsto be less than enthusiastic, the donor source may delete tourism from the list of worthy projects. If it is difficult to gain high priority for tourism in general government searches for foreign aid, tourism agencies may seek support from more project-focused donor agencies, including infrastructure components that may be attractive to such agencies. They may also target specialist donor agencies(such as WTO or UNDP) to supportplan preparationexercises. Donor agencieswill scrutinize the projects, programme cost structure, time scale, and recommendedstaffing arrangements. It may be that to secure national preferences, governments of Asian and Pacific countries will need to concedeto operationalpreferencesof the donor agencies.

4. Foreign private investment


The presence of any of the following factors can frustrate potentialprivate foreign investment: .inadequate governmentsupport; .insufficient investmentincentives; .lack of supporting infrastructure; .difficulties in tackling complex land tenure systems; .multiplicity of agencies,many with overlappingfunctions; .excessive time required to obtain decisions; .lack of adequatelocal expertise; and .inadequate training schemes.

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These are matters over which national governments have some control and influence. In order for privately-funded tourism investment to be encouraged and facilitated, it is necessaryfor Asian and Pacific countries to introduce a range of financial and other incentives, appropriatelegislation, and appropriate decision-makingsystems. It is evident that in many cases the national policy on tourism, if there is one, is often unclear or poorly articulated, and information on the tourism sector is usually inadequate for potential investors. These factors can create a poor image. Therefore, to attract foreign investment, governmentshave to improve the image of their competence. Most governmentsin the region have recognized the need to attract foreign investment to help stimulate economic growth, and they are responding to that need by introducing investment promotion measures, investment legislation, businessand investmentguides and directories. In order for governmentsto encourageand facilitate foreign investment in tourism projects, it has become necessary to introduce an appropriate legislative framework and develop a set of decision-making procedures. These decision-makingprocessesmust be capable, within a reasonable timeframe, of achieving an outcome in the best interests of the potential investors, the national governmentand the local communities. Possible alternativesto a legislative framework include: .specific legislation which focuses on tourism development in general, or on particular facets of tourism development(such as hotels), with the opportunity for the general provisions to be carried over to other aspectsof tourism development; .specific legislation which establishesan agency with responsibility for overseeingtourism planning and development, such as a tourism developmentauthority or tourism bureau; or .general legislation that facilitates, monitors, controls and regulates foreign investment for any developmentpurpose. Each of these a!ternativeshas its advantages and disadvantages.Some national governments exercise control through general powers supervising the economy. Although there may be some merit in operating without legislation which can be used specifically to manage tourism development, the existence of a specific legislative framework indicates to the investment community that tourism is being taken seriously. 136

An additional procedural matter is the, establishmentof conspicuous decision-making mechanisms. Such mechanisms should include clear articulation of the ministry responsible for supervising tourism planning and development, specification of monitoring processes, nomination of promotion responsibilities, and specification of the sequence of decisionmaking; culminating in nominating and identifying the point in the decision chain at which decisions can be expected. The most important specificationsare: .governmental .the .the .the .the agenciesto be included;

sequenceof steps; first point of accessin the decision process; participants at each step; responsibilities of these participants (generally, and at each

step); .the expected outcomes of each step; .the and .the final outcome(certificate of approval, letter of eligibility, development license, or a similar document). likely points of negotiation and partners in those negotiations;

It will be necessary national governments detenninethe configurafor to tion of decision-making which is most suited to its structure, and to thenature and level of developmentof tourism in that country. Not all Asian and Pacific countries will need (or could operate)a complex decision-making

system.
In order for the system to work efficiently, it may be necessaryto create special agenciesor committeeswith responsibility to: .screen carefully the off-shore interests incorporated in tourism projects, especially the sources of finance; .scrutinize types; .scrutinize the documentation at crucial phases in the decision tourism projects and investmentapplicationsof particular

sequence;
.facilitate coordination among different government departments and other agencies;and .ensure the efficient passageof any proposal or application.
1~7

Such committeesmay be ad hoc entities,which are fonned as necessary.Alternative they may be pennanent standing committees with a regular schedule of meetings.

Incentive types
The mobilization of a tourism development strategy depends on a partnership between public sector investment (especially in infrastructure) and private sector investment (especially in projects and enterprises). At every stage of implementation,there is a need for governments stimulate to private investment by creating a favourable general context for investment with specific tourism-related fiscal, financial and other incentives. Thisneed is sometimesmet by a series of general investmentincentives under some form of enterprise stimulation legislation or incorporated in revenue and taxation legislation or in the form of particular tourism project legislation. In the Asia-Pacific region, there is considerable variation inthe legislative framework to stimulate private investment in tourism development. Clearly, there is no one model that will fit easily into the different governmental systems and structures or into the various levels of maturity achieved by Asian and Pacific countries. There are severalbroad categoriesof incentives that may be used: .financial incentives, in which the governmentprovides grants or loans from its own resources or through a government financial institution; .quasi-financial incentives, in which the governmentprovides loan guarantees, subsidies,or exchangerate guarantees, a differential or grant which covers the gap between official and commercial lending rates; .fiscal incentives, in which the governmentprovides tax holidays and deductions, customs duty exemptions,concessions,or capital expenditureallowances;and .a wide range of other incentives,including training facilities, profit repatriation, and work permits.

Before starting a strategy of incentives in any of the categories, governmentsshould develop preferred expectationsabout matters such as: .whether the governmentshould interfere with market forces;

.whether the government should assume particular development and investment responsibilities in infrastructure development and incentives, provide training facilities and programmes,support 138

5.

transport services, and construct and operate facilities such as hotels and attractions; whether the government should become involved directly in a commercialenterprise or operate in partnership,and if so at what level and type of risk; whether the government should use its structures and systems to guide tourism development into particular strategies with a particular emphasis (such as strategies and development in ecotourism); whether the governmentshould relieve the private sector of some essentialservices,for example,by operating the national airline to reduce dependencyon off-shore commercialdecisions; and whether the governmentshould facilitate development, especially by providing assistance in land negotiations with indigenous owners. Expectations about these matters are important pre-conditions for the creation of an appropriate tourism investment strategy. Other important considerationsinclude: .detennining the overall nature and scope of tourism activity which will fit with national economic, socio-cultural and environmental strategies; .prescribing levels of resident and foreign ownership and involvement; and .detennining levels of imports (goods, services and skills) before the balance of payments become distorted and prescriptions which will control the leakage of benefits. In addition, governmentsmust decide which types and how much the range of incentives are to be direct, with active government financial involvement, or indirect, with governmentpursuing multiple roles to support, facilitate, encourage,and assist. The following sub-sectionsrefer briefly to the scope of various types of incentives that may be considered. It is not claimed that each type will be suited to the circumstances of every government, or that each type needs to be included in the range of incentives offered by any particular government. As with all aspects of policy and planning, the precise governmentresponsewill be determinedby local circumstances.

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(a) Financial and quasi-financial incentives


The need for fmancial or quasi-financial incentives will depend on the general availability of financial services to the private sector and on the government's attitude towards its responsibility for complementing private investment with public investment. This responsibility can include construction and maintenance of infrastructure services (water supply, waste disposal, and road construction)and grants and loans for constructing and operating tourist facilities such as accommodation,resort complexes, entertainmentand recreationvenues. Government involvement through direct incentives may assist with major developmentprojects by providing direct loans to private developersand negotiating with international agenciesfor funding. In the case of finance for small-scale indigenous projects, the government may provide direct finance (grants or loans) or support the project by assisting with professionalservices. If the governmentbecomesinvolved in direct financial incentives, it will need to determine such matters as scale of loans, grant limitations, predetennination of project viability, periods of repayment, conditions foruse of the fmancing, and conditions for such matters as training of localresidents. In additIon, governmentswill need to develop a policy on theuse of loans from foreign sources.

(b) Fiscal incentives


Fiscal incentives are less direct than grants and loans. Their indirectnature does not make any specific financial demands or commitments from governments. In most cases,the implication for the national budget is that incentives represent a source of revenue. Each government must decide whether the incentives are sufficient inducements for tourism development. There are no precise criteria for this. The intention of fiscal incentives is to make investment in tourismprojects more attractive, less risk-prone, more capable of returning a profit, and more sustainable. The range of fiscal incentives is extensiveand may include: .allowances (for underpinning investment, supporting projects, depreciation,or modernizationand refurbishment);.concessions (for losses due to payment of tax, to offset construction costs of new vessels,on import duties, on providing training to employees,and on port and excise taxes); and
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.tax

assistance(exemptions of company tax, reduced tax levels for pioneer status, tax holidays, moratoriums, tax credit for interest on foreign loans, tax exemption on re-investedprofit, tax deductions for providing training, income tax exemption for foreign employees, and tax deductions for support of national marketingprogrammes).

In some cases, the investment incentives may be tied to require-ments and assistancerelated to: .periods .limitations of concession; of scope; and

.assurances that the supported project will employ local labour, use local produce, provide training opportunities to upgrade the skill levels of local labour, and assist the general promotion of the tourism area. Despite the scope of fiscal incentives, which can be the outcome of shrewd financial planning and strategy formulation by governments, they may not be sufficient to attract the level of tourism development that is considered desirable and appropriate. Therefore, governments may need to generatea range of companionincentives.
(c)

Companion incentives

There are several serious problems that may be encountered in various Asian and Pacific countries and need to be addressedif private investment is to be attracted. These matters include the problem of obtaining land to develop hotels and resort facilities on suitable and attractive locations, the peculiarities of land ownership and land leasing,the availability of governmentsavings and private savings,and the availability of local entrepreneurial and managerialskills and experience. When the availability of fiscal and financial incentives may not be sufficient to attract the level of private investmentconsiderednecessary, governmentsmay need to consider a range of companionor complementary incentives. These can include: .seed money as equity for loans; with land negotiations, especially with indigenous land

.assistance owners;

.providing training facilities, such as courses,schools, colleges and teaching staff;

141

guaranteesof promotion through the Visitor's Bureau; easy repatriation of profits; providing work permits for key workers and staff; and writing off costs of critical appliancesand plant (air conditioners and solar heaters). A major incentive in certain circumstancesmay be to declare the nation as a tax haven and remove restrictions on corporate tax, income tax, estateduties, capital gains tax, and sales tax. The strategy of incentives is to. provide a competitive edge for one resort destination/nation over another. In the highly competitive environment of tourism, that advantage may not be of long duration. In any case, incentives alone will not ensure the creation and maintenance of a satisfactory level of tourism activity. Any tourism destination will need a combination of economic, environmentaland socio-cultural advantages to make a mark in the region and then progress through the life cycle of tourism destination areas. Once a stage of maturity is reached, the destinationarea will need additional attractive features, including investment incentives,if it is not to lose its competitive edge. This competitive advantage will make the strategy of incentive creation dynamic and it should be designed 10 meet the circumstances of each Asian and Pacific nation.

(d) Incentive protocols


In some cases, there are formal legislative or regulatory provisions governing incentives for foreign and/or local investmentthat can cover the economyin general or tourism in particular. Governmentsgenerallyconsider most investment proposals to be beneficial to national development. Some governmentshave statutes that confer discretionary powers to grant incentives, including tax exemptions and customs duty concessions. However, there are few cases of an extensive, integrated system. In most cases, investment project applications have to be made to relevant ministers. The applications are passed through a network of committees and advisors and may be judged againsta set of published criteria or on a case-by-casebasis. This means that approval for the project and the incentives will depend on the merit of the proposal. Some governments have establishedparticular bureaux or committeesto appraise,evaluate,and recommend action for major proposals. The relevant minister may make the fmal decision for small-scale projects or the cabinet may decide for large-scaleprojects involving high levels of capital investment. 142

The administration of investment incentives on a case-by-case basis is not likely to be conducive to effective decision-making (because of problems of consistency, confidence, equity), the implementation of the tourism strategy (because of the distortions which decisions may impose) or efficient, delay-free decisionprocesses. The investmentincentive process must be conspicuous,transparent,regular (following a schedule),clear and defined, supported by legal enactments,and composed of a package of incentives (fiscal, financial and companionincentives). In addition, events in the region have demonstratedan over-riding requirement to create a favourable investment climate based on political and economic stability.

The purposes of the incentive package are to relieve the national budget of undue burdens,provide initial developmentmomentum,accelerate a programme,and provide flexibility so that projects can be encouraged andfacilitated Such a package should not be considered unchangeableorpermanen Each aspect of investment incentives should be subject toregular review, at least as frequently as the national economic strategy.

Domestic investment
With the exception of the more developed economies in the AsiaPacific region, the lack of an adequatelocal capital base for major projects is a major constraint to tourism development. It is generally accepted that tourism development in the region will depend largely on foreign investment. However, there are opportunities to involve local communities and indigenous entrepreneurs through joint ventures, land for equity exchanges, employment, and training schemes to achieve the necessary entrepreneurial,managerialand operationalskills. There is a strong case to be made that Asian and Pacific countries should develop strategieswhich, in the long-term, may reduce dependence on foreign sourcesof investmentfinance. Such a caseis based on the view that heavy dependence on foreign sources may undermine national and individual initiative. Vulnerability to external forces could be reduced by a number of strategies: revise subsistencestrategies,so that even without large injections of capital, sUWlusproduction in rural areas can be accessedby tourism resorts ("subsistenceaffluence");

143 6.

involve indigenous communities in low technology and low environmental impact projects, especially to meet the preference of some tourists for authentic experiences;and create a governmentaltourism developmentfund (to be operated within the framework of the national development bank). The creation of a national tourism developmentfund to specifically assist local entrepreneursmay be considered imperative, given generally low levels of domestic private capital reserves. This could be the responsibility of the government, operating through the national development bank, and targeting domestic entrepreneurswho seek funding for small-scaleenterprisesto which commercialbanks are reluctantto lend.

Marketing and promotion


Important aspects of marketing are implicit in some previous sections, such as for the tourism plan, formulation of a tourism product (attractions, facilities and services), tourism resources,the institutional framework, and financing mechanisms. This section draws together the marketing implications and points to some crucial issues when preparing a marketing and promotion strategy. Important steps for consideringthe shapeand content of the marketing strategy include clarification of the strengths and weaknessof the tourism product; identification of the generaltourism product, the specializedniche market products and the unique selling points; and the establishmentof marketing targets. From a clear position for the marketing strategy, the process advances to the promotion strategy by clarifying the promotion objectives and developing a set of promotional activities. Before the marketing and promotion strategy (as an inter-linked and integrated strategy) is finalized, it is appropriate to clarify the respective roles of public and private agencies.

1. Tourism marketing
It is often claimed that marketit in tourism is unique and different 19 from conventional product marketing. The difference is brought about bydemand the special characteristicsof tourism and supply. In tourism, the product is: an experiencerather than a physical product; an amalgam of both production (the service) and consumption; bound by time and place; 144

B.

composed of resourceswhich are fixed in location and quantity, and any necessarychanges(as a result of increaseddemand)can occur only gradually (the time to build a new hotel or road or augmentthe water supply); an amalgam of service providers, such as hotels, transport, information, catering, and attractions offered by a diversity of public and private agencies, which are inter-related and involve hospitable servicing; often delivered through an intermediary; and susceptible to changes in of fashion and demand fluctuations from tourists. Approaches to tourism marketing can span from the idiosyncratic and entrepreneurial to the systematic and sustained. The principal characteristicsof a well-formulated marketingstrategyinclude: .a .a sequentialprocess of management; process with the critical steps of planning, preparation,research, implementation,monitoring and evaluation;and

.giving the customers in the target market what they want, when they want it, where they want it, and at a price they are willing to pay. The first phase in producing a marketing strategy is clarification of an overall marketing philosophy. The alternativephilosophiesinclude: .Product-driven philosophy, with the emphasis on marketing the resources at the destination, such as the physical (beaches, mountains, forests), the historic (heritage buildings) or the cultural (indigenous communitiesand their customs). .Competitive advantage philosophy, with the emphasis on marketing the locational, qualitative or quantitative advantagethe destination has over others. .Intense marketing approach, with the emphasis on attracting enough visitors to make use of the services, facilities and amenities available; with the priority on achieving visitor levels which meet the viability thresholds of the services. .Visitor-driven philosophy, with the emphasis on providing a service and a product to meet the needs of particular market segments,perhaps with a special level of service or specialized experience. 145

In tourism marketing, the special nature of tourism requires an approach which meets the needs of tourists while being compatible with the needs of the host community and occuring within the thresholds of sustainability of the products the visitors have come to see and use. Where former views of tourism marketing were deliberately focused on exploitation, the modem view is more conservationist. The basic argument is that marketing must not lead to the destruction of the resourcesand services which were the original attraction.

(a) The tourism marketingprocess


Marketing planning should be planning (for a period of five years planning (for the immediate future). with the short-term tactical planning longer-term strategic plan. approached at the levels of strategic or more into the future) and tactical These two levels should be integrated contributing to the objectives of the

In order to detennine both levels of marketing planning, five basic categories must be assessed: external forces, development objectives, competitor analysis, service and product analysis, and market analysis.
External forces will be revealed by a technique often referred to as environmental scanning. This technique reveals the principal characteristics of the present context for travel and tourism and fore~eeable changes. Identifying this base line and contextual information may come from thorough investigations of the current worldwide market or from specially designed survey techniques such as Delphi. Common issues include the nature of major trends, their significance for particular destinations, the likely impact on destinations, the impact of the trends on a competitive position, and the nature of adaptation necessary to maintain a competitive position.

The environmental scan may be general and worldwide, or targeted at visitor markets serviced by the particular destination. Such a scan may include:
political factors (national stability, safety, and security), regulatory factors (facilitation processes, entry regulations, visas, quarantine, and travel restrictions); socio-cultural factors (especially those which influence VFR traffic, colonial associations, language and custom similarities, and educational levels at tourist origins); technological factors (transport, computer reservations, videoconferencing, and telecommunications); and 146

economic factors (prosperity of home countries of towists and exchange rates), and competition between the destination and alternative spending of disposableincome. (b) Tourist profile -Market segment

In addition to developing an awarenessof the tourism product and services available at a destination, it is necessaryto be aware of the profile of the tourist attracted to the destination. This information is needed so that the marketing strategy can target those groups of tourists most likely to be interested in visiting the destination. It is necessaryto consider these main questions: .Who are the presentvisitors? (origin, number,socio-economicand psychologicalprofile) .How .To .What do they arrive? (by which route) what information are they responding? is the image they have before the visit?

How long do they stay? .How .What much do they spend, and on what? do they do at the destination?

As many marketing manuals advise, the crucial tasks are to: .detennine the profile of the actual tourist;

.then project that profile into the future (using environmental scanning techniques); and .match the existing profile and the future profile with the existing and potential range of products and services available at the destination.

2. Situationalanalysis
The critical components of situational analysis are the strengths and weaknessesof the products, service~ and the destination in general; the general nature of the tourism product; the potential (or actual) specialized tourism product; and the unique selling points at the destination.

(a) Strengths:and weaknesses


The marketing strategy should be developed to capitalize on the strength of the tourism products, services and the destination as a mix of ingredients, and then to minimize or overcomeweaknesses.
147

Some key issuesto be consideredare: accessibility(to the destination), seasonality, general weather patterns, infrastructure, visitor attractions, facilities, amenities,services,human resources, cost structure,land ownership, host-guest relationship, political stability, safety and security, facilitation process, health standardsand hygiene, and authenticity and naturalness. Accessibility to a destination is a key issue. If the destinationhas no direct gateways to/from the principal sources of tourists, then visitors are dependent on transferring from some intermediate point on their journey through one of the hubs in the Asian and Pacific region. The factors that will have an impact on accessibilityinclude: .geographic .the location;

propensity of international and regional airlines and cruise ships to service the destination (which will be influenced by passenger load factors, adequacyof airport runways and terminals, and adequacyof port or anchoragefacilities); and time and conveniencefrom major gateways.

.travel

For most of Asia and the Pacific, seasonality (the pattern ofvisits as influenced by changes in climate and weather) is not of muchsignifican However, one factor that may influence visitor patterns isthe incidence of cyclones. As with geographic location, nothing can be done to influence the weatherpatterns. In terms of tourism planning, it willbe imperative that the locations of tourism facilities (resorts, hotels, and attractions) are selected so that the damaging impact of cyclones and other bad weather patterns is managedby careful siting. It is important that the road system is well surfaced. Some scenicroutes and accessways to remote areas may be deliberately left unsealed. This might serve to restrict the number of visitors with the road surface being used as a deliberate carrying capacity restraint. Access to beach areas should be at acceptable standards. The topography and land configuration will significantly determinethe road network. If there are no natural, built-environment,cultural or man-madeattractions, then the level of visitation may remain small. This will become an issu~ for competition among destinations and may influence the tourism planning and marketing strategy to focus on specialization rather than a general tourism product to meet the requirementsof a mass market. This also applies to the range of facilities, amenitiesand services. Assessments will be needed of the quantity (supply relative to demand), quality and standard, location, diversity, and range of the facilities, amenities and

14R

services. In addition, it will be necessaryto assesstheir location and distribution, ease of access, and availability. An important part of the tourism plan is to match the expecteddemand with available supply.

One important detenninant of successful tourism promotion is the availability of the required human resourcesto work in the various sectors of tourism industry. The strength or weakness of tourism activity may be detennined by the availability of workers, appropriate levels of skill and appropriate attitudes. These matters may be detennined by rates ofremunerati working conditions, and training opportunities. For some countries in the region, lack of human resourceshave led to immigration schemes for appropriate workers with the necessary skills. This raises the issue of host-guestrelationships. Studies reveal that the host:.guest relationship is not always amicable. However, from the point of view of any tourism strategy,the ability to capitalize on the friendliness of people tdwards visitors should be utilized. Any likelihood that tourism behaviour may disturb sensitive communitiescan be resolved by minimizing the opportunities for host-guestinteractions. A related matter is authenticity and naturalness. For many tourists, witnessing authentic ceremonies,customs, crafts, and performancesis one of the delights of the Asia-Pacific experience. There is a danger that authenticity of local culture or the naturalness of particular sites and settings may be disrupted by entrepreneurial activity that encourages commercialization. Any activity that reducesauthenticitywill be detrimental. The availability of land for development will be an important consideration in assessingthe investment potential for tourism. If land availability is limited, either by leasing encumbrancesor by simple nonavailability, developmentpotential will be constrained. There may be some advantageto customary landowners if the patterns of land ownership are not helpful to foreign developers. This advantagewill give an opportunity for local landownersto participate in tourism development. A number of socio-political and administrativeissues may be analyzed as either strengthsor weaknesses.This includes the stability and consistency of the government, the status of law and order, health regulations, and visitor facilitation (passportcontrol, visa availability, quarantineand customs controls). Travellers may interpret any political or administrativedifficulties as weaknesses.

149

(b) General tourism product


For many Asian and Pacific countries, the general tourism product is comprised of the pristine or near-pristine natural environments,indigenous communities, ceremonies,pageants,artefacts and crafts, art forms, village life-styles, landscapes, seascapes, beaches. In addition, destinationswill and benefit from opportunities for activities suchas relaxation,diving, snorkelling, sailing, walking, and tourist accommodation (especiallyluxury or high-grade integrated resorts). For some tourists, additional attractions will include easeof communication, familiarity with generalcustoms, behaviour, regulations, casualness,and opportunities to see and do something different. When developing the general prospectus for the tourism product, these matters become strategic considerations.

(c) Niche markets


Some parts of Asia and the Pacific have sensitive and fragile environments,particular flora and fauna, particular geomorphologicfeatures, specialized community attributes, and particular historic associations. These resourcesand attributes may be used to complementthe general prospectus of tourism attractions, provide a special focus to complementan existing generalmarket product,and provide a specialfocus to supporta niche market. For example, beachresorts,coastlines,interestingareasof natural environment, indigenous customs and lifestyles, and the basic tourism amenities of transport,accommodation,entertainment and recreationmight be principal general tourism attractions. Specializedactivities can include scuba-diVing, sport fishing, visits to wartime sites, nature tours (bird watching, crocodile viewing, butterfly viewing, or orchid viewing), adventure tours (trekking and rock climbing), cruises, and culture tours (visits to tribal societies and cultures). Anyone or a combination of these specializedactivities could become the focus of a niche market and may complement a standard tourism strategy. It can also help rejuvenate an established tourism attraction or provide a specialfocus on history, natural history, environment, conservation, or culture and anthropology. Niche market tourism can consist of four types: .specialized fonns of general,massrecreationaltourism; .specialized fonns of cultural tourism; .elite, high-cost/high quality tourism products; and .specially targeted tourism markets.

150

Niche market tourism is based on an assumption that a particular destination can provide a tourism experience or service unmatched by any regional competitor. Careful market assessment potential tourist of profiles and the resource base that can be matched to that profile may reveal opportunities for creating special niche markets. There is an opportunity with niche tourism to specialize, provide higher quality services and products, charge higher prices, and attractparticular client groups, thereby increasing the level of economic benefitto the destination, provided the leakage of profits is controlled.

Marketing targets
A marketing strategy,which will be an essentialpart of the integrated tourism plan, will be based on market research to establish potential traveller interest in the destination, market objectives to provide operational guidelines for the strategy, and market targets which are the detailed specifications of the guidelines.

(a) Market research


Market research is necessary in order to understand the nature and scope of demand placed on the destination as a result of future levels of traveller interest. This requires analysis of current main visitor sources, the attitudes and satisfaction levels of those visitors, the market potential, and the relationship between projected demand and available resources, facilities, amenities and services. The projected need for additional supply components (accommodation, restaurants, and transport) will come from assessing the relationship between actual resources and demand-driven potential resource needs.

The basic elements of assessing present market are: the .tourist arrival numbers and changes;

.reasons for that level of interest (what visitors come to see and do, ease of access,and cost structures); .principal sources of visitors and changesin visitation patterns;

.principal purposes of visits (pleasure/recreation, business,visiting friends and relatives and conferences); .principal .duration .expenditure means of access; of stay; and patterns.
151

3.

In order to interpret the satisfactionlevels of the visitors, the market researchwill need to investigate: .visitor .their attitudes about the destination; principal activities;

.satisfaction levels with facilities, (accommodation, restaurants, and shops); .attractions;


transport; services (including the perfoffilance of the service providers); and satisfaction level with the experience at the destination. Additional market research assessments may be interpretations from diverse information sources, including formal visitor surveys. The assessment may include:

attractivenessof the existing tourism product; inadequaciesof the product; comparability with other destinations; adequacyof companionservices and facilities; information availablebefore arrival; attitudes toward the ease/difficulty of transport access; value gained for money spent at the destination; and reflections on the attitudes towards the tourists by the service providers and host community.
This infonnation should make it possible to interpret potential traveller interest and satisfaction with the facilities, services, and products at the destination. This infonnation base is the platfonn for developing market objectives.

(b) Market objectives


The underlying market objectives will set the framework for action. These objectives may be: to achieve market growth, to sustain achieved market levels and profiles, or to reshape the market emphasis by narrowing the focus or diversification. The overall marketing objective is to achieve targeted market growth consistent with the tourism plan's development

152

goals. Within this broad objective, there could be a series of implementation objectives designed to achieve one or more of the following: .achieve a diversified product range;

.achieve market growth by systematic penetration of specified visitor sources; .achieve specified rates of visitor growth;

.achieve comparability of tourism plant and services (supply) and tourist numbers (demand); .develop new, competitive products; and distribution of tourism by type,

.achieve a certain balanced location, range, and cost.

Objectives may be more specific than the general types listed. For example, objectives may become targets, even if they are qualitative rather than quantitative. Alternatively, they may be project specific. For example, establish a prescribed number of resorts of particular types.

(c) Marketing targets


Three components to market targets are: (1) the pleasure travel market, (2) the business travel market, and (3) the visiting friends and relatives travel market. Each has different stimulating factors and will have its own growth potential. For the purposes of developing a marketing strategy and the targets within the strategy, assumptions are needed to support calculations. Each category will change at an independent rate. Therefore, there will not be a consistent average rate of change. However, the separaterates of change may be aggregated to present a picture of total expected

change.
The calculation of market targets should be based on the intelligence gathered from market research. This will reveal the most likely sources of demand;the preferred types of change;the likely quantitative impacts of the demand for accommodation, complementary servicing, transport, and infrastructure servicing. Quantitative marketing targets for destinations may be expressedby one or more of the following: .tourist .number .number arrival numbers; of beds; of seats on planes/trains/boats;

153

tourist expenditure; gross foreign exchange earnings expenditure necessaryon infrastructure services, demand for space for commercial activity (including retailing) and recreationand entertainment facilities; and expenditure necessary to upgrade airports, ports, and other transportterminals. Some targets may be fragmented into market segments,with refined assessments according to tourists' geographic origins, types of traveller, duration of stopover at destinationsand likely expenditurepatterns. These assessments can be translated into job opportunities, money flows into national/regional/localaccounts,and investmentopportunities. There is a tendency for target growth to exceed projected growth. This may be expected, because the marketing strategy will set out performancelevels that exceedthe less ambitious projections. In order for the marketing strategyto be a useful aid to a promotion campaign, it will be necessary for the marketing targets to reflect the previously determined major tourism resources and facilities. Therefore, the market strategy may embody targets for special interest markets (sport fishing, nature tours, adventure tours, culture tours, and cruising), business tourism (conferencesand meetings),and expatriate visits. The marketing strategy will depend on appreciating the interplay between market objectives and targets.

4. Tourism promotion

The overall objective of promoting of touriSm is to stimulate demand and generate travel to a particular destination. There are three types ofpromotio (1) information to attract attention and interest, (2) persuasion to make the tourist buy the product being offered, and (3) reminders to confinn the decision to buy this product. Cost-effectivetourism requires that a promotional campaignbe prepared systematically,with the target audience being selected carefully, promotion objectives being determined, the messagebeing clear, and the mix of promotional activities being decided upon.

(a) Target audience


One primary task is to determine the target market. This can be detennined through market research assessments existing visitor types of and origins and policy decisionsto press for new markets. 154

Any market that is selectedwill need to be accessiblethrough one or more elements of the promotional mix. The information and companion promotional materials must be designed to communicate the messageto the target market. This communicationprogramme will need to recognize such matters as the language, behavioural sensitivities, purchasing power, particular interests and preferred activities, means and ease of access,and principal information sourcesof the target market.

(b) Promotion objectives


To be effective, promotion objectives should be specific to the targeted market, stated in terms of the required outcome,realistic, achievable, and fixed to a time scale. It is commonfor tourismplans to include promotion objectives which refer to the creation of an awarenessof and interest in the destination, information on the facilities and services available, the ease/means access the destination,the distinctiveimage of the destination,the of to nature of the host nation, and the types of tourism experience which may be achieved. It should be remembered that it is the purpose of the promotion campaign to draw to the attention of the targeted market the tourism experience that awaits them at the destination. The objectives will beltive achieved if there is a significant posi change to the profile of tourism activity.

(c) The message


Since the purpose of promotion is to bring more tourists, more jobs, and more income, it is important that the message the target audienceis to interesting, attractive, enticing, informative, factual, as well as focused on the needs of the target audience,accessible,communicative,and helpful. The composition and style of the messagewill be detemlined by the infonnation gathered from market research. Similar to the objectives,the message should focus on a primary target market, rather than be generally directed to whoever accesses promotional materials. the

(d) Promotion mix


The promotional strategy should be aimed at different groups of recipients, the potential tourists and ~e travel trade. Aspects of the overall strategy should addressthe different n~ds of these groups. The particular needs of the travel trade may be met by such promotional activities as: .familiarization visits by travel agentsand writers; 155

and seminarsfor travel agents; infonnation packagesand manuals;

combined campaignsamong several destinations;and incentives in the form of cost sharing to produce a promotion. Potential tourists' needs may be met by such promotional activities as: .promotional information explainingthe tourism experiencepotential of the destination; .basic visitors' informationon attractions, facilities, services,transport, currency, climate, language,and customs, special interest folders with specific information on particular tourist activities; .picture .video .slides postcards; films; and and photographs.

The promotional mix will be determined by the characteristicsandneeds of the target audience,the promotion budget, the competition faced by the destination, the cooperation of external agencies and the travel trade, and the promotional strategy (point-of-sale items, mailed items, advertising, and depth of detail). Promoting a tourism destination should involve a partnership of the government (at all levels), the travel trade (hotels, motels, resorts, companion services such as restaurants,entertainment,and special events), the transport operators (especially the airlines), and special interest groups. Each of these, independentlyand in various combinations,may exploit the promotional opportunities of the media -newspapers, magazines,radio, television, and advertising. Joint promotion schemeswill be cost effective.

5. Roles of public and private agencies


The cornerstone of a successful marketing and promotion strategy will often be the cooperationachieved betweenprivate and public agencies. Both sets of agencieshave a vested interest in the successof the tourism destination. While some agencieshave particular responsibilities and some government agencies have statutory responsibilities, there is a spectrum of promotional and marketing activities that can be clearly identified. 156

posters; workshops

One task for national tourism offices (NTOs) is deciding whether to establish direct representation in other countries, especially in targeted tourist markets. NTOs can act either as a specialist tourism shop or a general source of commercial advice. One alternative is to be a partner with official organizations that may have representationin one or more selected locations. The success of a combined marketing and promotion strategy will depend on the level of cooperation achieved between the governmentand private sector. Some governmentand public agency responsibilities and actions will be prescribed by legislation and regulations. Among the most common activities will be those involving public relations, advertising, support of an information bureau, advertisement by national airlines, and general participation at national and internationaltrade fairs. 'The range of participatory activities for the private sector is also likely to include: .independent advertisementby separatebusinesses(hotels, restaurants, recreationcentres, entertainment centres,car hire companies, and travel companies); .contribution to special supplementsin trade journals and popular media (print and electronic); .attendance at trade fairs;

.contributions of accommodation, food and transport on a complementary or reduced rate basis for travel agency and media familiarizationtours; .financial contributions to promotional efforts of government agencies; and .skill contribution to promotional efforts.

Opportunities for public-private agency cooperation and partnership are extensive and may be facilitated if tax incentives or other expense reductions can be made available to the private agencies. Positioning the tourism destination in the regional and worldwide market will be critical to the success of the entire tourism strategy. There is a need to identify and then project a distinctive image and identity, carefully noted with geographic coordinates. There may be some loss of identity by involvement in region-wide promotion and marketing.

157

Tourism information systems


Infonnation gathering and researchin travel and tourism extends from simple fact-finding to complex mathematical models. Measurement, analysis and projection are important tasks in tourism planning and must be based on reliable data. Even the simplest infonnation gathering exercise can make use of conventional scientific methods: .identify the problem or infonnation needed; .conduct a preliminary assessment available infonnation; of .prepare and conduct a pilot or infonnal investigation; .develop the fonnal researchor investigative processand tools; .conduct the inquiry and colfect the data; .tabulate and analyse the data; and .interpret the data and apply it to the problem or to the infonnation need. Most situations will be dynamic, so it will be necessaryto monitor changes by making periodic reviews and repeating the survey and the analysis. An infonnation-gatheringexerciseshould be conductedwith a purpose and with data. In addition, it should not be conducted in isolation and should fit into an ongoing progranuneof intelligence-gathering.

1. Sources of information
Data used in tourism and travel research to underpin decisions about tourism planning and policy can be primary or secondary. The basic difference between these types is that primary data are collected for a particular purpose with the survey design and the interpretation focused on pre-determinedcategories of information. Secondary data are usually collected for other purposes, but provide some relevant information on tourism. There should be a careful assessment available secondary data of sources before making a commitment to undertake new data-gathering. Only when answers cannot be found or deduced from secondary sources should a primary investigationbe undertaken.

(a) Primary data


If secondary sources do not provide the particular infonnation needed, it will be necessaryto prepare a primary survey using scientific methods. Primary data collection will be necessaryabout visitor numbers, 158

c.

origins, travel patterns, expenditure patterns, and attitudes. It is unlikely that much of this infonnation could be available from other official statistics. Collection of primary data by the survey method requires direct interaction with the source of the information.

(b) Secondary data


The number of sources for secondary infonnation on travel and tourism is increasingrapidly. Such sourcesinclude: .indexing services that focus on activities in the tourist trade; catalogues,and researchhandbooks;

.bibliographies,

.travel and tourism journals, periodicals, magazines,and special supplements; .trade and professionalassociationsand their publications; agencieswhich focus on tourism activity; .international

.government agencies (tourism departments, tourism bureaux, commissions, associations,general government statistical offices, and regionaVprovincial/localgovernmentagencies); .tourism and travel yearbooks, handbooks, and annuaVperiodic reports; and .trade and industry databasesfor airlines, hotels, motels, entertainment, cultural activities, restaurants,catering,and motoring organizations. If important decisions are made based on analysis of the data, it may be appropriate to consider undertaking purpose-designedprimary data collection for analysis, projection and decision-making.

(c)

survey methods

Basic data collection methods are factual surveys, opinion surveys, and interpretative surveys. This collection may be done by personal interviews, mail, telephone, self-administeredforms, or electronic coding machines. Factual surveys require the respondentto give an accurate,verifiable answer and may seem to be accurate. However, some primary and secondary data sourceshave inconsistencies,incomplete answers, irrelevant responses,and "don't knows". Even surveys that require simply transposing information from one official document(a passportor visa) to another official document(a visitor arrival form) can createunusableresponses. 159

Basic

Opinion surveys, in which the respondentis required to express an opinion or make an evaluation or appraisal, may be used to test client reaction to destinations,services, and facilities, and to assessthe potential for personal recommendationsand repeat visits. The information from such surveys should be used to monitor the quality of tourism product delivery. Interpretative surveys will provide answers to the questions why and how much. The basic ways to collect data are: .personal interviews, which have the advantageof flexibility and in-depth questioning, but which have the disadvantageof being resource-intensive(time, cost, and personnel); .telephone surveys, usually of short duration, but depend on the respondents being accessible; .mail surveystargetedor opento any usersof a facility or magazine; forms, especiallyfor visitors in transit.

and
.self-administered

(d) Principal sources of information


Many organizations and agencies are involved in collecting data useful in tourism planning and development. The principal agencies which engagein travel data collection include: .governments (special departments, general statistic-gathering agencies, and departments with relevance to tourism activity, including the [mance, treasury, investment board, and transport departments); .educational and researchinstitutions (pure and applied research); .consultancies, which conduct inquiries on a fee basis for airlines, hotels, restaurants,travel companies,resorts and others; .trade associations; agencies;

.advertising .media,

especially travel and tourism journals; and

.tourist industries, (hotels, motels, airlines, transport companies, attractions,travel agencies,banks, and finance companies). Research, information and data are essential for effective decisionmaking. The availability of adequateinformation is important for efficient
160

tourism planning and development. The adequacyof the data depends on precise definitions; clear identification of needs, careful researchdesign,and meticulous collection, tabulation, analysis.

Basic data programmes


Tourism management infonnation systemsinclude: .basic data collection on a continuing basis in order to access and monitor perfonnance of the tourism industry; .periodic surveys and market researchto reveal visitor and market characteristics, levels and patterns of expenditure, attitudes of visitors, reaction, impressions and satisfaction levels of visitors, and changes in visitor patterns, types, origins, frequency; .periodic impact assessments; and

.market intelligence to monitor changes,measure the success of new developments,and reveal potential changes in international tourism.

A very narrow range of data collection exercisesis done most often, with each survey being interpreted as an independententity. There is an increasing realization that each survey should contribute to an integrated and comprehensive system of intelligence which could be used formonitoring perfonnance, assessing effectiveness,developmentplanning, andmarketing and promotion.

(a) Basic data programmes


Statisticscommonlycollectedinclude the following standardinfonnation: Visitor arrival statisticsthat can be obtainedfrom standardimmigration! arrival cards provide the following: .name, gender; .nationality; .date of birth; .pennanent address; .origin of journey (last country of embarkation); .final destination (next point of disembarkation); .purpose of visit; .duration of visit; .address of destination; and .date of arrival.

161

2.

This information is not always processedthrough official statistical collections. It is always collected for arrivals by air, but not always for arrivals by other means.

(b) Companion data programmes


In addition to the basic data programmes,the following companion data programmesmay be conducted, dependingon the need: .surveys of visitor attitudes and reactions, (opinion surveys on the tourism product, information gathered from visitors while in the country by sample surveys,which need to be conductedat regular intervals to monitor changes); .foreign market research studies (data collected from tour wholesalers,retail travel agents,airlines, travel media, and potential customers, which may need to be undertaken by a regional rather than a national agency, because of complexity and cost. The information sought will include awareness of destinations, image of destinations, motivation, perception and expectations, knowledge of costs, and travel modes and routes); and .impact studies on the economy, socio-cultural circumstances, and environment.

(c) Minimum data needs

Compiling and collecting data to support decision-makingin tourism planning and policy formulation for both public agencies and private enterpriseshould include detailed visitor arrival statistics,statistics on tourist receipts, accommodation statistics, and tourism employment statistics.These data do not need to be collected at the same time because eachrespond to different factors, which in turn respond to other stimuli.Howeve for efficient decision-making it will be necessary for regulargatherin published in quarterly or annual bulletins, presented in fulland in abstractform, monitored and controlled, and kept consistent. The responsibility for collecting and publicizing tourism-relateddata should be with a statutory authority of a delegated agency, such asthe government statistician,a bureau or departmentof census or statistics, or a specialized tourism agency. It is essentialfor the agency issuing thedata to have credibility. Manuals are available to assist with the collection, analysis and presentationof particular categoriesof data.
162

(d) Some data and researchproblems


Despite efforts to ensure the quality of the data collection and handling systems, tourism intelligence can encounter particular problems, which include: .data reliability (accuracyof surveys, recording, and interpretations; verification, adequacy of data collection methods and timing of surveys); .nature of the tourists (tourist mobility and mix, accuracy in memory recall, and susceptibilityto interview pressure); .physical circumstancesof the survey (location, timing, duration, and comfort levels of tourists); and .purposes for which the data may be used.

D. Tourism awarenessprogrammes
The potential for tourism activity to impose strains on the traditional society and distinctive cultural heritage of Asian and Pacific countries has received increased attention as the impact of tourism developmentbecomes recognized. Many expected benefits are acknowledgedand accepted, but the potential for adverseeffects (especially socio-cultural)causesconcern. Governmentsin the region have realized that for tourism to be accepted, welcomed and integrated into the fabric of society and as part of the economic structure of the nation, the local community has to gain an understandingof tourism. Communities must be encouragedto understand: .that benefits can be gained from tourism and what those benefits may be; .the potential disadvantagesof tourism and how they may be avoided; and

.how the opportunities from tourism could lead to improved welfare and quality of life. Tourism awareness programmeshave become integral in a comprehensive strategy of tourism planning and developmentas governmentsprovide and disseminate information to the community in order to engender or enhance awareness,understanding,and appreciation of the importance of the tourism industry. The underlying intention of a tourism awareness programme is to provide a context of mutual respect and understanding between the community and the visitors by informing each group how

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they may contribute positively to the greater welfare of the other. A tourism awarenessprogramme set in a national context complementsthe external awarenesscampaignsthat are integral to marketing and promotion strategies. Therefore, governments should operate both an internal tourism awarenessprogramme for the local 90mmunity and the visitor to emphasize what behaviour is expected of them and an external, conven-tional programme of marketing and promotion to generate an inflow oftourists.

Objectives
The general objectives include: .increasing community awareness of tourism so as to increase participation; .providing a climate of understandingabout the traditional culture to facilitate its positive incorporation in the tourism strategy; and .reducing the likelihood of adverse socio-cultural impacts from tourism penetratingtraditional society.

Target audiences
Each target audience can be consideredas a target for the designed programmeand an agent for delivering the message. The principal target groups include: .the local businesscommunity; .tourist industry workers; .public service workers; .educational institutions at all levels; .places or worship and spiritual activity; .political and traditional leaders; .land owners; and .the public.

It is important to develop a plan for the different target groups so that the message to each group and the means of delivery Qf thatmessage can be purpose-designed. There is no general, consistentmessage although there are principles, content, and techniques of communication behind many of the targeted exercises. The practical implications when target groups are diverse and have special needs make it important to clearly define the communication objectives,developappropriatemessages, and design appropriate communicationstrategiesfor each group.

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2. 1.

Programme content
The tourism awarenessprogramme should be designed to fit the special needs and circwnstancesof the target community (in its aggregate, as well as componentparts). This design processshould recognize: .the .the .the .the .the level of basic information needed; level of specific information required; nature of the target group(s); stage of tourism developmentalready in evidence; and expected changes in the type and level of tourism development (growth, stability, decline, mass tourism, and special interest tourism).

The programmecontent may include some of the following: .the .the .the .the .the .the historical origins of tourism; types of tourism product; consumptionof tourism; types of tourist based on profiles; expectationsand needs of tourists; and interaction betweentourists and host communities.

addition, the programmeshould:.demonstrate

cross-linkagesbetween sub-sectorswithin tourism;.demonstra the flow-on advantages host communities in terms to of facilities, amenities, services, infrastructure, education, health

care and emergency services;


.identify the potential advantages leading to environmentalconservation, heritage conservation, establishmentof major townships, and creation of demandfor local agricultural produce,and artifacts; .present information on investment and public sector support of tourism development;and .explain the roles of foreign investment,foreign aid, and expatriate labour.

Human resources development


Many governments in Asian and Pacific countries are concerned about the impacts and demands of tourism on human resources. An important benefit of tourism is the generationof employmentopportunities.
l(i~

E. In 3.

This opportunity is a challenge to potential workers in the tourism destination. Challengesrelate to available skill levels, appropriate attitudes for working in service industries, employment profiles, (especially gender balance),and opportunities for educationand training. Theseare challenges to the government (regulations on working conditions, wage levels, education and training, gender equality, and immigration) and the tourism industry (workplace profiles and conditions and skill and aptitude needs). The developmentof tourism will undoubtedlycreate substantialdirect and indirect employment opportunities in diverse sectors. There is doubt about the capacity of some nations to meet employmentneeds. The high population growth rates of many countries createspressurefor adequatejob opportunities. For many Asia-Pacific countries,tourism development and urbanizationprovide opportunities to: .match job opportunities with available labour;

.diversify job opportunities into direct employmentin tourism and the manufacturing industry, professions and ancillary services which support tourism indirectly; .extend .spread labour opportunities across traditional genderbarriers; and gainful employmentmore widely through the labour force.

The concentrationof tourism employmentopportunities in major urban areasand resort complexes may presentdifficulties to tourism development in rural areas,becauseworkers migrate to places with greaterpotential. Labour shortfalls in quantity or appropriate skills can be overcome through immigrant and non-resident foreign workers. This matter needs careful government assessment and control because of its impact on the longer-term opportunities of the resident workforce. Lack of skills maybe addressedby appropriate educationand training programmes.

Assessmentof current status


Prerequisitesfor successin highly competitive markets for international tourism include an efficient and adequatelabour force. Assessingefficiency and adequacy includes awareness of the multi-sectoral nature of the tourism industry. Therefore, not only the obvious and conspicuous positions in the employment spectrum of tourism need to be assessed. Studies on the extended influence and demands of tourism activity reveal many occupations that are affected. Tourism activities may often demand

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1.

24-hour service, even though the demand may not always be at a

consistent level.
Before making a commitment to a tourism development strategy, it is necessary to know how well the present level of tourism activity is being serviced, whether the range of skills and aptitudes are adequate, whether the aggregatelabour force is adequate,and how well the training opportunities meet present demands. Alternative scenario projections can be applied to determine future needs. Detennining a human resource strategy requires awareness of the following: .current employmentlevels; .estimates of future requirements;and .human resourcesavailability. It is assumedthat the ultimate aim of a tourism employmentpolicy is to provide opportunities for residents. To this end, it is assumed that any government will formulate effective labour and immigration policies to control the number of non-residentworkers permitted to enter the country, the type of workers and their skill levels, family accompaniment, and the duration of work permits. Most countries can be expected to operate a flexible policy which recognizes: .preferences .availability .adequate .local of principal tourism developments; of necessaryskills among residents; number of residentworkers;

attitudes towards immigrant labour;

.changing levels of need and availability of local education and training opportunities; and .the willingness of major employersto provide training opportunities for their staff.

When expatriates dominate in managementlevel positions, this may be due to the preferences of major employers. Such preferences may involve the transfer of principal staff from other major destinationsin order to start projects or to instil companypolicy. Most major enterprises take responsibility for training local people about the company culture, replacing expatriate employees with qualified local people within a prescribed time frame, setting professional standards which become the benchmark for local practices, and integrating the companyculture with the local culture.
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In some cases, expatriate labour may be needed for some menial, unskilled tasks which local residentsare unwilling to accept. This situation requires careful government policy-making. If growth in the tourism industry exceedsthe labour force capacity of the resident population, the need to employ expatriate labour may be unavoidable. In order to increase the supply of trained and qualified workers forthe tourism industry, and prepare the resident workforce for special typesand levels of tourism occupations,many governments focus on an educationand training policy. Such a policy is critical in order to changethe balance of resident and expatriate labour at all occupation levels and types. The policy should be consistent for all types of enterprises,all levels, and all governmentdepartments. Many Asia-Pacific countries report that the workforce available for tourism is mainly young people, poorly educated groups, and unskilled groups. These groups most often take the large number of unskilled or semi-skilled jobs with low status and pay. There are also problems if contact with tourists requires command of a foreign language. The range of education and training needs may include remedial training for skills appropriate to the hospitality and travel sectors and long-term established programmes for skill training, upgrading skills (to achieve promotions), on-the-job training, managerial training, specialist coursesto meet particular needs, and tourism education. Such training may be done by: .major enterprises,as specializedin-house training or as a general contribution to hospitality training; .local colleges for basic skills or for low-level managerial and colleges and universities; supervisory levels; .regional/national .off-shore institutions, usually for high-level management training in short courses or approved degree or certificate programmes; .regional extensioncolleges; and

.local short coursesconducted by accredited regional organizations (professionalor academic).

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Major enterprises are likely to develop their own programmesand make their own arrangements. It thus becomesthe responsibility of governments to develop programmesto meet the needs of small businesses, the self-employed, government enterprises, and key officials in government agencieswith tourism-relatedresponsibilities. A special national tourism human resources and training plan is an integral part of national tourism policy. Such a plan depends on reliable data about employment statistics, a realistic development plan, and detennining human resource and training needs to meet plan requirements. That information base s~ould enable the governmentto develop integrated educationalprogrammes.

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REGIONAL COOPERATION
A. Background of regional cooperation
The historical developmentof the Asian and Pacific region has shown that cooperative arrangements cannot be easily created. The different colonial linkages, current associations with particular groups of nations, interdependence and dependence on aid sources have created various patterns of cooperation. In recent years, however, many countries have acknowledgedthe benefits of regional cooperationin economic and related fields. A number of international agenciesand the European Union have provided funding and technical assistance.

Foundations for cooperation


The basis for cooperation among the various governments could come from a sharedpotential for tourism, similar problems,and the potential contribution to a regional tourism framework.

2. Potential areas for cooperation


At this point, several tenDScan be defined: .cooperation: joint action and collaboration in order to achieve a

sharedadvantage;
.coordination: conjunction of action so that one member does not place a risk on the performanceof any other; .compatibility: capability of co-existencein an integratedmanner.

The creation of guidelines for integrated tourism planning makes it important to recognize that the characteristicsof cooperation,coordination, and compatibility contribute to integration. An important pre-condition for regional cooperation is the political willingness on the part of the membercountries. However, these guidelines focus on achieving the technical capacity to cooperate, coordinate, and eventually integrate tourism planning and development. principal 'areas regional cooperationinclude:.strategic for tourism planning;
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v.

The 1.

national tourism office responsibilities;legislative frameworks;international and regional air transport linkages; standardsrequired for infrastructure services,facilities, and environmental controls; travel and tour services;guidelines for impact assessment (economic,environmental, especiallyEIA processes, and socio-cultural); foreign aid funding; incentive structures; marketing; promotion; tourism awareness programmes; data collection; tourism training and education. Within each of these areas, there are complementaryissues where cooperation and coordination may be achieved and contribute to regional integration. Some cooperative activities are currently in progress, especially marketing and promotion. In technical terms, there should be few impediments to achieving regional cooperation. The possible impediment is weak political willingness.

Modalities

of regional cooperation

Traditions of strongly guarded independencein the face of variouschallenge are not very conducive to collaborative action at the regional level. However, in recent years many countries have seen that regional cooperationcan be a realistic meansto: .address and formulate solutions to commonproblems; .maximize efforts to competewith other economicblocs; .raise a regional identity 'and profile comparedto other regions; .formulate a distinctive approachto decision-making;and .create a conspicuouspolitical identity. Various modalities tried in Asia and the Pacific can provide lessons that might be applied elsewhere in the region. Formal linkages and cooperative exercises have been establishedthrough ASEAN and APEC. More recently, special linkages in the form of growth triangles have been attempted. Trading relationships have become the focus for various economic arrangements Asia and the Pacific. in

172 B. ....... .. ...

Regional cooperationmay take a number of forms: .Sharing information and data: These actions help achieve consistencyand coordination and can lead to a consolidateddata base, which may be necessary for agencies outside the region concerned with finance, investment and transport servicing. At the moment, the different methods and systems of collecting and recording tourism data give the impression of discontinuity and a fragmentedtourism market. .Comparative studies: These studies help reveal differencesas well as similarities in the availability of tourism resourcesand are a means to identify regional tourism opportunities and needs for assistance. .Technical assistance:Assistance can be a form of cooperation where existing regional agencies (ESCAP, TCSP and SPF) make technical expertise available to help make tourism strategies or provide training opportunities. .Guidelines: Some regional agencies (ESCAP, TCSP and SPREP) have produced guidelines to provide indicators or processes or techniques which may be used to upgrade the standard of tourism planning and resourcesassessment. .Development of models and other planning tools: It is the responsibility of regional agencies to develop appropriate tools for dealing with the increasing complexities of tourism planning and developmentin the region. Servicesand facilities of academic and research organizations in the region and the conventional outputs of workshops, seminars,and training programmesare used for dissemination. .Facilitation: In addition to providing guidance and other assistance, in certain casesregional agenciesmight do tourism planning for smaller, less experienced governmentsand provide ongoing monitoring assistance. .Human resource development:The region may be able to sustain diverse training and education programmes in hospitality, travel and tourism industry managementfrom the simple tasks to more demanding tasks such as managing major enterprises and agencies. This is particularly significant in preparing indigenous conununities to participate effectively in tourism enterprises. It is also important for keeping trained people in the region.

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Technicalcooperation:This fonn of mutual supportand assistance within the region could ensure that when one country has successfully addressed particular issues, its experience can be sharedelsewherein the region. Inter-agency cooperation: Instead of independent action by separateagencies,interagencycooperationcould provide resources and expertise to meet the complex demands for assistancewith tourism planning. Regular high level meetings of chief executivesfrom the principal private sector operations and governmentdepartmentsresponsible for planning could be organized. To be of value, these meetings would have to include those responsible for interpreting and implementingpolicy. Recent examinations of international and regional agencies have focused attention on networking to achieve common objectives, an operational structure, voluntary collectivism, and outcomes to meet needs rather than make obligations. Among the advantagesof networking are: .reduced .creation .reduced .reduced duplication of effort; of an extendedpool of expertise; drain of expertise from the region; need to import experts; and

.creation of symbiotic and integrated action which leads to the developmentof a specialregional identity and characteristics. Regional cooperation depends on fmancial support from member governments. Therefore, the advantagesof each option will need to be demonstratedto attract sponsorship. In order for networking to succeed, it should become progressively independent from outside assistance, internally re-enforcing, share solutions, demonstrate rationales and cost effectiveness,and have a clearly defmed structure and suitable location. Any system of effective regional cooperation depends on mutual reinforcing support from independent contributors who pursue common interests and achieve common goals.

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c.

Regional organizations

The expansion of regional and subregional organizations in recent years means that almost every aspect of tourism developmentis within the scope of one or more organizations. There are also regional organizations within the private sector, for example,the regional chapters of Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA). The organizations, institutions and agencies vary considerably in their objectives, functions, organizational structure, funding arrangements, inter-agency linkages, and memberships. Membership is often tightly regulated, and few provide benefits without a financial contribution. Representation meetingsis not always from the top levels of government. at In such cases, the meetings are only able to formulate proposals that need endorsementat senior-level meetings, which may be conducted independently in each country, without any coordination. Examples of regional and sub-regionalgroups include the Association of South~East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation(SAARC), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC), the Indian Ocean, the Greater Mekong sub-region, Bangladesh-IndiaMyanmar-Sri Lanka-Thailand Economic Cooperation (BIMST -EC), the Tumen River area, the Pacific islands, and the countries along the Silk Road and the Asian Highway.

D.

Benefits of regional cooperation

Participation in any cooperation arrangementis based on interest in the advantages that may be expected to result. Participation requires effort, because cooperation is based to some degree on the expectation that the group advantage may involve some sacrifice of independenceof the participants. There must be an evident advantageto participation in a programme of regional cooperationin tourism planning.

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