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GEMSTONES

By Donald W. Olson
Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Christine K. Pisut, statistical assistant, and the world production table was prepared by Regina R. Coleman, international data coordinator. Humans have been intrigued by gems since prehistoric times. They have been valued as treasured objects throughout history by all societies in all parts of the world. The first stones known to have been used for making jewelry include amber, amethyst, coral, diamond, emerald, garnet, jade, jasper, lapis lazuli, pearl, rock crystal, ruby, serpentine, and turquoise. These stones served as status symbols for the wealthy. Today, gems are not worn to demonstrate wealth as much as they are for pleasure or in appreciation of their beauty (Schumann, 1998, p. 8). In this report, the terms gem and gemstone mean any mineral or organic material (such as amber, pearl, and petrified wood) used for personal adornment, display, or object of art because it possesses beauty, rarity, and durability. Of the 2,700 mineral species, only about 100 possess all these attributes. Silicates compose the largest group of gemstones; oxides and quartz compose the second largest (table 1). A further subcategory of gemstones is colored gemstone, which in this report designates all nondiamond gemstones, including amber, coral, and shell. In addition, synthetic gemstones, cultured pearls, and gemstone simulants are discussed but are treated separately from natural gemstones (table 2). Current information on industrial-grade diamond can be found in the U.S. Geological Survey minerals yearbook chapter on industrial diamond. Production Commercial mining of gemstones has never been extensive in the United States. More than 60 varieties of gemstones have been produced commercially from domestic mines, but most of the deposits have been relatively small compared with other mining operations. In many instances, contemporary gemstone mining in the United States is conducted by hobbyists, collectors, and gem clubs rather than business organizations. The commercial gemstone industry in the United States consists of several distinct sectors: (1) individuals and companies that mine gemstones or harvest shell and pearl, (2) firms that manufacture synthetic gemstones, and (3) individuals and companies that cut natural and synthetic gemstones. The domestic gemstone industry is focused on the production of colored gemstones and on the cutting of large diamonds. Industry employment is estimated to range from 1,000 to 1,500 workers (U.S. International Trade Commission, 1997, p. 1). Most natural gemstone producers in the United States are small businesses that are widely dispersed and operate independently. The small producers probably have an average of less than three employees, including those who only work part time. The number of gemstone mines operating from year to year fluctuates, because the inherent uncertainty associated with the discovery and marketing of gem-quality minerals makes it difficult to obtain financing for developing and sustaining economically viable deposits (U.S. International Trade Commission, 1997, p. 23). The total value of natural gemstones produced in the United States during 2000 was estimated to be at least $17.2 million (table 3). The production value was 6.9% greater than the preceding year. The production growth was mostly because the

Gemstones in the 20th Century In 1900, U.S. production of gemstones was valued at about $233,000. The top five gemstone types, in descending order of production value, were turquoise, sapphire, rhodolite (garnet), aquamarine, and quartz crystal; these accounted for about 85% of total domestic production. Turquoise was produced primarily in Nevada and New Mexico. Sapphire production was in Montana, rhodolite and beryl production occurred in North Carolina, and quartz crystal production was in California and Montana. In 1900, the United States also imported diamond and other gemstones valued at about $13.6 million. Nearly $4 million worth of these imports were rough South African diamonds that were all cut in the United States. Opals from Australia that were cut in the United States were also a significant portion of these imports. In 2000, domestic gemstone production was estimated to be $74.3 million, of which an estimated $57.1 million was synthetic gemstone and $17.2 million was natural gemstone. The top seven natural gemstone types, in descending order of production value, were shell, beryl, agate, turquoise, quartz, coral, and gem feldspars; these accounted for about 47% of the total natural gemstone production. Output of natural gemstones was primarily from Tennessee, Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah, in decreasing order. Reported output of synthetic gemstones was from five firms in North Carolina, New York, Florida, California, and Arizona, in decreasing order of production. There was notable production of freshwater pearl in Tennessee, turquoise in Arizona, and beryl in North Carolina and Utah. In 2000, the United States also imported diamond and other gemstones valued at about $12.9 billion. Of these imports, 79% was from Israel, India, and Belgium, in descending order of gemstone import value. Diamond imports accounted for 93% of the total value of gemstone imports, and slightly more than 10.4% by weight of those diamonds was cut in the United States.

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2000 shell harvest was 42% larger than in 1999 and foreign markets for U.S. shell material grew as the demand from Southeast Asia cultured pearl producers increased (Jewellery News Asia, 2000b). The estimate of 2000 U.S. gemstone production was based on a survey of more than 200 domestic gemstone producers conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey provided a foundation for projecting the scope and level of domestic gemstone production during the year. However, the USGS survey did not represent all gemstone activity in the United States, which includes thousands of professional and amateur collectors. Consequently, the USGS supplemented its survey with estimates of domestic gemstone production from related published data, contacts with gemstone dealers and collectors, and information garnered at gem and mineral shows. Natural gemstone materials indigenous to the United States are collected, produced, and/or marketed in every State. During 2000, all 50 States produced at least $1,000 worth of gemstone materials. Five States accounted for about than 75% of the total value, as reported by survey respondents. These States, in order of declining value of production, were Tennessee, Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Some States were known for the production of a single gemstone material, Tennessee for freshwater pearls and Arkansas for quartz, for example. Other States produced a variety of gemstones, like Arizona, whose gemstone deposits included agate, amethyst, azurite, chrysocolla, fire agate, garnet, jade, malachite, obsidian, onyx, peridot, petrified wood, opal, smithsonite, and turquoise. A wide variety of gemstones also were found in California, Idaho, Montana, and North Carolina. There were only two operations on significant known diamond-bearing areas in the United States during 2000. The first is the Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine, which straddles the Colorado-Wyoming State line. Kelsey Lake is now the only commercial producing diamond mine in the United States. It is operated by Great Western Diamond Company, a whollyowned subsidiary of McKenzie Bay International Ltd., who purchased the property from Redaurum Limited in April 2000 (McKenzie Bay International Ltd., May 1, 2000, Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine released from bankruptcy proceedings Yes International to perform investor relations, accessed November 20, 2000, at URL http://www.mckenziebay.com/news/archive/ 000501.htm). Diamonds are present in three of the nine known kimberlite pipes on the Kelsey Lake property. The remaining six kimberlites have yet to be fully explored and tested for their diamond potential. Of diamonds recovered, 50% to 65% were clear gem quality, and almost a third were one carat or larger in size. The identified resources are at least 17 million tons (Mt) grading at an average of 4 carats per hundred tons (J. Taylor, April 11, 2000, McKenzie Bay International Ltd., accessed July 16, 2001, at URL http://www.mckensiebay.com/reports/ jt000411.htm). Kelsey Lake was reopened and began production again in September 2000, after installing new equipment in the main processing and recovery plant. Maximum diamond recovery rates are expected in 2001 (McKenzie Bay International Ltd., September 6, 2000, Diamond production begins at Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine, accessed November 20, 2000, at URL http://www.mckenziebay.com/news/archive/000906.htm). The
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second operation was in Crater of Diamonds State Park near Murfreesboro in Pike County, AR, where a dig-for-fee operation for tourists and rockhounds is maintained by the State. Crater of Diamonds is the only diamond mine in the world that is open to the public. The diamonds occur in a lamproite breccia tuff associated with an extinct volcanic pipe and in the soil developed from the lamproite breccia tuff. Since the diamond-bearing pipe and the adjoining area became a State park in 1972, over 21,000 diamonds have been recovered. Recent exploration demonstrated that there are some 78.5 Mt of diamond-bearing rock in this diamond deposit (Howard, 1999, p. 62). An Arkansas law, enacted early in 1999, prohibits commercial diamond mining in the park (Diamond Registry Bulletin, 1999). In addition to natural gemstones, synthetic gemstones and gemstone simulants are produced in the United States. Synthetic gemstones have the same optical, physical, and chemical properties as the natural materials that they appear to be. Simulants have an appearance similar to that of a natural gemstone material, but they have different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Synthetic gemstones produced in the United States include alexandrite, diamond, emerald, moissanite, ruby, sapphire, turquoise, and zirconia. Simulants of coral, lapis lazuli, malachite, and turquoise also are manufactured. In addition, certain colors of synthetic sapphire and spinel, used to represent other gemstones, are classified as simulants. Synthetic gemstone production in the United States exceeded $57 million during 2000; simulant gemstone output was even greater and was estimated to be more than $100 million. Five firms in five States, representing virtually all the U.S. synthetic gemstone industry, reported production to the USGS. The States with reported synthetic gemstone production were Arizona, California, Florida, New York, and North Carolina. At least one U.S. company has developed technology to produce consistent quality and quantities of synthetic diamond and has reported production during 2000. The synthetic diamond stones weight ranged from 1.5 to 2 carats. In 2000, a North Carolina firm entered its third year of marketing moissanite, a gem-quality synthetic silicon carbide that it produces. Moissanite is also an excellent diamond simulant, but it is being marketed for its own gem qualities. Consumption Although the United States accounts for less than 1% of total global gemstone production, it is the worlds leading gemstone market. On the basis of indicators, such as trade data and income growth rates, U.S. gemstone marketsbolstered by strong demand among consumers with more personal wealth and more discretionary incomeapparently accounted for at least 35% of world gemstone demand in 2000. The U.S. market for unset gem-quality diamonds during the year was estimated to have exceeded $9 billion, the largest in the world. Domestic markets for natural, unset nondiamond gemstones totaled about $770 million. According to a poll conducted by a U.S. jewelry retailers association in the mid-1990s, about two-thirds of domestic consumers who were surveyed preferred diamond as their
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK2000

favorite gemstone (ICA Gazette, 1996). In 2000, the topselling colored gemstones, in descending order, were blue sapphire, ruby, emerald, amethyst, tanzanite, tourmaline, garnet, fancy sapphire, pearl, and blue topaz (Prost, 2001). In addition to jewelry, gemstones are used for collections, exhibits, and decorative art objects. Prices Gemstone prices are governed by many factors and qualitative characteristics, including beauty, clarity, defects, demand, and rarity. Diamond pricing, in particular, is complex; values can vary significantly depending on time, place, and the subjective evaluations of buyers and sellers. There are more than 14,000 categories used to assess rough diamond and more than 100,000 different combinations of carat, clarity, color, and cut values used to assess polished diamond (Pearson, 1998). Colored gemstone prices are generally influenced by market supply and demand considerations, and diamond prices are supported by producer controls on the quantity and quality of supply. Values and prices of gemstones produced and/or sold in the United States are listed in tables 3 through 5. In addition, customs values for diamonds and other gemstones imported, exported, or reexported are listed in tables 6 through 10. De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. in South Africa is a significant force affecting gem diamond prices worldwide because it mines about one-half of the diamonds produced each year and sorts and values about two-thirds (by value) of the worlds annual supply of rough diamonds through its Diamond Trading Company (DTC), which has marketing agreements with other producers. Estimates based on the reported output of major diamond mines in 2000 indicate that the average value of all diamond produced during the year was about $71 per carat; by country, the average value per carat ranged from about $14 in Australia to more than $276 in Namibia (Luc Rombouts, Terraconsult bvba, May 2, 2001, Diamond annual review2000, accessed June 19, 2001, at URL http://www.terraconsult.be/overview.htm). Foreign Trade During 2000, total U.S. gemstone trade with all countries and territories exceeded $17.4 billion; diamonds accounted for about 92% of the total. In 2000, U.S. exports and reexports of diamond were shipped to 72 countries and territories, and imports of all gemstones were received from 112 countries and territories (tables 6-10). During 2000, U.S. trade in cut diamonds reached unprecedented levels; the country continued to be the worlds leading diamond importer and set export records as well. Record high imports were attributed to a relatively strong U.S. economy that boosted domestic demand for diamond jewelry among consumers with more personal wealth and discretionary income. The United States is a significant international diamond transit center, as well as the worlds largest gem diamond market. The large volume of reexports (table 6) shipped to other centers reveals the significance that the United States has
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in the worlds diamond supply network. Synthetic gemstone trade continued to increase for the United States in 2000. Imports of synthetic gems increased slightly during the year. Synthetic gemstone imports from Austria, China, Germany, Switzerland, and Thailand made up about 80% of the total domestic imports of synthetic gemstones during the year. Prices of certain synthetic gemstone imports, such as amethyst, were very competitive. The marketing of synthetic imports and enhanced gemstones as natural gemstones and the mixing of synthetic materials with natural stones in imported parcels continued to be problems for some domestic producers in 2000. Another problem during the year was that some simulants were being marketed as synthetic gemstones. World Review The gemstone industry worldwide has two distinct sectors: (1) diamond mining and marketing, and (2) the production and sale of colored gemstones. Most diamond supplies are controlled by a few major mining companies; prices are supported by managing the quantity and quality of the gemstones relative to demand, a function performed by De Beers through DTC. Unlike diamonds, colored gemstones are primarily produced at relatively small, low-cost operations with few dominant producers; prices are influenced by consumer demand in addition to supply availability. In 2000, world diamond production totaled at least 118 million carats with an estimated value of more than $7.86 billion (table 11). Most production was concentrated in a few regionsAfrica [Angola, Botswana, Congo (Kinshasa), Namibia, and South Africa], Asia (northeastern Siberia and Yakutia in Russia), Australia, North America (Northwest Territories in Canada), and South America (Brazil and Venezuela). In 2000, Botswana was the worlds leading diamond producer in terms of output value and quantity (Luc Rombouts, Terraconsult bvba, May 2, 2001, Diamond annual review2000, accessed June 19, 2001, at URL http://www.terraconsult.be/overview.htm). Global diamond sales hit a record high of $25.8 billion, nearly 9% higher than 1999, according to figures released by the Diamond High Council (CNN.com, January 30, 2001, Diamond sales enjoy record year, accessed February 2, 2001, at http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/01/30/ belgium.diamonds/index.html). Record sales of rough diamond by DTC in 2000 reached $5.67 billion, 8.2% higher than the 1999 total of $5.24 billion. The sales record was primarily the result of very strong sales in the first half of the year. Sales in the second half of the year actually dropped by 23% compared with the second half of 1999 (The Diamond Registry, January 2001, U.S. market drives De Beers to record sales increase in 2000, accessed April 25, 2001, at URL http://www.diamondregistry.com/News/sales_record.htm). Retail diamond jewelry sales in the United States grew by 6% in 2000, the ninth consecutive year sales have risen (Diamond Registry Bulletin, 2001a). Additional events significant to diamond mining and marketing worldwide in 2000 include the following: ! The Ekati Mine, Canadas first commercial diamond mine, completed its second full year of production. The Ekati Mine,
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located in the Northwest Territories, was a joint venture between BHP Diamonds Inc. (BHP) and Dia Met Minerals Ltd., but in June 2001, BHP purchased Dia Met Minerals Ltd. (BHP Diamonds Inc., 2001). Ekati has estimated reserves of 60.3 Mt of ore in kimberlite pipes, containing 54.3 million carats of diamonds, and the mine life is projected to be 25 years. In 2000, Ekati produced 2.63 million carats valued at $454 million, which reflected a record sales price of $172.52 per carat. Ekati diamonds are sold by the BHP sales office in Antwerp (65%) and by DTC (35%) (Luc Rombouts, Terraconsult bvba, May 2, 2001, Diamond annual review2000, accessed June 19, 2001, at URL http://www.terraconsult.be/overview.htm). ! The Diavik diamonds project is located in the Northwest Territories. Diavik has estimated reserves of 25.6 Mt of ore in kimberlite pipes, containing 102 million carats of diamonds, and the mine life is projected to be 20 years. Diavik received the required permits and regulatory approval in 2000 and began site infrastructure development and project construction. Diavik is an unincorporated joint venture between Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. (60%) and Aber Diamond Mines Ltd. (40%), and it is expected to commence diamond production in the first half of 2003. The mine is expected to produce about 102 million carats of diamond at a rate of 6 million carats per year worth about $63 per carat (Diavik Diamond Mines Inc., 2000, p. 10-12). ! Conflict diamonds continued to partially finance warfare in Angola, Congo (Kinshasa), and Sierra Leone. In 2000, these conflict diamonds were discussed in the United Nations (U.N.), the U.S. Congress, the World Diamond Council, and the news media. The U.N. adopted a resolution on the role of diamonds in fueling conflict. A bill that was introduced, but not passed, in the 106th U.S. Congress would have required jewelry retailers to reveal the country of origin for all diamonds sold in the United States. In 2001, a revised version of this bill was reintroduced in the 107th U.S. Congress. The revised bill calls for a comprehensive diamond certification program and says that the United States can only import rough diamond from countries with the proper controls to ensure against importation of conflict diamonds. Conflict diamonds were also the subject of much television and other media coverage in 2000. Despite all of this discussion and media attention, surveys indicate that during 2000, most diamond jewelry consumers did not ask for the country of origin when making their diamond buying decisions (Diamond Registry Bulletin, 2000a). One survey in 2000 indicated that 93% of consumers who were surveyed had never heard of conflict diamonds, but 76% of consumers said that they would not purchase diamonds or diamond jewelry knowing that it came from a country where social injustice had occurred as a result of its production (Diamond Registry Bulletin, 2000c). ! De Beers Canada Mining Inc. acquired the Snap Lake diamond project from Winspear Diamonds Inc. and Aber Diamond Corporation in 2000. Snap Lake is located in the Northwest Territories and will be De Beers first mine outside of southern Africa and the first underground diamond mine in Canada. Snap Lake has estimated reserves of 22.8 Mt of ore in a kimberlite dike, containing 38.8 million carats
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of diamonds, and the mine life is projected to be 20 years or more. Snap Lake is in its development phase and is scheduled to begin diamond production in the first half of 2003 (De Beers Canada Mining Inc., 2000, Snap Lake diamond project fact sheet, accessed June 13, 2001, at URL http://www.debeerscanada.com/files_new/snap/ infrastruct.html). ! E-commerce in diamond and gemstone jewelry continued to grow during 2000. While more jewelry websites started operating online, many of the dot-com businesses overspent on advertizing and went out of business as a result. Preholiday season surveys indicated that the vast majority of 1999 online holiday customers also shopped online in 2000, and they spent more. The entire sum of online holiday sales, however, only amounted to about 1.5% of overall retail jewelry sales in 2000 (Diamond Registry Bulletin, 2000b). Worldwide production of natural gemstones other than diamond was estimated to have exceeded $2 billion per year in the late 1990s. Most nondiamond gemstone mines are small, low-cost, and widely dispersed operations in remote regions of developing nations. Foreign countries with major gemstone deposits other than diamond are Afghanistan (beryl, ruby, and tourmaline); Australia (beryl, opal, and sapphire); Brazil (agate, amethyst, beryl, ruby, sapphire, topaz, and tourmaline); Burma (beryl, jade, ruby, sapphire, and topaz); Colombia (beryl, emerald, and sapphire); Kenya (beryl, garnet, and sapphire); Madagascar (beryl, rose quartz, sapphire, and tourmaline); Mexico (agate, opal, and topaz); Sri Lanka (beryl, ruby, sapphire, and topaz); Tanzania (garnet, ruby, sapphire, tanzanite, and tourmaline); and Zambia (amethyst and beryl). In addition, pearls are cultured throughout the South Pacific and in other equatorial waters; Australia, China, French Polynesia, and Japan are key producers. Colored gemstone producers continued their recovery from the weakened markets created by the Asian economic crisis of 1997-98. Mining and sales reportedly were disrupted in many nations, particularly in Southeast Asia. Prices of high-quality colored gemstones, however, did not decline dramatically (Cavey, 1998). Additional noteworthy items in the colored gemstone industry during 2000 included the following: ! Owing to the increased misuse of the terms like synthetic and laboratory-created in deceptive advertizing and owing to the proliferation of treatment processes to enhance gemstone attributes artificially without disclosure, the Federal Trade Commission has modified its Guides for the Jewelry, Precious Metals, and Pewter Industries. The modified regulations went into effect April 10, 2001. ! During 2000, the popularity of colorful gemstones, colored synthetic gemstones, and fancy colored diamonds (even black diamonds) increased, as was evidenced by increased sales that are expected to continue in 2001 (Jewelers Circular Keystone, 2000; Jewellery News Asia, 2000a, 2000c, 2001). Outlook It appears that the 2001 U.S. economy will not be a continuation of the good times we have enjoyed for the last few years. The U.S. diamond industry can take comfort in the fact
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK2000

that the value of their inventory is holding much better than the stock market (Diamond Registry Bulletin, 2001b). Historically, diamonds have proven to hold their value despite wars or depressions in the economy (Schumann, 1998, p. 8). Diamond exploration is continuing in Canada, and many new deposits are being found. There have been additional discoveries in both the core and buffer zones of the Ekati lease. At least 35 kimberlites have been discovered in north-central Alberta, 70 large kimberlites have been found in Saskatchewan, and additional discoveries have been made in Ontario and Quebec (Luc Rombouts, Terraconsult bvba, May 2, 2001, Diamond annual review2000, accessed June 19, 2001, at URL http://www.terraconsult.be/overview.htm). When the Diavik and Snap Lake mines begin production, Canada will be producing at least 15% to 20% of the total world diamond production. Independent producers, such as Argyle Diamond Mines in Australia and new mines in Canada, will continue to bring a greater measure of competition to global markets. More competition presumably will bring more supplies and lower prices. Numerous synthetics, simulants, and treated gemstones will enter the marketplace and necessitate more transparent trade industry standards to maintain customer confidence. More diamonds, gemstones, and jewelry will be sold through online marketplaces and other forms of e-commerce that emerge to serve the diamond and gemstone industry. This will take place as the industry and its customers become more comfortable with and learn the best applications of new ecommerce tools for the gemstone industry (Authority on Jewelry Manufacturing, 2001). References Cited
Authority on Jewelry Manufacturing, 2001, A net full of gemstonesThe online gem marketplace expands: Authority on Jewelry Manufacturing, v. 46, no. 3, March, p. 23-29. BHP Diamonds Inc., 2001, BHP acquires Dia Met: Vancouver, Canada, BHP Diamonds Inc. press release, June 20, p. 2. Cavey, Christopher, 1998, Other gemstones: Mining Journal Annual Review Supplement, v. 330, no. 8481, May 22, p. 19. Diamond Registry Bulletin, 1999, Verdict inCrater of Diamonds remains public park: Diamond Registry Bulletin, v. 31, no. 2, February 28, p. 6. 2000a, 2000The year in which: Diamond Registry Bulletin, v. 32, no. 11, December 31, p. 1. 2000b, Diamonds, jewelry sell well online despite website closings: Diamond Registry Bulletin, v. 32, no. 10, November 30, p. 3. 2000c, Keeping in mind a diamonds brighter side: Diamond Registry Bulletin, v. 32, no. 9, October 31, p. 1. 2001a, 2000 U.S. diamond jewelry retail sales increase: Diamond Registry Bulletin, v. 33, no. 4, April 30, p. 3. 2001b, The outlook for 2001: Diamond Registry Bulletin, v. 33, no. 1, January 31, p. 1.

Diavik Diamond Mines Inc., 2000, Diavik annual social and environmental report2000: Yellowknife, Canada, Diavik Diamond Mines Inc., 74 p. Howard, J.M., 1999, Summary of the 1990s exploration and testing of the Prairie Creek diamond-bearing lamproite complex, Pike County, AR, with a field guide, in Howard, J.M., ed., Contributions to the geology of ArkansasVolume IV: Little Rock, AR, Arkansas Geological Commission, p. 57-73. ICA Gazette, 1996, New survey measures U.S. jewelry market: ICA Gazette, August, 1 p. Jewelers Circular Keystone, 2000, Black by popular demand: Jewelers Circular Keystone, v. 171, no. 10, October, p. 125-130. Jewellery News Asia, 2000a, Coloured gemstones hot again in Asia: Jewellery News Asia, no. 185, January, p. 60-66. 2000b, Supplier sees steady prices for shell nuclei: Jewellery News Asia, no. 188, April, p. 88-90. 2000c, US synthetic coloured stones producer anticipates strong sales in Asia: Jewellery News Asia, no. 193, September, p. 196. 2001, Whats hot in 2001: Jewellery News Asia, no. 197, January, p. 49-56. Pearson, Carl, 1998, DiamondsThe demand equation: Mining Journal, v. 331, no. 8505, November 6, p. 7. Prost, M.A., 2001, Retail customers consume the classics: Colored Stone Magazine, v. 14, no. 1, January-February, p. 491-521. Schumann, Walter, 1998, Gemstones of the world: New York, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., p. 272. U.S. International Trade Commission, 1997, Industry & trade summaryGemstones: U.S. International Trade Commission Publication 3018, March, 72 p.

GENERAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION U.S. Geological Survey Publications Area Reports: Domestic. Minerals Yearbook, annual. Gem Stones. Ch. in United States Mineral Resources, Professional Paper 820, 1973. Gemstones. Ch. in Mineral Commodity Summaries, annual. Industrial Diamond. Ch. in Minerals Yearbook, annual. Industrial Garnet. Ch. in Minerals Yearbook, annual. Other De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., annual report, 1998, 1999, 2000. An Overview of Production of Specific U.S. Gemstones. Special Publication 14-95, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1995. Antwerp Confidential (monthly). Basel Magazine (bimonthly). Colored Stone Magazine (bimonthly). Directory of Principal U.S. Gemstone Producers in 1995. Mineral Industry Surveys, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1995. Gems & Gemology (quarterly). Gemstone Forecaster (quarterly). Lapidary Journal (monthly).

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TABLE 1 GUIDE TO SELECTED GEMSTONES AND GEM MATERIALS USED IN JEWELRY Practical size 1/ Any Small to medium Specific gravity 1.0-1.1 3.64-3.68 Refractive index 1.54 1.76-1.80 May be confused with Synthetic or pressed plastics Sapphire, tanzanite, blue diamond, blue tourmaline Synthetic spinel, blue topaz Pressed plastics, tourmaline Fused emerald, glass, tourmaline, peridot, green garnet doublets Genuine emerald Recognition characters Fossil resin, soft. Strong blue in ultraviolet light.

Name Amber Benitoite

Composition Hydrocarbon Barium titanium silicate

Color Yellow, red, green, blue Blue, purple, pink, colorless

Cost 2/ Low to medium High

Mohs 2.0-2.5 6.0-6.5

Refraction Single Double

Beryl: Aquamarine Bixbite Emerald

Beryllium aluminum Blue-green to light blue silicate do. do. do. Green

Any Small Medium

Medium to high Very high do.

7.5-8.0 7.5-8.0 7.5

2.63-2.80 2.63-2.80 2.63-2.80

do. do. do.

1.58 1.58 1.58

Double refraction, refractive index. Refractive index. Emerald filter, dichroism, refractive index. Flaws, brilliant, fluorescence in ultraviolet light. Weak-colored.

Emerald, synthetic Golden (heliodor) Goshenite Morganite Calcite: Marble Mexican onyx Chrysoberyl: Alexandrite

do. do. do. do.

do. Yellow to golden do. Pink to rose

Small Any do. do.

High Low to medium Low do.

7.5-8.0 7.5-8.0 7.5-8.0 7.5-8.0

2.63-2.80 2.63-2.80 2.63-2.80 2.63-2.80

do. do. do. do.

1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58

Citrine, topaz, glass, doublets Quartz, glass, white Refractive index. sapphire, white topaz Kunzite, tourmaline, Do. pink sapphire

Calcium carbonate do.

White, pink, red, blue, green, or brown do.

do. do.

do. do.

3.0 3.0 8.5

2.72 2.72 3.50-3.84

Double (strong) do. Double

1.49-1.66 1.60 1.75

Silicates, banded agate, Translucent. alabaster gypsum do. Banded, translucent. Synthetic Dichroism, inclusions in synthetic sapphire.

Beryllium aluminate Green by day, red by artificial light

Cats-eye Chrysolite Coral Corundum: Ruby Sapphire Sapphire, fancy

do. do. Calcium carbonate

Greenish to brownish

Yellow, green, and/or brown Orange, red, white, black, Branching, or green medium Rose to deep purplish red Blue Yellow, pink, white, orange, green, or violet Red, pink, violet, blue, or gray Small Medium

Small High (former U.S.S.R.) Medium (Sri Lanka) Small to do. large Medium Medium Low

8.5 8.5 3.5-4.0

3.50-3.84 3.50-3.84 2.6-2.7

do. do. do.

1.75 1.75 1.49-1.66

Synthetic, shell Tourmaline, peridot False coral

Gravity and translucence. Refractive index, silky. Dull translucent.

Aluminum oxide do. do.

Very high High Medium High to low

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

3.95-4.10 3.95-4.10 3.95-4.10 3.95-4.10

do. do. do. do.

1.78 1.78 1.78 1.78

Synthetics, including spinel do. Synthetics, glass and doublets Star quartz, synthetic stars

Inclusions, fluorescence. Inclusions, double refraction, dichroism. Inclusions, double refraction, refractive index. Shows asterism, color side view.

Sapphire and ruby, do. stars See footnotes at end of table.

Medium to large do.

TABLE 1Continued GUIDE TO SELECTED GEMSTONES AND GEM MATERIALS USED IN JEWELRY Practical size 1/ Specific gravity 3.95-4.10 3.516-3.525 Refractive index 1.78 2.42 May be confused with Synthetic spinel, glass Zircon, titania, cubic zirconia Jade do. Glass Synthetics, spinel, glass Recognition characters Curved striae, bubble inclusions. High index, dispersion, hardness, luster. Cleavage, sheen, vitreous to pearly, opaque, grid. Do. Pale sheen, opalescent. Single refraction, anomalous strain.

Name Corundum: Sapphire or ruby, synthetic Diamond Feldspar: Amazonite Labradorite Moonstone Garnet

Composition Aluminum oxide Carbon

Color Yellow, pink, or blue

Cost 2/ Low Very high

Mohs 9.0 10.0

Refraction Double Single

Up to 20 carats White, blue-white, yellow, Any brown, green, pink, blue Green Large

Alkali aluminum silicate do. do. Complex silicate

Low do.

6.0-6.5 6.0-6.5

2.56 2.56 2.77 3.15-4.30

XX XX XX Single strained

1.52 1.56 1.52-1.54 1.79-1.98

Gray with blue and do. bronze sheen color play Colorless or yellow do. Brown, black, yellow, Small to green, ruby red, or medium orange Green, yellow, black, white, or mauve do. Large

do. 6.0-6.5 Low to high 6.5-7.5

Jade: Jadeite

do.

Low to very 6.5-7.0 high do. 6.0-6.5

3.3-3.5

Cryptocrystalline do. Single XX Double (strong) XX Double do. do. do. XX XX Double Single Double

1.65-1.68

Nephrite Opal Pearl Peridot Quartz: Agate Amethyst Cairngorm Citrine Crystal, rock Jasper Onyx Rose Spinel Spinel, synthetic

Complex hydrous silicate Hydrous silica Calcium carbonate Iron magnesium silicate Silica do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Magnesium aluminum oxide do.

do.

2.96-3.10 1.9-2.3 2.6-2.85 3.27-3.37

1.61-1.63 1.45 XX 1.65-1.69

Onyx, bowenite, vesuvianite, grossularite do.

Luster, spectrum, translucent, to opaque. Do.

Colors flash in white gray, do. black, red, or yellow White, pink, or black Small Yellow and/or green Any

Low to high 5.5-6.5 do. Medium 2.5-4.0 6.5-7.0

Glass, synthetics, Play of color. triplets Cultured and imitation Luster, structure, x ray. Tourmaline Strong double refraction, low chrysoberyl dichroism. Glass, plastic, Mexican onyx do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Synthetic, garnet Spinel, corundum, beryl, topaz, alexandrite Synthetic spinel Amethyst, morganite Cryptocrystalline, irregularly banded, dendritic inclusions. Refractive index, double refraction, transparent. Do. Do. Do. Opaque, vitreous. Uniformly banded. Refractive index, double refraction, translucent. Refractive index, single refraction, inclusions. Weak double refraction, curved striae, bubbles.

Any Purple Smoky orange or yellow Yellow Colorless Any, striped, spotted, or sometimes uniform Many colors Pink, rose red Any do.

Large do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Small to medium Up to 40 carats

Low Medium Low do. do. do. do. do. Medium Low

7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 8.0 8.0

2.58-2.64 2.65-2.66 2.65-2.66 2.65-2.66 2.65-2.66 2.58-2.66 2.58-2.64 2.65-2.66 3.5-3.7 3.5-3.7

XX 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.55 XX XX 1.55 1.72 1.73

Spodumene: Hiddenite

Lithium aluminum silicate Kunzite do. See footnotes at end of table.

Yellow to green Pink to lilac

Medium do.

Medium do.

6.5-7.0 6.5-7.0

3.13-3.20 3.13-3.20

do. do.

1.66 1.66

Refractive index. Do.

TABLE 1Continued GUIDE TO SELECTED GEMSTONES AND GEM MATERIALS USED IN JEWELRY Practical size 1/ Small Medium do. Large Specific gravity 3.30 3.4-3.6 2.98-3.20 2.60-2.83 Refractive index 1.69 1.62 1.63 1.63 May be confused with Sapphire, synthetics Beryl, quartz Peridot, beryl, corundum, glass Glass, plastics Recognition characters Strong trichroism. Refractive index. Double refraction, refractive index. Difficult if matrix not present, matrix usually limonitic. Double refraction, strongly dichroic, wear on facet edges.

Name Tanzanite Topaz Tourmaline Turquoise

Composition Complex silicate do. do. Copper aluminum phosphate Zirconium silicate

Color Blue White, blue, green Any, including mixed Blue to green

Cost 2/ High Low to medium do. Low

Mohs 6.0-7.0 8.0 7.0-7.5 6.0

Refraction Double do. do. do.

Zircon

White, blue, or brown, yellow, or green

Small to medium

Low to medium

6.0-7.5

4.0-4.8

Double (strong)

1.79-1.98

Diamond, synthetics, topaz, aquamarine

XX Not applicable. 1/ Small: up to 5 carats; medium: 5 to 50 carats; large: more than 50 carats. 2/ Low: up to $25 per carat; medium: up to $200 per carat; high: more than $200 per carat.

TABLE 2 SYNTHETIC GEMSTONE PRODUCTION METHODS Production methods Flux Melt pulling do. Zone melt Skull melt Flux do. do. do. do. do. Hydrothermal do. do. do. Flux do. do. do. Zone melt Melt pulling Verneuil Flux Zone melt Melt pulling Verneuil do. Melt pulling do. Verneuil Company/ producer Creative Crystals J.O. Crystal Kyocera Seiko Various producers Chatham Gilson Kyocera Seiko Lennix Russia Lechleitner Regency Biron Russia Chatham Kashan J.O. Crystal Douras Seiko Kyocera Various producers Chatham Seiko Kyocera Various producers Linde Kyocera Nakazumi Linde Date of first production 1970s 1990s 1980s 1980s 1970s 1930s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1980s 1980s 1960s 1980s 1980s 1980s 1950s 1960s 1980s 1990s 1980s 1970s 1900s 1970s 1980s 1980s 1900s 1940s 1980s 1980s 1940s

Gemstone Alexandrite Do. Do. Do. Cubic zirconia Emerald Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Ruby Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Sapphire Do. Do. Do. Star ruby Do. Do. Star sapphire

TABLE 3 VALUE OF U.S. GEMSTONE PRODUCTION, BY TYPE 1/ (Thousand dollars) Gem materials 1999 2000 Agate 47 r/ (2/) Beryl 3,360 e/ (2/) Coral (all types) 54 (2/) Diamond (3/) (3/) Garnet 90 78 Gem feldspar 187 314 Geode/nodules 69 59 Jasper 49 30 Opal 147 219 Quartz 674 416 Sapphire/ruby 117 65 Shell 2,600 3,270 Topaz 8 8 Tourmaline W 54 Turquoise 860 (2/) Other 7,820 9,210 Total 16,100 17,200 e/ Estimated. r/ Revised. W Withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data. 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Included in "Total." 3/ Included with "Other."

TABLE 4 PRICES OF U.S. CUT DIAMONDS, BY SIZE AND QUALITY 1/ Representative prices Carat Description, Clarity 2/ January June December weight color 3/ (GIA terms) 2000 4/ 2000 5/ 2000 6/ 0.25 G VS1 $1,500 $1,500 $1,500 .25 G VS2 1,380 1,380 1,380 .25 G SI1 1,130 1,130 1,130 .25 H VS1 1,400 1,400 1,400 .25 H VS2 1,250 1,250 1,250 .25 H SI1 1,050 1,050 1,050 .50 G VS1 3,400 3,400 3,400 .50 G VS2 3,000 3,000 3,000 .50 G SI1 2,500 2,500 2,500 .50 H VS1 3,000 3,000 3,000 .50 H VS2 2,700 2,700 2,700 .50 H SI1 2,400 2,400 2,400 .75 G VS1 3,800 3,800 3,800 .75 G VS2 3,600 3,600 3,600 .75 G SI1 3,300 3,300 3,300 .75 H VS1 3,650 3,650 3,650 .75 H VS2 3,450 3,450 3,450 .75 H SI1 3,100 3,100 3,100 1.00 G VS1 5,700 5,800 5,900 1.00 G VS2 5,300 5,400 5,700 1.00 G SI1 4,800 4,900 5,000 1.00 H VS1 5,200 5,300 5,500 1.00 H VS2 4,900 5,000 5,300 1.00 H SI1 4,500 4,600 4,800 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits. 2/ Gemological Institute of America (GIA) color grades: Dcolorless; Erare white; G, H, I traces of color 3/ Clarity: IFno blemishes; VVS1very, very slightly included; VS1very slightly included; VS2very slightly included, but not visible; SI1slightly included. 4/ Source: Jewelers' Circular Keystone, v. 171, no. 2, February 2000, p. 58. 5/ Source: Jewelers' Circular Keystone, v. 171, no. 7, July 2000, p. 46. 6/ Source: Jewelers' Circular Keystone, v. 172, no. 1, January 2001, p. 52.

TABLE 5 PRICES PER CARAT OF U.S. CUT COLORED GEMSTONES Price range per carat January December Gemstone 2000 1/ 2000 2/ Amethyst $7-$14 $7-$14 Aquamarine 75-200 75-250 Emerald 1,000-2,400 1,000-2,400 Ruby 1,800-2,800 1,800-2,800 Sapphire 650-1,800 450-1,450 Tanzanite 250-350 325-400 1/ Source: Jewelers' Circular Keystone, v. 171, no. 2, February 2000, p. 58. Amethyst and aquamarine prices are from The Guide, Spring/Summer 2000, p. 12, 72. These figures represent a sampling of net prices that wholesale colored stone dealers in various U.S. cities charged their cash customers during the month for fine-quality stones. 2/ Source: Jewelers' Circular Keystone, v. 172, no. 1, January 2001, p. 52. Amethyst, aquamarine, and tanzanite prices are from The Guide, Fall/Winter 2000-2001, p. 12, 72, 104. These figures represent a sampling of net prices that wholesale colored stone dealers in various U.S. cities charged their cash customers during the month for fine-quality stones.

TABLE 6 U.S. EXPORTS AND REEXPORTS OF DIAMOND (EXCLUSIVE OF INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND), BY COUNTRY 1/ 1999 Quantity Value 2/ (carats) (millions) 2000 Quantity Value 2/ (carats) (millions)

Country Exports: Belgium 9,260 $10 114,000 $248 Canada 81,700 30 123,000 39 France 16,700 10 30,300 67 Hong Kong 29,600 34 111,000 150 India 56,200 13 109,000 36 Israel 14,600 28 268,000 354 Japan 5,460 22 23,100 60 Singapore 11,400 5 15,000 14 Switzerland 42,000 79 73,100 143 Thailand 102 1 13,100 12 United Arab Emirates 1,360 3 1,540 6 United Kingdom 20,200 21 74,600 64 Other 199,000 47 319,000 89 Total 487,000 303 1,270,000 1,280 Reexports: Belgium 980,000 669 3,850,000 666 Canada 97,400 41 105,000 49 France 40,800 40 75,100 21 Hong Kong 822,000 308 3,260,000 396 India 902,000 134 600,000 79 Israel 1,120,000 1,020 4,770,000 1,010 Japan 109,000 62 259,000 34 Singapore 43,100 27 259,000 32 Switzerland 184,000 265 477,000 187 Thailand 177,000 22 247,000 28 United Arab Emirates 25,300 10 72,100 13 United Kingdom 111,000 97 455,000 94 Other 346,000 75 551,000 89 Total 4,950,000 2,770 15,000,000 2,700 Grand total 5,440,000 3,080 16,300,000 3,980 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Customs value. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

TABLE 7 U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF DIAMOND, BY KIND, WEIGHT, AND COUNTRY 1/ 1999 Kind, range, and country of origin Rough or uncut, natural: 3/ Australia Belgium Brazil Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Ghana Guinea India Israel Russia Sierra Leone South Africa Switzerland United Kingdom Venezuela See footnotes at end of table. Quantity (carat) 945 118,000 11,600 25,500 53,200 110,000 10,100 18,600 38,000 3,080,000 4,420 40,500 2,520 663,000 3,290 Value 2/ (millions) $1 121 5 2 74 102 16 (4/) 25 4 6 73 18 229 1 Quantity (carat) 12 431,000 29,500 7,860 2,290 699,000 4,390 276,000 19,200 4,240 668 136,000 5,200 538,000 6,870 2000 Value 2/ (millions) (4/) $190 9 15 10 36 8 (4/) 20 1 1 194 23 185 2

TABLE 7--Continued U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF DIAMOND, BY KIND, WEIGHT, AND COUNTRY 1/ 1999 Quantity (carat) Value 2/ (millions) Quantity (carat) 2000 Value 2/ (millions) $47 741 221 3 1 1 79 2,050 693 2 2 9 18 3 42 3,120 2,170 (4/) 9 16 139 461 4,630 13 61 14 140 263 27 100 90 8,140

Kind, range, and country of origin Rough or uncut, natural--Continued: 3/ Other 88,900 $56 116,000 Total 4,270,000 734 2,280,000 Cut but unset, not more than 0.5 carat: Belgium 771,000 208 769,000 Brazil 3,720 2 13,400 Canada 1,260 1 2,070 Germany 6,290 1 4,590 Hong Kong 289,000 47 466,000 India 12,400,000 1,900 11,600,000 Israel 1,080,000 608 1,150,000 Japan 12,100 3 3,950 South Africa 3,280 3 1,480 Switzerland 36,400 10 133,000 Thailand 103,000 14 127,000 United Kingdom 1,650 1 11,700 Other 245,000 42 217,000 Total 14,900,000 2,840 14,500,000 Cut but unset, more than 0.5 carat: Belgium 1,030,000 1,630 1,330,000 Botswana --2 Canada 1,780 6 2,830 France 2,530 6 2,110 Hong Kong 81,000 117 105,000 India 664,000 383 639,000 Israel 2,290,000 3,650 2,740,000 Japan 1,910 7 14,800 Russia 29,000 44 45,100 Singapore 2,210 7 4,180 South Africa 24,800 67 34,100 Switzerland 35,100 254 34,200 Thailand 16,700 18 23,800 United Kingdom 20,800 75 22,100 Other 34,100 55 48,500 Total 4,230,000 6,320 5,040,000 -- Zero. 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Customs value. 3/ Includes some natural advanced diamond. 4/ Less than 1/2 unit. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

TABLE 8 U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF GEMSTONES, OTHER THAN DIAMOND, BY KIND AND COUNTRY 1/ 1999 Kind and country Emerald: Belgium Brazil Canada China Colombia France Germany Hong Kong India See footnotes at end of table. Quantity (carats) 14,000 601,000 803 955 601,000 7,040 25,800 252,000 2,860,000 Value 2/ (millions) $2 6 (3/) (3/) 59 1 3 10 35 Quantity (carats) 10,600 6,750,000 1,120 1,060 11,300,000 3,180 40,700 240,000 3,110,000 2000 Value 2/ (millions) $2 8 1 (3/) 66 1 2 9 32

TABLE 8--Continued U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF GEMSTONES, OTHER THAN DIAMOND, BY KIND AND COUNTRY 1/ 1999 Kind and country Emerald--Continued: Israel Japan South Africa Switzerland Taiwan Thailand United Kingdom Other Total Ruby: Belgium Brazil Burma Canada China Colombia France Germany Hong Kong India Israel Japan Switzerland Thailand United Kingdom Other Total Sapphire: Australia Belgium Brazil Burma Canada China Colombia France Germany Hong Kong India Israel Japan Singapore Sri Lanka Switzerland Tanzania Thailand United Kingdom Other Total Other: Rough, uncut: Australia Brazil China Colombia Fiji Hong Kong India Kenya Nigeria Pakistan See footnotes at end of table. Quantity (carats) 272,000 8,370 183 34,300 3,760 201,000 52,800 102,000 5,040,000 6,120 7,350 4,290 373 3,260 2,140 1,790 54,400 270,000 1,320,000 24,000 3,160 46,200 2,250,000 29,300 59,800 4,080,000 8,540 12,500 6,920 1,830 44 15,200 2,110 815 143,000 301,000 862,000 100,000 16,300 285 480,000 38,600 822 5,080,000 14,100 81,700 7,160,000 Value 2/ (millions) $26 (3/) (3/) 27 (3/) 4 3 6 183 1 (3/) 14 (3/) (3/) (3/) (3/) 7 6 4 3 (3/) 20 48 3 2 110 (3/) 2 (3/) 2 (3/) (3/) (3/) (3/) 3 9 3 6 (3/) (3/) 19 15 (3/) 64 4 2 129 Quantity (carats) 181,000 48 78 137,000 526 258,000 3,630 76,400 22,100,000 2,120 6,020 55,900 120 1,170 1,840 1,710 16,300 253,000 1,600,000 37,800 9,280 32,100 2,450,000 5,590 31,200 4,500,000 7,320 3,000 6,590 8,720 699 30,000 43,100 1,740 53,700 326,000 1,160,000 63,100 105,000 147 492,000 50,400 238 6,000,000 13,800 28,900 8,400,000 2000 Value 2/ (millions) $30 (3/) (3/) 15 (3/) 4 1 5 176 1 (3/) 4 (3/) (3/) (3/) (3/) 1 10 5 3 (3/) 7 46 4 4 85 1 1 (3/) 2 1 (3/) (3/) 1 1 11 4 5 1 (3/) 25 17 (3/) 81 3 4 156

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

4 26 1 2 2 1 1 (3/) (3/) (3/)

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

4 15 1 2 2 1 1 (3/) (3/) 1

TABLE 8--Continued U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF GEMSTONES, OTHER THAN DIAMOND, BY KIND AND COUNTRY 1/ 1999 Quantity (carats) Value 2/ (millions) Quantity (carats) 2000

Value 2/ Kind and country (millions) Other--Continued: Rough, uncut--Continued: Philippines NA $1 NA $1 Russia NA (3/) NA (3/) South Africa NA 1 NA 2 Switzerland NA (3/) NA (3/) Taiwan NA (3/) NA (3/) Tanzania NA (3/) NA 1 Thailand NA 7 NA 11 United Kingdom NA (3/) NA 1 Zambia NA 2 NA 5 Other NA 11 NA 9 Total NA 57 NA 56 Cut, set and unset: Australia NA 8 NA 18 Brazil NA 10 NA 10 Canada NA 1 NA 1 China NA 11 NA 13 French Polynesia NA 5 NA 5 Germany NA 14 NA 17 Hong Kong NA 44 NA 56 India NA 66 NA 81 Israel NA 6 NA 11 Japan NA 16 NA 10 Kenya NA 2 NA 1 Sri Lanka NA 3 NA 6 Switzerland NA 2 NA 3 Taiwan NA 3 NA 2 Tanzania NA 8 NA 13 Thailand NA 30 NA 33 United Kingdom NA 6 NA 6 Other NA 7 NA 9 Total NA 243 NA 294 NA Not available. 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Customs value. 3/ Less than 1/2 unit. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

TABLE 9 VALUE OF U.S. IMPORTS OF SYNTHETIC AND IMITATION GEMSTONES, BY COUNTRY 1/ (Thousand dollars) 2/ Country Synthetic, cut but unset: Australia Austria Brazil China France Germany Hong Kong India Italy Japan Korea, Republic of See footnotes at end of table. 1999 488 7,180 2,110 13,300 500 10,500 2,110 971 104 6 2,720 2000 97 6,670 136 13,500 1,020 10,300 2,990 795 289 69 2,510

TABLE 9--Continued VALUE OF U.S. IMPORTS OF SYNTHETIC AND IMITATION GEMSTONES, BY COUNTRY 1/ (Thousand dollars) 2/ Country 1999 2000 Synthetic, cut but unset--Continued: Spain 39 10 Sri Lanka 89 612 Switzerland 4,260 6,410 Taiwan 828 708 Thailand 4,490 3,820 Other 331 1,000 Total 50,100 50,900 Imitation: 3/ Austria 50,800 59,100 China 1,180 990 Czech Republic 11,700 11,200 Germany 1,710 1,250 Japan 495 756 Spain 36 45 Taiwan 336 274 Other 1,090 2,580 Total 67,300 76,200 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Customs value. 3/ Includes pearls. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

TABLE 10 U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION OF GEMSTONES 1/ (Thousand carats and thousand dollars) 1999 Stones Quantity Value 2/ Quantity 2000 Value 2/ 741,000 11,300,000 176,000 8,920 241,000 960 46,100 2,020 39,400 247,000 7,840 50,900 6,190 74,200 12,900,000

Diamonds: Rough or uncut 4,270 734,000 2,280 Cut but unset 19,200 9,160,000 19,500 Emeralds, cut but unset 5,040 183,000 22,100 Coral and similar materials, unworked NA 7,090 NA Rubies and sapphires, cut but unset 11,200 239,000 12,900 Pearls: Natural NA 2,120 NA Cultured NA 44,800 NA Imitation NA 1,420 NA Other precious and semiprecious stones: Rough, uncut 1,330,000 43,500 1,070,000 Cut, set and unset NA 196,000 NA Other NA 6,110 NA Synthetic: Cut but unset 287,000 50,100 329,000 Other NA 7,370 NA Imitation gemstone 3/ NA 65,900 NA Total XX 10,700,000 XX NA Not available. XX Not applicable. 1/ Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Customs value. 3/ Does not include pearls. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

TABLE 11 NATURAL DIAMOND: ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION, BY TYPE AND COUNTRY 1/ 2/ (Thousand carats) Country 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Gemstones: 3/ Angola 2,250 1,110 2,400 3,700 r/ 5,400 Australia 18,897 4/ 18,100 18,400 13,403 4/ 12,014 4/ Botswana 12,388 r/ 4/ 15,111 r/ 4/ 14,772 r/ 4/ 16,000 r/ 19,700 Brazil 200 300 300 300 300 Canada --300 2,000 2,000 Central African Republic 350 400 330 400 400 China 230 230 230 230 230 Congo (Kinshasa) 3,300 r/ 3,300 r/ 5,080 r/ 4,120 r/ 3,500 Cote d' Ivoire 202 207 210 210 200 Ghana 142 664 649 518 r/ 178 Guinea 165 165 300 410 r/ 410 Liberia 60 80 150 120 r/ 120 Namibia 1,402 4/ 1,350 r/ 1,390 r/ 1,550 r/ 1,520 Russia 10,500 11,200 r/ 11,500 11,500 11,600 Sierra Leone 162 4/ 300 200 450 r/ 450 South Africa 4,400 4,500 4,300 4,000 4,300 Venezuela 99 158 80 r/ 59 r/ 60 Zimbabwe 300 321 10 15 r/ 7 Other 165 124 r/ 106 207 r/ 258 Total 55,200 r/ 57,600 r/ 60,800 r/ 59,200 r/ 62,600 Industrial: Angola 250 124 364 400 r/ 600 Australia 23,096 4/ 22,100 22,500 16,381 4/ 14,684 4/ Botswana 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,350 r/ 4,950 Brazil 600 600 600 600 600 Central African Republic 120 100 200 150 150 China 900 900 900 920 920 Congo (Kinshasa) 18,940 r/ 4/ 18,677 r/ 4/ 21,000 r/ 16,000 r/ 14,200 Cote d' Ivoire 100 100 100 100 100 Ghana 573 166 160 128 r/ 712 Guinea 40 40 100 140 r/ 140 Liberia 90 120 150 80 r/ 80 Namibia -71 73 89 r/ 80 Russia 10,500 11,200 r/ 11,500 11,500 11,600 Sierra Leone 108 100 50 150 r/ 150 South Africa 5,550 5,540 6,460 6,020 r/ 6,480 Venezuela 73 90 17 r/ 36 r/ 40 Zimbabwe 137 100 19 30 r/ 13 Other 120 105 97 141 r/ 143 Total 66,200 r/ 65,100 r/ 69,300 r/ 58,200 r/ 55,600 Grand total 121,000 r/ 123,000 r/ 130,000 r/ 117,000 r/ 118,000 r/ Revised. -- Zero. 1/ World totals and estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits; may not add to totals shown. 2/ Table includes data available through May 25, 2001. 3/ Includes near- and cheap-gem qualities. 4/ Reported figure.