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IsIamization of Burma Through

Chittagonian BengaIis as
"Rohingya Refugees"

BY
KHIN MAUNG SAW


slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
ProIogue
When we were young, our elderly people told us a fable about an Arab and an ungrateful
camel. The fable is as follows:
The Camel's Nose In The Tent
One cold night, as an Arab sat in his tent, a camel gently thrust his nose under the flap
and looked in. "Master," he said, "let me put my nose in your tent. t's cold and stormy out
here." "By all means," said the Arab, "and welcome" as he turned over and went to sleep.
A little later the Arab awoke to find that the camel had not only put his nose in the tent but
his head and neck also. The camel, who had been turning his head from side to side,
said, " will take but little more room if place my forelegs within the tent. t is difficult
standing out here." "Yes, you may put your forelegs within," said the Arab, moving a little
to make room, for the tent was small.
Finally, the camel said, "May not stand wholly inside? keep the tent open by
standing as do." "Yes, yes," said the Arab. "Come wholly inside. Perhaps it will be
better for both of us." So the camel crowded in. The Arab with difficulty in the
crowded quarters again went to sleep. When he woke up the next time, he was
outside in the cold and the camel had the tent to himself.
Another version of this story
One day an Arab and his camel were crossing the desert. Night came and the
temperature became colder. The Arab put up his tent and tied the camel to it. The Arab
went to sleep.
The temperature became slightly colder and the camel asked the Arab if he (camel)
could just put his nose in the tent to warm up. The Arab agreed that the camel could just
put his nose in, because the tent was small and there was no room for 2. So the camel's
nose became warm and after a while the temperature went down even more.
The camel asked the Arab again, if he (camel) could just put his fore legs in because
they were very cold. The Arab reluctantly agreed that the camel could only put his fore
legs in and no more. So the camel moved in his fore legs and they became warm. After
sometime the camel asked the Arab again that he had to put in his hind legs or else he
won't be able to make the journey the next morning with frozen legs. So the Arab agreed
and once the camel moved his hind legs in, there was no more room in the tent for the
Arab and the Arab was kicked out.
Maybe, this fable is the predicted warning for the Arakanese (Rakhaings) against the
Chittagonian Bengalis, ,the Guest who want to kick out the Host from his own House"!
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
1. The Arakan Land or Rakhaing Pree
1.1. Burmese Invasion and Lose of Sovereignty
Arakan (Rakhaing Pree) used to be a separate kingdom until the Burmese king Bodaw U
Waing annexed Arakan (Rakhaing Pree) into the Burmese Empire in 1784. The Burmese
king's main reason in invading Arakan was to snatch the Holy Maha Muni mage and to
claim that Burma and not Arakan is the centre of Buddhism. Maha Muni mage is a
colossal image cast in bronze and inlaid with gold. Hence, this statue became the envy of
almost all of the kings of Burma. Whenever they expanded their empire, they tried to rob
this holy image. The attempts of Burmese kings Anawrahta, Tabin Shwe Htee and Bayint
Naung of the First and the Second Burmese Empires respectively failed but Bodaw U
Waing of their Third Empire succeeded. The Burmese Chronicles were cunning enough
by writing that it was their king's duty to liberate Arakan from the incompetent rulers
because he considered Arakan and the Arakanese as same kin. Their king too was using
very polite Buddhist terms that the Holy mage accepted his 'invitation' through his son, the
crown prince then, to come and stay in the better temple in Burma and left Arakan.
1.2. AboIition of the Arakanese Kingdom
After conquering Arakan, the Arakanese Kingdom was abolished forever, the Arakanese
(Rakhaings/Rakhines) in Arakan were tortured. The Burmese used the Arakanese
prisoners of war, about thirty thousand including the last King of Arakan Maha Thamada,
as slave labour for the transport of the Colossal Statue across the mountain range and for
other slave works. These prisoners of war were used in the reconstruction of Meikhtila
Lake, the building of the Mingun Pagoda, and the aborted war against Siam. Most
Arakanese sent to Siam for the invasion died in that war. The Burmese interest in Arakan
was more or less to bring in Buddhists Reforms to the Monks similar to Burma as directly
ordered by their king rather than the development of Arakan. Hence, the Burmese
viceroy's
1
and the governors'
2
main duties were to restore and rebuild the ruins of
Buddhists temples, monasteries and ponds; as well as the forced re-ordination of senior
Arakanese monks under the junior Burmese monks. The monks who did not follow the
orders were defrocked. For those works they needed slave or forced labourers again and
they became very cruel to the natives. About 50,000 Rakhaings/Rakhines fled to British
occupied Bengal.
Finally, U Than De and U Tun Zan (U Tuan Zan) who 'had invited' the Burmese invasion
3
,
1
ln fact, he was the "Myowun of Dhanyawaddy appointed by the Burmese king. Myowun is the ruler of a
town or a province on behalf of the king, hence, equivalent to a governor or a viceroy. The meaning of
viceroy given by the Oxford Dictionary is: "A person governing as the deputy of a sovereign. The meaning
given by the Webster Dictionary is: "The governor of a country or province who rules as a representative of
his king or sovereign. Dr. A. Judson too, translated Myowun of Rangoon as 'The Viceroy of Rangoon.
Since Dr. Judson was an American, that means a native speaker of the English language, took the liberty of
using his translation though the meaning of viceroy as well as governor general given in modern English-
Burmese Dictionaries is - . 1his term is a later development. Maurice Collis, on the other hand,
used the term 'the Burmese Governor of Arakan'. The meaning of governor given in modern English-
Burmese Dictionaries is - .
2
The deputies of the "Myowun of Dhanyawaddy stationed in Rambree sland (Rambree Wun), Thandwe
(Thandwe Wun) and Manaung sland (Man aung Wun).
3
Some Arakanese, headed by U Htun Zan (U Htuan Zan) and U Thande went to Ava to request the Burmese
king to liberate Mrauk U from the incompetent King Maha Thamada of Arakan. t cannot be ruled out that it
was a conflict between the Arakanese from the North and those from the South because Maha Thamada and
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
became fed up with the Burmese rulers and revolted against them. The armed Arakanese
(Rakhaings/Rakhines) tried to invade Arakan from Bengal but their attempts failed and the
Burmese army marched into British territories to crush them. There were a lot of border
conflicts between the British and the Burmese and these were the main reasons for the
first Anglo-Burmese war, which broke out in 1824 and led to the fall of the Burmese
Empire.
1.3. Three AngIo-Burmese Wars
The first Anglo-Burmese war broke out in 1824 and according to the Yandabo treaty
signed in 1826 Burma had to accept an agreement giving up her influences in Assam and
Manipur and had to agree to surrender the Arakan (Rakhine) and Tenassarim (Taninthayi)
provinces to the British. After the second Anglo-Burmese war which broke out without any
declaration of war in 1852 and ended without a peace treaty, the British declared one-
sidedly that Lower Burma below the latitude line crossing the town Thayet became British
territory. The last war in November 1885 also broke out without any declaration of war, but
the British captured King Thibaw, the last king of the Konbaung Dynasty and Queen
Suphaya Latt. They banished both to exile at Ratanagiri near Bombay and proclaimed that
entire Burma would become a British Colony starting from January the 1st,1886.
4
As some
parts of Burma (Arakan and Tenassarim) became part of British ndia since 1826 people
from the Subcontinent could come to Burma freely and unconditionally and some were
brought by the British for many reasons.
n this paper, the present author intends to write on Bengali mmigration Waves to Arakan,
the attempts and their intentions to slamize Arakan in three chapters: (1) during the
Colonial Era starting from 1826 to 1947 (2) during the Post ndependent Era 1948 70 (3)
after the Bangladesh Liberation War 1970 to the present day.
2. Indian immigration Waves
2.1. The Birth of Immigration Waves
As mentioned earlier, some parts of Burma (Arakan and Tenassarim) became part of
British ndia since 1826 and people from the Subcontinent could come to Burma freely and
unconditionally and some were brought by the British for many reasons. n comparison,
the volume of ndian immigration before the middle of the nineteenth century, though
continuous, was never on a very large scale compared to what it came to be from 1852
onwards. A new chapter in the history of ndian immigration into Burma began after the
British annexation of Lower Burma after the Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852), and the
whole of Burma after the Third War in 1886.
his predecessor were not from Mrauk U but from Rambree sland.
4
1he last king of Burma, King Thibaw, was taken to ndia. He died in Ratana Giri near Bombay. His eldest
daughter became pregnant by his ndian butler and she became a concubine of this butler. King Thibaw died
of a broken heart. Apart from that, the British brought hundreds of thousands of ndians to Burma and some
of those ndians behaved as if Burma were their Sub-colony and looked down upon Burmese. Till now, there
are still some social and racial tensions between the Burmese and the descendants of those ndians. Many
people believe, King Thibaw and the Burmese nowadays had to reap the consequences of the past
misdeeds of their ancestors, on what they did to the kingdoms of Mons, Ayuddiya and Arakan.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 marked a turning point in the economic and
administrative history of Burma. The British government wanted to export Burmese rice
and they extended the rice fields in Lower Burma. As they needed peasants and coolies
they imported a lot of ndians. The biggest attraction for the ndians to come and seek
their fortune in Burma was the fact that salaries and wages there were much higher than in
ndia. Hence, thousands of ndian labourers, especially from Madras, Bengal and Punjab,
began to enter Burma.
There were five types of ndian immigrants: (1) Permanent settlers; (2) Long-term
settlers, who came to seek their fortune in the then most prosperous country in Southeast
Asia, but for retired life they preferred to stay in ndia rather than in Burma; (3) Seasonal
workers who came for a fixed short period; (4) Government servants and traders who
wanted to earn and save money so that they and their offspring could settle permanently in
Burma as rich people; and (5) People brought by the British for various reasons .
2.2. Immigration Waves during the CoIoniaI Era (1826- 1947)
2.2.1. BengaIi settIers after the British annexation of Arakan in 1826
2.2.1.1. Who destroyed Arakan more? The Burmese or the British?
Many Arakanese blamed the Burmese for their mismanagements and cruelties after their
occupation for about 40 years. t is true that Burmese rulers and soldiers were so cruel
like savages, however, the present author, on the other hand, wants to state that the
destruction of the Arakanese society by the British, wittingly or unwittingly, was worse than
what the Burmese had done.
No one can deny that Burmese rulers and soldiers totally ignored the fact that they and the
Arakanese share the same language and religion but committed barbaric war crimes.
However, in any case they did not have enough brains and guts like the British to sow the
poisonous seeds on Arakanese soil!! Arakan has very fertile soil with sufficient rain falls,
hence, British wanted to expand rice fields in Arakan. Arakan was very under-populated at
that time. Therefore, the British brought tens of thousands of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims
into Arakan. The Arakanese (Rakhaings) have to bear the burdens of these aliens until
today. These aliens tried and are still trying to slamize Arakan (if not the whole of Burma)
by all means.
Apart from that, the British destroyed the whole society, tradition and culture of the
Arakanese by opening pubs to sell alcoholic beverages and also opium halls which were
traditionally forbidden by the Buddhist monarchs of Arakan and also by their successors,
Burmese authorities, who were Buddhists, too
5
.
Here would like to point out the following evidence. Writing in 1869, one assistant
commissioner reported: "Full one half of the male population between the ages of 17 and
35 are opium eaters and/or smokers, and full one half of these principally exist on the
earnings of the other portion of the population not by gifts but by thefts. He concluded as:
"The natural result of this state of thing is that the population must degenerate year by
year, and eventually become useless to themselves and the world around them. The
5
As a result, nowadays in Burma, it is well known that most Arakanese consume alcoholic beverages more
than any other ethnic minority groups of Burma.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
people who were honest, hard working and the truthful people when the British took the
place, are now so far as the opium eaters and smokers especially are concerned, the very
opposite of their fathers ...
6
2.2.1.2. EarIy Immigrants
Because of the above-mentioned reasons and since Arakan has direct land border with
Bengal, particularly with Chittagong District, many Chittagonian Bengalis were brought into
Arakan as cheap labourers, peasants and coolies by the British. Here would like to cite
Jacques Leider
7
who wrote: "The major interest of the East India Company in Arakan lay in
the extension of rice cultivation in the Kaladan and Lemro Valleys. This plan succeeded
because the scores of Bengal Muslim labourers who had been imported from Chittagong
in the middle of the nineteenth century, Akyab, the new capital, had indeed become a
major port of export of rice for Europe.
Some Chittagonian Bengalis were brought to Arakan to construct a railway track between
the two towns, Butheedaung and Maungdaw. The construction project (1916-18) was in
fact in operation before the whole business was brought down by a devastating cyclone
8
,
but those Chittagonian Bengalis never returned back to Bengal. According to the report of
the Directorate of Health (1930-31), about 40000 Chittagonian Bengalis came to
Maungdaw annually to work in that area, however, it was not recorded how many of them
returned to Bengal.
Here would like to cite R.B. Smart, the deputy assistant commissioner of Akyab: "Since
1879, immigration has taken place on a much larger scale, and the descendants of the
slaves are resident for the most part in the Kyauktaw and Myohaung (Mrauk-U) townships.
Maungdaw Township has been overrun by Chittagonian immigrants. Butheedaung is not
far behind and new arrivals will be found in almost every part of the district.
Those Bengali settlers in Arakan were noted by British for their administrative purposes
either as Hindus or as Muslims according to their religion. Muslim settlers outnumbered
the Hindu settlers.
The Census Reports of Akyab (Sittwe) District for 1871, 1901, and 1911 is as follows:
9
Races 1871 1901 1911
Mahomedan 58255 154887 178647
Burmese 4632 35751 92185
Arakanese 171612 230649 209432
Shan 334 80 59
Hill Tribes 38577 35489 34020
Others 606 1355 1146
Total 276691 481666 529943
6
Report on the Progress Made in the Arakan Division from 1826 to 1869 (Rangoon: Government Stationery,
1870, pp 11, 47.
7
Jacques P. Leider, Forging Buddhist Credentials as a Tool of Legitimacy and Ethnic dentity: A Study of
Arakan's Subjection in Nineteenth-Century Burma, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
51, 2008, p.424
8
Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, New York 2004, p.58. U Tha Hla's father U Maung Pein was the Station
Master of Maungdaw Railway Station then.
9
Burma Gazetteer, Akyab District, p. 86
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
This table shows very clearly that Chittagonian Bengalis were 21.05% of the total
population in 1871, became 32.1% in 1901 and increased to 33.71% in 1911. Their
population growth was 272% within 30 years because of huge immigration waves.
The Arakanese were 62% and the Mountain Tribes were 13.9% of the total population in
1871, that means the 'Bhummi Putras' of Arakan were almost 76% and the majority. n
1901 the Arakanese were 47.89% and the Mountain Tribes were only 7.37%, hence both
'Bhummi Putras' together became 55.26% only, but still a slight majority. However, in 1911
Arakanese became 39.5% of the total population and the Mountain Tribes remained only
6.42% and the 'Bhummi Putras' were only 45.92% of the total population, hence they
became minorities in their native land already.
n this way, Arakan was a colonie d'exploitation to the British, but to the Chittagonian
Bengalis, Arakan became a colonie de peuplement. The very similar thing happened in
Assam for Tea Plantations.
10
2.2.2. ReIations between SettIers and the Natives
These settlers are called "Khawtaw Kalas" or Sittagaung Kala (Chittagaung Kula), in short
only Kala (Kula) in both Burmese and Arakanese.
Some settlers learnt Arakanese and Burmese; hence, some of them were assimilated in
the native society. However, these Chittagonian Bengalis differ from the Arakanese in their
features, complexion and religion as well as in some customs which their religion directs;
in writing they use Burmese but among themselves employ colloquially the language of
their ancestors, either Urdu or Bengali. They never named themselves 'Rohingyas' but
'Arakan Muslims'. Since they were assimilated in the native society, Burmese as well as
Arakanese (Rakhaings) did not call them Khawtaw Kala any more, but used the term
Muslims, just to differentiate them from the natives who are Buddhists. The Kamans and
Myaydus too are Muslims but they were already assimilated in the native society. When
one hears the name Kaman or Myaydu, one knows automatically that they are Muslims.
Unfortunately, however, many latter settlers never tried to assimilate in the native society
and therefore they were and are never welcomed by the natives, neither by the Burmese
nor by the Arakanese society. Nor could they join even in the society of "Muslims of
Arakan", the "Kamans" and the "Myay Dus".
2.2.2.1. Their First Attempt at IsIamization
n 1937, Burma was separated from British ndia and became a Crown Colony. Some
slamists from Northern Arakan went to ndia in 1940 and met leaders of the Muslim
League. They requested that the Muslim League should demand the British Government
10
See and compare REPORT ON LLEGAL MGRATON NTO ASSAM SUBMTTED TO THE PRESDENT
OF NDA BY THE GOVERNOR OF ASSAM, 8 November 1998, in Chapter where it was written: "The
British developed the tea industry in Assam. They imported labour from Bihar and other provinces to work in
the tea gardens. The Assamese people living mostly in Upper Assam and cultivating one crop per year were
not interested in working as labour neither in the tea gardens nor in increasing or expanding land cultivation
to meet the additional requirement of food for the large labour population employed in the tea gardens.
Therefore, the British encouraged Bengali Muslim peasants from present Bangladesh to move into Lower
Assam for putting virgin land under cultivation. This set in motion a movement pattern which despite changed
conditions, has been continuing to this day.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
for the incorporation of Butheedaung and Maungdaw townships into British ndia, however,
their attempt failed. The Muslim League of ndia could do nothing. Due to the Diarchy
Reforms of Burma in 1923, Arakan was put into 'Burma Proper' and not even under the
'Frontier Areas' by the British. Except in the very early Colonial years from 1826 to 1852,
Arakan neither belonged to Bengal nor did the British tried to join Arakan with ndia.
Arakan was always under the administration of British-Burma, although Burma too was
under the Umbrella of the British ndian Empire until 1937.
That's why wonder where and from which informant Ms. Stephanie Hering got the
following information: "Ab 1937 wurde Arakan zunchst als zu ndien gehrig gefhrt, kurz
darauf aber aus verwaltungstechnischen Grnden Burma wegen der schwierigen
geographischen Lage wiederangegliedert:"
11
(From 1937 Arakan at the beginning was
joined to ndia , however, because of the technical administrative reasons and also
because of geographical incoveniences, it was rejoined to Burma:).
This kind of misinformation were and are spread out by the slamists and many
Westerners, without doing proper researches but rely only on hear-say stories, were and
are trapped by them. These kind of unscholarly writings favour the position of slamists
and these wrong or misleading information is often quoted and disseminated by
subsequent authors, leading to a situation whereby it eventually acquires the status of
being true and correct. There is a saying: "A lie repeated over and over again becomes
indistinguishable from the truth.
2.2.2.2. RaciaI Riots with BIoodbaths
Unfortunately, many Chittagonian settlers never tried to assimilate into the native society
and therefore they were and are never welcomed by the natives, neither by the Burmese
nor by the Arakanese society. Nor could they join even in the society of "Muslims of
Arakan", the "Kamans" and the "Myay Dus". Hence, Burmese and Arakanese (Rakhaings)
called them either Khawtaw Kala or Sittagaung Kala (Chittagaung Kula), in short only Kala
(Kula).
Racial tensions reached the peak when the British Civil Administration collapsed in Arakan
in 1942 because of the Second World War. There was blood bath of racial riots. Khawtaw
Kalas were helped by the Muslim deserters of the British ndian Army. All 195 Rakhaing
villages in Butheedaung and Maungdaw area were wiped out. They vandalized, raped
and slew. Many Arakanese including the Deputy Commissioner of that area U Oo Kyaw
Khaing, who was on a mission to defuse the communal conflict, were killed. Many
Rakhaings had to take refuge inside the Border Town Tet Chaung also well known as
Maungdaw. These Khawtaw Kalas wanted to commit ethnic cleansing of the Rakhaings
living in that town. The town was blockaded, besieged and attacked by Khawtaw Kalas
together with the deserters. An Arakanese Judge called U Aung Tha Kyaw sent a type of
S.O.S message to Captain Taylor of the British Army stationed at the other border town
Teknaf, the yonder side of the Naaf River in British East Bengal. Though both towns were
11
Hering, Stephanie, Rohingyas in Bangladesch. Anmerkungen zur Flchtlingshilfe, 2000 von
http://www.uni-bielefeld.de/tdrc/teaching/lehrforschungen/hering.pdf.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
British Colonies, Teknaf was under the administration of British ndia and Maungdaw was
under the administration of British Burma. Due to this bureaucracy, Captain Taylor could
not cross the border without permission from the British Administration in ndia. However,
the Judge U Aung Tha Kyaw could persuade Captain Taylor successfully by asking him to
come over to the yonder side of the river to take charge of the government treasury which
was being evacuated to ndia. Before Captain Taylor and his company, mainly recruited by
well disciplined Karens and Gurkhas, could enter Maungdaw, they had to crush the Muslim
renegades and Khawtaw Kalas. n this way captain Taylor could take care of British
government treasury and the judge U Aung Tha Kyaw could save a few thousand lives of
the Rakhaings.
The Rakhaing in Butheedaung were not as lucky as their compatriots in Maungdaw. They
had to flee from the attacks of the Khawtaw Kalas and the Muslim deserters. They
embarked a ship to sail to the yonder side, however, unfortunately, their ship capsized
because of overweight and many died.
12
However, till now, slamists, Rohingyarists and their lobbyists are writing a fake history by
accusing the Rakhaings (Arakanese) being responsible for 'Ethnic Cleansing of
Rohingyas'. The facts that there were 41,414 Arakanese (Rakhaings) in Maung Daw in
1941, but, based on the census of 1956, the total population of Arakanese (Rakhaings)
reduced to 5,808. On the other hand, the Chittagonian Bengali population in 1941 was
124452 and increased to 187792 in 1956. This is proof as to who did the ethnic
cleansing.
At that time in 1942, there were about 1 Million Arakanese only but there were about 20
Million Chittagonian Bengalis. As a simple logic, who could have done the ethnic
cleansing?
More than 5,000 Arakanese (Rakhaings) had been relocated to Dinajpur by British
Government, during the riots in 1942. U Tha Hla, the former Deputy Chief of the Burmese
UN Mission in New York at the late 70's was one of the 'refugees' then
13
. U Sein Tun Aung
also mentioned to the audience during the 'Arakanese Religion and History Seminar' in
London, 9
th
August 2009, how his grandparents, land owners, were killed by their own
workers, Chittagonian Bengalis.
3. Immigration Waves during the Post Independent Era (1948 - 1970)
3.1 Immigration Waves after the Second WorId War
The British Administration restarted in Arakan on 1
st
January 1945. All Bengalis who went
back to Bengal during the war came back to Arakan. They brought many new settlers with
them. However, the Arakanese 'refugees' in Dinajpur were allowed to return to their
homeland only in the month of December 1945. When they came back to their native
villages, they could not reintegrate to their original places due to illegal occupation of their
12
See also: Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, New York 2004, pp 70-71
13
Ibid
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
land by the Chittagonian Bengali Muslims, especially in the villages at the southern side of
Maungdaw. Similarly it happened also in Butheedaung. Those Arakanese were
compelled to leave their villages because their lands were taken by the Chittagonian
Bengalis during their absence. Because of their immigration waves many Arakanese left
their villages in Northern Arakan and moved southwards.
3.2. EvoIution of the word 'Rohingya'
3.2.1. The name 'Rohingya' in Arakanese History
The fact that there has never been a "Rohingya" ethnic group either in Arakan or in Burma
is quite evident. There is no such name as "Rohingya" in all history books and chronicles
written by Burmese, Bengalis, Arakanese, British, Dutch and Portuguese.
1. There is no such name as "Rohingya" in the Census of ndia, 1921 (Burma)
compiled by G. G. Grantham, .C.S., Superintendent of Census Operations Burma,
or in the Burma Gazetteer, Akyab District (1924) compiled by R. B. Smart.
2. Even in Hobson-Jobson. "A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo ndian Words and
Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and
Discursive" published by British Colonial Officers of British East ndia Company,
Col. Henry Yule and A. C. Burnell (First Published 1886) the word "Rohingya" was
not mentioned. Since this book was published by the Bengal Chamber Edition,
Calcutta, ndia, and is an indispensable dictionary for those who want to study the
history of ndia during the last 300 years and its impact on the East and West, it
should be considered as a standard literature.
3. The well known author and scholar, Maurice Collis, who wrote many articles and
books about Arakan, also never mentioned the word "Rohingya".
4. None of the British Colonial Officers' contributions about Burma and ndia
mentioned that word "Rohingya", however, they mentioned about 'Zerabadi' the
ndo-Burmese Hybrids or "Burmese Muslims", the Muslims in Shwebo and
Yamethin Districts in Burma Proper, "Myay Du Muslims", "Kaman Muslims" and
Bengali Muslim Settlers of Arakan.
5. n the book ,The History of Modern Burma, J. F. Cady, 1965, neither mentioned the
name 'Rohingya' nor the Arakanese Muslims.
3.2.2 British contributions about MusIims in Burma
Akyab District Gazetteer 1906 showed the population of the principle races, tribes and
castes as follows:
14
Indigenous Races:
Arakanese (239649), Burmese (35751), Kamis (11595), Mros (10074), Chins (9415)
Daingnets (3412), Chaungthas (247) and Thets (232).
Non-indigenous Races:
14
Akyab District Gazetteer, 1906, Volume B
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
British (209), Eurasians (158), Chinese (439), Shaikhs (152074)
15
, Saiyards (1254)
16
,
Pathans (126), Zairbadis (108) 0ther Musulman (1325), Sudras (6016), Kayasths (2888),
Uriyas (625), Brahmans (398), Chatris (377), Dhobis (263), Waddars (233), Nats (226),
Barua Maghs (165), Chetties (164), Doms (143), Malas (142), Marabans (125), Banias
(114) and other Hindu Castes (2104).
The present author searched for the ethnic group called 'Rohingyas' in all history books,
literature, encyclopaedias and other publications published before 1953 written by foreign
scholars. That name was not in any books. None of the British Colonial Officers recorded
the name 'Rohingya, neither in the ndian Subcontinent nor in Burma. To be honest,
people of Burma had never heard of the word "Rohingya" until the late 1950's.
A Chitagonian Bengali living in Northern Arakan called Mr. Abdul Gaffar
17
started using that
name in Guardian Daily Newspaper in 1951. n the Chittagonian Dialect of Bengali
Language, the Rakhaing Land is called 'Rohan' and the Rakhaing People or Arakanese
are called 'Rohangya (Rohan = Rakhaing, Gya = man). Since the word is of Bengali
origin, some of the Muslim secessionists like Mr. Abdul Gaffar used the name to identify
themselves to be the natives of Arakan and named themselves as 'Rohingya' by 'hijacking'
the name of the real natives of Arakan (Rakhaings) in Bengali language!! Mr. Abdul Gaffar
'invented' the 'Rohingya History' too. Within a few days. U Paw Zan refuted all of his
claims in the same newspaper.
3.2.2.1. Francis Buchanan's 'Rooingas' and 'Rossawns'
Dr. Francis Buchanan
18
, a Scottsman working as a surgeon at the British East ndia
Company, was the one and onIy person who mentioned the names 'Rooingas' and
'Rossawns' in his book, the closest name to 'Rohingya' as a linguistic survey. However
he described those people as both Hindus and Muslims and their languages as dialects of
Bengali. Further more, Francis Buchanan wrote very clearly that they are called Kala or
Strangers or Foreigners by the real natives of Arakan, i.e. Arakanese or Rakhaings
(Francis Buchanan 1801).
will cite Buchanan: " shall now add three dialects, spoken in the Burman Empire, but
evidently derived from the language of the Hindu nation. The first is that spoken by the
Mohammedans, who have long settled in Arakan, and who caII themseIves Rooinga , or
natives of Arakan. The second dialect is that spoken by the Hindus of Arakan. procured it
15
Since the Shaikhs were the biggest non-ndigenous group with the population of 152074, it is to be
presumed that they were the biggest Muslim Sect of the Chittagonian Bengali Settlers. The closest term to
Shaikhs given in Hobson-Jobson page 827 is: Shikaree, Shekarry: "Shecarries are generally Hindoos of
low caste, who gain their livelihood entirely by catching birds, hares and all sort of animals".
Since many low caste Hindus in East Bengal had converted into slam they might be called in the same
name as before. t is to be presumed that since they were brought to Burma, particularly to Arakan for
menial works, they were still called in that name.
16
Saiyyads: The closest term given in Hobson-Jobson page 886 is: Syud, Ar. Saiyid, 'a lord', the
designation in ndia of those who claim to be the descendants of Mohammed. But the usage of Saiyid and
Sharif varies in different parts of Mahomedan Asia.
17
Abdul Gaffar, "The Sudeten Muslims, The Guardian Daily, 20 August 1951.
18
Buchanan, Francis, A comparative vocabulary of some of the languages spoken in the Burmese Empire.
n: Asiatick Researchers or Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal for inquiring into the History and
Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia. V: 219-240, 1801.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
from a Brahmen and his attendants, who had been brought to Amarapura by the king's
eldest son, on his return from the conquest of Arakan. They caII themseIves Rossawn,
and, for what reason I do not know, wanted to persuade me that theirs was the
common Ianguage of Arakan. Both these tribes, by the real natives of Arakan, are called
Kulaw Yakain, or stranger Arakan.
would like to give the following explanation why British Colonial Officers never recorded
these so-called 'Rooingas and Rosswans':
Dr. Franscis Buchanan wrote very clearly that he met those peopIe in Amarapura (ie.
the capitaI of the Burmese Empire then) and NOT in Arakan. They were taken to
Burma as slaves or prisoners. All historical records and chronicles unanimously stated
that the Burmese Crown Prince had taken about 30000 Arakanese and some of their
slaves as forced labours to Burma. t is very clear that Arakanese (Rakhaings) became
slaves of Burmese and these Bengali slaves of the Arakanese became automatically "the
Slaves of the Slaves". The population of these 'Slaves of the Slaves' might be very few.
Later, most probably these 'Slaves of the Slaves' were assimilated and engulfed into the
Muslims and Hindus living in Upper Burma, who were the subjects of the Burmese king.
That's why these names disappeared when British annexed Upper Burma in 1885. Apart
from that Dr. Buchanan stated very clearly that they were Strangers in Arakan and NOT
Natives!
If these groups who caIIed themseIves as 'Rooingas' and 'Rossawns' were stiII in
Arakan untiI 1826 or after that, these names might have been mentioned by the
British CoIoniaI Officers in their administrative and research papers!
British officers in BengaI recorded that, after the downfaII of the Arakanese kingdom
many Arakanese, some Hindus and MusIims crossed the border and seeked asyIum
on British soiI. They neither mentioned 'Rooingas' nor 'Rossawns'!
n contrast, even Buchanan wrote in his other book
19
: ,Puran Bisungri was an officer of the
Police Station of Ramoo what is called Panwah by the Arakanese. He was a Hindu, born in
Arakan and fled the country after Burmese invasion of 1784.
"Puran says that, in one day soon after the conquest of Arakan the Burmans put 40,000
men to Death: that wherever they found a pretty Woman, they took her after killing the
husband; and the young Girls they took without any consideration of their parents, and
thus deprived these poor people of the property, by which in Eastern ndia the aged most
commonly support their infirmities. Puran seems to be terribly afraid, that the Government
of Bengal will be forced to give up to the Burmans all the refugees from Arakan.
3.2.2.2. Why did they name themseIves 'Rooingas and Rossawns?
n Burma, there are two big ethnic communities of alien origin, namely of the Chinese and
of the people from the Subcontinent (British ndia) who are named 'Tayoke' and 'Kala'
respectively by the Burmese. n these two communities, though 'Tayoke' are assimilated
into the Burmese and Buddhist community easier and faster, they are still happy to be
called 'Tayoke', rather than 'Bama', just to keep their ethnic identity. However, 'Kala',
19
Buchanan, Francis. Francis Buchanan in Southeast Bengal (1798): His Journey to
Chittagong, the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Noakhali and Comilla. Dhaka: Dhaka University Press., 1992
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
regardless of their faith either Hindus or Muslims, are lesser assimilated into the Burmese
and Buddhist community. Despite of that fact, they want to call themselves as 'Bama' or
'Mon' or 'Shan' or 'Karen' etc. etc. due to the area where they reside rather than their
ethnic identity 'Kala'! t happens most probably because of the term 'Kala'! 'Kala' means
black or dark in ndic languages like Hindi, Urdu, Bengali etc. etc.
n any case, the term 'Kala' do not have derogatory meaning in Burmese because the
etymology of the word Kala (written Kula) can be traced back from the Pali word Kula
meaning "noble race" (this is a short form of Kula Putta which means "son of the noble
race"). The word was used for the ndians (People from the subcontinent) by the early
Buddhist people of Burma (Mons, Burmese, Arakanese, Karens and Shans etc.) because
Lord Buddha himself was an ndian.
Although the word Kala has a harmless meaning, the people from the subcontinent do not
like to be called Kala. They feel insulted because the word Kala means "coloured" or
"blackie" in their ndic languages such as Hindi, Urdu and Bengali. n particular, ndians,
Pakistanis and Bangladeshis living in Burma often complain to foreigners, especially to
non-Burmese Burma Scholars that they feel discriminated by the people of Burma,
especially by the Bamas (the Burmese), the Rakhines (the Arakanese), Shan and the
Mons, calling them Kala ( meaning "blackie" in their own interpretation). Such a
misinterpretation was never intended by the people of Burma (the Burmese, Mons,
Karens, Shans and Arakanese (Rakhines) etc.), in fact, on reflection some people from
Northern ndia and Pakistan are much fairer in complexion than some people of Burma,
especially some Mons, Burmese and Arakanese (Rakhines)!!
For the above-mentioned reason, almost all of the 'Kala' in Burma name themselves either
'Bama' or Karen or Shan or Mon etc. etc. regardless of whether they are assimilated into
the native society or not!. n the light of this explanation, as a parallel case, it is very easy
to conclude why those two groups met by Dr. Francis Buchanan named themselves
'Rooinga' and 'Rossawn' although they were called 'Kalaw Yakain' (Kala Yakain or Aliens in
Rakhaing Land) by the real natives of Arakan (ie. Arakanese or Rakhaings). t is clear that
these two groups interviewed by Buchanan too did not want to be named 'Kala' regardless
of whether they were assimilated into the native society or not! n Bengali language, the
country Arakan is called either 'Rohan' or 'Rosan' and the people, that means the real
natives of that land, the Arakanese or the Rakhaings, are called 'Rohanja' or 'Rosawnga'
due to the dialects (most probably Roo-in and Rosssawn; Rooinga and Rossawnga in
Buchanan's ears!). As mentioned earlier, 'Rohingya' is a name used by the Bengalis to
denote a Rakhine a Buddhist Rakhine or an Arakanese. n other words, 'Rohingya' and
'Magh' are the synonyms in Bengali and it gives the meaning Arakanese or Rakhaingthar.
have to conclude, these two groups 'hijacked' or 'kidnapped' the name of the real natives
of Arakan (Rakhaings) in Bengali language!!
4. Separatist Movement
4.1. Second Attempt at IsIamization, BengaIi immigrants' PIan to form an IsIamic
State 'Arakanistan'
As mentioned earlier, after the war the Chittagonian Bengalis came back, bringing with
them new settlers. After Burma became independent these settlers wanted to turn
Northern Arakan into an autonomous Muslim state called 'Arakanistan'. "Some members
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
of the 'Juniyatu Olamai' religious association went to Karachi on a delegation to discuss
the incorporation of Butheedaung, Maungdaw and also Rathedaung townships into East
Pakistan". The Burmese leader then, General Aung San, gave his clear position to
Mohamad Ali Jinnah that he would not tolerate, if Pakistan would interfere in Burmese
affairs
20
. The very similar incident had happened in Assam when British ndia was
separated into two dominions called ndia and Pakistan.
21
After his aborted attempt of
incorporation of Assam into East Pakistan, Jinnah had learnt a good lesson and did not
interfere directly. However, some of the Chittagonian Bengalis went underground and
called themselves "Mujahid" rebels fighting U Nu's government.
4.1.1. IsIamists Mujahids' connection with Pakistan (East):
The main objective of the rebellion was to absorb the western frontier of Burma into East
Pakistan. The Mujahids carried Pakistani Flag and their slogan was: "Pakistan Zindabad,
Allah Mujahid (Long Live Vitorious Pakistan under the Guidance of Allah)! Whenever
Burma Armed forces chased them, they retreated to their bases on the other side of the
border.
Here would like to cite "The Hindustan Standard Newspaper, May 18, 1949 where it was
written on the Mujahids: "A dangerous aspect of this fighting is its international aspect: the
Moslem insurgents have been carrying the Pakistani flag, and many of them clamor for the
incorporation of this end of Arakan with Pakistan. t was suspected that they drew arms
from across the border; the Government, however, is now satisfied that their rifles and
ammunition are old stocks, left behind by the Japanese and British.. The great majority of
Arakan Moslems are said to be really Pakistanis from Chittagong, even if they have been
settled here for a generation. Out of the 130,000 here, 80,000 are still Pakistani citizens.
The leader of the "Mujahids rebels was Mir Cassim, an uneducated fisherman. t was
only an illusion of an uneducated man like Cassim who wanted to turn a traditionally
Buddhist land like Arakan into a Muslim state. As a result, in the 1950's these rebels were
totally crushed by the Burma Armed Forces. Some surrendered while some fled to East
Pakistan. Cassim fled to East Pakistan and he was shot dead in Cox Bazaar by an
unknown person in 1966.
4.1.2. Demanding undeserved Rights

While U Nu's government had lots of trouble both in politics as well as in armed
confrontation with all possible kinds of rebels, the Chittagonian Bengalis wanted to
squeeze the neck of the Burmese Government. 90% of the population of Burma are
20
n May 1947 U Rashid, a Muslim member of AFPFL and a close friend of Gen. Aung San and U Nu,
sermoned the ndo-Pakistani Muslim community in Rangoon, how they should behave properly and
accordingly due to the Constutution of the Union of Burma in the future.
21
See and compare REPORT ON LLEGAL MGRATON NTO ASSAM SUBMTTED TO THE PRESDENT
OF NDA BY THE GOVERNOR OF ASSAM, 8 November 1998, in Chapter where it was written: "When
the demand for Partition was raised, it was visualized that Pakistan would comprise Muslim majority
provinces in the West and Bang-e-slam comprising Bengal and Assam, in the East. Mr. Moinul Haque
Chowdhary the Private Secretary of Jinnah, who after independence became a Minister in Assam and later
at Delhi, told Jinnah that he would "present Assam to him on a silver platter". Jinnah confidently declared at
Guwahati that Assam was in his pocket. The Cabinet Mission Plan placed Assam in Group C with Bengal.
Both the Congress High Command and the Muslim League accepted the grouping plan but Lokapriya
Gopinath Borodoloi vehemently opposed it. He was supported by Mahatma Gandhi. The grouping plan was
foiled and Assam was saved from becoming a part of Pakistan.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Buddhists. There are 4% Christians from all sects and 4 % Muslims too from all sects.
However, the slamists in Northern Arakan held a meeting in Alethankyaw Village in
Maungdaw Township in June 1951 and they sent the following undeserved demands to the
central government:
22
To establish immediately a free Muslim State in the status of condominium, for the
Muslim Minority in Northern Arakan, separated from the Buddhist Arkanese
(Rakhaing) Majority of the South, with its own defence force, police, and security
unit;
To extend Rights so as to share with the Rakhaings (Arakanese) on a 50:50 basis in
representation and management of the defence of Arakan (Rakhaing State) as well
as in the administration of Sittwe (Akyab), the metropolis and the port city, which
would be divided into the Muslims and Rakhaings zones, priority being given to the
Muslims co-administrator holding higher rank over the alternate Arakanese
(Rakhaing) counterpart in rotation of the term of office;
To accord the Muslim state the same status as extended to the Chins, the Kachins,
the Shans, and the Karen State, with the right of proportionate representation on
the constituent assembly and Upper Chamber of legislature;
To appoint a Muslim representative from Northern Arakan as the Muslim Affairs
Minister in the Government of the Union of Burma;
To guarantee fair and adequate representation of the Muslims in the Civil Service,
Judiciary, and Armed Forces of the Union of Burma;
To provide complete freedom and equality in the field of religion, culture, communal
education, and economy;
To protect Muslim properties and businesses, and to compensate in case of
destruction;
To promote the welfare of the Muslim Community;
To establish quasi courts, each to be presided over by grand mufti (a judge who
interprets slamic Laws), with the power to decide cases concerning the social and
personal life of the Muslim according to the laws and principles of the Holy Sharia;
To accord rights to form a statutory Muslim Council ( Majlis slamia), with the
approval of the Muslim conference, for the management of the religious, social,
educational, and culutural affairs, and also the administration of the Muslim
nstitutions in order to promote welfare of the Muslims in the Union of Burma
according to the slamic Laws;
To establish, with the financial aid of the Government of the Union of Burma, slamic
schools and colleges whose medium of teaching being Arabic ( the canonical
tongue of slam);
To facilitate teaching of Urdu, Arabic, and Diniyat (slamic religious instructions) in
all the public schools throughout the country where the Muslim students represent
the considerable number;
To further extend and develop the Urdu schools;
To give complete freedom to the Muslims to found and run their own educational,
religious, and culutural institutions;
To make Urdu the medium of instruction for the Muslims in the primary and
secondary schools;
To refrain from imposing other languages on the Muslims against their will or to the
detriment of the Muslim culture and integrity;
22
See and compare: Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, New York 2004, pp 73-74
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Furthermore, they sent an oral 'Request' to the Government of the Union of Burma through
two Muslim Ministers in the Cabinet, U Rashid and U Latiff;
1. Pork and pork products should not be sold in Burmese markets because there are
shops owned by Muslims in the markets;
2. Pork and pork products should be sold only in special shops in separate areas;
3. Pork and pork products must be wrapped properly so that these cannot be seen by
Muslims;
Which kind of government of a non-Muslim country on the earth could tolerate such kinds
of undeserved demands? Of course, their one-sided demands were turned down by the
Burmese government on the spot.
4.2. Superstitious U Nu
U Nu was a very religious but also a very superstitious man. He was a Saturday-born son.
There is a saying in Burma that Saturday-born rulers cannot rule more than 7 years. The
last king of Burma, King Thibaw, was a Saturday-born son and he was captured by the
British after 7 years in throne. Gen. Aung San too was a Saturday-born son. He escaped
from Burma in 1940, became military leader of the Thirty Comrades and in 1947 he was
assassinated, so again 7 years. U Nu became Premier in 1947, so in 1954 he was
already 7 years in power. Just to change something in his horoscope, he often let his
deputy U Ba Swe work as acting prime minister whenever he was on leave or on tours.
Sometimes, he declared that he would resign from the post of prime minister and
remained only as the AFPFL Party Chairman.
Thakin Kodaw Hmaing was the teacher of almost all Thakins and all people in Burma
considered him as the 'Guru of all Gurus'. Most of the cabinet ministers as well as rebel
leaders were his former students. n one occasion, Thakin Kodaw Hmaing said openly
that he was already very old and he wanted to see peace in Burma before he would die.
U Ba Swe, however, had a sharp tongue. n one public speech he insulted Thakin Kodaw
Hmaing that the old man should meditate in his last days before dying, rather than
involving in politics. The anger of the populace turned against the AFPFL and their
popularity went down. The winning of election in 1956 was endangered.
n the mean time in March 1956, 7
th
Grade pupils demonstrated against the government
because the examination was cancelled. n the riots a pupil called Harry Tan from St.
Paul's High School was shot dead by the police. U Nu became chaotic just before the
election and declared that all pupils would be promoted without any examination.

4.3. Expecting MusIims' votes
AFPFL lost face towards many Burmese because of U Ba Swe's rude attitude towards his
former teacher. As they cannot expect too much from the majority Buddhists, they have to
make friends with Muslims.
n the 1952 elections, the Arakanese voted against the ruling AFPFL Party and they voted
for the "Arakanese National Union Party" which was the allied party of the opposition. The
Government of U Nu allowed the Bengali Muslim leaders to stand for election, as a
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
punishment for the Rakhaings (Arakanese). n fact, U Nu, U Ba Swe and the AFPFL
government started destroying the destiny of the Rakhaings and selling the future of
Arakan to the hands of the Bengali settlers. The then Prime Minister U Nu and his deputy
U Ba Swe also wanted to please their two Muslim ministers, Mr. Rashid and Mr. Latiff,
alias U Khin Maung Latt, who expected support from the Bengali settlers. Minister of
Judicial Affairs, U Latiff alias
23
U Khin Maung Latt went to Arakan for election campaign.
Later about one hundred and fifty thousand Chittagong Bengalis
24
, regardless of they or
their ancestors had lived in the Arakan Division of Burma before the Second World War or
not, became Burmese citizens. As a result, the Party of the Arakani Muslims, the allied
party of the AFPFL won all four constituencies in Northern Arakan. Then, Mr. Abu
Bawshaw became MP in Bootheetaung Constituency, Mr. Sultan Mahmud and Mr. Abdul
Gaffer in Maungdaw and Mr. Abul Kai in Rathedaung. Their rival candidates U San Tun
Aung, an Arakanese (Rakhaing) and even a "Kaman" Muslim advocate called U Po Khine
lost in the elections because they could not speak Bengali language Chittagonian dialect.
Since that time, the word "Rohingyas" occasionally appeared in some Burmese
Newspapers. Premier U Nu and his deputy U Ba Swe occasionally used this term in their
speeches. t cannot be ruled out that U Nu and U Ba Swe wanted to please those voters
for their party as well as their two Muslim ministers. The Muslim Minister U Rashid was a
strong supporter of U Nu and the other Muslim Minister Mr. Latiff alias U Khin Maung Latt
was a protg of U Ba Swe and U Kyaw Nyein, the other Deputy Prime Minister. Since
the Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister started using the term 'Rohingya' others
too started using this term. Even the famous history professor, Prof. G. C. Luce started
using the term "Rohingyas" in his lectures for the Bengali settlers living in Northern Arakan,
although he has had never mentioned this terminology in his lectures in the pre-war days,
and also in his books published before 1955.
4.4. PoIiticaI TurmoiI in Burma:
After winning the election in 1956 U Nu declared that he would resign from the post of
prime minister and remained only as the AFPFL Party Chairman. U Ba Swe became
Prime minister for 6 months. U Nu, after staying as party chairman for 6 months, thought it
was the best time for him to come back as prime minister because he was already
'removed' from his post after 7 years in power. Apart from that he had noticed that AFPFL
was splitting and some 'rebellious' cliques inside the AFPFL wanted him to be removed
from duties. Then, he came back into politics as prime minister of Burma again. However,
he could not prevent the splitting of the ruling party. The Anti-Fascist Peoples' Freedom
League (AFPFL) split into two factions, the Clean AFPFL headed by U Nu and the Stable
AFPFL led by U Ba Swe. U Ba Swe's fraction (the Stable) was supported by the majority
of the AFPFL members of parliament (i.e. the ruling party). Seeing his danger by a vote of
no-confidence by his own party members and former comrades, U Nu promised to grant
States for the Arakanese and the Mons, and he also promised to the "Arakan Muslims"
leaders that he won't forget their gratitude if they could help him during that political crisis.
U Nu's fraction tried to organize the former First Lady of Burma, a Shan Duchess Maha
Devi Sao Hearn Kham, however, she declared that she wanted to be neutral.
On 9
th
June 1958, U Nu's fraction narrowly escaped the vote of no-confidence submitted
23
Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, New York 2004, p.75
24
According to BSPP and Burma Military sources there were three hundred thousand illegal immigrants who
gained Burmese Citizenship.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
by U Ba Swe's fraction in the Burmese Lower House because the "Arakanese National
Union Party", the party of the Mons and "Arakan Muslims" MPs together with the MPs of
the main opposition party then, the leftist National United Front (NUF) party, voted for U
Nu's fraction. On the other hand, the ones who earlier had declared to be neutral, the
former First Lady of Burma, a Shan Duchess Maha Devi Sao Hearn Kham and a leftist
National United Front (NUF) party MP from the Myinmu constituency, U Pe Tin, voted for U
Ba Swe's fraction. After that U Pe Tin was disowned or 'excommunicated' by the leftist
NUF Party. Maha Devi Sao Hearn Kham became very popular in U Ba Swe's fraction (the
Stable), however, she was given the nick-name 'Suphaya Latt
25
of the Shan State' by the
followers of Thakin Tin, the second man of U Nu's fraction.
There was political turmoil in Burma under U Nu and he was totally trapped in his own
promises which he could not solve easily. t became the 'Golden opportunity' for the
Usurper General Ne Win and his army 'to make hay while the sun shines' and took the
'Lion's Share' to become the 'Ruling Class' in Burma. First time from October 1958 to
March 1960 they ruled the country as 'The Care Taker Government' and later carried out
the Army coup dtat on 2
nd
March 1962. The Burmese Army ruled the country even after
the Post-Ne Win's Era till nowadays.

4.5. Mistakes unwittingIy made by Burmese Ieaders
As mentioned earlier, U Nu and U Ba Swe, without thinking about the real meaning of that
term, occasionally used the term 'Rohingya' for the Chittagonian Bengali Muslims. At the
surrendering ceremony of the Mujahid Rebels in 1960, Vice Chief of Staff (Army) then,
Brigadier General Aung Gyi accidently used the term 'Rohingya' although his boss General
Ne Win, despite of the fact that his favourite Chef Raju was a Bengali Muslim, considered
that term as a taboo. Nowadays, Rohingyarist took advantage on those events and
abused U Nu, U Ba Swe and Brigadier Aung Gyi's words as if those leaders recognized
them as an ethnic group of Burma.
4.6. 'Rohingya Language in Burma Broadcasting Service
When the Burma Broadcasting Service BBS was established, Burma was still under the
umbrella of the British ndian Empire. At that time, English was the official language and
Hindustani was the lingua franca of the subcontinent. Burmese is lingua franca in Burma
and Karens were the second largest ethnic group in Burma next to Burmese
26
. That's why
four languages namely Burmese, Karen, English and Hindustani programs were
broadcasted. When Burma became an independent nation in 1948 the government still
allowed to broadcast these four languages, however, the situation had been changed.
Only Burmese and Karen had become the National Languages but English and Hindustani
automatically became Foreign Languages. Burmese became official language as well as
25
Suphaya Latt was the last queen of Burma, well known to have a sharp tongue and very dominant in the
Court of Mandalay. Her husband, King Thibaw, was only a henpecked husband. Thakin Tin and followers
wanted to say indirectly that the Lord of Ywangmwe Sao Shwe Thaik, the former President of Burma too was
under the thumb of his wife!
26
Nowadays, the Karens are the third largest (if not the second largest claimed by themselves) ethnic group
in Burma while the Burmese are the largest. But the ratio between the Burmese (Burman) and the Karens is
approximately 8:1. The last census of Burma stated that the total population of Burma is nearly 55 millions
and among them about 40 millions are Burman (Burmese) and about 5 millions Karens live in Burma.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
lingua franca! n 1960, after winning the election, U Nu wanted to show his gratefulness to
Chittagonian Bengali voters and allowed them to broadcast their language as 'Rohingya'
after English and Hindustani programs, that means their language too was a foreign
language. However, Rohingayrists nowadays abused that fact with their own interpretation
and claimed that U Nu allowed them to broadcast their language under the National
Languages Programs and therefore they were de facto recognized by U Nu as an ethnic
group of Burma. f it was the case, similarly to 'Rohingyar', English and Hindustani
languages too have a right to claim that they were national languages of Burma!!
When General Ne Win came to power, he allowed only the English language to be
broadcasted from BBS as a foreign language. Both Hindustani and 'Rohingyar' programs
were abolished, but the national language programs increased. Shan, Kachin, Chin,
Kayah, Mon and Arakanese (Rakhaing) language programs were introduced in addition to
Burmese and Karen. Only then, the real national languages program came into being.
These programs did not exist under the U Nu Era. Hence, it is no longer to be discussed
whether the so-called Rohingya language was recognized by U Nu as a national language
or not!
5. Immigration Waves after 1970
5.1. Never Ending BengaIi Immigration Waves
llegal Bengali immigration waves increased whenever there was a natural catastrophe,
wars and any shortage in Former East Pakistan, later Bangladesh. The following table is
the evidence.
The population in the Arakanese town called Tet Chaung, now known as Maungdaw:
Year Arakanese Bengali Total
Remark
1921 22679 68035 90714
1931 34700 104408 139108 Burma gazetteer
1941 41484 124452 165936
1956 5808 187792 193600
1973 11908 211394 223302 (Akyab District of ACB)
1976 13379 212070 225449
1981 14328 249571 263899
1986 19139 264507 283646
This table shows very clearly that Arakanese population in 1941 was 41484 and in 1956
the population decreased to 5808 only. n 1941 the Arakanese were 25% of the total
population, however in 1956 they became only 3% of the total population. n contrast, the
Bengali population in 1941 was 124452 but increased to 187792 in 1956.
t happened due to the following facts:
(a) Many Arakanese were killed by the Bengali Muslims during the racial riots in 1941-
42. t proved who committed 'ethnic cleansing'.
(b) As mentioned before, when the British Administration restarted in Arakan on 1
st
January 1945, all Bengalis who went back to Bengal during the war came back to
Arakan together with many new settlers. However, the Arakanese 'refugees' in
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Dinajpur were allowed to return to their homeland only in the month of December
1945 and they could not reintegrate to their original places due to the illegal
occupation of their land by the Chittagonian Bengali Muslims.
(c) Those Arakanese were compelled to leave their villages because their lands were
taken by the Chittagonian Bengalis during their absence. Because of these
Chittagonian Bengali immigration waves many Arakanese left their villages in
Northern Arakan and moved southwards.
5.2. East Pakistani war refugees
n 1970 the ndependence War in East Pakistan broke out. At that time there were about
one and a half million to two million "war refugees" in Arakan Division of Burma. n the
mean time, there were more than ten million "war refugees" on ndian soil. ndia was open
and immediately called nternational Organizations such as CRC, FAO, WFP and UNHCR
and others for help.
On the other hand, the Revolutionary Council of Burma headed by Ne Win was too much
afraid of nternational Organizations coming inside Burma. They wanted to stay as an
isolated state and they wanted to deal "under the table" with the newly formed
Bangladeshi Government. They recognized Bangladesh immediately and because of that
there were tensions between Pakistan and Burma. Ne Win had to send a special envoy to
explain the situation.
f the then Burmese Government was wise and open like ndia, the international
organisations might have accepted these war refugees since then as "East Pakistani or
Bangladeshi Refugees inside Burma", and not the other way round like now. In fact, most
of the peopIe who cIaim to be the 'Rohingya PeopIe' nowadays crossed the border
and settIed down inside Burma in 1970 during the BangIadesh Liberation War and
Iater.
At that time the living conditions inside Burma were much better than that of East Pakistan,
later Bangladesh. Hence, although Sheik Mujibur Rahman, the then Prime Minister of
Bangladesh willingly accepted all of the war refugees coming back to his country, many of
them crossed the border back into Burma and settled down in Northern Arakan illegally.
Then, they were helped by the former settlers who already became Burmese citizens since
U Nu's Era. Then, the population growth of 'Rohingyas' inside Burma became a miracle.
n 1976, the present author witnessed in Sittwe many Bengalis living on the roads and
could speak only very few Arakanese/Burmese words such as: "Please give me some
food! Please give me some work! etc. etc.
5.3. The first 'aborted' Naga Min (King Dragon) Operation in 1978
n the year 1978 the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP) government made "routine
immigrant check" with the Naga Min (King Dragon) Operation at the whole Arakan,
especially at the Bangladesh border. Most people fled to Bangladesh claiming that they
were "Rohingyas" and the issue of military abuses of the Burmese Army was raised. This
was denied by the Burmese government and declared these people were new settlers
coming from overpopulated Bangladesh because of a cyclone which hit the neighbouring
country recently, which was vehemently rejected by Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
government requested the UN and some powers like China and U.S.A. for help. In fact,
the BSPP government shouId have caIIed InternationaI Organizations immediateIy
and given sheIters for those cycIone refugees and issued them temporary settIing
certificates as foreigners. nstead of that, Ne Win's Regime (BSPP at that time)
unwisely started the Naga Min (King Dragon) Operation and chased out those
Bangladeshi Settlers who named themselves 'Rohingyas'.
Unfortunately for the Burmese government but fortunately for the "Rohingyas", many of
these "refugees" had Burmese identity cards. However, it was found out later that some of
the Burmese identity cards were faked ones printed in Bangladesh, and some of them
though genuine were issued illegally due to the corruption of Burmese immigration officers
in the Arakan (Rakhine State). Their salaries were too low, so, they took bribes and issued
those people identity cards. Some powers like United States of America and China
pressured the BSPP government of Burma.
27
The BSPP government, after its difficulties in internal problems, such as riots during former
UN Secretary General U Thant's funeral and the semi-annual demonstrations of workers
and students since 1974, wanted to avoid creating an international problem. Those
"Rohingyas" were allowed to return after a bilateral agreement between the Burmese and
Bangladeshi governments. These people were accepted to come back to Burma from 1
st
August 1978 to January 5, 1979. But the number of returnees was about 30000 more than
the official "refugees" declared by the Bangladeshi authorities. Some claimed to be from a
village either in Butheedaung or Maung Daw area, however, they could not show the place
where they used to stay nor did they knew how to go back to their 'native villages'. n fact,
they were the new settlers from Bangladesh. The following table shows the details:
28
27
The founder of Bangladesh, Sheik Mujibur Rahman was very close to the East Bloc and therefore USA and
China were not so happy with him. n 1975 there was an Army Coup in Bangladesh and Mujibur Rahman
was killed. The new military leader Gen. Zia Rahman was close to China and USA. n 1977, Bangladeshi
Military Attach in Rangoon, Col. Amin was accused of helping anti-government groups, he was declared
persona non grata and had to leave Burma. n the mean time Sino-Burmese Relation was not good because
of the Chinese backed Communists at their border. Five Burma Air Force dive bombers were shot down by
the Chinese at the border.
ln a sub-editorial (Parbattya oncholay oshanti sristir janok marhum rashtrapati ziaur rahman) published in the
daily Sangbad from Dhaka, Fakir Abdur Razzak, a renowned journalist and columnist, said that the late
president Ziaur Rahman was an agent of Pakistan's S. During pre-independence (before 1971) period,
Ziaur received training as a junior officer in the Pakistani military intelligence department, S, and earned
fame as a smart officer. He earned a special 'selection' of the S during the 1971 liberation war of
Bangladesh. Because of his dubious role that raised many questions during the liberation struggle, General
M A G Osmani removed him from the command of a sector, the article added.
After the assassination of Shaikh Mujibur Rahman, with all members of his family, he reinstated the banned
slamist organization Jamat-e-slami and rehabilitated big anti-liberation war elements in his cabinet, which
only shows his deeper connection with Pakistan. Working as an agent of S, imitating Pakistan in his
administrative moves, statecraft and policies only proves that the late Zia took every step to transform the
independent Bangladesh into a mini Pakistan, it said.
28
Report on the conditions and sufferings of the Arakanese in Maung Daw, Published by: Arakanese Security
Association, Maung Daw, Arakan (Rakhine State) dated 9 October 1988 (in Burmese language), p.4.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
The truth is, this aborted Naga Min (King Dragon) Operation put 'the Rohingya ssue' to
the attention of the international community. Because of that many foreign media were
trapped by 'the tragic history of the Rohingyas'.
5.4. The Second 'aborted' Naga Min (King Dragon) Operation
29
in 1991
n 1991, a deadly cyclone hit Bangladesh and many people crossed the border. As usual,
the new Military Junta of Burma called SLORC too did not want international observers
inside Burma, but stupidly started the 'aborted' Second Naga Min Operation in 1991.
Consequently, the issue of military abuses against the "Rohingyas" in Arakan was raised
and it was vehemently rejected by the Burmese Junta.
This time, the international pressure was even harsher than in 1978, the First Naga Min
Operation, because the reputation of the then Military Junta called SLORC was worse than
the reputation of Ne Win's regime. This time the propaganda of the 'Rohingyas' were
more effective than in 1978 because they got support from the rich Muslim countries and
some international media. The SLORC had to accept 'the Rohingyas' repatriated back to
Burma and as usual more people than they chased out.
5.5. Human trafficking
5.5.1. BangIadeshi IIIegaI immigrants in other Southeast Asians Countries
The latest news revealed that even in Thailand and slamic countries of Southeast Asia,
Malaysia and ndonesia, whenever they checked the strangers looked different from their
natives in features and complexions are found to be Bangladeshis, although these three
countries do not have borders with Bangladesh. Sometimes these settlers claimed to be
"Burmese Muslims, however, since these people could not speak a single word Burmese
but asking for a Bengali interpreter and they don't look like Burmese who have very similar
features and complexion like Thais, ndonesian and Malays, these illegal settlers were
arrested and deported back to Bangladesh.
t is human nature for the people of a poor country to seek their fortune in a more
prosperous country. Nowadays, there are about two million Burmese and other ethnic
minorities working in Thailand and Malaysia either as legal or illegal immigrant workers.
Many Mexicans entered into USA illegally, African Boat People wanted to enter one of the
soils of EU, many Afghans, Chinese and Subcontinent people were taken by human
traffickers as illegal immigrants to Western Europe, USA, Canada and Australia.
Bangladesh is a poor country and very overpopulated. Malaysia is the nearest rich Muslim
country. Hence, no wonder, most of the poor Bangladeshis wanted to go to Malaysia to
seek their luck. f they said the truth that they were from Bangladesh, they would be
29
1hls operaLlon was offlclally named as yl 1har ?ar CperaLlon and also known as PlnLha lan
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Dist. OI
Maung Daw
No oI Iamily No. oI Iamily
Male Female Total
Outgoing 12496 unknown unknown 79823
Incoming 17674 54935 54732 109667

considered only as illegal immigrants and turned back. Since 'Rohingyas' speak the same
language and have the same culture as the Chittagonian Bengalis, it is 'the golden
opportunity' for them to 'make hay while the sun shines' and claimed to be 'Rohingyas' as
they were taught by either the slamists or the human traffickers.
6. IsIamists Rohingyas
6.1. Armed Wings of Rohingyas
The following are the Rohingya Armed Wings
1. RSO (Rohingya Solidarity Organization);
2. ARF (Arakan Rohingya slamic Front);
3. RPF (Rohingya Patriotic Front);
4. RLO (Rohingya Laberation Organization);
5. MA (tihadul Mozahadin of Arakan).
6.1.2. Rohingya-TaIiban Connections
Most of the 'Rohingyas' were and are the supporters of Pakistan and some Bangladeshi
sources claimed that Rohingyas have connection with the terrorist group such as Taliban
of Afghanistan. Here would like to cite William Gomes
30
, who wrote: "n 1990s, 70,000 to
120,000 Muslim youth trained to fight in Asia, Africa, and in Middle East in different Al-
Qaeda and Taliban camps in Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda highly trained a notable number of
slamic groups and indoctrinated them with the mission of "Jihad" that influx all over the
world the message of fear and violence.
Arakan Rohingya Nationalist Organization (ARNO) and Rohingya Solidarity Organisation
(RSO) were among the groups who were trained in Afghanistan camps and were and are
active in Myanmar and Bangladesh".
Dr. Rohan Gunaratna
31
also wrote: , n Southeast Asia, al Qaeda's leaders also did the
same. Hambali was al Qaeda's point man, convened the Rabitatul
Mujahidin meeting, which was partly participated by representatives from MLF and
ASG in the Philippines, Laskar Jundullah from ndonesia, J, and Jemaah Salafia.
Also, J leaders from Malaysia, Thailand, ndonesia, Singapore and the Philippines
participated in that meeting. Other than that, we saw representatives from the RSO and
the ARNO from Myanmar, participating in that meeting.
Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury
32
too reported: "n January 2001, Bangladesh clamped
down on Rohingya activists and offices in Chittagong and Cox's Bazar. Hundreds were
rounded up, and the local press was full of reports of their alleged involvement in gun- and
drug-running. Local Rohingya leaders vehemently deny such accusations, and refute
claims that they are connected with slamic fundamentalist groups in and outside
30
William Gomes, Rohingyas trained in different Al-Qaeda and Taliban camps in Afghanistan,
http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/16449

31
Dr. Rohan Gunaratna, Al Qaeda's Network in Southeast Asia, p.
32
Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury, Rise of Islamist extremism in Bangladesh,
http://www.globalpolitician.com/24508-bangladesh,
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Bangladesh: "These are pure fabrications to discredit us," said Nurul slam, president of
the Arakan Rohingya National Organization, a moderate Rohingya group active in the
border areas. Another Rohingya spokesman blamed local Bangladeshi gangs with high-
level connections for the violence, smuggling and lawlessness in the area. The
paramilitary Bangladesh Rifles have also been accused of involvement in smuggling
activities around Cox's Bazar.
There is little doubt that extremist groups have taken advantage of the disenfranchised
Rohingyas, including recruiting them as cannon fodder for Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. n an
interview with the Karachi-based newspaper, Ummat on 28 September 2001, Bin Laden
said: "There are areas in all parts of the world where strong Jihadist forces are present,
from ndonesia to Algeria, from Kabul to Chechnya, from Bosnia to Sudan, and from
Myanmar to Kashmir." He was most probably referring to a small group of Rohingyas on
the Bangladesh-Myamnar border.
Bertil Lintner
33
also wrote: "Many of the Rohingya recruits were given the most dangerous
tasks in the battlefield, clearing mines and portering. According to Asian intelligence
sources, Rohingya recruits were paid 30,000 Bangladeshi taka ($525) on joining and then
10,000 taka ($175) per month. The families of recruits killed in action were offered 100,000
taka ($1,750). Recruits were taken mostly via Nepal to Pakistan, where they were trained
and sent on further to military camps in Afghanistan. t is not known how many people from
this part of Bangladesh Rohingyas and others fought in Afghanistan, but the number
is believed to be quite substantial. Others went to Kashmir and even Chechnya to join
forces with slamist militants there.
n an interview with the CNN in December 2001, American 'Taliban' fighter, John Walker
Lindh, related that the Al Qaeda-directed ansar (companions of the Prophet) brigades, to
which he had belonged in Afghanistan, were divided along linguistic lines: "Bengali,
Pakistani (Urdu) and Arabic," which suggests that the Bengali-speaking component
Bangladeshi and Rohingya must have been significant. n early 2002, Afghanistan's
Foreign Minister, Dr. Abdullah, told a Western journalist that "we have captured one
Malaysian and one or two supporters from Burma.
6. 2. Formation of ARNO (Arakan Rohingya NationaI Organistion)
34
Muslim Terrorist-nsurrection groups such as the Rohingya Solidarity Organization (RSO),
Arakan Rohingya slamic Front (ARF) and Hak Kavt group combined and established the
Rohingya National Council (RNC) on 28 October, 1998. The RNC was then reorganized
as the Arakan Rohingya National Council (ARNC). The Rohingya Liberation Army (RLA)
was also formed by combining all the armed insurgents of the groups. The Arakan
Rohingya National Organization was formed to organize all the different Rohingya
insurgents into one group under pressure from Muslim groups outside Burma.

6.2.1. Organization of ARNO

33
Bertil Lintner, Religious Extremism and Nationalism in Bangladesh, The paper was presented in an
international workshop on Religion and Security in South Asia at the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies
in Honolulu, Hawaii. August 19-22, 2002.
34
See details in: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2002/10/02RANGOON1310.html
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
The headquarters of ARNO was opened at No. (30 Ju-ma-khar street, Ju-ma-khar ward,
Chittagong in Bangladesh. Their camps are based at Zai-Lar-Saw-Ri HQ camp--map
reference (PG-2916), Daw-Maw-Sri camp--map reference (P6-0537) and Kyar-Laung-Taik
camp--map reference (PG-2026). ARNO group had an estimated strength of about 200
insurgents, of whom about 170 are equipped with a variety of arms. A Central Committee
of ARNO is organized as follows:

(a) Chairman
(b) Military Commander
(c) Secretary
(d) Asst Secretary (Chittagong Office-in-Charge)
(e) Central Committee Member (Asst Military-in-Charge)
(f) do
(g) Central Committee Member
(h) do
(i) do
(j) Foreign Liaison-in-Charge
(k) Foreign Fund Raiser
(l) Representative for Malaysia
(m) Cox's Bazaar District Organizer
(n) Finance Officer
(o) Liaison Officer
(p) Advisor
(q) Camp Commander (Zai-La-Saw-Ri Camp)
(r) Deputy Camp Commander
(s) Camp Commander (Daw-Maw-Sri Camp)
(t) Camp Commander (Kya-Long-Taik Camp)
6.2.1.1. Meeting of Five Members of ARNO with TaIiban Ieader Osama Bin Laden
35

Five members of ARNO attended a high-ranking officers' course with Al Qaeda
representatives on 15 May, 2000 and arrived back in Bangladesh on 22 June. During the
course, they discussed matters relating to political and military affairs, arms and
ammunition, and financing with Osama Bin Laden. Mohamed Arju Taida and Mohamed
Rau-Sheik Ar-Mar Darsi from the Taliban were present with them at the meeting. Ninety
members of ARNO were selected to attend a guerrilla warfare course, a variety of
explosives courses and heavy-weapons courses held in Libya and Afghanistan in August,
2001. Thirteen out of these selected members participated in the explosives and heavy-
weapons training.

6.2.1.2. ArrivaI of Two TaIiban at ARNO Headquarters
36

Al Ha-Saud and Al Ja-hid, two members of the Taliban group, arrived at ARNO's
headquarters in Zai-La-Saw-Ri Camp on 2 November, 2001 from the Rohingya Solidarity
Organization's (RSO) Kann-Grat-Chaung camp. They met with Nur slam (Chairman),
ZaFaur-Ahmed (Secretary) and Fayos Ahmed (acting Chief-of-Staff Army), ARNO, and
discussed the reorganization of RSO and ARNO. t was learned that ARNO/RSO and
Taliban groups planned to hold a meeting on 15 November, 2001. Nur slam, Chairman of
35
bid
36
bid
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
ARNO, also declared that the Arakan Rohingya slamic Front (ARF) and the Rohingya
Solidarity Organization (RSO) had agreed to reorganize as integrated members of ARNO.
However, Mullah Dil-Mar from RSO did not agree with this re-organization and resigned
with his entourage of insurgents.
6.2.1.3. ARNO connections with IsIamist Terrorists in U.S.A
37
According to Fayos Ahmed, ARNO Military-in-Charge, Salem Ulah, had contacts with Al-
Qaeda and some members of ARNO forces were arrested when they were sent to join the
Taliban in Afghanistan and attacked the Americans. These ARNO forces were sent to
Afghanistan along with Rohingya groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Rohingya groups are in
many countries like Pakistan, ndia, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, UAE, Palestine and Australia.
Chairman Nurul slam has received an American visa and departed for Saudi Arabia from
Bangladesh, with an intent to reside in Saudi Arabia for a short period and then depart for
the United States. Fayos Ahmed, during his short stay in Thailand, met with Dr. Allen from
NCGUB Foreign Affairs Department, David Htaw from KNU and David Smile from Burma
Lawyer Council (BLC). He went to Thailand as an editor of a news media and returned to
Bangladesh on 12 September.

6.2.1.4. Investigation of Members of Rohingya Jihad Caught in Singapore:
38


Hanbali and Baasyia are leaders of Jemaah slamiyah (J)-organized Rabitatul Mujahideen
group which was involved in the whole region as a Muslim organization. Through contacts
with Muslim groups in the region, active cooperation was achieved in matters of training,
weapons-buying, financing, exchange of information and terrorist military operations. The
other organizations which cooperated were Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM), two
organizations in Southern Thailand and Rakhine and Rohingya terrorist-insurgents in
Myanmar. ARNO has established a contact with Al-Qaeda and five Central Committee
members of ARNO paid a visit to Afghanistan in April, 2001. Besides, ARNO has also
cooperated with Republic of slam Aceh (RA) and Egyptian Jammah Jihad Mesir (JJM). t
is believed that there exists a small community of Rohingya's in Patuwat, Malaysia.
6.3. 'Rohingyas' in Jammu and Kashmir
Narinjara News agency reported on 8
th
September 2011: ,According to local refugee
sources, many refugees in the Burmese refugee camps located at Cox's Bazaar in
Bangladesh are leaving for Jammu Kashmir, a Muslim state in Western ndia, near the
Pakistani border, in order to pursue better living standards".
But the real reason is: Jammu and Kashmir the places to link them up with terrorist
groups. Of course, it will be ,in order to pursue better living standards" because they will
get good salaries!!
7. AnaIysis:
7.1. Who immigrate to where
f we compare Burma and Bangladesh by means of population density, we will see that
37
bid
38
bid
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Bangladesh has one of the highest in the world while Burma has a very low one.
39
Natural
catastrophes, like storms, cyclones and floods hit Bangladesh every year, but rarely
Burma. Soil fertility in the Rakhine State is much better than that of Bangladesh. Burma
was a very rich country compared to East Pakistan (later Bangladesh). Even now,
although Burma has become a poor country, the way of life in Burma is much easier than
that in Bangladesh. Besides, Burma has more space, so logically who immigrates where
does not need to be explained.
Here would like to cite Milton W. Meyer
40
who wrote: "A common boundary existed with
East Pakistan, and with a Muslim minority in adjoining Arakan, there was some illegal
immigration from the over populated neighbour.
Every time illegal immigrants were checked, many of the new Bengali settlers were
arrested because the only language they could speak was Chittagonian Bengali! Almost
all of them had to learn the Burmese language in the jails because they could not speak
Burmese as well as any other language of Burma, although Burmese language is the
official language of Burma as well as the Lingua Franca or 'the Language of
Communication' between one ethnic minority groups to the other group. Since the border
of Burma was neither properly controlled nor well guarded with barbed wires and walls,
nobody can say when they came over to Burma or since when they have lived there. Both
"Rohingyas" problems, 1978 and 1991, came about a few months after a cyclone hit
Bangladesh. Bangladesh's population explosion cannot be controlled by their government
anymore. Even ndia, the world's largest democracy, whose people are of the same
historical and racial background as those people from Bangladesh, raised barbed wires
along their borders with Bangladesh to prevent illegal immigration towards their side.
41

Nowadays, there are about 15 millions illegal immigrants from Bangladesh living in
neighboring ndian States. The Governor of Assam wrote an official letter to the President
of ndia about that problem
42
.
Apart from that, the border between Bangladesh and Burma is not a border between two
countries instead it is the border between two regions as well as the border between ndo-
Aryan and Mongoloid stocks, both of whom are totally different either in language and
culture or in race and religion. So, no wonder, the one who do not look like natives of
Burma and especially who cannot speak either Burmese or the indigenous minority
language of that area, instead speaking only Bengali Chittagong Dialect will be accused as
illegal immigrants or new settlers from Bangladesh because the early settlers, though they
too, are Chittagonian Bengalis but could speak Burmese and Arakanese already.
Unfortunately, international media spread out the news only about the poor 'Rohingya
Refugees' neither wanted by Burma nor Bangladesh. The real fact that most of them were
39
Bangladesh has a population density of 969 per square kilometre. The growth rate of population in that
country is 2.2 per cent and its population is growing at the rate of 2.8 million per year. Each year nearly one
third of Bangladesh gets inundated by floods, displacing 19 million people. 70 million people constituting 60
per cent of the population live below the poverty line. The per capita income in Bangladesh is 170 dollars per
year (1998).
40
Milton W. Meyer, Southeast Asia (A Brief History), A Littlefield, Adams & Co., New Jersey, 1966, P. 121
41
Only in 2009 Burmese authorities started to guard the border with barbed wires, which Bangladesh
vehemently protested. n fact, the Bangladeshi Government should be happy and welcome this, if these
people were REAL LLEGAL MMGRANTS FROM BURMA!
42
Report On llegal Migration to Assam Submitted to the President of ndia by the Governor of Assam, 8th
November, 1998
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
illegal immigrants was not reported.
This happens only because the military government of Burma has a very bad image and
reputation either in the internal or international politics, and is named Pariah State by some
Western Countries; the slamists, the Rohingyarists and their lobbyists know very well that
many Western Nations as well as UN could and would not believe the statement of the
Burmese Government even if the Burmese Government was in the correct side!
The human rights abuses of Burmese armed forces against the poor 'Rohingyas' were
preferred to be reported. Brutalaties and human right abuses of Burmese armed forces
were and are well known in all areas of Burma, including against their own clergy, the
Buddhists monks!!
In any case, I wouId Iike to emphasize that human rights vioIations, miIitary abuses
and brutaI crimes committed against the "Rohingyas" by the various Burmese
MiIitary Juntas must be strongIy condemned, aIthough the "Rohingyas" are iIIegaI
immigrants.
7.2. IIIusions of some fanatic MusIims
n the1970's, after they were given a "Rosy Picture" by Gaddafi of Libya, some fanatic
Muslims from the overpopulated Subcontinent and Muslim fundamentalists in Southeast
Asia dreamed of a Muslim-dominated Southeast Asian Coast. They noticed that the whole
of Southeast Asian Coasts except the Burmese Coastal Lines are populated with Muslim
majority. Malaysia, Brunei, and ndonesia are Muslim countries. The sland of Mindanao
of the Catholic dominated country, the Philippines, has many Muslims. Even the Kra
Peninsula of the Buddhist country, Thailand, has Muslim majority. So, they wanted to use
the following methods:
43
7.2.1. Change the reIigion of the natives through marriage to a MusIim
n the late 1970's until 1980's there were lots of slogans and campaigns made by fanatic
Muslims groups in Burma that Muslim men to marry Buddhist women, especially either
influential women or the daughters of "Big Shots" with special rewards offered to those
who could do so. The Muslim youth called Hlwan Moe, a pop singer, who courted and
married the daughter of U Maung Maung Kha, the then Prime Minister of the Socialist
Republic of the Union of Burma, was rewarded with a lot of money, however, named as
"Wedding Present" by some Muslims. Almost everybody in Burma knew that story.
7.2.2. Transfer of peopIe from overpopuIated MusIim countries

Since Bangladesh is too over populated some of its citizens should be transferred to
under-populated non-Muslim countries such as Burma, so that Muslims will be
everywhere. However, rrawaddy Delta Coast and Tenessarim Coast of Burma can be
reached only by sea route from Bangladesh and it would be difficult. Thus, the transfer of
people from Bangladesh to under-populated Arakan by land route, just to cross the
uncontrolled border, so that it would become a Muslim majority state, and later to declare
the area as a separate state of Arakanistan or Arakandesh. f the declaration and
separation can not be done easily, the religious war "Jihad" should be declared if
43
See also:, Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, pp. 65-80
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
necessary, financial and military aid from all Muslim countries should be requested.

It can not be ruIed out that some MusIim countries can easiIy be persuaded. Here I
Iike to cite BertiI Lintner, ChronoIogy of The Events, in du, SonderbeiIage, Heft 11,
1993, where it was written: "Prince KhaIed SuItan AbduI Aziz, commander of the
Saudi contingent in the 1991 GuIf War, visited Dhaka, BangIadesh, in Mid-ApriI 1992
and recommended a Desert Storm-Iike action against Burma; "just what [the UN] did
to Iiberate Kuwait".
7.3. Are IsIamists a threat to the Union of Myanmar?
Definitely sure they are. t is already proven that they are terrorists. One should remember
the following slamists' attacks: On the World Trade Center in New York and also the
attack on US Defence Ministry 'Pentagon' on 9th September 2001, on London tube station
on 7
th
July 2005, on Spanish Train in Madrid, on tourists on Bali sland in ndonesia,
Moscow Theatre, Mumbai (Bombay) Hotel, Dehli Highcourt on 7
th
September 2011 etc.
etc. After these events, the Westerners became serious on slamists.
Especially for the country like Burma where the government had a very bad reputation and
image, and named Pariah State by some Western Countries; the slamists know very well
that many Western Nations as well as UN could and would not believe the statement of
the Burmese Government even if the Burmese Government was in the correct side!
Hence, they have a big advantage and they would dare to do all for slamization.
On 13
th
May 1988, seizing the opportunity arising from the unstable situation in the country
due to the political disturbances starting from the bloodshed demonstrations of the
students since March, a sea of about 50000 (fifty thousand) Chittagonian Bengalis, some
of them came from the other side of the border, converged upon Maungdaw from all sides
around town coming on foot and shouted: ,Kill all Rakhaings! Your land will be our own
due to Allah's will"!
44
However, the slamists diverted the story later and boasted that the 'Rohingyas' were the
first people demonstrated against BSPP government and were brutally killed by the army,
even earlier than students in Rangoon on 8
th
August 1988!!
On 20
th
March 2011, both rrawaddy and Narinjara News Agencies reported that Burmese
authorities had arrested about 80 Taliban suspects together with arms and explosives at
the border town Maungdaw. n June this year 12 of them were sentenced from 3 to 8
years imprisonment. t is very mild imprisonment in Burma because student leaders and
political prisoners were sentenced 20 years to 90 years imprisonment by the Burmese
Regime!
The present author, on the other hand, believes the slamists would use another method
of slamization in Burma, namely "Engulfing of a lesser ethnic group by a more populated
group rather than terrorist attacks, taking advantage on living conditions in Burma.
Before Ne Win came to power until 1962, Burma was one of Asia's rich and very
prosperous countries. Unfortunately, after 26 years of his rule, Burma became one of the
poorest countries in the world and had to ask for the Least Developed Countries (LDC)
44
See also Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, New York, 2004 p.80
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Status in the United Nations and it was granted in 1987 which led the nation wide anti-
govenment demonstrations with bloodbaths and the eventual downfall of BSPP
government. As mentioned before, since 1988, the Burmese Military Junta had very bad
image and reputations. Burma was regarded as the second most corrupt country on the
earth by Transparency nternational. The Burmese Military has one of the highest number
of Child-Soldiers.
Although Burmese government restricted the movement of these so-called 'Rohingyas' on
paper because of corruption in all levels, they could go everywhere in Burma. Sometimes,
army convoys were their carrier to Chinese, Laotian and Thai borders. Taking advantage
on the economic situation of the Burmese and other ethnic minorities, many of these
'Rohingya Muslim men' took poor women from Burmese and other ethnic minorities as
their wives. According to slamic tradition those women and their offsprings must become
Muslims. For that reason, slamists received financial support from rich Muslim countries.
Since a Muslim man can marry up to four wives officially, this method should be the fastest
and safest for slamization of a non-Muslim country.
That will be the biggest danger for Burma's and Buddhists' future!!
Muslim Sharia Law dictated the Muslim community to convert all 'infidels', i.e., all who
supported any other religions except slam. A Muslim who converts to another religion can
be punishable with a death penalty. There was and is no Muslim ruler who undertook or
undertakes to promote Buddhism or Christianity or any other religion. The Crusade Wars
had proven this in history. n 2000, the Talibans of Afghanistan destroyed two 2000 years
old gigantic Buddha Statues despite of protests from the whole world. They could not
keep those statues even as historical monuments. For them, those statues were the "dols
of the nfidels!
8. The PoIicy of 'Make Hay WhiIe The Sun Shines'
The truth is all sides, the 'Rohingyarists', the Burmese Junta, the Bangladesh Government
and some Muslim Groups inside Bangladesh, wanted to take advantage of this 'Rohingya'
Problem.
8. 1. The 'Rohingyarists' (both inside and outside Burma)
The 'Rohingyarists' wanted to use political turmoil in Burma as well as the bad reputation
and image of the Burmese Military Junta as their Golden Opportunity and wanted and still
want to turn the traditional Buddhist Land of Arakan into an slam-majority State by
bringing hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims as
'Rohingyas'. When these Chittagonian Bengalis are inside Burma, they automatically
named themselves 'Rohingyas'. With the help of local Muslims, they can bribe the corrupt
authorities to get temporary residential permit and later they can try to go anywhere in
Burma. The slamists, Rohingyarists and their lobbyists are financed by rich Muslim
countries for that.
On one hand, the Rohingyarists claim that they, the 'Rohingyas', are the Second Largest
Ethnic Group (next to Rakhaings) in the Rakhine State of Burma (Arakan), on the other
hand, if one counts their lists of refugees abroad, the population of 'Rohingyas' abroad will
outnumber the Arakanese (Rakhaings)!! t is a real contradiction and it proves that they
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
want to bring or 'import' Chittagonian Bengalis to Burma as 'Rohingyas'.
Apart from that, they are now trying to invent a new definition as 'AII MusIims in
Burma are caIIed Rohingyas' because earIier they had onIy 'Arakan Rohingya
Organization' but nowadays they aIready had estabIished 'Burma Rohingya
Organizations' in many countries which had proven their aim is to IsIamize the
whoIe of Burma.
8.2. The Burmese MiIitary Junta:
The Military Regime wanted to use the dishonest claims of the 'Rohingyas' as the 'Threat
of slamists' to the whole nation and wanted to make 'face lift up' of their reputation. They
succeeded to a certain extent. Many Buddhists in Burma noticed that almost all of the
'Rohingyas' were the illegal immigrants from Bangladesh who crossed the border for
various reasons and if Burma was forced to accept them as citizens, it would be the great
danger for their nation, race and the Buddhist Religion in the future. That's why many
opposition groups, except some extremists who followed the saying 'the enemy of my foe
is my friend', did not and do not give any comments on this 'Rohingya' issue
45
.
The Ethnic National Council (ENC) formed in 'the liberated areas' too does not recognize
the so-called Rohingyas as an ethnic group of Burma despite of strong lobbying by the
Euro-Burma Bureau for 'Rohingyas'.
On 16
th
July 2011, Burma Ethnic Nationalties Cultural Event (BENC) was successfully
held. No 'Rohingyas' were invited!
t is proven that, not only the Rakhaings (Arakanese) but also other ethnic nationals of
Burma do not consider the so-called Rohingya as their compatriots.
8.3. The BangIadeshi Government and some IsIamists inside BangIadesh
The Bangladeshi Government would profit in any case. They cannot control the
population explosion of the country anymore and wanted to 'export' their people into
neighboring countries. As mentioned before, there are about 15 million illegal Bangladeshi
immigrants in ndia and the Governor of Assam wrote an official letter to ndian President.
46
45
The NLD in Burma never gave their position about the "Rohingyas", so does the National Coalition
Government of the Union of Burma headed by Dr. Sein Win. The present author and Dr. Sein Win were
classmates in the St. John's Diocesan Boys' High School then, and graduated together from the University of
Rangoon. Again, in the late 60's, we were together in Germany for further studies. So, we are good friends
and could discuss this problem openly. Dr. Sein Win personally shares the present author's view, however,
he admitted that as the 'Prime Minister of the NCGUB' he could not make any statements which will favour
the SLORC's position.
On the other hand, the late Kyemon U Thaung, famous through his pen-name Aung Bala, a well known
opposition in exile, told the present author that though he belonged to the opposition he could not support the
"Rohingya Movement" because most of the "Rohingyas" were real illegal immigrants and supporting their
movement would be the biggest danger for the nation, the religion and all indigenous ethnic groups of
Burma.
46
The Governor of the ndian State of Assam reported in 1998: "There is no evidence of Bangladesh
authorities organising the movement of population but they certainly have made no attempt to prevent it and
indeed, may be welcoming it, to ease their problem of bursting population. Thus, there is now even an
attempt to cover up this movement. Prime Minister Sheikh Haseena has recently asserted that no
Bangladeshi is illegally living in ndia.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Although they knew that the majority of the 'Rohingyas' were in fact Chittagonian Bengalis
from Bangladesh, they insisted that these people were not Bangladeshis but they came
from Burma as refugees to Bangladesh. n that way they can get money and helps from
international aid agencies and organizations. Apart from that they can solve the population
explosion partially by transferring some of their people into neighboring counties.
However, in 1975 the Bangladeshi ambassador in Burma, K.N. Kaiser, admitted to the
then British ambassador to Burma, Mr. T. J. O'Brien that there were still about five hundred
thousand illegal Bangladeshi immigrants inside Burma. That report can be seen in British
Archives in London. Dr. Aye Chan, a Rakhaing working as a professor at the Kanda
University in Japan wrote an article on that case.
For slamists inside Bangladesh, they could get Lion's Share by using 'Rohingya Problem'
because they can get petrol dollars from Arab slamists for slamization of Burma as well
as they could do Human Trafficking of poor Bangladeshis as 'Rohingya Refugees from
Burma', who either wanted to seek jobs in well-paid countries or who wanted to settle in a
rich country!
9. ConcIusion
,Rohingya Refugees" Problem is not a common refugees problem as known to
international media. t is much deeper in the political sense. t is an undercover Project of
the slamization of Arakan at first and then step by step of the whole of Burma by the
slamists and Rohingyarists. Under the 'Mask' of the 'Poor Rohingya Refugees' there is a
Crooked Smile' of slamists.
This kind of Projects started since Burma was separated from the British ndian Empire in
1937 and enlarged after Burma regained her ndependence. Some extremist slamists
wanted to 'export' millions of Chittagonian Bengalis as 'Rohingyas' to Arakan and in this
way they could turn the traditional Buddhist land of Arakan and then later the whole of
Burma into an slamic state. These Rohingyarists invented a fake history and they hired
lobbyist and propagandists.
They can use 'Make Hay While The sun Shines Policy' especially for the country like
Burma where the government had a very bad reputation and image, and named Pariah
State by some Western Countries; because many Western Nations as well as UN could
not and would not believe the statement of the Burmese Government even if the Burmese
Government was in the correct side!
Hence, many misinformation were and are spread out by the Rohingyarists and many
Westerners, without doing proper researches but rely only on hear-say stories, were and
are trapped by them. These kind of unscholarly writings favour the position of slamists
and these wrong or misleading information is often quoted and disseminated by
subsequent authors, leading to a situation whereby it eventually acquires the status of
being true and correct.
The slamists and Rohingyarists have enough money supported by rich slamic Nations for
slamization of non-slamic countries. They don't need to find a scholar, instead they can
even buy some lobbyists and propagandists for them cheaply. That's why their
propaganda can be more effective than the true statements of the poor Rakhaings who
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
cannot hire propagandists.
Again, would like to emphasize that human rights violations, military abuses and brutal
crimes committed against the "Rohingyas" by the various Burmese Military Juntas must be
strongly condemned, whoever the "Rohingyas" are.
n the mean time, would like to appeal to Human Rights Lobbyists to please consider also
the Human Rights of the Arakanese (Rakhaings)! s that not the Violation of Human
Rights that firstly, the Name of their Ethnic Group and Country was already hijacked by the
slamists and now secondly, the ntruders are now trying to rob their nativeland with "the
Mask of the Refugee!

slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
EpiIogue
t took a lot of courage for this woman to speak, what she had to say for the world to hear.
The retribution could be phenomenal, but at least she was willing to take a stand on her
and Australia 's beliefs.
Prime Minister Julia Gillard said: Australia Muslims who want to live under slamic Sharia
law, were told on Wednesday to get out of Australia, as the government targeted radicals
in a bid to head off potential terror attacks.
Separately, Gillard angered some Australian Muslims on Wednesday by saying she
supported spy agencies monitoring the nation's mosques.
Quote: 'MMGRANTS, NOT AUSTRALANS, MUST ADAPT.. Take t Or Leave t.
am tired of this nation worrying about whether we are offending some individual or their
culture. Since the terrorist attacks on Bali, we have experienced a surge in patriotism by
the majority of Australians. '
'This culture has been developed over two centuries of struggles, trials and victories by
millions of men and women who have sought freedom'.

'We speak mainly ENGLSH, not Spanish, Lebanese, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian,
or any other language. Therefore, if you wish to become part of our society. Learn the
language!'
'Most Australians believe in God. This is not some Christian, right wing, political push, but
a fact, because Christian men and women, on Christian principles, founded this nation,
and this is clearly documented. t is certainly appropriate to display it on the walls of our
schools. f God offends you, then suggest you consider another part of the world as your
new home, because God is part of our culture.'
'We will accept your beliefs, and will not question why. All we ask is that you accept ours,
and live in harmony and peaceful enjoyment with us.'
'This is OUR COUNTRY, OUR LAND, and OUR LFESTYLE, and we will allow you every
opportunity to enjoy all this. But once you are done complaining, whining, and griping
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Julia Gillard Photo by NZPA
about Our Flag, Our Pledge, Our Christian beliefs, or Our Way of Life, highly encourage
you take advantage of one other great Australian freedom, 'THE RGHT TO LEAVE'.' 'f
you aren't happy here then LEAVE. We didn't force you to come here. You asked to be
here. So accept the country YOU accepted.'
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
GLOSSARY
Arakan The land in the West Coast of Burma known to the West. t is also called
Rakhaing Pree or Yakhaing Pyay.
Arakanese The natives of Arakan or Rakhaing Pree as known to the West, who are
Buddhists and ethnically Mongoloid. However, The Rakhaings (Arakanese)
traditionally believe that they are the descendants of the "Sakya Sakis" the
race from which Lord Gautama Buddha came.
Burma A country in Southeast Asia and a member of ASEAN. Same as Myanmar.
Burman A Burmese. The people of the most dominant ethnic group in
Burma/Myanmar, who are Buddhists and ethnically Mongoloid. The
Burmese/Burman too traditionally believe that they are the descendants of
the "Sakya Sakis" the race from which Lord Gautama Buddha came.
Burmese 1. Same as Burman. 2. The people and the language of the most
dominant ethnic group in Burma/Myanmar; it is also known as
Bama/Myanmar in the native tradition.
Rakhaing Pree Same as Arakan. t is called Rohan or Rosan in Bengali Chittagong
dialect
Rakhaing An Arakanese. Named as Magh or Mogg or Mugg and also Rohangya
by the Bengalis.
Rohingyas The self-proclaimed name of Chittagonian Bengali Muslims in Northern
Arakan . No historical background on that name. n the Chittagonian
Dialect of Bengali Language, the Rakhaing Land or Arakan is called
'Rohan' and the Rakhaing People or Arakanese are called 'Rohangya
(Rohan = Rakhaing (Arakan), Gya = man). Since the word is of Bengali
origin, some of the Muslim secessionists used the name to identify
themselves as if they were natives of Arakan and named themselves as
'Rohingya' by 'hijacking' the name of the real natives of Arakan
(Rakhaings) in Bengali language!!
Rohingyarists slamists, Lobbyists and Propagandists of the Rohingya Movement
who want to slamize Arakan first, then the whole of Burma.
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
BibIiography:
1. U Pho Kyar, A Brief Modern History of Burma (in Burmese).
2. U Ba Than, Burmese History (in Burmese).
3. Major Ba Shin, 'The History of the Union of Burma' (in Burmese).
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Rangoon, 1954.
5. Phayre, Arthur, History of Burma, London, 1883.
6. Cady, John F., A History of Modern Burma. 3
rd
edition. thaca: Cornell University
Press, 1965.
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Rangoon, 1917.
8. Harvey, G.E., Outline Of Burmese History, Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd., London,
1947.
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10. Maurice Collis, The Land of the Great Image, Faber & Faber Ltd.
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in the Burmese Empire. n: Asiatick Researchers or Transactions of the Society
instituted in Bengal for inquiring into the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences
and Literature of Asia. V: 219-240, 1801.
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Journey to Chittagong, the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Noakhali and Comilla,
Dhaka University Press, Dhaka, 1992.
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Identity: A Study of Arakan's Subjection in Nineteenth-Century Burma, Journal of
the Economic and Social History of the Orient 51, 2008
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Burma (Myanmar)'.
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October 1988 (in Burmese language).
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the Early British Period.
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Kingdom'.
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the Colonial Era', Berlin, 1994.
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Burma', Berlin 1993.
22. Maung Tha Hla, The Rakhaing, New York, 2004.
23. Khin Maung Saw, 'Who are the Rohingyas, the Origin of the name', Berlin 1993.
24. B.R. Pearn, The Indians in Burma, Rangoon, 1937
25. Desai, W.S., India and Burma, Calcutta, 1954
26. Ton That Tien, India and Burma, in: India and South East Asia 1947-1960, Geneva,
1963
27. REPORT ON ILLEGAL MIGRATION INTO ASSAM, SUBMTTED TO THE
PRESDENT OF NDA BY THE GOVERNOR OF ASSAM, 8 November 1998
28. Aye Kyaw, The Rohingya and the Rakhaing, America Burma nstitute, New York,
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
The paper is written in response to a conference on the Rohingya and the
democratic movement of Myanmar, July 16, 2007 held in Tokyo.
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Jersey, 1966
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Bangkok, 1995
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Afghanistan, Asia Tribune, 01. 04. 2004.
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36. http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2002/10/02RANGOON1310.html
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Appendix
Photos

Border fence destroyed at the Bangladeshi side
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011

A Scene of an Arakanese Town
Buddha Statues n Afghanistan destroyed by the Talibans
Taller Buddha in 1963 and in 2008 after destruction
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011
Smaller Buddha in 1977

Site of the smaller statue in 2005 after it was destroyed
slamization of Burma Saw September 2011

slamization of Burma Saw September 2011