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I STUDY IN KHABAROVSK

2007

I STUDY IN KHABAROVSK

2012

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.. I STUDY IN KHABAROVSK. . I. : - , 2012. 51 .

, . , . . , , . , . . : .. , .

, 2012 I Study in Khabarovsk is an introductory book for university level students studying English. The book is designed to be used over two terms, challenging the student to constantly improve their conversational English language abilities. Starting simply with a review of high school level language, the text flows into more complex forms
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of the language concentrating on the United States use of English. The text presents examples of Russian literature, local and national history, and specialized subject matter to aid the student in improving their understanding of the English language. Throughout the text, exercises are provided to help the student improve their abilities. I Study in Khabarovsk sets a high standard of English comprehension, and will challenge even the most serious of students in the subject matter. Aaron Poole Guest Lecturer

. UNIT 1. ABOUT MYSELF UNIT 2 FAR EASTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF HUMANITIES UNIT 3 A.S. PUSHKIN UNIT 4. EDUCATION IN RUSSIA UNIT 5 KHABAROVSK UNIT 6 KHABAROVSK KRAI UNIT 7 PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 8 PERSONAL COMPUTER UNIT 9 RUSSIA I. II. III

FROM THE AUTHOR Congratulations! You are University students now. Welcome to the "Land of Knowledge." The twenty first century needs multilingual specialists and English continues to be the standard language in the world. We are witnessing the unprecedented global spread of English and thus for Russian speakers English has become more important than ever before. English is the key which opens doors to the world's treasures and new opportunities. This textbook will help you to master your English. You have already studied English at school and we hope that now you will be active in class and use your knowledge of English in life. You can learn to speak English only by doing it. As English is not your major we know that you will have little time to devote to it. That is why you will find that many exercises in this book direct you to talk to each other in pairs or simultaneously in groups of three to five students. We begin with classroom language to make the communication process easier. Enjoy your classes!

CLASSROOM ENGLISH May I come in ? Sorry, I am late. Take your seat. Swap places with ... (Exchange places with smb). Go to the board. Erase the board. Turn on/off the light. Plug in the tape recorder/ the VCR/ the TV. Turn up the tape recorder/ the VCR (increase the volume). Turn it down. Borrow someone's dictionary/pen/pencil. Look up the word in the dictionary. Write the words down. Correct your mistakes. Say it louder/ slower/ with more feeling. Repeat it, please. Answer the questions. Excuse me, may I ... ? Shall I read/ go on/ translate ? What is the English for ... ? What does ... mean ? How do you spell/ use/ pronounce it ? What's the difference between ... and ... ? What was the homework ? Sorry, I haven't done my homework. Sorry, I've left my notebook at home. May I be excused for a moment ? (May I leave the room for a moment ?) We are ready. I am afraid you are wrong. Praises: That was good. Excellent. Very well said. Correct. Greetings and farewells: Good morning! Good afternoon! Good evening! Hello! /Hi! How are you? Nice to meet you. Bye. See you soon. Goodnight. COMMON MODES OF LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Buzz groups (a form of group activity in which groups of students have a brief discussion to answer questions, generate ideas, etc.). Brainstorming (a group activity intended to generate a lot of ideas, every suggestion is recorded). Flashcards. Numbered Heads Together (students in each group number off and put their heads together to share the answer; the teacher calls the number to designate which student can answer for the team). Work in pairs. Roundtable (a good review activity when the teacher asks a question with many possible answers; each team has one piece of paper that rotates around the team where each student writes one answer on the list and passes it, the teammates may help).

1 ABOUT MYSELF 1) Do you remember the following words ? a) Match the English nouns with their Russian equivalents: school, examination, teacher, subject, interval, vacations, word, classmate, exercise, textbook, library, grades, dictionary, board, noun, translation, verb, adjective, building, gym, laboratory, lecture-hall, classroom , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , b) Which of these English words are equivalents to the following Russian words: , , , , , , ? Mother, son, nephew, aunt, cousin, father-in-law, mother-in-law, daughter-in-law, son-in-law, uncle, grandfather, siblings c) Translate the following adjectives: interesting, difficult, favorite, good, excellent, old, new, friendly, modern, foreign, former, young. d) - : Sibling, to enjoy, to graduate, to awake, a divorcee. 2) Is the following true to fact ? You were born in the Far East of Russia. You are seventeen years old. Your family is large: you are seven. Your siblings are younger than you. You live in the dormitory. You liked English at school. Mathematics was your favorite subject. You want to be a teacher. At school you received only good grades. Many of your classmates entered our University. You are married to a film star. Winter is your favorite season. You like to play football. You hate loud music. Alaska is your homeland. You can skate and ski. Swimming is your favorite kind of sport. You know a lot about computers.
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Australians send e-mail to you every month. English is not difficult for you. You cook every day. You like to go to the dentist. Your parents are teachers. The name of your close friend is Andrei. You work and study now. Your former classmates often visit you. 3) Read the text and say what you have in common with Andrei. Andrei is a first year student at the Far Eastern State University of Humanities. He is seventeen. He was not born in Khabarovsk. He is from Nikolaevsk, a town on the Amur river. Now he lives in the dorm. He shares a room with two second year students. Andrei is from a large family. They are six: his mother and father, two sisters and a brother, and Andrei. They are very friendly. His siblings are school students. Andrei misses his family and often sends e-mails to them. He does not have a computer but he can use Internet in the University computer center. He is going to visit his family and see his former classmates during winter vacations. He has already made some friends here. There is a good library at the University. Andrei likes to read so he often goes to the library. He has classes every day and has to read a lot for the lessons. Most of his groupmates are from Khabarovsk. It is interesting to learn about the history of this city from them. Collecting stamps is Andreis hobby, and he also likes to collect CDs of music and games. He hates to cook and prefers fast food. He seldom watches TV, occasionally he goes to a dance or to the movies. Andrei has a girlfriend, Jane, they started to date last year. She is also a student. They like to walk in the park near the Amur river and watch the sunset from the cliff. They have great hopes. 4) Complete the sentences: 1. This year Andrei entered the Far Eastern State . 2. Andrei is young, he is only . 3. live in Nikolaevsk. 4. He does not see his parents but he often . 5. Andrei likes to . 6. When Andrei has free time he goes 7. Cooking is not his hobby, he prefers . 8. Jane and Andrei often . 5) Rewrite the following sentences the way it is in your life: 1. I was born in 1978. 2. I entered the Academy of Arts. 3. I dont like to study. 4. I graduate the Academy in three years. 5. My favorite subject is Psychology. 6. My parents live in Komsomolsk. 7. My relatives live in Siberia.
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8. Our apartment is on the second floor of a modern building. 9. We live near the airport. 10. I go to the Academy by bus. 6) Translate into Russian, looking up words in the dictionary; write out all the words that characterize a person: Sergei has two close friends: Andrei and Victor. The three of them are so different but that makes their friendship even better. Sergei is disciplined, serious, studious, well-mannered and reserved. Sometimes he is bashful. He is also courageous, kind and generous. Andrei is also brave and kind, but he is cheerful, communicative and lazy. Victor is handsome, artistic, courteous and very friendly. He is intelligent, sentimental and sexy. He is also trustworthy. All of them are strong, pleasant, humorous and reliable. 7) Characterize your best friend. 8)Write ten sentences about yourself and use: to enjoy, to hate, to borrow books, to go for a walk, to go to bed, to dislike, to help, to visit, to write letters, to send E-mails. 9) Speak about your family using the following words and expressions: was born, hometown, left school, entered the University, parents, large, grandparents, relatives, siblings, aunts, uncles, cousins, friendly, former classmates, dorms. 10) Answer the questions: 1. Were you born in Khabarovsk ? 2. What school did you finish and when ? 3. Do you live with your parents or rent a room ? 4. Are there any relatives in Khabarovsk ? 5. Did you leave school this year or last year ? 6. Was it difficult to enter the University ? 7. What was your favorite subject at school ? 8. Did you have good grades at school ? 9. Do you have brothers or sisters ? 10.Is English difficult for you ? 11.When did you decide to become a student of this university ? 12. Do you have a close friend ? What does your friend do ? 13.What are your parents ? Are they teachers ? 14. Are you married ? Are you going to get married soon ? 15. What is your favorite place in Khabarovsk ? 16. Where do you like to walk ? 11) Ask one of the students similar questions and write ten sentences about him/her. (You can work in pairs)

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12) Make flashcards with the following words: Family , parents - , grandparents , grandchild - /, relatives , siblings , cousin - / , aunt - , uncle - , son-inlaw - , daughter-in-law - , in-laws - , nephew - , niece - , to be engaged - , to get married / , to divorce , - partner, neighbours , a close friend , to go to bed , to awake - , to get up , classmates - , to make friends , grades , classes , roommate . Note: * , : Parenthood is not easy. . ** , : to get married / , spouse - /, parenthood /, sibling / *** : else, other, another, more, still, yet, only. : ? Who else is coming? ? What other subjects do you like? , . Give me another cup of tea. . Borrow one more book in the library. . The are still in the gym. . She has not passed her exams yet. . Only yesterday she was an applicant. **** When couples live together but do not get married they call each other their partner. 13) 12 , . . 14) , . Nelly is their only grandchild. Tom is our eldest grandchild. I met my cousin Olga last year when we visited my grandparents. My siblings live in California now. Meet Julia, my wife, she is from Quebec, and all my in-laws live Canada. Her books were about children, parenthood and family problems. They got married in June but separated in half a year. I have a date with him next week. 15) . Else, other, another, more, still, yet, only The students are doing their homework. They havent translated the text . What subjects are we going to study next term? She is a teacher now and two months ago she was a student. What countries have you visited? We have
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two lessons today. I like this cake, may I have one? Where do they speak English? In what country do they speak Spanish? 16) close : a close friend, close combat, a bar close to my house, close corporation, close relative. 17) Match each word with its definition: Words Definitions 1. uncle A. two children born to one mother at the same 2. family time 3. sibling B. the brother of ones mother or father; the 4. divorce husband of ones aunt 5. to separate C. to have similar appearance 6. to propose D. your parents parents 7. date E. parents and children 8. relatives F. each of two or more children having one or two 9. ex-husband parents in common 10. to look like G. former husband 11. twins H. putting an end to a marriage by law 12. grandparents I. an appointment J. to live apart remaining legally married K. to offer marriage L. persons connected by blood or marriage 18) Choose five flashcards, not showing them to the others. The students guess what cards you have. Word Families Noun teacher Verb teach Adjective teachable Our English teacher is in London now. Tom teaches teenagers. Jess was a teachable student.

Noun proposal Did she accept his proposal? Noun proposition His proposition of new strategy was discussed. Verb propose Tom proposed his fiance and gave her a ring. Noun separator Use this separator to get cream. Noun separatist All separatists wish to be independent. Noun separation After separation she moved to a new flat. Verb separate Though we separated we are still friends. Adjective separate My niece had a separate room.
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Noun marriage Verb marry Adjective married Adjective marriageable

Our marriage has been successful so far. Marry me, Fiona. The hotel is recommended for married people. There were few marriageable men at the party.

Word Family Practice 1) Choose correct word family member from the list below to complete each blank. Ann and Boris were close friends at school and often talked about their .. and honey-moon. They began to live together and Ann looked forward to his . Boris .. at Christmas. When they reached .. age they got .. .They invited friends and some .. from school as there were no relatives in their city. Anns parents .. when she entered the university and after their .. both lived abroad and Boris was an orphan. The wedding party was great. 1. marriage 2. teacher 3. proposal 4. separator marry married teach teachable proposition separation separatist marriageable propose separate

Prefixes The following prefixes give words a negative meaning: Un- uneducated, unhappy, unemployed, unusual In- ineffective, indifferent, inaccurate, inaction, inattentive, inability ( ) Im- impracticable, impolite, immovable, impossible Il- illegal, illegitimate, illiterate, illimitable Ir- irregular, irrational, irresponsible, irreligious Dis- dislike, disapprove, disagree, disorder, dishonest Prefixes un- and dis- can mean the opposite of an action: get undressed, unpack, disappear, unlock Prefix re- means do again: rewrite, retake an exam, reappear, reread 2) Write the opposite of these words using prefixes correct, logical, possible, agree, pack, friendly, patient SUPPLEMENTARY READING 1) Read the texts without a dictionary and render them in Russian: LIVE LONG One Italian family really does have the key for long life. Consolata Melis celebrated her 105th birthday Wednesday, and eight of her siblings, between the ages of 99 and 78 were around to watch her blow out the candles.
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In fact, the Melis family has been named the longest-living family in the world by Guinness World Records.The nine siblings six girls and three boys have a combined age of 818 years. The family comes from a village in a mountainous region of Sardinia, known for the long and healthy lives of its residents. Consolata has 14 children, 24 grandchildren and 25 great-grandchildren. She is still active and and witty. The Melis family says a simple Mediterranean diet, physical activity, hard work and being surrounded by loved ones is essential for longevity. A TRUE STORY His name was Fleming, and he was a poor Scottish farmer. One day, while trying to make a living for his family, he heard a cry for help coming from a nearby bog. He dropped his tools and ran to the bog. There, mired to his waist, was a terrified boy, screaming and struggling to free himself. Farmer Fleming saved the lad from a slow and terrifying death. The next day, a fancy carriage pulled up to the Scotsmans farm. An elegantly dressed nobleman stepped out and introduced himself as the father of the boy Farmer Fleming had saved. I want to repay you, said the nobleman. You saved my sons life. No, I cant accept payment for what I did, the Scottish farmer replied, waving off the offer. At that moment, the farmers own son came to the door of the family hovel. Is that your son? the nobleman asked. Yes, the farmer replied proudly. Let me provide him with the level of education my son will enjoy. If the lad is anything like his father, hell no doubt grow to be a man we both will be proud of. And that he did. Farmer Flemings son attended the very best schools and in time, he graduated from St. Marys Hospital Medical School in London, and became known throughout the world as the famous Sir Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of Penicillin. Years afterward, the same noblemans son who was saved from the bog fell ill with pneumonia. What saved his life this time? Penicillin. The name of the nobleman? Lord Randolph Churchill. His sons name? Sir Winston Churchill. Someone once said: What goes around comes around. Words and expressions: To make a living ; bog ; mired to his waist ; hovel ; lad ; no doubt ; to be proud of . 2) Read about some famous people. See Supplement 1. Give their story. ASKING FOUR TYPES OF QUESTIONS

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GENERAL ( Yes No): Is he a teacher ? Was Tom at school yesterday ? Have you been to Moscow ? Did you talk to my brother yesterday ? Will they join us ? ALTERNATIVE ( ): Is he a teacher or a designer ? Was Tom at school or at the stadium yesterday ? Have you been to Moscow or to Berlin ? Did you see my brother yesterday or two days ago ? Will they join us or their parents ? DISJUNCTIVE ( ): He is a teacher, isnt he ? Tom was at school yesterday, wasnt he ? You have never been to Moscow, have you ? You didnt see my brother, did you ? They will join us, wont they ? SPECIAL ( ): What is he ? Where was Tom yesterday ? Who has been to Moscow ? When did you see my brother ? Where are you from ? ( : Where are you from ? ? Who do you live with ? ? What is the book about ? ? Who are you looking for ? ?) ( )
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When How Why Where Who How much

Do Did Cannot Have Must Does

you he she you I the hat

go get do been go cost

to the country ? here ? this job ? so long ? there with ? in this store ?

: The doctor lives in this house. - Who lives in this beautiful house ? A hat was in the box. - What was in this box ? The students must do it. - Who must do it ? The Spanish language is not very difficult. - What language is not very difficult? EXERCISES: 1) Ask four types of questions Example: The Orlovs moved to Khabarovsk from Komsomolsk. Disjunctive: The Orlovs moved to Khabarovsk from Komsomolsk, didnt they? General: Did the Orlovs move to Khabarovsk from Komsomolsk ? Alternative: Did the Orlovs move to Khabarovsk from Komsomolsk or Irkutsk ? Special: Who moved to Khabarovsk from Komsomolsk ? Where did the Orlovsmove from ? A
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1. Oleg is a good student. 2. They study at the Medical University in Khabarovsk. 3. Toms father is a world champion in wrestling. 4. The doctor will help you. 5. Football is my favorite sport. 6. Seiko lives in Japan. 7. My cousin speaks three foreign languages. 8. Sergei likes to watch TV at night. 9. Her friend was in Tokyo last year. B 1. Tim has lived in Khabarovsk since childhood. 2. We enjoy skating and skiing in winter. 3. My brother is reading for his classes now. 4. Her favorite singer is Sting. 5. They bought a computer a year ago. 6. John makes many mistakes in his tests. 7. The entrance exams to the University were rather difficult. 8. He was interested in collecting stamps. 9. It often rains in my hometown. 10. It takes them half an hour to get to the University. 11. She hates fast food places. 2) Ask questions to the underlined words: A 1. Tom is my brother. 2. Janes parents live in Nikolaevsk. 3. Anton studied in Moscow last year. (3) 4. Pete likes to read detective stories. (2) 5. His brother was born in Kiev. (2) 6. My parents will help Nina. B 1. Vladimirs in-laws arrive from Japan by boat tomorrow morning. (3) 2. They spent their vacation in Sochi last year. (3) 3. Olga has passed her final exams very well. (2) 4. My friends are studying English in the U.S.A. now. (3) 5. My friend misses his family. 6. His siblings often write to him from his home town. (2) 7. Linda has made a few friends. (2) 3) Write the missing questions: A John: ? Mary: I am fine, thanks. John: ? Mary: I am from England. ? John: No, I am not. I am from Australia. B Vladimir: Hello ! I am Vladimir and I am from Russia. John: ? Vladimir: No, I dont. I work here. John: . ? Vladimir: I am an engineer. .. ? John: I am from Canada. I am a student and I also work. Vladimir: ? John: I came here three years ago. Vladimir: ? John: Yes, I do, very much. 4) Practice writing questions. Situations:

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a. Your friend is in New York now. It is his first visit to the U.S.A. Write five questions for the E-mail to him. b. Nelly is going to get married. Write six questions to find out about her future husband. c. Your friend has entered one of the universities in Moscow. Write five questions to learn more about it. d. You made a new friend through Internet. Write six questions to get more information about him. e. Tim is going to Europe for his vacation. Write five questions to learn more about his plans. 5) What questions will you ask your roommate if: he is going out/ you cannot find your dictionary/ you want to learn the time/ he is angry/ he is all wet/ you want to learn his plans for the week-end/ he is laughing/ he has some paint and a brush in his hands/ he has returned from the movies/ he has a thermometer in his hand/ he has a big box in his hands ? 6) Translate the questions: a. How far is the airport from here ? How long does it take you to cook dinner ? Did you get here by bus ? How much does it cost ? Do you live far from here ? How many exams did you take last month ? Does it often rain here ? Who are you talking with ? What are you looking at ? b. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? RIDDLE To what question one cannot give a positive answer ? 1: 1) Speak about yourself and your family. 2) Bring pictures of your family or friends. Speak about them. 3) Speak about the family of any well-known person and give some facts from his/her biography. Bring his/her picture, if you can. 4) Write one page essay about yourself. TEST A 1. Give one word for the following: Institution for educating children - Member of the same group - Building in which students live - My sisters daughter - Mother and father - My wifes mother - Grandfather and grandmother - Agreement to marry - Persons living in a house near another -
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A period between the terms - 2. Give antonyms: To be born, to divorce, friendly, working day, young, single, different, to finish 3. Complete the word family: Agree (v.), (v.) , (n.) , (adj.) , (adv.) . 4. Write the reverse of these actions: To pack, to dress, to lock, to appear 5. Complete the sentences: About Myself My full name is . I born in . Our family large: we . I school and entered . major is . My working day begins . Our classes at 8.30 a.m. After classes we . My friends and I often . In the evening I and at oclock I to bed.

6. Ask four types of questions. Tim was born in Nevada. Lena lives in a modern house. Steven often visited his inlaws. 7. Put questions to the underlined words: My niece is a girl of four. She goes to a nursery school. Her mother takes her there. They get there by bus. It takes them fifteen minutes to get to the nursery school. TEST B 1. Give one word for the following: My fathers sister - My fathers father - My aunts daughter - Cousins, aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces - Father, mother, sons and daughters - A person who teaches at school - Brothers and sisters - A divorced person - A building on the campus where students live while they study - Students of the same group - Students borrow books there and read for their classes -

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2. Give synonyms: To receive, large, to start, to finish, to take off clothes, well-known 3. Complete the word family: Separate(v.), (n.) , (adj.) , (adv.) . 4. Begin the sentences with they or there. Meet Tom and Ann. are future managers. are university students. are only fifty students at their department. are from different parts of the Far East. are many universities in our city. are popular among young people. are many famous professors there. 5. Write six sentences about your family. 6. Ask four types of questions. Nelly lives in the dorm. She came to Khabarovsk from Pereyaslavka. Her parents are teachers. 7. Put questions to the underlined words: My niece is a girl of four. She goes to a nursery school. Her mother takes her there. They get to the nursery school by bus. It takes them twenty minutes to get there.

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2 EDUCATION 1) Remember the words you learned at school a) Match the following English words with their Russian equivalents: secondary school, pupils, subjects, interval, canteen, exercises, gym, lessons, classmates, excellent, satisfactory, to take an exam, grades, primary school , , , , , , , , , , , , , b) Which of these English words are equivalents to the following Russian words: recite, rewrite, inattentive, uneducated, illiterate, to be sorry, to be late, unsatisfactory, eraser, inattentive, go to the board, repeat , , , , , , , c) Translate the following into Russian: to graduate high school, to study hard, favourite subjects, homework, result Word Families Noun phones . Noun Verb examiner The examiner asked not to use our mobile

examination The examination in Chemistry begins at 9. examine Professor Rogers examines students in Psychology. The student has attention problems. Teachers like attentive audience. You were inattentive and made a few mistakes. They listened attentively to the teacher.

Noun attention Adjective attentive Adjective inattentive Adverb attentively Noun Noun Noun Verb

graduation After graduation I go to a technical college. graduate High school graduates are invited to the city ball. post-graduate There is a reading-room for post-graduates. graduate He graduated from Oxford in biology.

Word Family Practice 1) Choose correct word family member from the above to complete each blank. Listen to me . If you are you will fail your . After students interested in research can take courses. 2) Give word family members for the following nouns: Product, biology TEXT

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Life is great ! I finished school with flying colors. I passed my entrance exams* and became a university student. To study at the university is interesting but not easy. We have a lot of required subjects. Our classes begin at eight thirty in the morning and finish late in the afternoon. After the third period we have half-an-hour interval. Some of us have a snack or just a cup of coffee, some go to the caf for lunch. When the lessons are over we do not hurry home. Many of us go to the reading room to read for classes. It is not easy to find a vacant seat there because the university has more than four thousand full time students and about two and a half thousand correspondence students. One can also see faculty** and post-graduate students there. In the evening we go home. Some students live with their parents, some rent a room or an apartment and many live in the dorms (the British call it "hostel"). Just a few of the students are married and have a flat of their own. I am happy to be a student, the only thing I don't like about it is the examination session at the end of each term. There are exams in four or five subjects. If students attend all lectures, seminars and tutorials and work hard during the academic year they won't fail the exams. Those who cut classes are in for some trouble. "No pain, no gain" as the saying goes. Being a student is great and I wouldn't miss it for anything ! Note: * (, , ): Exam, university, student ** faculty - - . faculty - , faculty - , , . ACTIVITIES: 1) Write out five international words from the text and think of five sentences with them. 2) Make Flashcards with the following words: to take exams - ; to pass exams - ; to do home assignment - ; required subjects - ; classes - ; intervals - ; to have a snack - ; a reading room - ; correspondence students - - ; full time students - ; faculty - ; postgraduate school ; post-graduate students - ; to rent a room - ; a dormitory - ; a term - ; to attend lectures - ; to cut classes - ; an academic year ; to fail the exams - ; with flying colors , ;* "No pain, no gain". - " ". *

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Note: * with flying colors, "No pain, no gain" . 3) Flashcard Games. a) Students pair up and decide who will be the tutor and the tutee. The tutees give their cards to the tutors who hold up one card at a time, showing the front of the card with the English word. The tutees try to give the Russian equivalent. If the answer is correct the tutor gives a praise and returns the flashcard. If the response is not correct the tutor helps showing the back of the card and places the card at the bottom of the stack of flashcards to practice again. b) The tutor chooses four cards with verbal phrases and the tutee tries to guess what cards. c) The tutor shows a card and the tutee makes a sentence with it. 4) Rewrite the following sentences the way it is in your life: I went to secondary school in Moscow. I finished school two years ago. I had four entrance exams. I failed and didnt enter the University. My friends and I are second year students. I live in the dorms. I am going to work at school as a History teacher. My major is management. I seldom go to the library. I love to take exams. Examination session is my favorite time. 5) Work in pairs. Take it in turns to ask and answer these questions: 1. What is your favorite subject ? 2. Did you study at preparatory courses ? 3. Do you pay for your education ? 4. What subject is difficult for you ? 5. How often do you go to the library ? 6. Where do you read for your classes ? 7. Do you like to prepare for your classes in the reading hall ? 8. Do you borrow books from the Territorial library ? 9. What is your major? 10. How many periods a day do you have? 6) Write the opposites: He failed the exam. They missed the lecture. She did very well at the exam. I got a very low mark in English.
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He is very bad at maths. They are late for their classes. 7) Read the text and find information to answer the following questions: When was the University founded ? How many departments were there then ? What new status did the University get in 2005? What is the main mission of the University ? Why are exact and natural sciences taught at the University of the Humanities? Who studies at the University ? FAR - EASTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF HUMANITIES Our University is one of the oldest universities of Khabarovsk, it is also one of the largest. It used to train teachers and other highly qualified professionals for the educational system of the Russia's Far East. In 2005 it got its new status the former Khabarovsk State Pedagogical University became the Far - Eastern State University of Humanities. The main mission of the university has become to study the issues of the cycle of the Humanities. By becoming a scientific center of the humanities in the Khabarovsk Krai we intend to develop scientific activities in Russia as well as abroad. Besides the humanities, natural and exact sciences are taught at the university, for the administration and the faculty believe that the scientific truth can be found only if these different sciences interact. The history of our university goes back to 1936, when it first opened its doors. Only one hundred students filled the classrooms and the University had four departments. Today there are about thirty majors to choose from. About seven thousand students study here now. The University offers full time day and correspondence programs. Students can get Bachelors degree at the end of the programme. The course of studies lasts four or five years. Graduates interested in research can take Masters courses. The university has Graduate school at several departments. The main mission of the University is not only to give students fundamental knowledge but also to teach them to appreciate the achievements of civilization. A dedicated team of teachers and professors bring these goals into reality. Most of the faculty have a "Kandidat nauk" degree or a Doctorate degree. The University has a large campus. There are six classroom and laboratory buildings, dormitories, a sports field and a gym. There is a library with more than 500,000 volumes. A few computer centers at the student's disposal. The University also owns an agro-bio station. Young people of different nationalities study here and not only from our multinational country. Students from China, Korea, Japan, Australia and the U.S.A. study at the School of International Education. The School was organized in 1966 to give education and to promote friendly relations. The Far - Eastern State University of Humanities has become the largest center of culture, science and education in the Far East. Its international contacts are expanding. It has student and teacher exchange programs with colleges and
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universities in the U.S.A., Germany, Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, Switzerland and France. Since the time of its foundation the University has earned an outstanding reputation. Note: student 1. a person who is studying at a college, institute or university. 2. (esp. US) a boy or girl attending school 8) What words in the text can be replaced by the following: was founded, were enrolled, provides, become post-graduates, dorms, ethnic groups, was opened, faculty, has, higher educational institutions. 9) Make Flashcards with the following words: to be founded - ; major ; to enter the university ; applicants ; preparatory courses ; research ; graduates ; knowledge ; humanities , highly qualified ; degree ; Bachelor , Master , achievements ; relations ; science ; at one's disposal - ; gym . 10) Flashcard Game. The Teacher names a word and the students show the card with its translation. A student - observer is appointed who reports if the answers are correct. The word and its equivalent are pronounced in chorus. Those who made a mistake put the card with the right answer aside. In the end they read the words on these cards. 11) Numbered Heads Together Write on the board one word for the following: 1. University teachers and professors 2. the main field of specialization chosen by students in a college or university 3. the grounds of a university 4. a school building for housing a number of persons 5. one who has received a diploma 6. a room equipped for gymnastics or sports 7. a place in which books, newspapers, magazines are kept for reading 8. a person you share a room with. 12) Complete the sentences: Our university was The first enrollment was We study My major is There is a good library If you are interested in research, Those who like sports Foreign students The university owns

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13) Translate the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the different meanings of the word student: We passed our exams to the university and I am a first-year student now. Usually students of elementary school have only one teacher. I am a student of Physics. 14) Read the text and answer the following questions: Which is the largest School ? Where English is the major course ? Students of what School learn Japanese and Chinese ? What Schools are the oldest ? Which is the youngest School ? What students specialize in computers ? Whose artistic skills are the best ? What School is proud of its World champions ? Why is there a memorial plaque on the wall ? Students of what School spend much time at agro-bio station ? Where is speech pathology taught ? SOME FACTS ABOUT OUR UNIVERSITY The School of Physics and Mathematics was founded in 1936. Now it is one of the largest at the University. SPM has a number of physics laboratories with modern research equipment. There is a memorial plaque to Evgeni Dikopoltsev, a Hero of the Soviet Union, on the wall of the University who was a student in the SPM before he went to the front during the second World War. The School of Russian Language and Literature opened its doors in 1938. More than 700 hundred students study here today. Selected students are offered opportunities to practice teaching in China. Founded in 1938, the School of History is one of the oldest. The faculty and the students are proud of the archeological laboratory which is at their disposal. Most popular schools at the University are the School of Foreign Languages and the School of Oriental Languages. They are well known not only in our country but also abroad. The School of Physical Training started its work in 1947. Among the School graduates there are many celebrated sportsmen of whom many are record holders and Olympic prize-winners. The School of Biology and Chemistry replaced the Natural Sciences and Geography Department in 1950. Every summer the faculty and the students take field trips to study the flora and fauna ecosystem of the Amur region. The School of Arts and Graphics introduced a special program on Developing National Cultures of the Far Eastern Territory in 1991. Psychology and Management School is very popular in Khabarovsk, the number of students studying there is growing. One can learn about the history of our university, its dedicated teachers and outstanding students at the university museum. Our students take an active part in social life of Khabarovsk, participate in sports competitions and contribute to charity programmes. Works of art made by our faculty and students are known not only in our territory but abroad.

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15) Buzz groups. Say five statements about your English classes.. 16) Name five things that you like at the university. Name a few things that you dislike here. 17) Numbered Heads Together. You are given a minute to speak about your university for the movie that will be sent to American students. Prepare your presentation. 18) Design a Web-site of your department. THE EMBLEM OF UNIVERSITY The monument to Pushkin near the entrance to the main building has become the emblem of our university. People bring flowers to the monument of the great poet. Students of the Russian Language and Literature School study his works and learn his poems by heart. 1) Read the following text and speak about the facts you know from Pushkins life. From Pushkins Biography Pushkin was born in Moscow in 1799. He attended the Imperial Lyceum in the St.Petesburg suburbs, in a town now named Pushkin. The czar set up that lyceum for the nobility, with classes taught in French. That was the time when everything French was in fashion among the nobility: language, literature and even French wines. Discovering Voltaire and Rousseau in his fathers library, Pushkin read French before Russian. Poetry was a hobby of the nobility. Young Pushkin stood out as a prodigy, published at age 14. He was also distinguished by his visage, dark, with protruding jaw and curly hair. A true ape by his face, he said of himself. Abram, Pushkins mothers grandfather, was an Ethiopian prince captured by the Turks according to the family legend. What is certain is that as a boy Abram was brought from Constantinople, a gift for Peter the Great. Peter educated him, and he became a general. The poet was proud of his dark-skinned great-grandfather. After graduating the lyceum Pushkin became a government clerk. At that time he was gambling and pursuing actresses. Pushkin also met with liberals (Russian nobles who were plotting to abolish serfdom and bring about a constitutional monarchy) but he was never trusted with their secrets. But many of them admired his poem Liberty, that proclaimed: Oh, kings, you owe your crown and writ To law, not natures dispersion; While you stand high above the nation, The changeless Law stands higher yet.
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And even today Liberty sounds like a universal truth. For this poem Pushkin was exiled. The 21-year-old exile was seeking attention in a bizarre way: wore strange clothes, a red cape, insulted elders. And he was fanatically touchy about his honor. Note: is translated czar or tsar; Words and expressions: was also distinguished by his visage protruding jaw captured was gambling to abolish serfdom proclaimed in a bizarre way touchy 2) Answer the questions: 1. Do you think Pushkins poetry should be taught at school now ? 2. Do you enjoy reading Pushkin ? 3. What made Pushkin known all over the world ? 4. When did you first read Pushkin ? 3) Give written translation of the text: AND LENSKY, LEFT EYE CLOSING, AIMED BUT JUST THEN EUGENES PISTOL FLAMED... AND THE POET, WITHOUT A SOUND, LET FALL HIS PISTOL ON THE GROUND. On January 27, 1837 those lines from Eugene Onegin sounded like a prophecy, when a sleigh drove the greatest Russian poet homeward with a bullet in his gut. By a frozen stream on the outskirts of St.Petesburg, he had dueled a Frenchman. The wound was mortal. Regimes come and go in Russia, but probably no man, neither czar nor commissar, enjoys the enduring reverence accorded Pushkin. In Russia a poet is more than a poet to borrow a line from Yevgeny Evtushenko, poets became teachers, the beacons of the spirit. For a century and a half he has been read for pleasure, and sometimes for escape. Russian culture has no greater foundation stone than this man of modest stature and slightly dark complexion who lived only thirty seven years. The fact that he was a womanizer and a gambler spices his fame, just as those habits spiced his works. In the apartment where he died, Russians still weep for him, as tour guides measure out the agony of his passing.
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Pushkin was perfect in nearly every line. The Russian language sang as never before. Gogol, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and other writers sought inspiration in his works. His poems inspired Musorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Glinka, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rakhmaninov. In all there are 20 Pushkin inspired operas as well as ballets and other pieces of music. 4) Give Russian equivalent: to sound like a prophecy, to enjoy the enduring reverence, the beacons of the spirit, tour guides measure the agony of his passing. 5) Explain the meaning: a prophecy, homeward, outskirts, mortal, accorded, a womanizer, to weep. 6) Answer the questions; What was the role of poets in old Russia ? Do they still have this role ? What was the impact of Pushkins works on the Russian culture ? What Pushkins poems became operas ? 7) Prepare good reading of: I loved you and my love, I think, was stronger Than to be quite extinct within me yet; But let it not distress you any longer; I would not let you feel the least regret. I loved you bare of hope and of expression, By turns with jealousy and shyness sore; I loved you with such purity, such passion As may God grant you to be loved once more. 8) Read and retell the text. Use a dictionary to find the meanings of the words you dont know. The young genius wrote his first important work Ruslan and Lyudmila at that time. Russians were delighted by this rhymed folktale based on ancient legends. The rules of exile were loose. Pushkin was writing Onegin, he gathered the legends and published The Fountain of Bakhchisaray, he sent his verses to friends in St.Petesburg for publishers. The censorship was strong and Pushkin in public became very cautious. Pushkin loved women and when he saw a pretty face, he would exclaim, I cant live without her ! He once wrote that he had loved 113 women. Biographers say this score included many momentary infatuations. Poem after poem sprang from these encounters. In Odessa he dared to court the wife of the local governor, Eliza Vorontsova. She appears in numerous poems. But the idyllic time didnt last long. 9) Work in pairs.
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Find out if your partner: likes poetry; learns poems by heart; reads poems in English: is going to participate in reciting competition. Tell the class what you learnt about your partner. 10) Say if these statements are true or false: 1. Poetry is for those who are in love. 2. There are no political poems. 3. Mayakovskiy wrote about love as well. 4. Some of our students write poems. 5. There are many poems about the Far East. 6. Petr Komarov expressed his love to the Amur land in his poems. 11) Read about Petr Komarov and retell the text in English: , , . . 12 1911 -. . , . 1918 . , . , . , . , , , ? . . , . , , . . 1929 . , , , , . . 12) Speak about your favorite writer or poet. Useful words and expressions: One of the modern novelists/poets/essayists of considerable rank The gist The idea of the novel A character An episode The authors language is bookish/ learned/ rich in terms As to the vocabulary, the words chosen are emotional/ stylistically neutral
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The style is the model of clarity; the style is dry/ emotional EDUCATION IN RUSSIA There are many schools, professional schools, colleges, Institutes and Universities in Russia. Some of them have acquired new names lately, i.e. lycee, gymnasia. School education is compulsory. Children begin to attend school at the age of six. Having completed ninth grade, they can either continue to study at school for two more years, or go to a professional school, where they study not only the basic subjects but are able to learn some profession and to become skilled workers. At school the pupils study many subjects, such as Russian Language and Literature, a foreign language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography and History. They also have physical education and vocational training. School students usually have four to six lessons five or six days a week. At the end of the school year they must take exams. They have short vacations in autumn, winter and spring and a three month vacation in summer. When school students leave school, they can try to continue their education. To do that they have to take entrance examinations to institute or university that they choose. If they pass the exams successfully, they become students and can study for another four, five or six years (depending on the program of the department). Those interested in science can begin post-graduate studies after graduation in order to obtain a degree. Education is free of charge in Russia, but besides state educational institutions there are independent or commercial schools, where people have to pay. Nowadays many new institutes, universities, schools, polytechnical schools are being founded. Great changes are taking place in the system of higher education. At present the educational system in our country faces many problems finding and providing qualified teachers, up-to-date textbooks and financial support of the state. To solve these problems will require a great amount of time. Note: school 1. Institution for educating children: primary and secondary schools. 2. (not with the, a or an) lessons: School begins at 8.30. 3. Department of a university for the study of a particular subject: the School of Art, the History School, the School of Foreign Languages. Compulsory = required, antonym optional: What I dont like about our university is that almost all the subjects that we are studying are required, and only one or two are optional. The Russian verb can be translated to solve as in to solve these problems and to decide as in Olga decided not to become a psychologist. The Russian word can be translated besides as in Besides English I also study Japanese. And except as in All my relatives are here except my uncle. ACTIVITIES:
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1) Match the words: compulsory Chemistry subject school education Psychology to take exams to complete to continue student to pass exams

2) Match the words and the definitions: a. university A. book used to learn a subject b. pupil B. young person at school c. Psychology C. institution for advanced teaching d. lesson D. study of the mind and its processes e. degree E. period of time given for teaching f. textbook F. academic title 3) Complete the sentences, choosing the right word. 1. My brothers study painting, (besides/except) they learn to play piano. 2. I know everybody here (besides/except) that tall man. 3. Tom is going to help us (decide/solve) this problem. 4. Have you (decided/solved) where to spend your holidays? 5. Take any tie (besides/except) the brown one, father is going to wear it tonight. (Besides/except) it does not match your shirt. 6. Andrei did well in all the subjects at school (besides/except) Mathematics. 7. Psychology is a (required/optional) subject at the Department of Management and Social Work. 4) Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the different meanings of the word school: 1. A new secondary school was founded in our district. 2. He is old enough for school. 3. School age is different in different countries. 4. He left school when he was fifteen. 5. Last year school began at eight oclock. 6. There will be no school tomorrow. 7. Our school hopes that its football team will win. 8. He entered the Management School last year. 9. The school of life taught him to be strong. 10. I am interested in the Dutch school of painting. 5) Answer the questions: 1. At what age do children begin to attend school ? 2. Is school education compulsory in Russia ?
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Is English a required subject at school ? What school did you attend ? Did you like it ? What didnt you like at school ? What are the problems of our educational system ? Are they easy to solve ? Why ? Would you like to be a teacher at your school ? Why ? REMEMBERING SCHOOL DAYS

1) Translate the texts: A orally, B in the written form A) Middle school is called middle school because its in the middle of your school years. Elementary school is behind you. High school and possibly college still await you. Middle school often includes sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, but you might go to middle school earlier or later, depending on how its done in your area. For a kid, going to middle school is often a big change: First, it often means moving to a new building, which takes some time to adjust to. Second, it may mean taking a different bus, with different students. Third, the friends you made in elementary school may end up going to different middle schools. Other things that probably will be different are the teachers and the work. All that can make you feel a bit scared on the first day of school. Have you heard rumors that middle school teachers are really mean and the homework is really, really hard? Oh, dear. Weve heard those, too, but theyre generally not true. B) Congrats! You never thought the moment would arrive, but here it is...youve finally graduated from elementary school! Now its time to move on up to the big leagues. Thats right...youre about to take on middle school. The transition to middle school is different for everyone. Some kids may find themselves at an entirely new location, while other students may only have to switch floors or buildings. No matter what kind of middle school youll be attending, one thing always remains the same about this important step-up: its a chance for adventure and to start with a clean slate. Youll encounter new people, new school subjects, new activities, and many more teachers than youre used to. This may seem scary because youre now a small fish in a big pond, but remember: all new experiences are frightening at first. If you have the right attitude and solid info on what to expect, youll be a middle school pro in no time. (http://pbskids.org/itsmylife) 2) Read the beginning of the text and complete the story. My School Days Our school is not very large. As a lot of other schools it has big windows and the classrooms are light. There is a gym and a library there. Some school students liked to study but I cannot say that I was a hard working student. My favourite subjects were

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3) Work in pairs. Two of you will argue for the decision to make a school uniform a must; and two of you against a school uniform. Prepare your arguments and share your ideas with the class. 4) Roundtable. What should be changed in our education system ? EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

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3 KHABAROVSK In 1858 the Russian military settlement Khabarovka was founded at the point where the Ussuri river joins the Amur. It was named in honor of Erofei Khabarov, the Cossack explorer, who came to the Amur region in the seventeenth century. Later this trading and military post got the rank of city. In 1884 the Far Eastern Territories became separate from Eastern Siberia and Khabarovka became the administrative center and the home of the governor general of the area. It was renamed Khabarovsk in 1893. With the construction of the railway the town quickly grew into a modern city. It is the capital of the Khabarovsk Krai (territory), one of the most vital cities in the Russian Far East. With its population of more than 600 000, Khabarovsk is a large industrial, cultural and educational center. It is also a well-known center of international tourism. Tourists are attracted by the splendid flora and fauna, picturesque places of interest and customs and traditions of the native people. Khabarovsk museums offer an excellent opportunity to get familiar with the history, culture, economy and nature of the Territory. Khabarovsk has its own Art museum with masterpieces of many famous artists and centuries old icons. The Geological museum displays an impressive collection of minerals and semiprecious stones. There are several professional theaters and a Concert hall in Khabarovsk. The Far Eastern Symphony Orchestra is famous beyond the borders of our territory. Khabarovsk is beautiful in winter and summer, its parks and squares, old wooden houses and the mighty Amur river make it special. The architecture is varied, reflecting different eras in the citys history. Much reconstruction is going on now. New cathedrals, modern buildings and roads have appeared. A new bridge connects the banks of the Amur. There are over 100 industrial enterprises producing ocean vessels and pleasure boats, gas turbines, compressors, diesels, cables, equipment for fishing industry and many other products. There is a big oil refinery here. The Heating Equipment factory is one of the oldest and largest enterprises in the Far East. The transition to market economy and structural transformations connected with it affected our industries. The manufacturing companies are establishing a new business infrastructure and trying to find new markets. Khabarovsk is the main traffic junction of the Far East. The railroad between Khabarovsk and Vladivostok was opened in 1897; the Amur Railroad line, the last section of Trans-Siberian Railroad, was finished in 1916. The Khabarovsk airport serves both domestic and international flights. There is passenger and cargo transportation on the Amur river. The bus terminal provides regular services connecting Khabarovsk with different parts of the Far East. Today Khabarovsk is a city of students. There are more than thirty different educational institutions where young people from the Far East study. At present students from the Pacific Rim countries come to study at the institutes of

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Khabarovsk. You can meet Koreans and Americans, Japanese and Chinese and sometimes Europeans get training here too. Note: is translated The Khabarovsk Krai or The Khabarovsk Territory. : To extend from to - To be rich in (gold/ fish) - (/) To consist of - To be connected with Words and expressions: The rank of governor general vital semiprecious stones equipment to affect something - to provide services cargo transportation ferrous metallurgy processing of courageous Flashcards To extend - ; settlement - ; in honor of ; an explorer - ; area , ; borders - ; to attract - ; the Pacific Rim ; well developed ; flora and fauna ; beyond ; oil refinery ; native people ; traffic junction ; customs , population , mighty - . 1) Read the Outline of the text in the right order: The Capital City The Center of Transportation The Beauty of the City A City of Students Industries of Khabarovsk History of Khabarovsk Tourists attractions 2) Find answers in the text and read them: 1. When was Khabarovsk founded ? 2. Who was it named after ?
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

When was it renamed Khabarovsk ? What kind of a city is it ? What attracts tourists ? What makes the city special ? What are the main industries ? What transport services are provided in Khabarovsk ? Why is it called a city of students ?

3) In groups of four, take turns describing your favorite place in Khabarovsk not naming it. Your listeners should guess which place you are describing. 4) Roundtable. What do you like about Khabarovsk ? 5) In groups of four, produce an itinerary for a day in Khabarovsk. Compare your itinerary to the ones made by other groups. itinerary is a route of a journey. 6) In pairs, create and ad about Khabarovsk for the Tourism Fair ( ). 7) Speak about the capital city of the Territory Khabarovsk.

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Unit 6 KHABAROVSK KRAI The territory of the Khabarovsk Krai extends from south to north for 1, 780 km. from west to east for 750 km. in the widest part. Its area is about 800,000 square km. Most of the area is mountainous: Sikhote-Alin, Dzhugdzhur, Khingan and Badzhal are the names of mountain ranges and ridges which are rather high. More than 100, 000 rivers and 55, 000 lakes are in the territory. The Amur, the Ussuri, the Tungusska, the Bureya and the Amgun are the largest. The major lakes are Bolon, Udyl, Evoron and Orel. The rivers and lakes are rich in fish. More than 100 species of fish can be found in them, including sturgeons, salmons, mirror carps, taimen, lenok, etc. There are many mineral springs that can be used for medicinal purposes. Near Khabarovsk fresh water underground springs are located, the water from which is widely used now for drinking and in industries. The Khabarovsk Krai has the largest industrial production in the Russian Federation. The major branch of the economy is heavy industry. The most developed branches of heavy industry here are machine construction, ferrous metallurgy and processing of the major natural resources: timber, pulp and paper, oil and chemical processing. The Khabarovsk Krai has high quality timber, coal, gold, tin, manganese, tungsten and molybdenum. Our forests consist mainly of larch, spruce and fir trees. Foreign trade is well developed in the Territory. Major export items are timber and timber products, iron, steel and oil products and waste metal. Two main railways cross the territory - the Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM). Khabarovsk international airport is the eastern gateway to Russia. The Amur River Steamship company ships more than thirty million tons of cargo per year. Vanino, Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, De-Kastri, Cape Lazarev, Okhotsk, Mago and Sovetskaya Gavan are the ports through which the Khabrovsk Krai and Russia are connected to the world. The climate of the Khabarovsk Krai is monsoon over much of the territory but it varies considerably in different parts because the territory extends greatly. The climate is continental: winters are cold with little snow and strong winds, while summers are hot and humid. Temperatures range from -22 (-8F) in January to 21 (70F) in July. Springs and falls are sunny and the sky is high and blue when the weather is good. It is rainy during the second half of summer. Strong courageous people, able to survive in difficult conditions settled in the Far East of Russia. This land attracted migrants from European part of Russia and Central Asia. Now people of different nationalities live here: Russians and Ukrainians, Uzbeks and Tajiks and many others. The indigenous population of the area includes Nanays, Ulchi, Orochi, Udeges, Nivkhs and Negidals. The population of the Khabarovsk Krai is mostly urban: over three-fourths of its inhabitants live in the cities. Note: is translated Nanays or Nanais. (- 8F), (70F) .
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fall (now U.S.) a season, British autumn. Fresh water fresh water . 1) Make an outline of the text.
2) Buzz group. Give one word for the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

a region having many mountains a natural fountain of water to sell abroad wind system that affects large climatic regions animals of a particular region plants of a particular region

3) Buzz group. Give English equivalents: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 4) Translate the following, paying attention to the meaning of the word fresh: 1. Fresh fruit 2. Fresh butter 3. Fresh paint ! 4. Fresh weather 5. A fresh chapter 5) Complete the sentences: 1. The relief of the Territory is 2. The rivers are 3. The mineral springs can 4. Different parts of the Territory are connected 5. The climate varies because 6. The Amur land attracted 7. The indigenous population includes 8. Most of the population 9. The Khabarovsk Krai . 6) Work in groups of four. Below are some arguments for and against leaving the Far East. Read the arguments. Divide into pairs. Two of you argue for and the other two against. Prepare you arguments working with your partner. Use the ideas given below and your own ideas. FOR AGAINST I think leaving is wise because I think it is good to stay, as
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there are many mosquitoes; winters are very cold; forests are on fire; .

people are very good here; the nature is beautiful; many places for fishing; .

7) Read about towns and small villages of the Amur river region in Supplement 2. Prepare presentations for the Conference The Amur Land (towns and villages). Speak about your home town. Sister Cities We live in the time when the period of cold war is over. Direct contacts with neighboring countries are being developed. Economic and cultural cooperation is mutually beneficial. We are all inhabitants of Planet Earth, and will have no other planet to live on in the foreseeable future. We dont want to perish in the flames of nuclear war. (Alexander Panchenko, former Mayor of Khabarovsk) Sister City relationship promotes mutual understanding, enriches people and helps to make our planet better. Given below is brief information about the Sister Cities of Khabarovsk: Portland (U.S.A.), Niigata (Japan), and Harbin (the P.R.C.) 8) Read the texts, consult the dictionary if necessary. Portland The states largest city, Portland, is situated in northwestern Oregon on both sides of the Willamette River. Portland got its name in 1845, it was a small unnamed settlement then. In the following years the town developed fast as those were the years of gold rush. It was easy to ship goods from Portland to California and other places as it was located on the river. Portland now is a beautiful city with parks and rose gardens. Its shopping and theatre districts are among the most modern in the nation. Niigata Niigata City is the capital of Niigata Prefecture. It is the largest Japanese city along the coast of the Sea of Japan and has a population of about 530,000. Niigata is one of Japan's most important modern international ports. It is surrounded by water. The Shinano and Agano, two of the largest rivers in Japan, run through the heart of Niigata. It lays on a key point along trade routes in the Sea of Japan. International exchanges with neighboring countries such as Russia, South Korea and China are constantly expanding. Although Niigata has grown into an important regional center of activity, the city has preserved its traditional culture, natural environment, and distinctive local character. When Niigata is mentioned, many people often think immediately of the area's delicious rice and sake or the city's beautiful sunsets, but the residents of Niigata themselves take pride, rather, in the spirit of hospitality and community that so distinguishes the city !
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Harbin Harbin is the capital city of Heilonjiang province. It is its political, economic and cultural center with a population of more than two and a half million people. The climate of it is sunny in spring, charming in summer and windy in autumn. In winter everything is blanketed with snow. Harbin is an important communications center with railway, air and water transportation in all directions. The topography of the city is full of ups and downs, but the roads are wide and tidy. This city is known for winter sports. People are very active in mass sports here. Old and young practice boxing all year round. Words and expressions: Sister Cities to sign an agreement relationship - to foster/ promote friendship and mutual understanding beneficial hospitality exchange
8) Brainstorming. What can we do to revive Sister City relationship ? 9) Numbered Heads Together. Divide into four groups. Each group adds some

facts about one of these cities. Make presentations. Niigata. Harbin. Portland. 10) Translate the text: Erofei Khabarov Khabarov was born around 1610 in northeastern European Russia, in the village of Dmitrievo. As a teenager, he roamed through the Tobolsk area of central Siberia, moving mostly by river boats further and further east. In the years 1632 1642, he established a successful farming and salt extraction operation in the Lena River basin. In 1649, Khabarov, together with his 70 volunteers, mounted an expedition for the conquest of the lands of the Amur. In 1650, he brought back to Irkutsk a sketch of the Daur land on the left bank of the Amur (the Daurs are the
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native people), and spread the news of its riches. During the following three years Khabarov fought successfully with the Daurs, and other local tribes. News of these successes reached Moscow, and a nobleman, Dmitri Ivanovich Zinoviev, was sent to reward Khabarov and his band of conquerors. However, once on the spot, Zinoviev heard many complaints and accused Khabarov of misuse of state funds and illegal exploitation of his men and the natives. Having grabbed him by the beard Zinoviev made Khabarov a prisoner and sent him back to Moscow. An investigation vindicated Khabarov, restored to him his valuables, and raised him to the status of a nobleman. His petition to continue exploration was denied, however, and Khabarov disappeared from the historical scene. Nevertheless, the memory of Khabarov and his deeds was not erased from the hearts and minds of the Russians. Almost two centuries later, the capital city of the Amur territory was named Khabarovsk. (From Sister Cities, Sept., 1988) 11) Read Supplement 3 to make presentations at the conference My Homeland. Pages of History.

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Unit 7 PSYCHOLOGY The science of the mind and the mental states and processes, of human nature is Psychology. Psychologists use a variety of well-developed techniques to gather information and develop theoretical explanations. They try to determine why people think and act as they do. Much of contemporary psychology was regarded as a part of philosophy at one time. Now most psychologists believe all facts of human experience are the object of the science of psychology. Some students find it difficult to think of psychology as a science in the same sense that physics and chemistry are sciences. How can the tender feelings of a first romance, the thrill of driving a sports car at 100 miles per hour, or the agony of a defeated football team be described in objective scientific terms ? However, most scientists believe that scientific analysis can be applied to various areas of human existence and it serves humanity. Scientific research is often divided into two categories: basic and applied, which usually go hand in hand to provide understanding. Words and expressions: States and processes think and act scientific terms can be applied to applied - go hand in hand 1) Work in pairs. Take it in turns to ask and answer these questions: 1. Do you study Psychology ? 2. Do you find this subject interesting ? 3. What is the object of the science of Psychology ? 4. Can emotions be the object of Psychological analysis ? 4. Is Psychology necessary for your future profession ? 2) Name professions where it is important to know Psychology ? 3) Read the text and give another title to it. SOME TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGY Psychology today is as much profession as science. It applies its findings to every aspect of life. There are two major schools of thought in Psychology. In the U.S.A. large numbers of psychologists belong to either behaviorist or psychoanalytic tradition. Since the days of their founders, Watson and Freud, the two schools stand firmly against each other in definitions of psychology and in approaches to it.

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The most recent stage of evolution in behaviorism is the Cognitive Revolution. It formally began around 1960. Bandura's cognitive-behavioral approach has become very popular. Of course, not all behaviorists have accepted the cognitive revolution. There are some recent developments in psychoanalysis. The most known are the works of Allport, Murray and Erikson. The newest large-scale movement in psychology is humanistic psychology. Although it opposes behaviorism and psychoanalysis it builds on the best of those approaches. It began in 1950s and it aims to replace the other two major forces. Maslow is called the spiritual father of humanistic psychology. He developed a theory of personality that focuses on our motivation to grow, to develop and to fulfill all of our potentials and capabilities. One of the significant trends is Activity approach, introduced and developed by Russian psychologist A. Leontiev, who based his concept on the ideas of culturehistoric theory, suggested by L. Vygotskii and A. Luria. Being a member of society each of us is going to be affected by psychological research. As citizens we are consumers of its results and it is in our interests to be intelligent consumers. 4) Answer the questions: 1. What does Psychology study ? 2. What are the two major schools in Psychology ? 3. What new movement is replacing the other two principal forces ? 4. What concept is based on the ideas of culture-historical theory ? 5. Who are well-known Russian Psychologists ? 5) Match the following: 1. The founder of behaviorism 2. The author of self-actualization theory 3. Theory of evolution 6. Socio-Behaviorism 7. The author of the Activity approach 7. Psychoanalysis 6) Read the text and render it in Russian. Erik Erikson Erikson is a famous psychoanalyst. His books are popular with the professionals and with the public. He was trained in the Freudian tradition. His teacher was Freuds daughter Anna. Erikson extended Freuds theory: he analyzed the stages of development and recognized the impact on personality of culture, history and society. His concept of identity crisiss well-known. He experienced several personal crises of identity in his early years. The first such crisis was connected with his name. For many years he thought that his last name was Homburges. It was the name of his stepfather. But the young boy thought that Homburges was his real father.
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1. A. Freud 2. John Watson 3. Albert Bandura 4. A. Leontiev 5. Charles Darwin 6. Abraham Maslow

Later at school in Germany his second crisis of identity occurred: he considered himself a German but his classmates did not want to deal with him because he was Jewish. At the same time his Jewish classmates rejected him because his appearance was Aryan. The third crisis occurred after graduation from high school. He couldnt find his own identity so he dropped out of society and traveled in Europe looking for himself. He spent several years seeking his identity. Finally, at the age of 25, he reached Vienna and took a job. He became a teacher in a small school. This school was established for the children of Freuds patients and friends. At that time he received training in psychoanalysis, but he never continued his formal education beyond high school. Erikson got married and found both a personal and a professional identity. Though Erikson did not receive any higher education he was invited to teach at Harvard University and he became one of the most influential modern psychoanalysts. Many psychologists and psychiatrists use Eriksons theory about the stages of psycho social development when thy deal with developmental histories of their patients. His works are important not only for psychoanalysis but for education and social work. Psychohistory is another contribution of Erikson. He has applied his theory of the human life cycle to such figures as Mahatma Gandhi, Adolf Hitler, Martin Luther, and George Bernard Shaw. Words and expressions: To recognize the impact identity crisis he experienced to deal with rejected him seeking

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Unit 8 PERSONAL COMPUTERS Can you imagine life without Personal Computers ? Personal Computers (PCs) are part and parcel of businesses, engineering, health care, scientific work and everyday life. PCs have become an important tool because they are effective and convenient. How did computers come into our life ? 1930s: Before computers Punched Card Machines The predecessors of computers were punched card machines. They were used in 1930s and made large national programs in the USA possible. The machines kept track of names and numbers of millions of U.S. workers and senior citizens for the Social Security Administration. 1940s: The Computer Is Born The Whirlwind Computer was one of the first computers and was the fastest of its day. It was created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1940s to calculate problems for the military. The first computers were huge and took up the whole building at the Institute. To compute numbers thousands of vacuum tubes were necessary. They created much heat. To cool them large cooling systems were installed . 1950s: Computers For Big Businesses After World War II the economy was booming: companies grew in size, more goods were produced and trade was developing. Large companies needed computers to manage their businesses. General Electric was the first company in the United States that bought a computer. They used it to keep track of their employees. Computers were very expensive at that time and only the government, big companies and some universities could afford computers. 1960s: More Businesses Use Computers Big businesses were becoming more powerful and needed computers to collect and organize their information. Computers became vital to corporations and the government. For many people computers were a symbol of power. In 1963 IBM System/360 was introduced.

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1970s: Minicomputers and Supercomputers In the sixties transistors were invented. This invention led to the development of smaller, cheaper and more efficient computers. Minicomputers were more compact and could be installed in places were a huge computer could not. Later chips replaced transistors and computers became even smaller. Communication, economy and trade were becoming more international and complex in the late seventies. Supercomputers, like the Cray 1, were built to help work on large and complex problems, such as designing supersonic airplanes and studying the global environment. 1980s: Personal Computer Power In the eighties computers became available for personal use. Most people in the U.S.A. could afford a computer. One neednt know programming to be able to use a computer. Computers became popular in homes, schools and offices. The IBM PC was widely used in businesses. The Apple Macintosh first made its way into schools in the late 1980s. 1990s: Computers Are Everywhere Computers are in homes and offices, there are computer classes at schools. Computers are used to gather and organize information, to solve mathematical problems and to create art. Financial operations are performed in no time with the help of computers. Computer chips are found in cars, microwaves, VCRs and other appliances. Y2k Problem On the eve of 2000 the world anticipated big problems with the computers. Experts of different countries spent much time and effort to prevent the computer disaster. The problems were overcome and the Millenium started with minor inconveniences. XXIst century From the time that the first IBM Personal Computer (known to us as the PC) was introduced in the fall of 1981, it was clear that it was going to be a very important tool. The PC became the standard for serious desktop computers. From the original PC a whole family of computers a family with many branches has evolved. Each member of the family differs in its details and characteristics from its relatives. After years and years of costly and time-consuming process computers open up a whole new world of telecommunications for us, provide the opportunity to publish the electronic word, sound, image and motion segment. Words and expressions: Part and parcel predecessors to keep track could afford computers - vital
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to evolve - 1) Work in groups Write a list of things you can do using a personal computer. Compare this list with the one given at the end of the Unit. Have you missed anything ? What other things you could do with a PC not mentioned there ? 2) Translate the text: Review of Educational Computer Use in American Schools and in Other Developed Countries Computers have been used in education since the 1950s in the United States, Japan, England, Germany and other highly industrialized countries. Today every school has some sort of computer system for administrative and educational purposes. In a large university there may be several high-speed mainframe computers used for library data bases and for scientific research. The administrative departments will make use of networked mini-computer work stations for purposes of accounting, personnel and student record keeping, publications, and scheduling of students, teachers, classes and classrooms. There is an Internet Server for the University. Some departments have computer laboratories with networks of PCs (personal computers) for the purpose of student education in their specific fields. And finally the teachers and students themselves have their own PCs. Even in smaller schools such as a local primary school, there will often be a number of networked PCs for administrative purposes. Often there will be a computer laboratory where students learn basic computer skills. And its not uncommon that several classrooms will have a stand-alone PC for use in delivering lessons. The teachers very often have their own computer and students even as young as 6 or 7 either have used a computer before, have one in the family, or have one for their own personal use. Different computer programs are provided for educational purposes: Teaching, Testing, Drawing Programs, different Specialized Programs (for mathematics, chemistry, physics, etc.) and the Computer-administered exam. There is also language teaching software that can give a student individualized instruction in a foreign language. (After Frank Jur) 3) Read the extract from the article The Lifestyles of the Not-So-Rich by L. Zagalsky (published in Popular Science, a Times Mirror Magazine. August 1994) and comment on it. Personal computers were alien objects until the end of the 1980s, when Mikhail Gorbachev passed a decree ordering total computerization of the country. Every high school in the country was required to create computer classes, where the kids could learn how to operate PCs.

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Of course, the computers came from abroad. Russian PCs, as people joked, were only good for cracking nuts. Many people today have not enough money for computers. In the last couple of years, though, some individuals have started buying PCs. Some are successful writers who can afford to spend $1,500 the equivalent of two years salary for the average Russian. Others are the rapidly growing class of young wheeler-dealers, who prefer laptops. They are mostly for show; I doubt that these young guys know how to get much use out of them. The author describes the situation in 1994. Has it changed since then ? Do you agree with all the statements in the article ? Find out how many students in your group have a PC. Do you have a PC ? Do you have an access to Internet ? Do you send and receive E-mail ? Do you enjoy using a PC ? Can you perform many operations ? Things you can do with a PC: Learn languages Find information about different things Do shopping Transfer money Read newspapers and even books And many other useful things Get up-to-date news Learn weather forecast Do research in many fields Play a game of chess Send and receive pictures

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Unit 9 RUSSIA Russia, or officially Russian Federation, stretches over a vast expanse of Eastern Europe and northern Asia. Once the largest republic of the U.S.S.R., Russia has been an independent state since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. Moscow is the capital and the largest city The country borders on Norway and Finland in the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the west; on Georgia and Azerbaidjan in the southwest: and on Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China in the south. The Kaliningrad region is an exclave on the Baltic Sea.. The worlds largest country by land area, Russia ranks sixth in terms of population. There are at least 60 different ethnic groups in it. The majority of the population are Russians (83%). There are also Ukrainians and such non-Slavic linguistic and ethnic groups as Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Mordovians, Jews, Germans, Armenians and numerous groups in the Far North and in the Caucasus. Administratively Russia is divided into territories or regions, republics, autonomous regions (oblasts) and autonomous areas (okrugs). In 2000 the administrative units of Russia were grouped into seven regional districts: Northwest (St. Petesburg), Central (Moscow), Volga (Nizhny Novgorod), North Caucasus (Rostov-na-Donu), Ural (Yekaterinburg), Siberia (Novosibirsk), and Far East (Khabarovsk). Russias dominant relief features are (from west to east) the East European plain, the Urals, the West Siberian lowland, and the central Siberian plateau. Mt. Elbrus in the Caucasus is the highest peak in the country. There are many long and powerful rivers in Russia, among them the Don, the Volga, the Ob, the Lena, the Yenisei, and the Amur. The most famous lake is in Siberia Lake Baikal, the worlds largest fresh water reservoir. The climate of Russia, generally continental, varies from extreme cold in the North and Siberia (where Verkhoyansk, the coldest settled place on earth, is situated) to subtropical along the Black sea shore. The vegetation zones include the tundra and taiga belts, steppes and deserts and subtropical zones. The majority of Russias population has no religious affiliation. Since the end of Soviet rule the number of believers is growing rapidly. Note: an exclave - a portion of a country geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. ACTIVITIES: 1) Find English equivalents in the text 1. 2. 3. 4.
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5. 6. 7. 2) Complete the sentences matching A and B: A The Russian Federation became Russia borders Russians are Russia is the largest The climate of Russia is Its extremely cold B

by land area. generally continental. in the North. an independent state in 1991. on Norway in the northwest. the majority of population.

3) Find synonyms: a. to extend, to inhabit, huge, powerful, different, famous, rapidly, feature, country, large, border. b. quickly, vast, well-known, great, to live in, mighty, element, to stretch, frontier, state, various. 4) Work in pairs. Take it in turns to ask and answer these questions: 1. Was the dissolution of the Soviet Union a positive event ? Why ? 2. Do you think Russia should unite with some former Soviet republics ? 3. With what republics might Russia unite in the nearest future ? 4. What positive changes did Gorbachev bring to Russia ? 5. What part of Russia has the best climate ? 6. Where in Russia would you like to live ? Why ? 5) Read the texts about the government structure and economy of Russia. Render the texts in English. Government The Russian Federation is a republic whose government has separate and independent branches of power: legislative, executive and judicial. The head of state is a popularly elected president. The Legislative branch is represented by Federal Assembly and is divided into an upper house, the Federation Council, and a lower house, the State Duma. The Federation Council has 178 members, consisting of two representatives from the governments of each republic, territory, region, and area. There are 450 members in the State Duma. Half of them are elected from districts; the rest of the seats are distribute among those parties whose national vote exceeds 5%. The president appoints the prime-minister with the approval of the legislature. If his choice for this post is not approved three times, the president can dissolve the Federal Assembly. Economy: General Information
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The Russian Federation inherited a Marxist-Leninist command economy from the USSR. All enterprises were owned by the state and farmland was also stateowned or collectivized. All economic planning was done by government officials based in Moscow. Market forces played no part in their decision making. During the Gorbachev era many of the basic elements of the Soviet command economy were weakened. The policies of glasnost and perestroika loosened social controls. Limited private ownership of businesses and land was granted, and prices were allowed to rise in accordance with market forces. After the failed August Coup in 1991 a new era of a market-based economy started. In 1992, the Russian government promised to give citizens shares in many industries, and in 1996, the people got the right to sell and buy land for the first time since the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. The rapid transition from a severely controlled system to the beginnings of a market economy created chaotic conditions. Few Russians profited greatly, but most suffered economic hardship. Inflation grew. But in 1999, however, the Russian economy began to improve. 5) Make Flashcards: Independent - , to border on - , ethnic - , relief , legislative - , executive - , judicial - , to elect - , representatives - , to appoint - , to approve of - , private - . 6) Translate the text: Post-Soviet Russia After more than seven decades of Soviet rule, the regime of President Gorbachev marked the end of repressive political controls and permitted nationalist movements to arise in the constituent republics of the USSR. In 1990, Boris Yeltsin and other reformers were elected to the Russian parliament. Yeltsin became Russian president. Under Yeltsin, Russia declared its sovereignty (but not its independence) and began to challenge the central governments authority. In 1991, Yeltsin was reelected in the first election for president in the history of the Russian republic. Following the coup attempt, the U.S.S.R disintegrated. With Ukraine and Belarus, Russia established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The current constitution of the Russian Federation was approved in December, 1993. It strengthened presidential power and established a mixed presidential-parliamentary system. Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia has had to confront separatist movements in several areas. In the mid- and late 1990s, Russia took steps towards closer relations with some of the former Soviet republics. Under Putin, Russia revived its ties with many former Soviet states and more independent-minded former Soviet republics. Note: decade -

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7). Numbered Heads Together Read the text and prepare a minute presentation of our country at the Tourism Fair: Welcome to the New Russia One of the most notable features of present day Russia is a renewed celebration of the wealth of its past and its potential for the future. Throwing off the blanket of communist uniformity, Russia today is a nation of enormous diversity and tremendous vitality. Ancient cathedrals are being rebuilt and restored, colorful markets hum with activity once again and literature and the arts are becoming creative as it was decades ago. A new Russia is in full bloom. For most westerners, Russia is associated with Moscow and St. Petersburg. This is the heartland of Russia. Many tourists visit them every year. However there is much more to see in Russia, a country that has eleven time zones and stretches over Europe and Asia, ending less than 50 miles from North America. You can visit here the largest freshwater lake, rivers and forests rich in fish and wildlife. Volcanoes and towering mountains will amaze you. Russia is the largest country on earth that has opened its picturesque parts to foreign travelers only in the last few years. (From The Official Guide to Russia) 8) Buzz group. Write an outline for an essay My Motherland. Discuss it in class. 9) Write a two-page essay My Motherland.

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Supplement 1 Sergei Kapitsa (14 February 1928 14 August 2012) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sergei Petrovich Kapitsa was a Russian physicist and demographer. He was best known as host of the popular and long-running Russian scientific TV show Evident, but Incredible. His father was the Nobel laureate (Soviet-era) physicist Pyotr Kapitsa, and his brother, Andrey Kapitsa, was a geographer and Antarctic explorer. Kapitsa was born in Cambridge, England, the son of Anna Alekseevna (Krylova) and Pyotr Kapitsa. His maternal grandfather was Aleksey Nikolaevich Krylov, naval engineer, applied mathematician and memoirist. Kapitsa graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute in 1949. Kapitsa's contributions to physics were in the areas of applied electrodynamics and accelerator physics; he is known, in particular, for his work on the microtron. Later his research focus was on historical demography, where he developed a number of mathematical models of the World System population growth. Kapitsa was vice president of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Russia and president of the Eurasian Physical Society. He was an advocate of planetary exploration and served on the advisory council of the Planetary Society. Kapitsa was a pioneer of scuba diving in the Soviet Union, he shot the first underwater film about the Sea of Japan, which was shown at international film festivals, in Cannes, where it was second only to the film by Jacques Cousteau. Kapitsa got a number of awards for his activities in science popularization including the first gold medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Thomas Cruise Mini biography Thomas Cruise is considered one of the top 100 movie stars of all time. He is one of the highest paid and most sought after actors in screen history. He was born in 1962 in Syracuse. The only son (among four children) of nomadic parents young Tom spent his boyhood moving from place to place, and by the time he was 14 he had attended 15 different schools in the US and Canada. He finally settled in New Jersey, with his mother and her new husband. While in high school, he developed an interest in acting, dropped out of school, and at age 18 headed for New York and a possible acting career. The next 15 years of his life are the stuff of legends. Tom Cruise is one of the best liked members of the movie community. He was married to actress Nicole Kidman until 2001. She and Cruise adopted two children: Isabella Jane (born in 1993) and Connor Antony (born 1995). Despite their rock-solid image, the couple announced in early 2001 that they were separating due to career conflicts.

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Biography of Nicole Kidman Elegant redhead Nicole Kidman was born in Honolulu, Hawaii to Anthony (a biochemist and clinical psychologist) and Janelle (a nursing instructor) Kidman. The family moved almost immediately to Washington, D.C Young Nicole's first love was ballet, but she took up mime and drama as well (her first stage role was a bleating sheep in an elementary school Christmas performance). In her adolescent years she worked regularly at the Philip Street Theater. Kidman eventually dropped out of high school to be able to act full-time. She broke into movies at age 16. Family life has always been a priority for Kidman. When her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer, 17-year-old Nicole stopped working and took a massage course so that she could provide physical therapy (her mom eventually beat the cancer). Nicole and Cruise made an impression of a solid family with their two adopted children, but in early 2001 they separated. NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS Joseph Brodsky Joseph Brodsky is a native of Leningrad, now St. Petersburg. He has lived in the United States since 1972, when he was exiled from the Soviet Union. His poetry has been published in twelve languages. Joseph Brodsky received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987. He was chosen by the Library of Congress to serve as Poet Laureate of the United States in 1992. Joseph Brodsky is Professor of Literature at Mount Holyoke College, and resided in New York. The famous poet died in 1996. Andrei Sakharov, (1921 - 1989) Andrei Sakharov is often called the "father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb," but most people know him as one of the twentieth century's most active fighter for human rights and freedoms. The Nobel Committee awarded him the Peace Prize in 1975. The Soviet authorities denied him permission to go to Norway to receive his award. He was considered a dissident in the Soviet time. Sakharov was born on May 21, 1921, the son of a physics teacher, in Vitebsk, Belorussia. He remembers: "From childhood, I lived in an atmosphere of decency, mutual help and tact, respect for work, and for the mastery of one's profession." In 1938 he enrolled in the physics department of Moscow University where he was an outstanding student. Sakharov began to work on the Soviet nuclear weapons program in June 1948. Later he wrote, "no one asked whether or not I wanted to take part in such work. I had no

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real choice. In a few months, the young physics graduate student came up with a totally new idea for an H-bomb design. He wrote about the horrors that the bomb would bring, about the necessity to stop testing and began to attack the Soviet political system. Sakharov was fired from the weapons program. He became an advocate of human rights. The Soviet authorities sent him to exile in Gorkii in January 1980. His years of isolation ended in December 1986, when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev invited Sakharov to return to Moscow. Sakharov worked tirelessly to promote democracy in the Soviet Union until the very last day of his life. He was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies and appointed a member of the commission responsible for drafting a new Soviet constitution. On the day he died, December 14, 1989, he spoke before the Soviet Congress about the importance of political pluralism and market economy. Later that evening his wife Elena Bonner found him dead in his study. Zhores I. Alferov (From his Autobiography) Life goes on surprisingly fast. I have recently marked the 70th birthday. My parents, Ivan Karpovich, and Anna Vladimirovna, were born and raised in Byelorussia. At the age of eighteen my father arrived in St. Petersburg, in the year 1912. He got a job as a worker at a plant. During World War I, he was a brave hussar. In September 1917, my father joined the Bolshevik party and believed in the socialist and communist principles to the end of his life. Mother headed a public organization of housewives; worked as a librarian and always remained our close friend. Learning was easy to me. I was lucky in having an excellent physics teacher. After school I entered a celebrated Ul'yanov Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Being a third-year student, I began to work in a laboratory. In December 1952, I graduated from the Institute and began to work at the Physico-Technical Institute, founded by Ioffe. I am proud of what we had accomplished. We comprised a team of very young people. Under the guidance of V.M. Tuchkevich we succeeded in working out principles of transistor electronics. In May 1953, the first Soviet transistor receivers were shown to the "top authorities". Many discoveries were made later All that had been made by human beings and due to Science. And if our country's choice is to be a Great Power, Russia will be the great power not because of the nuclear potential, not because of faith in God or president, or western investments but thanks to the labor of the nation, faith in Knowledge and Science and thanks to the maintenance and development of scientific potential and education. When I was a little boy of ten, I read a wonderful book "Two Captains" (by V. Kaverin). In my life I have been following the principle of the main character of that
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book: "One should make efforts and search for. And having obtained whatever the purpose, to make efforts again". Of great importance here is to know what you are struggling for. (From HYPERLINK http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/lesprix.html)

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Supplement 2 THE AMUR LAND (towns and villages) BOGORODSKOYE Bogorodskoye is about 500 miles from Khabarovsk. It was founded on a high bank of the Amur river. A Nivkhi Nomad site was there a century ago, called Gencha, meaning those who live behind the high mountain. At present, this town is the center of the Ulchi region, which has more than thirty towns and villages. The population of Bogorodskoye is about 6,000 people. They are hunters and fishermen, some work in timber industry and some are employed in fish processing and gold mining. They have their own publishing house where their local newspaper is published. A very interesting ethnographical museum showing the history, culture and traditions of the natives. BULAVA Bulava was set up at the site of the former nomad camp. The name Bulava came from an old Ulchi word Bulau which means Shamans walking stick. The Ulchi people resemble the Japanese: they have broad faces and small figure. The Ulchi region was established in 1922. In pre-revolutionary times, the population of the town was only 66 residents, and there were less than twenty buildings. At present Bulava spreads for two miles along the river side. The local museum complex shows the regional lifestyles. The Ulchi people do not have a written language of their own. Their education system is based on the Russian and Nanai languages. The Ulchi are proud of their local but well-known writer, Petr Dechuli. The first national Ulchi ballet Nine Daughters of the Amur was staged in Bulava. The residents of Bulava are engaged in lumbering, fishing and fish processing. KOMSOMOLSK-ON-AMUR Komsomolsk is a young city. It was founded in 1930s. Many young people took part in its construction. The city stretches for 10 miles along the left bank of the Amur River. It is the second biggest town in this area. Its population is over 300,000 people. Komsomolsk is an industrial city with steel mills, shipbuilding and aircraft building plants. NIKOLAEVSK-ON-AMUR Nikolaevsk-On-Amur was founded in 1850 by Admiral Nevelskoy, a famous explorer of these lands. Nikolaevsk began as a port. By 1865, it became the center of the region, the home of the governor general. Many of the early expeditions into the region began here. As the time passed, Khabarovsk became dominant in the
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region and the capital was transferred there. During the civil war in the Far East (1918 - 1922), Nikolaevsk was completely burnt down and destroyed by the Japanese military. Only a small number of the 19th century red brick buildings remained. There is a monument to Admiral Nevelskoy in one of the city parks. The population of Nikolaevsk is more than 30,000 people. Gold mining, fishing and fish processing are the main industries. TROITSKOYE Troiyskoye is the center of the Nanai region. Some people think that it is named after Ivan Troitskyi, a Russian settler. About 22,000 people reside here. The local museum shows the lifestyle of the Nanai people. There are schools, kindergartens and a movie theatre there. The Nanai literary language is based on Amur dialect, they use the Russian alphabet in writing. People are employed in fish processing, lumbering, hunting, bee-keeping and harvesting medicinal and edible plants.

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Supplement 3 MY HOMELAND (PAGES OF HISTORY) The forward movement of the Russians to the East to discover new lands was mainly based on their initiative, enthusiasm and devotion to the exploration spirit. Long trips to explore the East started from Yakutsk which became the gateway for the Far East in the XVII century. I. Moskvitin, V. Poyarkov and E. Khabarov prepared for their expeditions there, their detachments started from Yakutsk and returned there with reports about their achievements. Russian Pacific epoch began in late thirties, XVIIth century. I. Moskvitin and his friends knew about the river Amur. They tried to reach it from the sea and perhaps they visited the estuary of it. Geographic and ethnographic information, collected by Ivan Moskvitin, caused preparations for the new expeditions to the East. First of all to the river Amur. Rumors about a great river spread over Siberia by 1636. It was known that the forest there was full of sable, and that Daurians lived along the river banks. II. People from Eniseysk, Maxim Perfilievs detachment of 36 Cossacks, started their way to the South-East in 1638. They wanted to find the great river and to learn about local inhabitants and wealth. Perfiliev didnt reach the river, but he did collect many stories about the area. It means that two attempts to reach the Amur were made at the same time from two directions: by Moskvitin and Perfiliev. It was not a competition, both Moskvitin and Perfilievs primary concern was for Russia, but they also didnt forget about their personal interest but it just wasnt their main interest. III. The river Amur was discovered for Russia by Vasiliy Poyarkov some years later. Poyarkov was a very intelligent man, well educated and with wide range of interests. His detachment of 112 service men and 15 volunteers started its way from Yakutsk. Their goal was to reach the river Amur. Poyarkov himself was on the first boat. Their trip was difficult. They passed the Lena, Aldan and many small rivers and built the first winter quarters when they reached Stanovoy ridge. Part of the detachment continued to the land of the Daurians to spend winter there. Poyarkov and his people gathered information. In spring they went down the Zeya river and came to the Amur. They became the first Russian people who observed the Priamurskiy region with their own eyes. They discovered it for the whole of Europe. The way to the Amur river was now open to everybody.

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In the autumn of 1644, Poyarkovs friends stopped near the Ussury river which is the outskirts of Khabarovsk. Thus Poyarkov and his friends may be called the first citizens of the future city. Erofei Khabarov started on his way with his detachment in the spring of 1649. He didnt want to repeat Poyarkovs way and chose another route. They came to the river Amur by the river Urka. The builders of Transsiberian railway memorialized him by naming the station located at the crossing of the railway and the river Urka: Erofei Pavlovich. Khabarovs travel along the Amur was not easy or fast. He made a draft of the Amur, with its tributaries, wrote reports, described the indigenous population to the Moscow government and established its right to the land. Vasiliy Poyarkov was discoverer, but Khabarovs travel was the real development of the Amur territory, defining prospective businesses and lands appropriate for settlement. Words and Expressions to explore detachments estuary caused preparations for to make an attempt outskirts draft tributaries indigenous appropriate for - , - - - - - - , - - -

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Discover Portland the City of Roses. Smith-Western Inc. Portland, OR. U.S.A. Encyclopedia Britannica Article. Russia. http://www.britannica.com Jur, Frank. The Practicality of Using Computers on Language Education in Russia. Proceedings of the International Conference Teaching Englishes: Preparing for the XXIst century. Khabarovsk, 22 24 Sept., 1988 Kantowitz B.H., Roediger III, Elmes D.G. Experimental Psychology. Seventh Edition. Wadsworth. 2001 Khabarovsk territory. Utro Rossii Publishing House. Vladivostok, 1996 Popular Science. August 1994. Special Issue Sister Cities. September, 1988. Vol.I, No. 1 The Land of Khabarovsk. Priamurskiye Vedomosti Publishing House Ltd., 1998 Travel Agents Manual. Intour Khabarovsk

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