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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A.

Background of The Problem Reading is one of the four language skills, there are activities associated with the language: speaking, listening, reading, and writing (Brown 1994, p.127). Reading is an essential form in learning process, especially in English. Reading is important to be learned and mastered by every individual. Reading is a way to get information from a text; we need to comprehend it well. It is one of language skills which are important in our life because reading is a window of the world. Reading is a fluent process of readers combining information from a text and their own background knowledge to build meaning.1 Learning a foreign language is long and complex undertaking.2 It means that we must have high motivation and work hard to achieve it. Reading is important when we use reading to achieve an important goal to them, to achieve a purpose of theirs, or to answer question they want to answer. In short, they are motivated to read when reading empowers or enriches them. 3 Reading not only assigns foreign language sound to written words, but also requires the comprehension of what is written. One who does not master enough English vocabulary tends to face difficulties when comprehending new reading materials. As one of English skills, reading has an important role like a domestic commodity that is consumed by everyone, especially literate society. Reminding
1 Neil Anderson in David, Nunan, Practical English Language Teaching. Sydney: McGrew Hill. 2003. P. 68 2 H. Douglas Brown. Principle of Language learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Inc, 2000. P. 1 3 Gerald G. Duffy. Explaining Reading. (New York: the Guilford Press, 2009), P.5

the important existence of literate society, Patel states that Reading is an important activity in life with which one can update his/her knowledge. Reading skill is an important tool for academic success .Reading is very necessary to widen the mind and gain understanding and expanding knowledge of a language. According to Richard, reading is perceiving the written text in order to understand its contents. the students that learn English as a foreign language should understand the process of reading when they read an English reading text. As good readers, they think about what they are reading and consider how it fits what they already know. In learning English, the students should understand what they are learning because; there is a complex connection between authors to the readers and the messages conveyed by authors to the reader. Therefore, the students have to have the strategy to be applied in reading. Based on the Based-Curriculum for Junior High School 2006, the goal of teaching English as follows: a. Developing communicative competence in oral and written form to

achieve functional literacy level. b. Having awareness about sense and significance of English in order

to increase national competence in global society.


c.

Developing students understanding about relationship between

language and culture. Based on the preliminary study at state junior high school 29 Pekanbaru, some of students still face some problems and difficulties in learning English, especially in reading. While reading skill is one of the competence standard

conducted to the students, one of the reading competences which should be learnt by them is: to comprehend the meaning of short function texts and essays in the form of descriptive text and recount the in the context of daily life activities and to access knowledge.The students were taught reading through genre text. Text means the original words of something written, printed, or spoken, in contrast to a summary or paraphrase.A text genre is a type of written or spoken discourse, such as: descriptive, recount, narrative, procedure, etc. from the genre the students identified the text and information that is contained in the text. Then students had to identify and comprehend a reading text. Finish, the students did the exercise based on the reading text. Based on the writers preliminary observation, the students could not apply their reading ability to understand reading texts; there are some facts that indicated the problems; there are some symptoms as follows: a.
b.

Some of the students are low in vocabulary mastery. Some of the students could not understand about content of reading

texts. c. text. d.
e.

Some of the students are not able to find out the main idea of the

Some of the students are not able to find the main idea. Some of the students could not refer references including in the

text.Some of the students have difficulties on gets the point or information in the reading text.

f.

Some of the students could not answer the question based on the

recount texts. Therefore, the writer is interested in conducting a research entitled: The Effect of Using Setting Goals and Objectives Strategy toward Reading Ability of The Second Year Students at State Junior High School 29 Pekanbaru. C. The Problems
1. The Identification of the Problem

Based on the background and the phenomena on the difficulties encountered by the students, thus the problems of this research are identified into following identifications:
a.

What factors make the students have limited vocabulary? Why are the students not able to find out main idea of the text? Why are the students not able to understand each sentence, and

b. c.

find its meaning of recount text? d. e. text?


f.

Why can the students not refer the reference of the text? What factor does make students not interested in title in reading

Is Setting goals and objectives strategy effective in improving

students reading? 2. The Limitation of the Problem Based on the identification the problem state above, the problems of this research is limited to focus on the effect of using setting goals and

objectives strategy toward reading ability of the second year students at state junior high school 29 Pekanbaru.

3. The Formulation of The Problems Based on the limitation of the problem above, the writer decides to formulate the problem as follows:
a. How is the implementation of the use of setting goals and objectives

strategy off the second year students of state junior high school 29 Pekanbaru?
b. How is students ability in reading by setting goals and objectives

strategy?
c. Is there a significant effect the use of setting goals and objective strategy

and students reading at the second year students of state junior high school 29 Pekanbaru? D. The Objectives and the Significance of the Study 1. The Objectives of the Study a. To find out the data about students reading that is taught by using

conventional strategy. b. To find out the data about students reading that is taught by using

setting goals and objectives.

c.

To know significant effect of students reading which is taught by

using setting goals and objectives strategy of the second year students at state junior high school 29 Pekanbaru. 2. The Significance of the Study a. The research findings are to give the valuable input to the teacher

in teaching and learning process, especially in reading subject. b. The research findings can be used by the students to improve their

proficiency in reading.
c.

To give information and solution for the English teachers and

others who concern in learning English by using setting goals and objectives in reading.

CHAPTER II THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Theoretical Framework 1. The Natural of Reading According to Paulson and Bruder says that, the last of the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.4 All of them can not be separated each other. Besides as a skill, reading is clearly important. According to Kalayo and Fauzan,Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. Furthermore, Reading is a complex process that depends upon learning specific skills. The purpose of teaching reading in school is both to teach children to become independently active readers and to introduce them to the pleasure of knowledge which effective reading makes possible.5 Reading is activity we will be doing before we get some information directly. According to Nunan, reading is an interactive process between what reader already knows about topic or subject, and what the writer writes.6 According to Nunan, Reading is unlike speaking, it is something that every individual learns to do.7 When student stars to learn reading, they need more time, much money and effort in studying reading. Reading is difficult subject to learn for the first time but it needs more practice until getting the fluency. Finally, they can feel the function of reading skill in their life.
Paulston and Bruder. Teaching English as a socond Language: Techniques and Procedures. (cambridge: winthrop Publisher, inc. 1976). P. 203. 5 Ibid, P. 379 6 David Nunan. Second Langguage Teaching and learning. (U.S.A: Heinle & Heinle Publhiser) 1999. P. 33. 7 Ibid, P. 249
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According to Murcia, reading is to learn unique thinking skill in which ESL/EFL learners mush have ability to comprehend the material from a text by using their own through which help them to analyze texts, determine main idea and build them into an effect example following an argument in the text, choose relevant topic under discussion.8 In this case, Rivers and Temperely in Nunan suggest that, there are seven main purposes for reading: a. To obtain information for some purposes or because we are curious

about some topic. b. To obtain instruction how to perform some tasks for our work or

daily life. c.
d.

To act in plays such as game, a puzzle. To keep in touching with friends by correspondence or to

understand business letters. e. To know when or where something will take place or what is

available. f. To know what is happening or has happened (as reported in

newspapers, magazines, reports).


g.

For enjoyment or excitement.9

Mariene Celcie Murcia, Lois mc Intosh. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Langguage. (Univerity of California, Los Angeles: Newbury House publisher, Inc. 1908), P.20 9 David Nunan. Second Langguage Teaching and learning. (U.S.A: Heinle & Heinle Publhiser 1999. Page 251.

Recall the information explicitly and recognize ideas from reading text. 1. Three Phases in Teaching Reading a. b. c. Pre-reading While-reading Post-reading

2. The Various of Reading Texts Various reading texts are some texts of reading, which have purpose that students can be learning something when they read the text with various subjects of reading. Various reading texts will try to explain and teach the reader in order to learn new information and get new ideas for creating or doing something. 3. The Procedures in Teaching Activity There are the procedures in teaching and learning process, as follows: The researchs activities a. The pre-test activities a) The researcher greets the students. b) The researcher explains what is going to do. c) The researcher begins testing the students. b. The treatment activities a) The researcher greets the students and given warming up. b) The researcher introduces the various reading texts, especially for newspaper, magazine and novel.

c) The researcher teachers the students theory and the strategy on reading. d) The research assigns the students to search some articles as the source of reading. c. The post-test activities
a) The researcher greets the students

b) The researcher directly administers the post-test c) The researcher ends the research program. The students activities a. The pre-test activities a) The students respond the researchers greeting b) The students answer the question asked by the researcher. The treatment activities a. b. c. d. The students respond the researchers greeting The students listen to the researchers explanation. The students do the assignment assigned by researcher. The students search some article as the source of popular English

like: newspaper, magazine, and novel. The post-test activities a. b. The students are prepared for test. The students answer the question based on the text given.

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The Use of The Setting Goals and Objectives Definition this strategy is develop personal objectives, Identify the purpose of the task. Its other possible terms is determine destination,Establish purpose, Plan objectives. B. Operational Concept The operational concept is a concept as a guidance used to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpreting in a scientific research. In this research, the writer concludes several factors to be operated described into the operational concept, as follows: Variable X (Independent variable)
1.

The teacher develops the students ability to understand

various reading texts presentation.


2.

The teacher gives explanation to the students how to read

and understand about various reading texts presentation.


3.

The teacher gives explanation to the students about

understanding the content of various reading texts presentation.


4.

The teacher stimulates the students to be able to practice

and understand about various reading texts presentation and anticipate the test or examination.
5.

The teacher asks the students to determine the difficult

words, main idea, from various reading texts presentation. Variable Y (Reading Ability) a. The students are able to understand the content of reading text.

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b. The students are able to identify main idea in reading text. c. The students are able to find the new vocabulary from the reading text. d. The students are able to understand about the type of text. e. The students are able to find factual information of sentence. f. The students answer the question correctly. C. The Relevant Research The relevant research is the researchers review of the relevant research to observe some previous research conducted by other researchers in which they are relevant to our research itself. It aims at avoiding plagiarism toward the design and finding. D. Asusmption and Hypotheses 1. Assumtion In this research, the writer assumer that (1) descriptive text has been studied by students. Thus, it is assumed that the students at the eight grade students of junior High school 5 tambang are able to do examine the scriptive text well. (2) the better the compare and contrast strategy is applied in teaching or learning descriptive text, the better students comperehension on reading descriptive is. E. Hypotheses
a. Ho : There is no significant effect of using the compare and contrast strategy

toward students reading comprehension in descriptive text at The Second Year Students at State Junior High School 29 Pekanbaru.

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b. Ha : There any significant effect of using the compare and contrast strategy

toward students reading comprahension in descriptive text at The Second Year Students at State Junior High School 29 Pekanbaru.

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