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Applications of Zigbee

BITS Pilani
K K Birla Goa Campus

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WHAT IS ZIGBEE?
Technological Standard Created for Control and Sensor Networks Based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard Created by the ZigBee Alliance

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

SENSOR/CONTROL NETWORK REQUIREMENTS


Large networks that can operate reliably for years without any intervention Very long battery life very low infrastructure cost and low complexity Device data rate and QoS needs are low Standardized protocols are necessary to allow multiple vendors to interoperate
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Characterstics of Zigbee

Engineers feel Wi-Fi and Bluetooth may be unsuitable for certain applications. ZigBee-compliant radios may operate on one of three different radio bands: the 800 MHz, 900 MHz, or 2.4 GHz frequencies. Follows the internationally recognized radio standard for the MAC and PHY Layer.

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TARGET MARKETS
Monito rs Sens ors Automati on Contr ol Industrial & Commercial Consumer Electronics T V VC R DV D C D Remo te

PC Peripherals Personal Healthcare Low Data Rate Radio Devices Mou se Keyboa rd Joysti ck Gamep ad

Monito rs Diagnost ics Sens ors

Toys & Games

PE Ts Gamebo ys Educatio nal

Home Automation

Securi ty HVA C Lighti ng Closur es

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

ZIGBEE VS WIFI VS bLUETOOTH

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Zigbee vs WiFi vs Bluetooth ZigBee Wi-Fi


Range Networking Topologies Operating frequency 10 100 m Ad-hoc, mesh upto 100 m point to hub

Bluetooth 10 100 m Ad-hoc very small networks 2.1 GHz

868 MHz 2.4 and 5 GHz (Europe) ; 900928 MHz (NA) , 2.4 GHz (worldwide) Low very low (design goal) Industrial control and monitoring, building automation, High High Wireless LAN connectivity, broadband internet access

Complexity Power consumption Applications

High Moderate Wireless connectivity between devices.


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Choosing the right wireless technology

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1. Power

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2. BIT RATE

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3. Range

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WHY ZIGBEE?
Reliable Mesh networking Low data-rate applications Very long battery life Secure Scalable Low cost Global applicability

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System Architecture

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WHAT IS ZIGBEE PROTOCOL?

The IEEE 802.15.4 covers the physical layer and the MAC layer of low-rate WPAN. The ZigBee is an emerging standard that is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 and adds network construction (star networks, peerto-peer/mesh networks, and cluster-tree networks), application services, and more.
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard defined by for low rate, wireless personal area network. The standard defines the Physical layer and Medium Access Layer.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

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ZigBee Node-Types
ZigBee Coordinator (ZBC) (IEEE 802.15.4)

only one in a network initiates network stores information about the network all devices communicate with the ZBC routing functionality bridge to other networks

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ZigBee Router (ZBR) (IEEE 802.15.4)


optional component routes between nodes extends network coverage manages local address allocation/de-allocation
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ZigBee End Device (ZBE) (IEEE 802.15.4 )


optimized for low power consumption cheapest device type communicates only with the coordinator sensor would be deployed here
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ZigBee Network Topologies

Mesh Star

Cluster Tree

PAN coordinator Full Function Device Reduced Function Device

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ZigBee Network Topologies

Star Topology

Advantage

Easy to synchronize Low latency

Disadvantage

Small scale

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ZigBee Network Topologies

Mesh Topology

Advantage

Robust multihop communication Network is more flexible Lower latency Route discovery is costly Needs storage for routing table

Disadvantage

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ZigBee Network Topologies

Cluster Tree

Advantage

Low routing cost Allow multihop communication Route reconstruction is costly Latency may be quite long

Disadvantage

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ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING

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ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING

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BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING

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ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING

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Radio Interface and Modulation

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ZigBee Frequency Bands

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Quality of Service (QoS)

High data throughput Low duty cycle ZigBee is ideal for home, business, and industrial automation where control devices and sensors are commonly used the battery life of ZigBee devices is very long

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Protocol Architecture

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PHYSICAL LAYER

The 802.15.4 standard specifies different services that the Physical Layer(PHY) provides. The PHY data service controls the radio, and thus, the transmission and reception of the signals. The management service performs Energy Detection in the channel, Clear Channel Assesment before sending the messages.

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IEEE 802.15.4 Physical Layer

PHY functionalities:

Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver Energy detection within the current channel Link quality indication for received packets Clear channel assessment for CSMA-CA Channel frequency selection Data transmission and reception

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IEEE 802.15.4 BANDS


868/868.6 MHz for Europe 902/928 MHz for North America 2400/2483.5 MHz worldwide

Binary Data

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PHY frame structure

PHY packet fields Preamble (32 bits) synchronization Start of packet delimiter (8 bits) shall be formatted as 11100101 PHY header (8 bits) PSDU length PSDU (0 to 127 bytes) data field
PHY Header Sync Header Start of Fram Reserv Preamb Packet e Delimit Lengt e le (1 bit) er h 1 4 1 (7 Octets Octets Octets bit) PHY Payload PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) 0-127 Bytes
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MAC LAYER

Interface between the PHY layer and the higher layer protocols. Handles all access to physical radio channel and is responsible for:

Supporting PAN association and disassociation Supporting device security Handling and maintaining the GTS mechanism Providing a reliable link between two peer MAC entities

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IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer

Device Classes

Full function device (FFD)


Can function in any topology Capable of being Network coordinator Can talk to any other device (FFD/RFD) Limited to star topology Cannot become network coordinator Talks only to FFDs

Reduced function device (RFD)


Address

All devices must have 64 bit IEEE addresses Short (16 bit) addresses can be allocated to reduce packet size

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MAC LAYER FRAME FORMATS

The IEEE 802.15.4 defines four frame types: beacon, data, acknowledgment, and MAC command frame. All frame types are based on the general MAC frame format. The frame control field describes and specifies the above different frame types.

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BEACON FRAME FORMAT

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FRAME FORMAT COMMAND FRAME Click to edit Master subtitle style FORMAT

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Transmission Mode

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NETWORK LAYER

The ZigBee standard works on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 addressing schema by using the standard 64-bit and the short 16-bit addressing. Network layer responsibilities: Establishment of a new network. New device configuration, addressing assignment, network synchronization Frames security Message routing.

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Application Layer

The application layer consists of


APS (Application Support) sub-layer, Application framework Application objects, and ZDO (ZigBee Device Object).

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Security in zigbee

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Security in Zigbee

ZigBee security is based on 128-bit algorithm Security services include methods for key establishment, device management, & frame protection. ZigBee defines security for the MAC, NWK and APS layers Security for applications is provided through Application Profiles.

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ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4
Application API Security
32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption

Custome r

Network MAC PHY

ZigBee Allianc e

Star / Mesh / Cluster-Tree

868MHz / 915MHz / 2.4GHz

IEEE 802.15 .4

ZigBee Alliance -the software -Network, Security & Application layers -Brand management IEEE 802.15.4 -the hardware -Physical & Media Access Control layers

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Trust Center
ZigBee introduces the concept of the trust Center, which Stores the keys for the network Uses the security services to configure a device with its key Uses the security services to authorize a device onto the network The ZigBee Coordinator is usually designated the Trust Center

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Security keys
Master keys used as shared secret between two devices when they perform the Key Establishment Procedure Network keys Perform Network Layer security on a ZigBee network. Link keys Secure messages between two devices at the Application Layer.

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PROS AND CONS

Pros

Cons Not many end devices available yet Single point of failure (centralized architecture)

good extension of existing standards supported by many companies low power consumption low cost easy implemented (Designer concentrates on end application) flexible network structure

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CONCLUSION

Zigbee applications are in diverse areas Zigbee Alliance works as a non-profit organization which has more than 200 members. IEEE 802.15.4 covers Physical Layer And Mac Layer. Zigbee adds network construction,application services, and more.
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