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MASTER THESIS

Framework for SQL Modification and Analysis

Mr. Pinaet Phoonsarakun

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING THE SIRINDHORN INTERNATIONAL THAI-GERMAN GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING KING MONGKUTS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY NORTH BANGKOK ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 COPYRIGHT OF KING MONGKUTS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY NORTH BANGKOK

Author

Name Title Major Field Advisor

Mr. Pinaet Phoonsarakun Framework for SQL Modification and Analysis Software Systems Engineering Professor Dr. -Inf. Wolfgang Benn Dr. Kamol Limtanyakul

Advisory Support Academic Year

Dip. Inf. Alexander Adam 2012

ii

Master Thesis: Registration

iii

Master Thesis: Evaluation

iv

Master Thesis: Certificate

Acknowledgement

I always cannot thank my mom and my dad enough for their helps, support, and love while I having a hard time. I would like to thank dimensio informatics GmbH in providing me infrastructure, facilities, and financial support while I was staying in Germany for my study and research. I was fortunate to have Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Benn and Dr. Kamol Limtanyakul, who agreed to act as my supervisors. They have provided guidance, support, understanding and professional and personal assistance of the most valuable kind. For this, I am immensely grateful. I also would like to express my thank to Mr. Alexander Adam, who agreed to act as my mentor, for his helps, support, advice, humour, and professional experience while I was doing internship and research at dimensio informatics GmbH. To Dr. Tony Anwar, Dr. Christoph Quix, Mr. Mirko Caspar, Prof. Dr. Wolfram Hardt, Mr. Sebastian Leuoth, I owe you a considerable debt for your helps, support, consultation, advice, experience, and motivation while I was having challenging time. I wish also to acknowledge my gratitude to the department of Software Systems Engineering at the Sirindhorn International Thai-German Graduate School of Engineering for the patience, courtesy, and support I have unfailingly encountered in the long course of completing my study. This thesis would not have been possible without all of them.

Pinaet Phoonsarakun

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Abstract

dimensio informatics GmbH is developing tools to accelerate databases. One of these tools is a network proxy. This proxy is one possibility to be integrated in existing IT infrastructure. It can improve responding speed of databases by understanding the database protocol used between a client and the server and then analyzing and modifying database queries. The proxy is currently specialized for the Oracle database protocol and has limited functionality. This goal of this thesis is to study, design, and develop a framework for the proxy to easily adapt to other database protocols like TDS and DRDA, and develop a demonstration for SQL modification and analysis. Keyword: databases, proxy, database client and server, database protocol, SQL, TNS, TDS, DRDA

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Table of content

Author

.................................................................................................................................. i

Master Thesis: Registration .......................................................................................................ii Master Thesis: Evaluation........................................................................................................ iii Master Thesis: Certificate ......................................................................................................... iv Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................... v Abstract ................................................................................................................................ vi

Table of content .......................................................................................................................vii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ......................................................................................... x List of figure ............................................................................................................................xii List of table .............................................................................................................................. xv Chapter 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Problem Description ...................................................................................... 1 Thesis Goal and Contribution ........................................................................ 1 Thesis Organization ....................................................................................... 2

Chapter 2 Background and Related work ................................................................................ 3 2.1 2.2 2.3 Network Proxy Server ................................................................................... 3 Network traffic .............................................................................................. 5 SQL................................................................................................................ 6 2.3.1 SQL History ....................................................................................... 7 2.3.2 SQL Process ....................................................................................... 7 2.3.3 SQL Component ................................................................................ 8 2.3.4 SQL Command ................................................................................ 10 2.3.5 Stored Procedures and Prepared Statements .................................... 11 2.4 Database Protocols ...................................................................................... 12

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2.4.1 TNS .................................................................................................. 13 2.4.2 TDS .................................................................................................. 17 2.4.3 DRDA .............................................................................................. 20 2.4.4 Summary .......................................................................................... 24 2.5 2.6 Database drivers .......................................................................................... 24 Related work ................................................................................................ 26 2.6.1 TDS Protocol Analyzer .................................................................... 26 2.6.2 GreenSQL ........................................................................................ 27 2.6.3 Security Testing Approach and Framework .................................... 28 2.6.4 The Current Proxy Structure ............................................................ 28 2.6.5 dimensio server ................................................................................ 29 Chapter 3 Concept ................................................................................................................. 30 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 The Framework ........................................................................................... 30 Packet Assembling and Disassembling ....................................................... 31 SQL Modification ........................................................................................ 32 SQL Timing Analysis .................................................................................. 34

Chapter 4 Implementation ..................................................................................................... 38 4.1 4.2 4.3 The Framework ........................................................................................... 38 The ProxyPlugin Abstraction Layer ............................................................ 46 The DBProtocolPlugin Abstraction Layer .................................................. 52

Chapter 5 Results ................................................................................................................... 62 5.1 5.2 Framework for SQL Analysis and Modification ......................................... 63 Demonstration for SQL modification .......................................................... 64 5.2.1 The SQL modification with Oracle.................................................. 64 5.2.2 The SQL modification with Microsoft SQL Server ........................ 67 5.2.3 The SQL modification with IBM DB2 ............................................ 68 5.2.4 The SQL modification for Oracle with dimensio server ................. 70 5.3 Demonstration for SQL analysis ................................................................. 75 5.3.1 The SQL Analysis with Microsoft SQL Server ............................... 76

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5.3.2 The SQL Analysis with Oracle database ......................................... 77 Chapter 6 Outlook.................................................................................................................. 80 6.1 Future work ................................................................................................. 81

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 82 Biography 85 Appendix 87 Appendix A: The Result of the SQL Timing Analysis ......................................... 87 Appendix B: Struct Variables ............................................................................... 98

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation 3VL ACCRDB ACCRDBRM AFS ANSI API AR AS CDRA CPU DBMS DCL DDL DDM DML DQL DRDA DS DSS ENDQRYRM EOM EXCSAT EXCSATRD FD:OCA ISO IP IT JDBC MS MSA NP OCCI ODBC OLE-DB OOP OPNQRY OPNQRYRM PacketID PRPSQLSTT QRYDSC

Full Form Three-Valued Logic Access RDB Access RDB Reply Message Apple File Share American National Standard Institute Application Programming Interface Application Requester Application Server Character Data Representation Architecture Central Processing Unit Database Management Systems Data Control Language Data Definition Language Distributed Data Management Architecture Data Manipulation Language Data Query Language Distributed Relational Database Architecture Database Server Data Stream Structure End of Query Reply Message End Of Message Exchange Server Attributes Server Attributes Reply Data Formatted Data Object Content Architecture the International Organization for Standards Internet Protocol Information Technology The Java Database Connectivity Microsoft Management Services Architecture Named Pipes The Oracle C++ Call Interface The Open Database Connectivity The Object Linking and Embedding Database Object-Oriented Programming Open Query Open Query Complete Packet Identification Prepare SQL Statement Query Answer Set Description

xi QRYDTA RDB RDBMS RFC RPC SDP SMB SNA SPID SQL SQLATTR SQLCARD SQLDTA SQLSTT SSPI TCP TCP/IP TDS TNS Query Answer Set Data Relational Database Relational Database Management Systems Request For Comments Remote Procedure Call Sockets Direct Protocol Server Message Block Systems Network Architecture Process Identification Structured Query Language SQL Statement Attributes SQL Communication Area Reply Data SQL Program Variable Data SQL Statement Security Support Provider Interface Transport Control Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Tabular Data Stream Transparent Network Substrate

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List of figure

Figure 2.1 Two computers communicate through a proxy server (shown in red) ..................... 4 Figure 2.2 Simple diagram of architecture for processing SQL ................................................ 8 Figure 2.3 SQL language anatomy ............................................................................................ 9 Figure 2.4 Stored procedure and prepared statement concept ................................................. 11 Figure 2.5 A typical prepared statement .................................................................................. 12 Figure 2.6 The Oracle network architecture [TG00] ............................................................... 14 Figure 2.7 TNS packet structure .............................................................................................. 15 Figure 2.8 The Microsoft SQL Server architecture overview ................................................. 18 Figure 2.9 TDS packet structure .............................................................................................. 18 Figure 2.10 DRDA protocol architecture (after [Drda11]) ...................................................... 21 Figure 2.11 DRDA packet structure ........................................................................................ 22 Figure 2.12 Common flow of communication of database protocols ...................................... 24 Figure 2.13 The database driver on the client converts requests and replies [GS09] .............. 25 Figure 2.14 Different database drivers connecting with the same database server ................. 26 Figure 2.15 The problematic structure of the proxy ................................................................ 28 Figure 3.1 The overview of the framework developed from a problematic structure ............. 30 Figure 3.2 Overview of the concept of packet assembling and disassembling ....................... 32 Figure 3.3 SQL modification concept ...................................................................................... 33 Figure 3.4 SQL timing analysis concept .................................................................................. 34 Figure 3.5 Overview of gaining SQL timing information with the framework....................... 35 Figure 4.1 The overview of the framework developed from a problematic structure ............. 38 Figure 4.2 Three database protocol plugins inherit the ProxyPlugin abstract class ................ 39 Figure 4.3 Creating the abstract class and its derived class in C++......................................... 40 Figure 4.4 The instance of PPluginOracle is declared in main function using C++ ................ 41

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Figure 4.5 The relationship between the class DBProtocolPlugin and the class Customer .... 42 Figure 4.6 Sample code for creating the class DBProtocolPlugin and the class Customer ..... 43 Figure 4.7 Declare a Customer instance and call its interface in DB Protocol code ............... 43 Figure 4.8 Change the access specifier of the functions inherited from base class ................. 44 Figure 4.9 Access the private interface of a derived class via its base class ........................... 44 Figure 4.10 The relationship and interaction between layers in the framework ...................... 45 Figure 4.11 The three DB protocol classes develop their functionalities on the standardized interfaces of their base class .................................................................................................... 46 Figure 4.12 Sample code of how to declare ProxyPlugin object and use it............................. 47 Figure 4.13 The flow chart associated with onConnection interface....................................... 48 Figure 4.14 The pure virtual function of onConnection interface ........................................... 48 Figure 4.15 The overview of the processes for the interface onReceiveClient ....................... 49 Figure 4.16 The overview of tasks of the DB protocol object ................................................. 50 Figure 4.17 The pure virtual function of onReceiveClient interface ....................................... 51 Figure 4.18 The pure virtual function of onReceiveServer interface ...................................... 51 Figure 4.19 The flow chart associated with onDisonnection interface .................................... 52 Figure 4.20 The pure virtual function of onReceiveClient interface ....................................... 52 Figure 4.21 The class DBProtocolPlugin is inherited by the Customer class ......................... 54 Figure 4.22 Sample code of how to declare DBProtocolPlugin object and use it ................... 54 Figure 4.23 The work flow for onConnectToDimensio interface ........................................... 55 Figure 4.24 The pure virtual function of onConnectToDimensio interface ............................ 55 Figure 4.25 The flow chart for onChangeSql interface ........................................................... 56 Figure 4.26 The pure virtual function of onChangeSql interface ............................................ 57 Figure 4.27 The flow chart for onClientSqlTime interface and onServerSqlTime interface .. 58 Figure 4.28 The pure virtual function of onClientSqlTime interface ...................................... 58 Figure 4.29 The pure virtual function of onServerSqlTime interface ..................................... 59 Figure 5.1 The class diagram of the final design of the framework ........................................ 63 Figure 5.2 The result of the SQL modification testing by the specification in Table 5.2........ 65 Figure 5.3 The testing case with DB client Oracle SQL Developer 3.0.03 ............................. 66

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Figure 5.4 The testing case with Toad for Oracle Xpert Trial Version 11.0.0.116 ................. 67 Figure 5.5 The result of the SQL modification testing by the specification in Table 5.3........ 68 Figure 5.6 The result of the SQL modification testing by the specification in Table 5.4........ 70 Figure 5.7 The result of the connection to Oracle database via the proxy and dimensio server by the specification in Table 5.5 .............................................................................................. 74 Figure 5.8 The result of direct connection to Oracle database by the specification in Table 5.5 .................................................................................................................................................. 75 Figure 5.9 The SQL timing analysis information when working with MS SQL Server ......... 77 Figure 5.10 The SQL timing analysis information when working with Oracle database ........ 78 Figure 5.11 The two arrangement forms of SQL timing analysis information ....................... 78 Figure 5.12 The sample result of SQL timing analysis with Oracle database ......................... 79

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List of table

Table 5.1 EMP table ................................................................................................................ 64 Table 5.2 The specification for testing the SQL modification with Oracle ............................. 65 Table 5.3 The specification for testing the SQL modification with MS SQL Server .............. 67 Table 5.4 The specification for testing the SQL modification with IBM DB2 ....................... 69 Table 5.5 The specification for testing the SQL modification with Oracle and dimensio ...... 70 Table 5.6 The specification for testing the SQL analysis with MS SQL Server ..................... 76 Table 5.7 The specification for testing the SQL analysis with Oracle database...................... 77

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Problem Description


dimensio informatics GmbH is developing tools to make databases respond faster. These tools have various possibilities to be integrated in existing IT infrastructures. One of these so called integration points is a network proxy. This proxy has to understand the database protocol that is used between a database client and the corresponding server. To work as an integration point, the before mentioned proxy has to modify and analyze the traffic between a client and the database. After an internship [Pho11] the current proxy is able to provide the SQL modification, but the further results of this analysis are currently discarded, i.e. everything that does not directly concern the execution of SQL statements. Moreover, the proxy is currently specialized for the Oracle database protocol. To extend the proxy functionality and support further database protocols can help the company reach more potential customers. Therefore, the proxys structure has to be revised; its functionality has to be extended and it should support further database protocols for more potential customers.

1.2 Thesis Goal and Contribution


The goals of this master thesis are to revise the current proxy structure and develop it to be easily adapted to other database protocols like TDS and DRDA. Furthermore, the goals are to develop the proxy functionality to be capable of modifying and analyzing SQL statements in network traffic. Finally, the thesis work is to demonstrate two prototypes. The first prototype is a prototype of the SQL modification which covers changing, altering, or replacing SQL statements in the traffic. The second prototype is a prototype for the SQL analysis which covers counting statement fetches and measures the time for the calls that the clients send to the database (i.e. prepare, bind, execute and fetch).

1.3 Thesis Organization


This master thesis is divided into six chapters. Initially, Chapter 1, introduction, begins with the brief overview of thesis work and gives problem statements for this master thesis. Then Chapter 2, background and related work, covers the theoretical and practical information as well as the background necessary and related to the master thesis. Next, Chapter 3, concept, explains the concepts behind the thesis work. After that, Chapter 4, implementation, explains the methods of the implementation. It starts with the overview of thesis work which describes the way to implement in short. The following chapter, results, explains the introduction of the testing examples related to the thesis work. In the end, Chapter 6, outlook, briefly sums up the main points in this thesis and suggests further research and improvements.

Chapter 2

Background and Related work

The central topic of this master thesis is to develop a proxy structure that is to be easily adapted to other database protocols like TDS and DRDA and develop its functionality to be able to modify and analyze SQL statements in network traffic. Therefore a basic knowledge about network proxy server, network traffic, SQL, database protocols, and database drivers are needed to understand the development in this thesis. Furthermore, each section in this chapter observes and briefly describes related works to this master thesis. Moreover the last section explains which point from the related works has been applied to this master thesis.

2.1 Network Proxy Server


First of all this thesis work needs a tool that is capable of observing and modifying data streams in network traffic between a client and the corresponding database server. The tool that the work uses to achieve this task is a network proxy server. Network proxy servers are servers which act as a middleman between a database client and the corresponding database server. With the proxy, the client and the database server will not connect to each other directly. The client will connect and send requests to the database server via the proxy instead of a direct connection. The proxy will do on behalf of the client to get some resources or services the client seeks from the database server. The resources or services can be a connection, a file, an image file, a data record, a result set, a database view or a table, or another resource available. The proxy server evaluates and operates requests from a database client according to its rules or its functionalities. For instance, it may filter SQL queries sent by a client if the query consists of maliciously code against database applications [Ope12]. If the query is valid

for the filtering rules, the proxy will provide the resource by connecting to the relevant database application and requesting the service on behalf of the client. Otherwise the query is dropped. Furthermore, a proxy server may optionally alter SQL queries from a database client or modify database result sets from a database server especially for better performance. Moreover, a proxy server may serve the SQL query without contacting the corresponding database server. In this case, it caches replies from the database server, substitutes them, and returns subsequent SQL queries for the same content directly. For example, that similar usage idea, web proxies are commonly used to cache web pages from a web server [Tho06] and used to generate a substitute web page [HG04] to speed up access to resources. Back to the history, the proxy concept was invented in the early days of distributed computers as a way to simplify and control their complexity [Sha86]. Figure 2.1 simplifies and illustrates how a proxy works.

Figure 2.1 Two computers communicate through a proxy server (shown in red) In Figure 2.1, the server in the middle shown in red acts as a proxy server. It receives a request from Charles which acts as a client. Then the proxy forwards the request to Jonas which acts as a destination server. Jonas spends some time to process an answer for the request. After that, Jonas replies with an answer to the proxy, and then the proxy forwards the answer from Jonas to Charles.

In general, a proxy server has two possibilities to be implemented, i.e. non-transparent proxy and transparent proxy. RFC2616 offers a standard definition for non-transparent proxy as: "A proxy that modifies the request or response in order to provide some added service to the user agent, such as group annotation services, media type transformation, protocol reduction, or anonymity filtering". and defines transparent proxy as: "A proxy that does not modify the request or response beyond what is required for proxy authentication and identification". In more detail, the transparent proxy intercepts communications between clients and remote servers without requiring any special client configuration. Also clients do not have to be aware of the existence of the proxy. Furthermore the transparent proxy can be enabled to cache web objects transparently by using standard non-transparent proxy caches [CRS99]. Finally, there are a large diversity of potential purposes for the proxy to be used. Those aforementioned usages of the proxy are some of the purposes that this master thesis pays most attention to. Also the proxy that this thesis uses is a non-transparent proxy only.

2.2 Network traffic


Before the proxy server evaluates and operates requests from a database client or replies from the corresponding database server, it has to deal with the network traffic between the client and the server. The term network traffic is defined as: Computer network communications that are carried over wired or wireless networks between hosts. [KCZGD06] In more detail, the hosts encapsulate their data in network traffic or packets and send them through a network for communications. The data sent through the network are

formatted based on the protocol both a client and the relevant server use. The protocol will be explained in great detail in the section database protocols. Monitoring and capturing network traffic require specialized knowledge and network traffic capture tools, known as packet analyzer or sniffer, to process. Also they can provide useful information and contents of the communications, such as, a username, a file, an image, or even an SQL statement. Moreover this can help developers to analyze and fix problematic network traffic or packets. Existing open source sniffers can be used for basic tasks in simple cases but lack the functionality of commercial sniffer that are specifically designed to process network traffic [Cas04]. Unfortunately those sniffers still lack the functionality that this master thesis wants to achieve. Since this master thesis concentrates on developing a framework for SQL modification and analysis, it uses network traffic as a source of SQL statements.

2.3 SQL
Modifying SQL statements requires basic knowledge of SQL. Therefore, this section has the objective to describe what SQL is and what its standard commands are in order to get a general idea of it and apply the knowledge to the thesis work. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is the language that clients use to communicate with database servers for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data stored in relational databases. Relational database management systems (RDBMS), for instance; Oracle [Abb08], IBM DB2 [Drda11], Microsoft SQL Server [Tds11], Microsoft Access [CV10], MySQL [SZT12], Informix [Fla00], Sybase [GAS96], and PostgreSQL [OHR11], use SQL as a language and data inside them is written in table form, i.e. rows/records and fields/columns [Abb08]. Also they are developing and using their own dialect of SQL which adds functionality based on SQL industrial standard defined by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI), but they all are more than 90% alike [Abb08]. Different versions

of SQL, for example, are PL/SQL developed and used by Oracle, SQL PL developed and used by IBM DB2, and T-SQL developed and used by MS SQL Server etc. SQL plays an important role for making many things possible for users to manage data stored in relational database management systems. For example, users can use SQL to access data in relational database management systems; to describe the data; to define the data in databases and manipulate that data; to create and drop databases and tables; to set permissions on tables, procedures, and views; and to create views, stored procedures or functions in a database [Abb08]. 2.3.1 SQL History The chronological events of SQL began in the year 1970 when Dr. Edgar Frank Codd introduced a relational model for databases [Cod70]. During the 1970s IBM included Codds ideas into its product named System R [CB74]. Later in the 1970s SEQUEL (structured English query language) which was the database language for that product was renamed SQL [Opp04]. In the late 1970s a first SQL-based relational database management systems was released by Relational Software and that later becoming Oracle [Ora77]. In 1983 IBM began developing DB2 which based on the System R prototype after testing SQL at customer sites to determine usefulness and practicality of the system. [IBM83] By 1986 SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) [ANSI12], and by 1987 it became a standard of the International Organization for Standards (ISO) [ISO12]. 2.3.2 SQL Process An SQL statement can be very simple or very complex, for example SELECT is the most complex statement in SQL, with optional keywords and clauses, such as FROM, WHERE, GROUP BY, HAVING, ORDER BY etc. Processing SQL is composed of various components. Those components are shown in Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2 Simple diagram of architecture for processing SQL In Figure 2.2, the Query Language Processor translates the SQL Query and optimizes it for the DBMS Engine. The DBMS Engine then receives the compiled query and manipulates files and data stored in the database according to the query. SQL processing relates to SQL performance where the industry needs to reduce response time of SQL queries. Reducing the response time can be achieved by several methods. These methods can be roughly grouped into three groups, which are database internal tuning, hardware tuning, and application tuning. An example of database internal tuning is to create indexes, optimize buffer sizes, and set database protocol packet size [GS09]. Using indexes can speed up the information search process. Mostly the indexes are used in WHERE clause [Abb08]. Next, some examples of hardware tuning are to buy a faster central processing unit (CPU), buy faster storage systems, or add more main memory. Lastly, an example of application tuning is to optimize SQL statements, known as SQL tuning, through monitoring and measuring SQL performance [GS09]. 2.3.3 SQL Component Understanding the SQL component is also useful for this thesis work. SQL consists of several language components, including: clauses, expressions, predicates, statements, queries, and whitespaces. These components are shown in Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3 SQL language anatomy As depicted in Figure 2.3, those SQL language components can be described as follows: Clauses are component parts of statements and queries. (In some cases, these are optional.) [IS99] Expressions can be evaluated and will return either scalar values or tables consisting of columns and rows of data. Predicates specify conditions to limit the effects of statements and queries, or to change the program flow. There are three possibilities of result values that is true, false, or unknown value. In other words, these values are Boolean truth values or SQL three-valued logic (3VL) [Rub07], [Dat05]. Statements may have a persistent effect on schemata and data, or may control transactions, program flow, connections, sessions, or diagnostics. SQL statements also include the semicolon statement terminator (";"). Though not required on every platform, it is defined as a standard part of the SQL grammar. Queries are the most important elements of SQL. They retrieve the data based on specific criteria. Whitespaces have no semantics in SQL statements and queries. Therefore they are used to format SQL code for readability.

10 2.3.4 SQL Command The standard SQL commands to communicate with relational databases are CREATE, ALTER, DROP, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, GRANT, REVOKE, and TRUNCATE [ISO08]. SQL commands can be classified into several groups based on their functionality: Data Definition Language (DDL): CREATE ALTER DROP Creates a new table, a view of a table, or other object in database Modifies an existing database object, such as a table. Deletes an entire table, a view or other objects in the database.

TRUNCATE Removes all rows from a table without logging the individual deletions Data Manipulation Language (DML): INSERT UPDATE DELETE Creates a record Modifies records Deletes records

Data Query Language (DQL): SELECT Retrieves certain records from one or more tables

Data Control Language (DCL): GRANT REVOKE Gives a privilege to user Takes back privileges granted from user

In the end, this master thesis concentrates on the standard SQL commands, especially the SELECT command, because the command is used to retrieve information from databases. Also, generally, the greater the amount of data records it has to deal with, the longer the response time will be. Furthermore the main theme of the products of dimensio informatics GmbH is to speed up databases. Therefore reducing response time to SQL queries is an issue related directly to that theme.

11 2.3.5 Stored Procedures and Prepared Statements Stored procedures and prepared statements are used to improve SQL performance when SQL queries have to run a few thousands to millions times a day. Technically, every SQL query has to go through a processing cycle to produce the desired result. It goes from parsing, optimizing, compiling, executing, and finally returning the result. The general idea, which stored procedures and prepared statements come from, is that once a query is written and ran correctly for the first time then the processes of parsing, optimization, and compiling are unnecessarily required since it has already been parsed, optimized, and compiled, as illustrated in Figure 2.4. In more detail, a stored procedure is a precompiled executable object that contains one or more SQL statements. In other words, complex SQL statements can be replaced by a single stored procedure. Since stored procedures are precompiled objects, they execute faster at the database server. For the consecutive run, it will run from the compiled stage and hence boost performance.

Figure 2.4 Stored procedure and prepared statement concept

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Next, a prepared statement is the ability to set up a statement once, and then execute many times with different parameters. Prepared statements are designed to replace building specific and customized query strings, and do so in a more secure and efficient manner. A typical prepared statement looks something like Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.5 A typical prepared statement The question mark ? in the prepared statement is called a placeholder. When the statement is executed, it requires the parameter to supply for it, which would replace its placeholder. However the thesis work uses the proxy server to modify and analyze SQL commands or statements, it has to monitor and capture network traffic between a database client and the relevant database server. But SQL statements are encrypted and formatted into network packets differently according to different database protocol.

2.4 Database Protocols


This section briefly describes basic principle of database protocols, especially database protocol packet and packet flows, which is sufficient to be applied to the development of thesis work. The goal of the thesis work is to develop the framework for SQL analysis and modification. So that the framework should be able to be easily adapted to different database protocols. The term protocol is defined by Kurose [KK10] as: A protocol defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities, as well as the actions taken on the transmission and/or receipt of a message or other event. Building upon that definition, understanding formatted data in network, it is required to understand the protocol that a client and the server are using. Like one would like to know

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what two people are talking about, the one have to know the language the people are speaking for the communications. In computer network, there are a large variety of protocols in use. For example, TNS protocol is used for Oracle Database, TDS protocol is used by Microsoft SQL Server, and DRDA protocol is used by IBM DB2 etc. Furthermore different protocols are used to accomplish different communication tasks. As this section implies, it concentrates on database client and server communication tasks. There are a large variety of database protocols, but the database protocols this master thesis chooses to study and applies to the thesis work are TNS, DRDA, and TDS. These database protocols are chosen because not only of the requirement of dimensio informatics GmbH, as these are the three big commercial database systems on the market [Hes12], but also of proving that the framework being able to be adapted to different database protocols. The subsections that follow describe those three database protocols respectively. 2.4.1 TNS Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) is the database protocol that Oracle Corporation relies on to provide generic network connectivity between local Oracle database clients and the related Oracle database instance or between two different Oracle database instances, regardless of underlying protocols. TNS protocol is utilized by Oracle and its protocol specification is not available for public access. TNS uses transport control protocol (TCP) on top of internet protocol (IP) to delivery data and its default port is 1521. Note that much of this subsection stems from the internship [Pho11]. In the Oracle network architecture (shown in Figure 2.6), TNS is a foundation technology that is built into the Oracle Net foundation layer and enables the tasks of the layer to be able to establish and maintain the connection between Oracle database clients and the database server, as well as exchange messages between them.

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Figure 2.6 The Oracle network architecture [TG00] TNS also enables peer-to-peer application connectivity, where two or more computers can communicate with each other directly, without intermediary devices can occur. It provides a user-transparent layer that enables a heterogeneous network consisting of different protocols to function as a homogeneous network. It forms a transparent layer to which different network protocols can connect. TNS supports all common physical network protocols, for instance TCP/IP, named pipes (NP), and sockets direct protocol (SDP), because it is a highly generic logical protocol. Also TNS is based on individual logic packets which are mapped transparently to physical packets. 2.4.1.1 TNS Packet Header Structure Every TNS packet has an 8-byte wide global header. The 8 identical bytes of the global header are composed of total packet size (2 bytes), packet checksum (2 bytes), TNS

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packet type (1 byte), flags or reserved (1 byte), and global header checksum (2 bytes). This is illustrated in Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7 TNS packet structure The abbreviations in Figure 2.7 are described below: HDLEN PKTSM TYP RSVD HDSM DATA Two-byte Total packet size Two-byte Packet checksum One-byte TNS packet type One-byte Flags or reserved Two-byte Global header checksum TNS packet body

The packet size field is in big-endian byte order. The packet checksum and global header checksum are either the ones complement of the sum of the packet header or whole packet (like an IP checksum) or, in practice, zero. The flag field is usually zero. The TNS packet type is determined by the type field in the header that makes the packet body (DATA) different accordingly. Currently there are 12 different types of packets in use. The 12 different types of TNS packet can be roughly divided into 3 groups as following: Connection: Connect packet Accept packet Ack packet Refuse packet Redirect packet

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Data Transfer: Data packet NULL packet Control Flow: Abort packet Resend packet Marker packet Attention packet Control packet 2.4.1.2 TNS Overall Flows This is how each TNS packet type works. Firstly, a local Oracle database client sends a Connect packet to specify the service name while connecting to a Oracle database instance. Then the database listener provided matches its information with the client connection request. If the information matches, it grants the request with an Accept packet. Next the client tries authentication. All packets sent for authentication are data packets. If the Listener does not know the service, then it sends the client a Refuse packet. After the client and the server authenticated, if everything is fine, the connection between the client and the destination server is established. Now the client sends requests and the server sends replies. All request and reply packets are type Data. While sending request and reply packets, a Marker packet may have been sent for interrupting. For instance, the server will send the client a Marker packet if it wants to stop the client sending data. Client requests and server replies can continue until the connection is terminated. However, data packets will be the majority of packets during the interaction between the client and database server. These packets would contain queries and their results, stored procedure calls, and information or messages which make up the great deal of the session with the database. This knowledge of how and when each type of TNS packet has been sent is applied to the development of a framework for SQL modification and analysis, especially TNS data packets because SQL statements can be located in these packets.

17 2.4.2 TDS Tabular Data Stream (TDS) is an application level protocol that Microsoft relies on for communication between database clients and the database server. With TDS, it is possible that a database clients request contains multiple commands and the servers response returns one or many result sets. In general, TDS uses TCP/IP to deliver application-layer messages across network and its default port is 1433. TDS was initially designed and developed by Sybase Inc. for their Sybase SQL Server relational database engine, and later by Microsoft in Microsoft SQL Server. Moreover, Microsoft publishes the TDS protocol specification [Tds11] available for free and public access. TDS relies on a connection oriented transport service. Session, presentation, and application service elements are provided by TDS. TDS does not require any specific transport provider. It can be implemented over multiple transport protocols if they provide connection oriented service, such as TCP protocol. TDS provides support for login capability negotiation, authentication services, and support for both database specific and generic client commands. Responses to client commands are returned using a self-describing, table oriented protocol. Column name and data type information is returned to the client before the actual data. In Microsoft SQL Server architecture, as shown in Figure 2.8, SQL Server clients send SQL statements to SQL Server by using TDS protocol. Next the client messages are built into TDS packets by database driver SQL Server ODBC and passed to Server-Side NetLibraries. Then the Server-Side Net-Libraries encapsulates these packets into network protocol packets and sends them through network to the destination server by using network protocol TCP/IP. On the server side, the Server-Side Net-Libraries receives the arrival packets from network, extracts the TDS packets from them and passes to the database driver above. Next the TDS packets are extracted to get the actual client messages for the SQL Server relational database. This can be accomplished if the SQL Server is capable of accepting the version of TDS used by the client, such as TDS 4.2, TDS 7.0, and TDS 8.0 etc.

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Then the SQL Server relational database processes the SQL statements and generates result sets in return. After this the processes is reversed until the client gets the result sets.

Figure 2.8 The Microsoft SQL Server architecture overview 2.4.2.1 TDS Packet Header Structure Every TDS packet starts with an 8-byte wide global header. The 8 identical bytes of the global header are composed of TDS packet type (1 byte), packet status (1 byte), length of the entire packet (2 bytes), process identification (2 bytes), packet identification (1 byte), and window (1 byte). This is illustrated in Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9 TDS packet structure The abbreviations in Figure 2.9 are described as following: TYP One-byte TDS packet type STA One-byte TDS packet status

LEN Two-byte length of the entire packet (big-endian) SID PID Two-byte process identification (big-endian) One-byte packet identification

WIN One-byte window

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The TDS packet type is determined by the type field in the header that makes the packet body different accordingly. There are more than 10 TDS packet types that are, for example, SQL batch, Pre-TDS7 login, Remote procedure call (RPC), Tabular result, Attention signal, Bulk load data, Transaction manager request, TDS7 login, Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI) message, Pre-login message, and unused etc. The packet status field is set to indicate more or normal packets when the length of the entire packet is greater than 512 bytes and the packet will be split on the 512-byte block, otherwise it is set to indicate last packet or end of message (EOM). So that the full TDS packet is reassembled from its component 512-byte packets with the 8-byte headers stripped out. The block size 512 could be set to a different value and found in the login packet. The default value of block size also depends on TDS protocol version, for instance TDS version 7.0+ uses a default of 4096 as the block size. The length of the entire packet field tells the total length of packet and the bytes in it are in network byte order (big-endian). The process identification (SPID) is the process identification on the server, corresponding to the current connection. The packet identification (PacketID) is used for numbering message packets that contain data in addition to the packet header. The window is currently not used, set to be 0x00, and should be ignored. 2.4.2.2 TDS Overall Flows Initially, the client requests a transport connection to the server. Next the server responds with an acknowledgement token. Then the client sends a login packet including a record to establish a dialog. The login record contains capability and authentication information. The server responds with a completion token indicating that it has accepted the dialog request. Now that a dialog has been established between the client and the server, the client sends a query packet, which contains an SQL query, to the server and then waits for the

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server to respond. The server executes the query and returns the results to the client. Client requests and server responses continue until the connection terminated. For the overall view of TDS packet type query, when a database client sends a request INSERT SQL command, SQL Server responses result set done. When the client sends a request SELECT SQL command, the server responses a reply including column names, column info, row result, and result set done. If the client sends request call stored procedure, the server responses a reply including column names, column info, row result, done inside process, return status, and process done. To be more precise, SQL statements and stored procedure calls can be found in TDS packet type SQL batch and RPC. 2.4.3 DRDA DRDA stands for Distributed Relational Database Architecture. It is the database protocol in an application layer protocol that IBM DB2 relies on for the communication between database client and database server in a distributed environment. DRDA is specific to relational database management system and responsible for encapsulating SQL commands and responses for distributed transaction. Furthermore its default port is 50000. DRDA was originally developed by IBM and first used in DB2 release version 2.3. Later it was adapted to the Open Group standard for database interoperability. Moreover, the Open Group publishes DRDA protocol as an open standard [Drda11]. The latest version released of DRDA, at the time writing this thesis, is version 5. The DRDA protocol specification is designed for distributed data as its name implies. It clearly defines the rules for accessing the distributed data and when the flows should occur, but it does not describe an API for distributed database management system processing. In Figure 2.10, the DRDA architecture comprises mainly three functions and two protocols. The three functions are application requester (AR), application server (AS), and database server (DS) and the two protocols are Application Support Protocol and Database Support Protocol.

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The AR is the function that handles a database client of a distributed connection. It performs function accepting SQL commands from the client and sending them to the appropriate database servers for processing. Using this function, database clients can access remote data. The AS is the function that handles the database server of the connection. It performs function receiving SQL commands from AR and processing them. It performs upon the portions that can be processed and forwards the remainder to database servers for subsequent processing. The AR and the AS use the Application Support Protocol which handles data representation conversion for the communication among themselves. The server that an application requester connects to is an application server, but any other server further downstream is called a DS as it does not communicate with the application requester directly. The DS performs function receiving requests from AS or other DS servers. It supports distributed requests and will forward parts of the request to collaborating DS in order to fulfill the request. The AS and the DS use the Database Support Protocol to communicate between them.

Figure 2.10 DRDA protocol architecture (after [Drda11]) To implement the connections between DRDA server database management systems and database clients, DRDA protocol uses the following architectures: Character Data Representation Architecture (CDRA) Distributed Data Management (DDM) Architecture Formatted Data Object Content Architecture (FD:OCA) Systems Network Architecture (SNA)

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SNA Management Services Architecture (MSA) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). 2.4.3.1 DRDA Packet Header Structure DRDA can be divided into two architectures. The first one is the distributed data management architecture which provides the command and reply structure. The last one is the formatted data object content architecture which describes the data definition. The information referred to DRDA packet decoding can be located in DDM specification [Ddm11]. On the other hand, the information referred to binding variable value decoding in DRDA packet can be located in FD:OCA specification [Fdoca11]. DRDA packet is structured in the form of chain of objects which is known as data stream structure (DSS) chaining. In other words, multiple objects can be sent in a single DRDA packet. Every object or data stream structure requires a six byte header. First two bytes are designated for length of data with continuation flag set. The third byte is hexadecimal number D0 to indicate DDM data. The fourth byte is the DDM format byte. The last two bytes are the request correlation identifier. The bytes for the length of data and the request correlation identifier are in big-endian byte order. This is illustrated in Figure 2.11.

Figure 2.11 DRDA packet structure The abbreviations in Figure 2.11 are described as following: cl nl C f Two-byte length field with continuation flag set ON Two-byte length field with continuation flag set OFF One-byte DDM identifier (Hex D0 for all DDM data) One-byte qualifier of the C-byte (used as a format identifier by DDM)

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rc

Two-byte request correlation identifier

In the header, the information that represents whether the DRDA packet has one more object to chain or not can be located in the fourth byte, the DDM format identifier. 2.4.3.2 DRDA Overall Flows This subsection describes overall flows of interest that are initialization flows, SQL statement execution and commit flows, and termination flows. All following commands and objects are defined in DDM specification [Ddm11]. To establish a connection, first a database client sends a connection request to the database server by using the exchange server attributes (EXCSAT) command. The server receives the request and returns the server attributes reply data (EXCSATRD) included DRDA environment and DDM manager support information. Then the client sends the database name it wishes to access and data type definition information by using the access relational database (ACCRDB) command to the server. The server returns the access RDB reply message (ACCRDBRM) which tells the client that it supports and will use the data type definition the client specified. Now the connection between the client and the server has been established. To execute and commit SQL statement, the client sends multiple commands in a single packet to the server. The packet may include some or all of the following commands: a prepared SQL statement (PRPSQLSTT), followed by attributes (SQLATTR), the SQL statement itself (SQLSTT), the SQL execution (OPNQRY), and finally, followed by binding variable values (SQLDTA). The server, then, executes the commands and returns multiple result objects in a single reply. The reply may include some or all of the following result objects: the execution completed (OPNQRYRM), followed by result set description (QRYDSC), result set data (QRYDTA), end of query (ENDQRYRM), and conditions detected information (SQLCARD). Now the SQL statement has been executed and committed.

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To terminate the connection, under normal circumstances, the client initiates the termination of a socket associated with the connection. In error situations, the server will initiate the termination of the socket. 2.4.4 Summary

Figure 2.12 Common flow of communication of database protocols In summary, this thesis uses TCP/IP protocol as the network protocol used for the communication between a database client and the database server. The packet structure of each database protocol is different to each other as shown in its section. The common flows of communication of the three database protocols can be simplified as Figure 2.12.

2.5 Database drivers

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Basically, before database queries from a client are sent to a destination database server, they are encoded into packets or in a format that the destination server can understand. After finished the packet encoding, the client sends them to the destination server. Then the destination server receives packets from the client and processes replies. After that the replies are encoded into packets and sent back to the client. Finally the client receives the replies and decodes them in a format that it can understand. The software routine that encodes and decodes the queries and replies is the database driver. In other words, database drivers are client-side adapters (installed on the client machine, not on the server) that convert requests from application programs to a protocol that the DBMS can understand (see Figure 2.13).

Figure 2.13 The database driver on the client converts requests and replies [GS09] To develop a database client to connect with individual databases by using application programming interface, this requires database drivers for each database. For instances, the java database connectivity (JDBC) API requires the database driver that follows TNS protocol, namely JDBC driver, to connect with the Oracle database, the object linking and embedding database (OLE-DB) API requires the database driver that follows TDS protocol to connect with the Microsoft SQL Server database, and OLE-DB API requires the database driver that follows DRDA protocol to connect with IBM DB2 database.

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Figure 2.14 Different database drivers connecting with the same database server Furthermore using different database drivers to connect with the same database server makes physical packets on the network look differently, such as using different database drivers: JDBC, the open database connectivity (ODBC), and the Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) to connect with Oracle database server as shown in Figure 2.14. In roughly conclusion, database drivers are the places where to implement the aforementioned database protocols i.e. TNS, TDS, and DRDA.

2.6 Related work


There are tools and approaches dealing with database protocol(s) as following subsections 2.6.1 TDS Protocol Analyzer The TDS protocol analyzer specifically based on TDS database protocol [GW09] has developed several features which include packet capture, packet analysis, packet storage, traffic statistics, and vulnerability warning. The analyzer is a useful tool in the further testing and development for the detection of the database protocol vulnerability. Unfortunately, this thesis work aims mainly to modify and analyze SQL statement and develop a software framework that is easily adapted to many

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database protocols in order to accomplish these processes. So the analyzer could not fulfill the required tasks of the thesis completely because of the lack of SQL modification and analysis functionalities. Although the lack of the SQL functionalities, the thesis has gained useful information from the analyzer on how to reassemble and disassemble TDS packets. 2.6.2 GreenSQL GreenSQL [Ope12] is used as a firewall filtering SQL commands with malicious intent against the database server, such as SQL injection vulnerabilities. Although GreenSQL has features of SQL functionalities, it could not fulfill the entire of the required tasks of the thesis. The reason why is that the main purpose between GreenSQL and the thesis work are different, which is the purpose of GreenSQL is used mainly for database security, such as, to filter malicious SQL commands, while the main purpose of the thesis work is to modify and analyze SQL commands for dimensio server [dim12] to accelerate databases. The commercial version of GreenSQL [Gre12] has more advanced features for databases performance as well. But it is not designed and implemented to work especially with the dimensio server as the proxy of dimensio informatics GmbH. For example, the proxy fetches an SQL statement from the network traffic and forwards the statement to the dimensio server. Once received the reply back from the server, the proxy may modify the SQL statement in the network traffic for the better performance and sends it to the destination database. Furthermore the GreenSQL open source version is compatible only with MySQL and PostgreSQL database servers, while its commercial version is compatible one more database server, Microsoft SQL Server. In other words, GreenSQL is not yet compatible with Oracle and IBM DB2. Technically speaking, using the proxy server has the advantage that it can be integrated to the systems without modifying application or database code, which requires minimal setup complexity.

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2.6.3 Security Testing Approach and Framework Security Testing Approach and Framework [ADM09] tests DRDA database protocol for IBM DB2. It captures packets, and after mutating the packets, injects them back into the network, in order to test the implementations ability to handle erroneous cases. The mutations are based on the semantics of the protocol. The approach and framework are able to adapt to different protocols from similarly modest in size, like server message block (SMB) and Apple file share (AFS), to the more complex protocol, like DRDA. Unfortunately, their purpose is for security testing of network application, but not for database optimization as the main aim of the framework of this thesis. 2.6.4 The Current Proxy Structure After the internship [Pho11], the proxy of dimensio informatics GmbH is currently is able to provide only the SQL modification, but not the analysis, and specialized only for the Oracle database protocol. Yet its current structure is not suitable for developers to specialize the proxy for further database protocol, like TDS and DRDA. The structure is illustrated in Figure 2.15.

Figure 2.15 The problematic structure of the proxy As shown in Figure 2.15, the structure is problematic because it merges the DB Analyst code and Proxy code into one place, which is difficult to maintain and reuse the code for further development for other database protocols.

29 2.6.5 dimensio server dimensio server [dim12] is one of products of dimensio informatics GmbH. It is an innovative technology that can accelerate the analysis of large data volumes and highly complex database queries by a factor of up to 1,000. It is also based on indexing method that is innovative and suitable for data in any database, information retrieval system, or flat files. The aforementioned proxy works with dimensio server by using the interfaces designed and implemented by this thesis, in order to modify SQL statement to accelerate databases. In the following chapter, the thesis issues what it has to do to solve the problematic structure of the proxy and provide SQL functionalities for the SQL modification and analysis.

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Chapter 3

Concept

This chapter describes four concepts of thesis work as follows. The framework concept explains the structure of current proxy of dimensio informatics GmbH and what the target structure or framework the development in this thesis wants to meet. Next the packet assembling and disassembling concept explains how this concept relates to the interface between the proxy code and the proxy plug-in code. Then the SQL modification concept describes how this concept relates to the interface between the proxy plugin and the above layer in order to change SQL statement to accelerate databases. Lastly the concept of SQL timing analysis explains concepts concerning the analysis, such as what calls to be measured, and the interface for the analysis.

3.1 The Framework


The following picture shows the overview of the Framework for SQL Modification and Analysis, which is arranged from a problematic structure, the thesis work has to deal with to the target structure of the thesis.

Figure 3.1 The overview of the framework developed from a problematic structure

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In Figure 3.1, the leftmost one, the merged form, shows the current structure of the proxy, which merges the DB Analyst code and the proxy code together, which is problematic to be maintained and reused for further development to support other database protocols beyond Oracle database protocol. The middle one, the modular form, is the structure after revised the previous structure and separated the DB Analyst code from the Proxy code. With this form, it makes the code more maintainable and reusable and makes the DB Analyst code considered as module or Proxy Plugin, which is easy to develop functionalities based on different database protocols and integrate to support the Proxy code. The rightmost one, the framework, is the goal form of this thesis. This form goes further to develop interfaces of the Proxy Plugin in supporting calls from Customer Code which is considered as the plugin of proxy plugin. In order to develop the interfaces between database (DB) Plug-in and Customer Code, this thesis has to evaluate different database protocols (namely TNS, TDS, and DRDA) and find the common characteristics among them. The interfaces focus on providing services for packet assembling and disassembling, SQL modification, and SQL timing information for the analysis, which are described in the following sections of this chapter.

3.2 Packet Assembling and Disassembling


As described in section 2.4, different database protocols have different rules to build their own network packets. Technically speaking, before the proxy modifies and analyzes a network packet sent from and to client and database server, it has to assemble the packet. By doing this, the proxy has to find the database protocol being used by the client and the database server. According to the aforementioned framework, the proxy just takes the right proxy plug-in (which is the DB Protocol colored in red) and forwards the data streams from the client or the server to the plug-in via the interface. After that, the plug-in will do the rest on behalf of the proxy, which it will assemble the data streams into the completed network packet and disassemble it to the proxy in return. Figure 3.2 simplified this concept.

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Figure 3.2 Overview of the concept of packet assembling and disassembling Moreover, before the plug-in disassembles the packet and returns it to the proxy through the interface, it can modify and analyze the packet for particular purposes. The following section describes the concept of SQL modification of this thesis.

3.3 SQL Modification


The purpose of SQL modification is to accelerate databases processing. By doing this, firstly a database client and the corresponding database use the same database protocol for their communication, for instance, to connect, query, access, and retrieve data. Next the proxy, that works in the middle, where the client and the server connect and send data through, takes the proxy plug-in (which is the DB Protocol in red box in the previous Figure) that understands the database protocol as well. Back to the previous section, to modify SQL, after the plug-in finishing assembling the data streams and having the completed packet, it finds SQL in the packet. In case the plug-in did not find SQL statement, it does nothing but passes the packet for the next step. Otherwise it extracts the SQL statement and the related information from the packet and sends that information to the above layer named Customer Code. Then, in this case, the Customer Code connects and forwards that information to the dimensio server. After that the dimensio server gives the new SQL statement and its related information back to the Customer Code and it forwards them again back to the plug-in to replace the original SQL.

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Next the plug-in compares the original information with the new information from the above layer. If both information are different, the plug-in modifies the original SQL statement in the packet with the new SQL statement. If both information are the same, the plug-in does nothing for the modification but passes the packet to the next step. Figure 3.3 illustrates the SQL modification concept.

Figure 3.3 SQL modification concept Note that the proxy and the dimensio server are tools provided by dimensio informatics GmbH. Another point is that the proxy plug-in, the DB Protocol in red, does not generate the better SQL statement by itself, but it lets the task to be of the above layers, Customer Code and the dimensio server, and takes the statement from them. With the new SQL statement and its related information, such as binding variables, the database server can perform the answer or result set processing for the query faster than the original one, because not only the new SQL is simpler and faster to process but also has the same result set output.

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For the further step before the plug-in disassembles the modified packet into many tiny packets or data streams, it can analyze the packet and gain information useful for the further SQL timing analysis which is explained in more detail in the following section.

3.4 SQL Timing Analysis


The purpose of SQL timing analysis is to estimate cost of each SQL statement. Yet this can provide useful information to find the least cost SQL to replace the costly SQL that both have the same results. But this thesis does not work directly on SQL timing analysis. It just provides information for the analysis instead, such as SQL statement, timestamp, call type, and binding variables etc. To provide timing information of each SQL statement for the analysis, this thesis roughly classifies timing types or client calls to time into five groups, which is prep, bind, exec, fetch, and free, as shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 SQL timing analysis concept The abbreviations and arrows in the above figure can be described as follows. Firstly, prep is a prepared statement and happens only once. Next, bind supplies parameters for the prepared statement and exec executes the statement. bind and exec can both happen many times and equal, that is the same statement with different parameters. In the figure, it uses n times representing the number of occurrences of them as equal.

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Then fetch receives resultsets from database. One exec can cause many occurrences of fetch. free closes or cancels the handle of the statement and happens only once. The arrows represent sending to database server or client. To the arrow to the right is to database server and to the arrow to the left is to database client. However, different database protocols have different styles of calls concerning to SQL queries. One single query can consist of many calls: prep, bind, and exec altogether, for example. Back to the previous section, whether or not the packet is modified according to the new SQL statement, the next step is to analyze the packet and gain information useful for the SQL timing analysis. The information to gain from the packet sent from database client and provide for the analysis are client port, call type, statement ID, timestamp, SQL statement, and parameters. After that the packet will be sent to the step of disassembling packet, which will be disassembled into many fragmented packets. Then these packets will be sent back to the layer Proxy and it will forward them to the destination database server.

Figure 3.5 Overview of gaining SQL timing information with the framework

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In gaining the information provided for the analysis, the plug-in has to cooperate information with both sides, client and server. This is shown in Figure 3.5. Moreover, the information that gain from reply packet sent from the database server are client port, call type, statement ID, timestamp, number of columns in table, and number of records in table. Now the thesis has described what it has to do and its related concepts. In the next chapter, the thesis will show how to implement these concepts in more details.

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Chapter 4

Implementation

This chapter explains techniques and practical information on how to implement the four concepts in the chapter 3, which is arranged from the framework to the SQL timing analysis as the following sections.

4.1 The Framework


This section explains the method which the thesis uses to solve the problematic structure and builds the target structure, the framework.

Figure 4.1 The overview of the framework developed from a problematic structure In Figure 4.1, the thesis solves the problematic structure (merged form) into the modular form by using polymorphism technique, inheritance technique, and abstraction in object-oriented programming (OOP). Polymorphism technically means that the same name of method (or function) has ability to perform many behaviors (or different functionalities). Inheritance is a programming technique that enables a class to inherit some or all attributes and behaviors of another class, and abstraction is a way for a super class (base class) to require a subclass (derived class) to define a method. Furthermore, this thesis uses

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programming language C++ to develop the framework. In C++, the term superclass is called base class and subclass is called derived class [KG04]. To solve the problematic structure, the thesis first creates a new class, which is abstract class, and names it ProxyPlugin. Then create more three classes inheriting the ProxyPlugin as their single base class. These three classes are named PPluginOracle, PPluginSQLServer, and PPluginDB2 respectively. Figure 4.2 demonstrates the relationship of these classes.

Figure 4.2 Three database protocol plugins inherit the ProxyPlugin abstract class The class ProxyPlugin is called abstract class because it is defined to contain virtual function, it is not complete class, and is more a guideline for creating actual class. The sample code in C++ for creating the abstract class and the class that inherits it is shown here in Figure 4.3.

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Figure 4.3 Creating the abstract class and its derived class in C++ The reason why this thesis defines the ProxyPlugin abstract class and defines the three database plugin classes to inherit the abstract class because this requires all classes inheriting the abstract class to have the standard interfaces and prevent these inherited classes from forgetting to define their own functionality for the standard interfaces , since each database protocol has different style to perform in order to get the same thing, such as encoding data within its packet. As shown in Figure 4.3, ProxyPlugin declares the abstract function standardInterface, which is indicated with the special =0 postfix and has no function body or functionality. The class PPluginOracle that inherits the class ProxyPlugin is required to define the abstraction function, otherwise this will cause compiler errors. After finished the class creation, this thesis removes all the DB Analyst code from the Proxy code and put the removed code into the right database plugin class. For example, as mentioned that the current proxy was specialized on Oracle database, after removed the DB Analyst code, then the thesis put the code into PPluginOracle class. After finished the class creation and the code rearrangement, the problematic structure (merged form) now becomes the modular form. With this modular form, each DB protocol plugin class is independent to each other, easier to maintain, modify existing code, and be reused for further DB protocol development, and has a clearly defined interfaces with the

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Proxy. The design and implementation of the interfaces between the proxy and DB protocol plugin are explained in the following section. Figure 4.4 shows a sample code, that an instance of each DB protocol plugin is selected to be declared by the value of variable selectDB in the main function. (The main function is the entry point into the program.) In this case, the thesis assumes that this main function is the proxy body code where it declares an instance of DB protocol plugin and calls the plugins function. After declared the instance of PPluginOracle, the instance is called to perform the standardInterface function which is specialized for Oracle database.

Figure 4.4 The instance of PPluginOracle is declared in main function using C++ Next is to transform the modular form into the framework as shown in Figure 4.1. In the framework has topmost layer named Customer Code, which is the layer of tools and solutions for database performance tuning. In doing this, they have to associate with the middle layer named DB Protocol. To solve issues on the association between the layer Customer Code and the layer DB Protocol, the thesis creates an abstract class between them. This abstract class is the collection of different interfaces that the layer DB Protocol will call, provide parameters to, and may take return parameter back from, to perform its services for the above layer. The customer code, which is the above layer, then has to create its own class

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which inherits the abstract class, and develop its own functionalities to fulfil the service interfaces in the class. The service interfaces, which this thesis provides for the layer Customer Code, are the SQL modifying interface and the SQL timing analysis information interface, which will be explained in more details in the following sections in this chapter. In action, this thesis creates the abstract class named DBProtocolPlugin and creates a derived class named Customer which inherits the abstract class as its base class. The relationship between these two classes is demonstrated in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 The relationship between the class DBProtocolPlugin and the class Customer The Customer class is an example class that inherits DBProtocolPlugin class in order to use services or interfaces supported by proxy plugin and then considering what to do with the services, such as developing functionalities for analysing and optimising SQL queries. This can also mean that other class can inherit the DBProtocolPlugin class and develop different functionalities than the Customer class. Sample code, that creates the abstract class DBProtocolPlugin and the derived class Customer, is shown in Figure 4.6.

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Figure 4.6 Sample code for creating the class DBProtocolPlugin and the class Customer To declare an instance of the class Customer in DBProtocol code and call its interface, looks something like Figure 4.7.

Figure 4.7 Declare a Customer instance and call its interface in DB Protocol code In case the derived class Customer does not want its interfaces to be accessed from DB protocol code, it is possible to change the access specifier of virtual functions that it inherited from its base class to be protected or private, as shown in Figure 4.8.

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Figure 4.8 Change the access specifier of the functions inherited from base class However, although the access specifier of the interfaces in the derived class have changed to be protected or private, DB protocol code can still access the interfaces in the class Customer via the base class of the class Customer as the sample code in Figure 4.9.

Figure 4.9 Access the private interface of a derived class via its base class After finished the class creation between the layer DB Protocol and the layer Customer, the modular form now becomes the targeted structure of this thesis, the framework. With this framework, dimensio informatics GmbH is able to use it as a basic tool for other tools and solutions, such as with dimensio server, to the performance tuning of databases and applications. This can be done via the abstraction layers named ProxyPlugin and DBProtocolPlugin. The abstraction layer ProxyPlugin makes each of database

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protocol modular in the framework and the abstraction layer DBProtocolPlugin makes the performance applications from dimensio informatics GmbH or from their partners modular for database protocol, like Oracle, IBM DB2, and SQLServer. The modularity makes components and layers in the framework more manageable and helps them connect, interact, and exchange resources (data) in some way, by adhering to standardized interfaces.

Figure 4.10 The relationship and interaction between layers in the framework The framework is reviewed as Figure 4.10. The layer Proxy (colored in white) connects, interacts, and exchanges data with the DBProtocol layer (colored in red) via a standardized interface in the ProxyPlugin abstraction layer (colored in yellow). Also, the DBProtocol layer connects, interacts, and exchanges data with the Customer layer (colored in red) via a standardized interface in the DBProtocolPlugin abstraction layer (colored in yellow). The design and development of standardized interfaces for the ProxyPlugin abstraction layer are explained in the section The ProxyPlugin Abstraction Layer, and standardized interfaces of the DBProtocolPlugin abstraction layer are explained in section The DBProtocolPlugin Abstraction Layer respectively in this chapter.

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4.2 The ProxyPlugin Abstraction Layer


This section explains the design and development of standardized interfaces of the ProxyPlugin abstraction layer in Figure 4.10. These interfaces have to enable the Proxy layer and the DBProtocol layer to connect, interact, and exchange data with each other in order to achieve their tasks. The tasks of the Proxy are to open a connection with database client and server, receive data streams from database client, receive data streams from database server, and close the connection. The tasks of DBProtocol are to gain information of the connection, assemble and disassemble data streams from database client, assemble and disassemble data streams from database server, and return reserved resources when the connection is closed. Therefore the standardized interfaces have to be provided for the Proxy and DBProtocol to enable them to work together accordingly. The interfaces to be developed and provided for them are onConnection, onDisconnection, onReceiveClient, and onReceiveServer. Figure 4.11 shows the class diagram that the base class ProxyPlugin standardizes the interfaces and the three derived classes inherit it to develop functionalities for the standardized interfaces.

Figure 4.11 The three DB protocol classes develop their functionalities on the standardized interfaces of their base class

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Figure 4.12 Sample code of how to declare ProxyPlugin object and use it The Proxy will instantiate an object of the ProxyPlugin class, define its type, and invoke each of its interfaces which is relevant to the event occurs in the program (see sample code in Figure 4.12). The description of each of the interfaces and its relevant event is described as follows. onConnection interface will be called when a database client connects to the proxy and the proxy establishes the connection with the destination database server. When this interface is called, the proxy will give necessary information concerning the connection (such as listening port, database host name, database service port, dimensio address, dimensio port) to the interface. After that, the DB protocol object will perform its functionality to initialize its variables and its initializing functions. These processes are simplified in Figure 4.13.

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Figure 4.13 The flow chart associated with onConnection interface The abstract interface of onConnection is shown in Figure 4.14.

Figure 4.14 The pure virtual function of onConnection interface onReceiveClient interface is called when the proxy receives data streams from the database client. Technically speaking, these data streams are disassembled from one packet by the database client. After the proxy received data streams, it calls this interface to forward these data streams to the DB protocol object. The proxy will repeat these processes until the DB client has no more data streams to send for the packet. Next the proxy will wait until it gets returned data streams back from the DB protocol object. Finally, the proxy forwards the returned data streams to the destination database server. Figure 4.15 shows overview of this process.

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Figure 4.15 The overview of the processes for the interface onReceiveClient Resume to the step that the proxy receiving data streams from the DB client and forwarding them to the interface onReceiveClient. Meanwhile the DB protocol object will be collecting and organizing these data streams until it is able to assemble them into one complete packet. While the proxy is waiting for returned data streams from the DB protocol object, the DB protocol object is performing its functionality to serve interfaces of an object of the above layer, Customer, which will be described in the following section. After the DB protocol object exchanged information with the Customer object and served services for the object, it disassembles the packet into many data streams and returns these data streams back to the proxy.

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Figure 4.16 The overview of tasks of the DB protocol object To collect, organize, and assemble data streams into one complete packet again, each DB protocol has different rule to perform these processes. Although they are different, they have some procedures in common when working with the proxy via the interface onReceiveClient (see Figure 4.16). The abstract interface of onReceiveClient is shown in Figure 4.17.

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Figure 4.17 The pure virtual function of onReceiveClient interface onReceiveServer interface will be called when the database server sends data streams to the proxy. The overview tasks of the proxy and the DB protocol object with this interface are similar to the interface onReceiveClient. The differences that this interface has, to the interface onReceiveClient, are that it changes the direction of sending data streams from the database client to the database server in another direction. The further changes are in the step of performing functionalities for the Customer object, which will be described in more details in the next section. The abstract interface of onReceiveServer is shown in Figure 4.18.

Figure 4.18 The pure virtual function of onReceiveServer interface onDisconnection interface will be called when the database client or the database server closes or terminates the connection. When this occurs, the proxy will call this interface to let the DB protocol object knows. After that, the DB protocol object will return resources to the systems and so does the proxy (see Figure 4.19).

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Figure 4.19 The flow chart associated with onDisonnection interface The abstract interface of onDisonnection is shown in Figure 4.20.

Figure 4.20 The pure virtual function of onReceiveClient interface In the following section, this thesis describes how to design and implement the interfaces for SQL modification and analysis and explains what the DB protocol object does after it finished the step of assembling packet.

4.3 The DBProtocolPlugin Abstraction Layer


This section explains how to implement the SQL modification concept and the SQL timing analysis concept in the chapter 3, by designing and developing standardized interfaces of the DBProtocolPlugin abstraction layer in Figure 4.10. These interfaces will be called to enable the DBProtocol layer and the Customer layer to connect, interact, and exchange data with each other in order to achieve their tasks. Some of the tasks of the DBProtocol are

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already explained in the previous section. The further tasks of the DBProtocol are to forward information for connecting to dimensio server, fetch and modify an SQL statement in the packet, gain and inform useful information for SQL timing analysis in the packet sent by the database client, gain and inform useful information for SQL timing analysis in the packet sent by the database server, and inform the connection is terminated to the above layer, Customer. The tasks of the Customer are to work accordingly with the DB protocol layer, which are to connect with dimensio server, modify an SQL statement, analyze SQL timing information from database client side, analyze SQL timing information from database server side, and disconnect from dimensio server. The interfaces to be developed and provided for the DBProtocol layer and the Customer layer are onConnectToDimensio, onChangeSql, onClientSqlTime,

onServerSqlTime, and onDisconnectFromDimensio. Figure 4.21 illustrates the class diagram that the base class DBProtocolPlugin standardizes the interfaces and the derived class Customer inherits it to develop functionalities for the standardized interfaces. In the figure, the bold and italic depict abstract class, the only italic depicts abstract function, the only bold depicts concrete class, and the normal depicts concrete function.

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Figure 4.21 The class DBProtocolPlugin is inherited by the Customer class The DBProtocol will instantiate an object of the DBProtocolPlugin class, define its concrete class, and invoke each of its interfaces which is relevant to the event occurs in the program (see sample code in Figure 4.22).

Figure 4.22 Sample code of how to declare DBProtocolPlugin object and use it The description of each of the interfaces and its relevant event is described as follows. onConnectToDimensio interface will be called right after the DBProtocol object received information for connecting dimensio server from the proxy. The DBprotocol object will call this interface and give the information as the parameter. After that the Customer object will get the information and initialize its variables. In case the Customer object wants to connect to dimensio server for database performance tuning, it will do so by using the information. These steps are simplified in Figure 4.23.

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Figure 4.23 The work flow for onConnectToDimensio interface The abstract interface of onConnectToDimensio is shown in Figure 4.24.

Figure 4.24 The pure virtual function of onConnectToDimensio interface onChangeSql interface is used to exchange SQL statement between the DBProtocol object and the Customer object for changing SQL statement in the packet. This interface is concerned directly to the concept of SQL modification in the chapter 3. To change SQL statement in the packet, firstly the DBProtocol object has to finish assembling the packet as mentioned in the previous section. Secondly the object analyzes and finds SQL statement in the packet. If it found SQL statement, it call onChangeSql interface to give the found SQL statement to the Customer object. After that the Customer object will modify the SQL statement by working with dimensio server. Then the Customer object will return the new

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SQL statement to the DBProtocol object. Finally, the DBprotocol object modifies the SQL statement in the packet with the new one. See Figure 4.25 for the flow chart of these steps. The abstract interface of onChangeSql is shown in Figure 4.26. In the argument list of onChangeSql interface in Figure 4.26, there is a struct variable type named CBindVar (see Appendix B). The DBProtocol object will find binding parameter and provide it to supply CBindVar in the argument list of the interface if the SQL statement type in the packet is stored procedure or prepared statement.

Figure 4.25 The flow chart for onChangeSql interface

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Figure 4.26 The pure virtual function of onChangeSql interface onClientSqlTime interface and onServerSqlTime interface are used for providing SQL timing information for the Customer to perform its functionality for SQL timing analysis. These two interfaces are concerned directly to the concept of SQL timing analysis in the chapter 3. The processes related to SQL timing analysis are explained in step-by-step. First the DB Protocol object assembles the packet. Second, the object analyses the packet to gain useful information for the SQL timing analysis. If the packet is a request from database client, the information to gain from it are client port, call type, statement ID, timestamp, SQL statement, and parameters. If the packet is a reply from database server, the information to gain from it are client port, call type, statement ID, timestamp, number of columns in table, and number of records in table. After that, the DBProtocol calls onClientSqlTime interface and onServerSqltime interface, which depends on where the packet is sent from. If the packet is sent from database client, the DBProtocol object calls onClientSqlTime interface. Otherwise the object calls onServerSqlTime interface to provide the information for the Customer object. Finally, the Customer object uses the information to analyze time usage of SQL. These steps for the SQL timing analysis are shown in Figure 4.27.

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Figure 4.27 The flow chart for onClientSqlTime interface and onServerSqlTime interface The abstract interface of onClientSqlTime is shown in Figure 4.28 and the abstract interface of onServerSqlTime is shown in Figure 4.29.

Figure 4.28 The pure virtual function of onClientSqlTime interface

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Figure 4.29 The pure virtual function of onServerSqlTime interface To provide SQL timing information for the analysis, the DBProtocol object has to organize information it gained from both sides, database client and server, and find the relationship of the information between them. All information that the DBProtocol object gains from request packet and reply packet, and provides for the Customer object via the two interfaces, are explained as follows. client port tells which client is communicating with the database server. call type defines that the packet is a request from client or a reply from database and tells that which calls the packet consists of. statement ID tells which ID number is used to refer to the SQL statement. time stamp tells at what time the packet is received. SQL is an SQL statement. parameter tells parameter values supplying to the SQL statement. The values will be supplied if database client executes its query by using stored procedure or prepare statement. #col is the number of columns in result table. #row is the number of rows in result table. The information which are used to refer and find relationship of the query and reply between database client and server are client port, statement ID, and call type. In more details, client port tells which client the database server is currently communicating with, statement ID tells the communications between the database client and

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server are to fulfill which query. call type helps to predict and expect what the next call should be. Next chapter will show the result of using these interfaces in the framework for modifying SQL statement in request packet and analyzing SQL timing information.

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Chapter 5

Results

This chapter shows the output of the framework design illustrated as class diagram. Furthermore, this chapter demonstrates testing cases by using the framework of this thesis for SQL modification and SQL timing analysis. There are four testing cases of SQL modification. The four cases are the demonstration of SQL modification for Oracle, the demonstration of SQL modification for DB2, the demonstration of SQL modification for Microsoft SQL Server, and the demonstration of SQL modification for Oracle with dimensio server. Additionally, two testing cases are for SQL analysis.

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5.1 Framework for SQL Analysis and Modification

Figure 5.1 The class diagram of the final design of the framework This section shows the final design of the framework for SQL analysis and modification for the three database protocols, that is TNS for Oracle, TDS for Microsoft (MS) SQL Server, and DRDA for IBM DB2. The final design of the framework is demonstrated in class diagram as Figure 5.1. The Proxy exchanges information with an instance of the class PPluginOracle, PPluginSQLServer, or PPluginDB2 via the standardized interface of the abstract class ProxyPlugin. An instance of the class PPluginOracle,

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PPluginSQLServer, or PPluginDB2 exchanges information with an instance of Customer via the standardized interface of the abstract class DBProtocolPlugin. After this thesis developed functionalities into the interfaces of the four derived classes, that are PPluginOracle, PPluginSQLServer, PPluginDB2, and Customer, the framework is now ready to be tested for the SQL modification and analysis, as shown in the following sections.

5.2 Demonstration for SQL modification


This section demonstrates the results of using the framework for SQL modification for Oracle database, MS SQL Server, IBM DB2, and Oracle database with dimensio server in the following subsections respectively. Additionally, each subsection describes the specification of its test. The table to be used for all testing cases in this chapter is EMP table as shown in Table 5.1. Table 5.1 EMP table EMPNO 901 902 903 904 905 906 ENAME Martin Andreas Alexander Dirk Hartmut xxxxxx HIREDATE 01-FEB-06 01-MAR-06 01-JUN-07 01-DEC-08 01-MAY-09 01-APR-00 TAX 70.5 70.5 75.5 70.5 50.5 1000.5

5.2.1 The SQL modification with Oracle The specification of this testing case is detailed in Table 5.2. To perform this testing case, first, run the database server. Second, set the the the proxy to use PPluginOracle. Third, set the original SQL statement and the new SQL

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statement in the proxy. Then, run the proxy to connect with the running database server. After that run the database client to connect the database server via the proxy. Later, make the database client sending SQL command same as the original SQL statement to the database server. The result of this testing case, which is detailed in Table 5.2, is demonstrated in Figure 5.2. Table 5.2 The specification for testing the SQL modification with Oracle Title Database client Database server Original SQL statement New SQL statement Description SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0-64bit SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ename = 'Alexander'; SELECT * FROM EMP;

Figure 5.2 The result of the SQL modification testing by the specification in Table 5.2

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With same specification in Table 5.2, the thesis changes the database client from SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 to Oracle SQL Developer (3.0.03) and runs this testing case. The result is demonstrated in Figure 5.3.

Figure 5.3 The testing case with DB client Oracle SQL Developer 3.0.03 With same specification in Table 5.2, the thesis changes the database client from SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 to Toad for Oracle Xpert Trial Version 11.0.0.116 and runs this testing case. The result is demonstrated in Figure 5.4.

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Figure 5.4 The testing case with Toad for Oracle Xpert Trial Version 11.0.0.116 5.2.2 The SQL modification with Microsoft SQL Server The specification of this testing case is detailed in Table 5.3. Table 5.3 The specification for testing the SQL modification with MS SQL Server

Title

Description

Database client

A DB client developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express, working with the SqlClient data provider for SQL Server.

Database server

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 (RTM) - 10.0.1600.22 (Intel X86) Jul 9 2008 14:43:34 Corporation Copyright (c) 1988-2008 Microsoft

Express Edition with Advanced Services on

Windows NT 5.1 <X86> (Build 2600: Service Pack 3)

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Original SQL statement

SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ename = 'Alexander';

New SQL statement

SELECT * FROM EMP;

Figure 5.5 The result of the SQL modification testing by the specification in Table 5.3 To perform this testing case, first, run the database server. Second, set the the the proxy to use PPluginSQLServer. Third, set the original SQL statement and the new SQL statement in the proxy. Then, run the proxy to connect with the running database server. After that run the database client to connect the database server via the proxy. Later, make the database client sending SQL command same as the original SQL statement to the database server. The result of this testing case, which is detailed in Table 5.3, is demonstrated in Figure 5.5. 5.2.3 The SQL modification with IBM DB2 The specification of this testing case is detailed in Table 5.4.

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Table 5.4 The specification for testing the SQL modification with IBM DB2

Title

Description

Database client

A DB client developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express, working with the OLE-DB data provider for IBM DB2.

Database server

IBM DB2 v10.1.0.872

Original SQL statement

SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ename = 'Alexander';

New SQL statement

SELECT * FROM EMP;

To perform this testing case, first, run the database server. Second, set the the the proxy to use PPluginDB2. Third, set the original SQL statement and the new SQL statement in the proxy. Then, run the proxy to connect with the running database server. After that run the database client to connect the database server via the proxy. Later, make the database client sending SQL command same as the original SQL statement to the database server. The result of this testing case, which is detailed in Table 5.4, is demonstrated in Figure 5.6.

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Figure 5.6 The result of the SQL modification testing by the specification in Table 5.4 5.2.4 The SQL modification for Oracle with dimensio server This section demonstrates the SQL modification for Oracle with dimensio server. The specification is detailed in Table 5.5. Table 5.5 The specification for testing the SQL modification with Oracle and dimensio

Title

Description

Database client

Oracle SQL Developer Version 3.0.04 Build MAIN-04.34

Database server

Oracle Database 11g Express Edition 11.2.0.2.0 64bit Production

Computer Specification

CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5 CPU 660 @ 3.33 GHz

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RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Speed 1333 MHz HD: OS: 500 GB Linux Debian Squeeze

Database Size

10 GB

Tables and number of records

h_orders:

15,000,000 records

h_customer: 1,500,000 records h_nation: h_region: 25 records 5 records

h_lineitem: 59,986,052 records h_part: 2,000,000 records

h_supplier: 100,000 records

Original SQL statement

SELECT l.l_key, o.o_orderstatus, o.o_orderpriority, c.c_mktsegment, l.l_shipinstruct, l.l_shipmode, l.l_returnflag, l.l_discount, l.l_quantity, r.r_name, r2.r_name, s.s_acctbal FROM h_orders o, h_customer c, h_nation n, h_region r, h_lineitem l, h_part p,

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h_supplier s, h_nation n2, h_region r2 WHERE o.o_custkey = c.c_custkey AND c.c_nationkey = n.n_nationkey AND n.n_regionkey = r.r_regionkey AND o.o_orderkey = l.l_orderkey AND l.l_partkey = p.p_partkey AND l.l_suppkey = s.s_suppkey AND s.s_nationkey = n2.n_nationkey AND n2.n_regionkey = r2.r_regionkey AND o.o_orderstatus IN ('F', 'P') AND o.o_orderpriority IN ('2-HIGH') AND c.c_mktsegment IN ('BUILDING') AND l.l_shipinstruct IN ('COLLECT COD') AND l.l_shipmode IN ('MAIL') AND l.l_returnflag IN ('R', 'N') AND l.l_discount BETWEEN 0 AND 0.1 AND l.l_quantity BETWEEN 6 AND 47 AND r.r_name IN ('AFRICA') AND r2.r_name IN ('AMERICA') AND s.s_acctbal BETWEEN 2115.2 AND 2263.02 ORDER BY L_KEY ; New SQL statement with indexes received from the dimensio server SELECT l.l_key, o.o_orderstatus, o.o_orderpriority, c.c_mktsegment, l.l_shipinstruct, l.l_shipmode, l.l_returnflag, l.l_discount, l.l_quantity, r.r_name, r2.r_name, s.s_acctbal FROM h_orders o, h_customer c, h_nation n, h_region r, h_lineitem l, h_part p, h_supplier s, h_nation n2, h_region r2

73 WHERE (L_KEY IN (18232998, 32061977, 43501819, 42104195, 36778379, 36698067, 35345872, 30416162, 26899799, 19619936, 16728562, 16648956, 13748343, 13672428, 38038313)) AND o.o_custkey = c.c_custkey AND c.c_nationkey = n.n_nationkey AND n.n_regionkey = r.r_regionkey AND o.o_orderkey = l.l_orderkey AND l.l_partkey = p.p_partkey AND l.l_suppkey = s.s_suppkey AND s.s_nationkey = n2.n_nationkey AND n2.n_regionkey = r2.r_regionkey AND o.o_orderstatus IN ('F', 'P') AND o.o_orderpriority IN ('2-HIGH') AND c.c_mktsegment IN ('BUILDING') AND l.l_shipinstruct IN ('COLLECT COD') AND l.l_shipmode IN ('MAIL') AND l.l_returnflag IN ('R', 'N') AND l.l_discount BETWEEN 0 AND 0.1 AND l.l_quantity BETWEEN 6 AND 47 AND r.r_name IN ('AFRICA') AND r2.r_name IN ('AMERICA') AND s.s_acctbal BETWEEN 2115.2 AND 2263.02 ORDER BY L_KEY ; The result of the SQL modification for Oracle with dimensio server is shown in Figure 5.7.

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Figure 5.7 The result of the connection to Oracle database via the proxy and dimensio server by the specification in Table 5.5 The result of direct connection to Oracle database with the original SQL statement, which without connection to the proxy and dimensio server is shown in Figure 5.8.

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Figure 5.8 The result of direct connection to Oracle database by the specification in Table 5.5 As demonstrated, the result of direct connection to Oracle database took 32.106 seconds to process, while the result of connection to Oracle database via the proxy and dimensio server took 0.05 second to process. The factor of improvement was 642 faster.

5.3 Demonstration for SQL analysis


This section demonstrates using the framework for SQL timing analysis especially for two testing cases. The first one is tested with MS SQL Server just to provide timing information for the Customer, and the second one is tested with Oracle database not only to provide timing information for the Customer but also develop a functionality of it to demonstrate SQL timing analysis.

76 5.3.1 The SQL Analysis with Microsoft SQL Server This subsection demonstrates the use of the proxy with Microsoft SQL Server for the SQL timing analysis. But this thesis does not develop functionality at the Customer for that analysis, it just observes network traffic between a database client the destination database server and gains useful information for the Customer. This testing case for the SQL analysis has the specification as detailed in Table 5.6. Figure 5.9 shows the logfile of this testing case that keeps SQL timing analysis information after the DB client and the DB server finished processing the query. Table 5.6 The specification for testing the SQL analysis with MS SQL Server

Title

Description

Database client

A DB client developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express, working with the SqlClient data provider for SQL Server.

Database server

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 (RTM) - 10.0.1600.22 (Intel X86) Jul 9 2008 14:43:34 Corporation Copyright (c) 1988-2008 Microsoft

Express Edition with Advanced Services on

Windows NT 5.1 <X86> (Build 2600: Service Pack 3)

Original SQL statement

SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE empno=@v_no and ename=@v_name and tax=@v_tax;

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PPluginSQLServer ... PP@@@60809@@@req_SP_PREPEXEC_@@@1347052836.332432@@@0@@@SELEC T * FROM EMP WHERE empno=@v_no and ename=@v_name and tax=@v_tax@@@:1=903 :2=Alexander :3=75.5 PP@@@60809@@@ans_SP_PREPEXEC_@@@1347052836.333186@@@0@@@4@@ @1@@@0

Figure 5.9 The SQL timing analysis information when working with MS SQL Server 5.3.2 The SQL Analysis with Oracle database This subsection demonstrates the use of the proxy with Oracle database for the SQL timing analysis. Additionally with this testing case for the SQL timing analysis, this thesis has not only provided SQL timing analysis information by observing network traffic

between a database client the destination database server and gaining useful information for the Customer, but also developed functionality for the Customer for that analysis. This testing case for the SQL analysis has the specification as detailed in Table 5.7. Figure 5.10 shows the logfile of this testing case that keeps SQL timing analysis information after the DB client and the DB server finished processing the query. Table 5.7 The specification for testing the SQL analysis with Oracle database

Title

Description

Database client

Oracle SQL Developer 3.0.03

Database server

Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 64bit

Query

VARIABLE v_no NUMBER; VARIABLE v_name VARCHAR2(10); VARIABLE v_tax FLOAT;

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EXECUTE :v_no :=903; EXECUTE :v_name :='Alexander'; EXECUTE :v_tax :=75.5; SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE empno=:v_no and ename=:v_name and tax=:v_tax;

PPluginOracle ... PP@@@32791@@@req_prep_bind_exec_@@@1346992948.608229@@@0@@@SELEC T * FROM EMP WHERE empno=:v_no and ename=:v_name and tax=:v_tax@@@:1=903 :2=Alexander :3=75.5 PP@@@32791@@@ans_prep_bind_exec_free_@@@1346992948.609630@@@4@@@4 @@@1@@@1403

Figure 5.10 The SQL timing analysis information when working with Oracle database The information orders in Figure 5.10 are arranged differently depending on where the packet is sent from. If the packet is sent from database client, the information are arranged in form 1 and its call_type has prefix req_, otherwise they are organized in form 2 and its call_type has prefix ans_. The two forms are shown in Figure 5.11.
Form1: PP@@@<client_port>@@@<call_type>@@@<timestamp>@@@<statement_i d>@@@<SQL_statement>@@@<parameters> Form2: PP@@@<client_port>@@@<call_type>@@@<timestamp>@@@<statement_i d>@@@<#col>@@@<#row>@@@<additional_info>

Figure 5.11 The two arrangement forms of SQL timing analysis information

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Additionally, Figure 5.12 shows a sample of the result after the Customer finished performing the functionality for the SQL timing analysis by using the information. The full length for the SQL timing analysis information in Figure 5.11 and the full length of the result of the SQL timing analysis in Figure 5.12 are put in Appendix A of this thesis. In the next chapter discusses the results of this thesis work, some of obstacles it encountered, and further research and improvements.

Figure 5.12 The sample result of SQL timing analysis with Oracle database

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Chapter 6

Outlook

This chapter summarizes the results of the thesis work, discusses obstacles this thesis encountered, and speaks more about further research and improvements. As the results, the thesis has finished the implementation of the framework for SQL modification and analysis. Moreover the results have proved that the framework is able to support development of different database protocols; like TNS for Oracle database, TDS for Microsoft SQL Server, and DRDA for IBM DB2, to modify SQL statement, especially SELECT SQL statement, in network traffic. But providing the information for the SQL timing analysis, this thesis has demonstrated only two testing cases that work with Oracle database and Microsoft SQL Server. Furthermore the thesis has developed sample functionalities on the Customer using the information for SQL timing analysis and displaying the result of the analysis. The challenges that this thesis dealing with were complexities of database protocols, the framework and its interfaces design. The most complicated database protocol that this thesis had dealt with was TNS for Oracle database because the protocol is not open standard protocol as TDS for Microsoft SQL Server and DRDA for IBM DB2. Therefore, the thesis had to do several times of trials and errors in order to gain the exact meaning of each bit each byte each column in network traffic sent between Oracle database client and server. This is time consuming and can delay the design of interfaces of the framework for SQL modification and analysis. Since, the thesis has to find common characteristics among database protocols in order to develop standardized interfaces in the framework.

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6.1 Future work


Possible further improvement of the framework is to measure overheads, such as proxy overhead and network overhead in different circumstances, e.g. when dealing with many client connections at the same time etc. Next is to extend functionalities, such as modifying properties related to SQL statements such as binding variables, generating resultset independently from databases, supporting further database protocols, e.g. MySQL, PostgreSQL, Sybase, Informix etc, changing the database protocol of client's requests or database's responses. At last but not least, the final goal that can be suggested for further research is to replace databases completely with the fully developed framework.

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83 [ISO08] [KK10] (2008, Jul.) ISO/IEC 9075(1-4,9-11,13,14) :2008. [Online]. www.iso.org J. Kurose and K. Ross, Computer Networking: a Top-Down Approach. Pearson, 2010. [Tho06] K. Thomas, Beginning Ubuntu Linux: From Novice to Professtional. Apress, 2006, A proxy server helps speed up Internet access by stroing frequently accessed pages. [Hes12] K. Hess. Top 10 Enterprise Database Systems to Consider. [Online]. http://www.serverwatch.com/trends/article.php/3883441/Top-10-EnterpriseDatabase-Systems-to-Consider.htm [TG00] H. Toledo and J. Gennick, Oracle Net8 Configuration and Troubleshooting. OReilly, December 2000, (http://oreilly.com/catalog/net8trouble/chapter/ch01.html). [Ddm11] DRDA V5 Vol. 3: Distributed Data Management (DDM) Architecture. The Open Group, July 2011. [Fdoca11] DRDA V5 Vol. 2: Formatted Data Object Content Architecture (FD:OCA). The Open Group , July 2011. [GW09] L. Guo and H. Wu, Design and Implementation of TDS Protocol Analyzer. IEEE, 2009. [dim12] (2012) dimensio: Light Speed Data Access. [Online]. http://www.dimensioinformatics.com [Gre12] (2012) Product Overview. [Online]. http://www.greensql.com [ADM09] M. AboElFotoh, T. Dean, and R. Mayor, "An Empirical Evaluation of a Language-Based Security Testing Technique," 2009. [KG04] J. Keogh and M. Giannini, OOP Demystified. McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2004. [HG04] M. A. Harding and E. Granada, "Method and Apparatus for Reducing Latency Involved in Retrieving Web Page Components," U.S. Patent UNKNOWN, 2004. [Sha86] M. Shapiro, "Structure and encapsulation in distributed systems: the Proxy Principle," in Int. Conf. on Distributed Computer Sys, 1986, p. 198204. [CRS99] A. Cohen, S. Rangarajan, and N. Singh, "Supporting Transparent Caching with Standard Proxy Caches," in 4th International Web Caching Workshop, 1999. [KCZGD06] K. Kent, Z. Chevalier, T. Grance, and H. Dang, "Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response," in NIST Special Publication, 2006, pp. 800-86. [Cas04] E. Casey, "Network traffic as a source of evidence: tool strengths, weaknesses, and future needs," Elsevier Digital Investigation, pp. 28-43, 2004. [Abb08] A. Abbasi, Oracle 10g Database Administration Concepts and implementation Made Simple. 2008.

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Biography

Pinaet Phoonsarakun is a student research assistant at dimensio informatics GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany. He received his Bachelor degree in technical education, computer technology from King Mongkuts University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB) in 2008 with the first class honour. His research focuses on database optimization, database and network protocols, and software engineering.

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87

Appendix

Appendix A: The Result of the SQL Timing Analysis


The full length of the SQL timing analysis information of Figure 5.10 is demonstrated in Figure A.1 and the full length of the result of SQL timing analysis of Figure 5.12 is demonstrated in Figure A.2.
PPluginOracle ... PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.182590@@@0@@@select * from v$version where banner like '%Oracle%'@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037415.186112@@@3@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 1 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.187331@@@0@@@select USER from dual@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037415.188364@@@2@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 2 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.189295@@@0@@@alter session set PLSCOPE_SETTINGS='identifiers:all'@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.190293@@@3@@@1@@@0@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 3 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.190805@@@0@@@select sys_context('USERENV','SESSIONID') from dual@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037415.191789@@@2@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 4 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.192275@@@0@@@select sys_context('USERENV','SID') from dual@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037415.193227@@@3@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 5 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.193682@@@0@@@alter session set PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL=0@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.194525@@@2@@@1@@@0@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 6 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.194926@@@0@@@alter session set PLSQL_DEBUG=true@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.195747@@@3@@@1@@@0@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 7 PP@@@39717@@@req_prep_bind_exec_@@@1347037415.196260@@@0@@@select count(1) from all_objects where object_name = :1 @@@:1=APEX_RELEASE PP@@@39717@@@ans_prep_bind_exec_free_@@@1347037415.198753@@@2@@@1@@@1@@@140 3 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 8 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.199662@@@0@@@select version_no from apex_release@@@

88
PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037415.201085@@@3@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 9 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.202339@@@0@@@select parameter,value from nls_session_parameters union all SELECT 'DB_TIMEZONE' name, DBTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE' name, SESSIONTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE_OFFSET' name, TZ_OFFSET(SESSIONTIMEZONE) value from DUAL union all SELECT parameter, value FROM nls_database_parameters WHERE parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET' @@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.203498@@@2@@@2@@@10@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 10 PP@@@39717@@@req_fetch_@@@1347037415.204047@@@2@@@@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_fetch_@@@1347037415.204742@@@2@@@2@@@10@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 10 PP@@@39717@@@req_fetch_@@@1347037415.205314@@@2@@@@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_fetch_free_@@@1347037415.205989@@@2@@@2@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 10 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.206466@@@0@@@ALTER SESSION SET TIME_ZONE = 'Europe/Berlin'@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.207532@@@3@@@2@@@0@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 11 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.208836@@@0@@@SELECT DBTIMEZONE FROM DUAL@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.210210@@@2@@@1@@@1@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 12 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.211955@@@0@@@select parameter,value from nls_session_parameters union all SELECT 'DB_TIMEZONE' name, DBTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE' name, SESSIONTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE_OFFSET' name, TZ_OFFSET(SESSIONTIMEZONE) value from DUAL union all SELECT parameter, value FROM nls_database_parameters WHERE parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET' @@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.213202@@@2@@@2@@@10@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 13 PP@@@39717@@@req_fetch_@@@1347037415.214076@@@2@@@@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_fetch_@@@1347037415.215014@@@2@@@2@@@10@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 13 PP@@@39717@@@req_fetch_@@@1347037415.215587@@@2@@@@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_fetch_free_@@@1347037415.216228@@@2@@@2@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 13 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.217496@@@0@@@select parameter,value from nls_session_parameters union all SELECT 'DB_TIMEZONE' name, DBTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE' name, SESSIONTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE_OFFSET' name, TZ_OFFSET(SESSIONTIMEZONE) value from DUAL union all SELECT parameter, value FROM nls_database_parameters WHERE parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET' @@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_@@@1347037415.218677@@@3@@@2@@@10@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 14 PP@@@39717@@@req_fetch_@@@1347037415.219512@@@3@@@@@@

89
PP@@@39717@@@ans_fetch_@@@1347037415.223510@@@3@@@2@@@10@@@0 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 14 PP@@@39717@@@req_fetch_@@@1347037415.224270@@@3@@@@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_fetch_free_@@@1347037415.225006@@@3@@@2@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 14 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037415.253432@@@0@@@select 1 from sys.obj$ where 1=0@@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037415.256283@@@2@@@2@@@0@@@942 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 15 PP@@@39717@@@req_prep_bind_exec_@@@1347037418.107234@@@0@@@SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE empno=:v_no and ename=:v_name and tax=:v_tax@@@:1=903 :2=Alexander :3=75.5 PP@@@39717@@@ans_prep_bind_exec_free_@@@1347037418.108646@@@4@@@4@@@1@@@140 3 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 16 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037422.18475@@@0@@@ SELECT 1 FROM dual @@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037422.19564@@@3@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 17 PP@@@39717@@@req_exec_@@@1347037422.20607@@@0@@@ SELECT dbms_transaction.local_transaction_id FROM dual @@@ PP@@@39717@@@ans_exec_free_@@@1347037422.21857@@@2@@@1@@@1@@@1403 PStatist:timeSqlFromServer:mTimeList.size(): 18

Figure A.1 The full length of Figure 5.10


PStatist:timeDisplay: ****************************** * SQL Timing Analysis Result * * (re-arranged by time used) * ****************************** === Order Nr. 0 === Total Time Use : 821 (usec) Statement Nr. : 7 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : alter session set PLSQL_DEBUG=true Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 821 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 0

90
Message Code = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch Total Packet : 0 : 0 : 2

=== Order Nr. 1 === Total Time Use : 843 (usec) Statement Nr. : 6 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : alter session set PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL=0 Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 843 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 0 Message Code : 0 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 0 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 2 === Total Time Use : 952 (usec) Statement Nr. : 5 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : select sys_context('USERENV','SID') from dual Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 952 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 10 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 3 === Total Time Use : 984 (usec) Statement Nr. : 4 Client Port : 39717

91
Stmt ID : 2 SQL : select sys_context('USERENV','SESSIONID') from dual Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 984 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 10 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 4 === Total Time Use : 998 (usec) Statement Nr. : 3 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : alter session set PLSCOPE_SETTINGS='identifiers:all' Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 998 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 0 Message Code : 0 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 0 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 5 === Total Time Use : 1033 (usec) Statement Nr. : 2 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : select USER from dual Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1033 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0

92
fetch_free_ = resultset = Total Column Total Row Message Code = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch Total Packet : (0) 0 : 1 : 1 : 1403 : 10 : 2

=== Order Nr. 6 === Total Time Use : 1066 (usec) Statement Nr. : 11 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : ALTER SESSION SET TIME_ZONE = 'Europe/Berlin' Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1066 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 2 Total Row : 0 Message Code : 0 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 0 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 7 === Total Time Use : Statement Nr. : Client Port : Stmt ID : SQL :

1089 (usec) 17 39717 3 SELECT 1 FROM dual

Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1089 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 50

93
Total Packet : 2

=== Order Nr. 8 === Total Time Use : Statement Nr. : Client Port : Stmt ID : SQL :

1250 (usec) 18 39717 2

SELECT dbms_transaction.local_transaction_id FROM dual Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1250 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 50 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 9 === Total Time Use : 1374 (usec) Statement Nr. : 12 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : SELECT DBTIMEZONE FROM DUAL Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1374 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 0 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 1 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 10 === Total Time Use : 1412 (usec) Statement Nr. : 16

94
Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 4 SQL : SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE empno=:v_no and ename=:v_name and tax=:v_tax Parameters : :1=903 :2=Alexander :3=75.5 = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (0) 0 prep_bind_exec_: (1) 1412 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 4 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 50 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 11 === Total Time Use : 1423 (usec) Statement Nr. : 9 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : select version_no from apex_release Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1423 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 10 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 12 === Total Time Use : 2493 (usec) Statement Nr. : 8 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : select count(1) from all_objects where object_name = :1 Parameters : :1=APEX_RELEASE = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (0) 0 prep_bind_exec_: (1) 2493 prep_ : (0) 0

95
bind_exec_ fetch_ fetch_free_ = resultset = Total Column Total Row Message Code = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch Total Packet : (0) 0 : (0) 0 : (0) 0 : 1 : 1 : 1403 : 10 : 2

=== Order Nr. 13 === Total Time Use : 2529 (usec) Statement Nr. : 10 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : select parameter,value from nls_session_parameters union all SELECT 'DB_TIMEZONE' name, DBTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE' name, SESSIONTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE_OFFSET' name, TZ_OFFSET(SESSIONTIMEZONE) value from DUAL union all SELECT parameter, value FROM nls_database_parameters WHERE parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET' Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1159 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (1) 695 fetch_free_ : (1) 675 = resultset = Total Column : 2 Total Row : 21 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 10 Total Packet : 6 === Order Nr. 14 === Total Time Use : 2826 (usec) Statement Nr. : 13 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : select parameter,value from nls_session_parameters union all SELECT 'DB_TIMEZONE' name, DBTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE' name, SESSIONTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE_OFFSET' name, TZ_OFFSET(SESSIONTIMEZONE) value from DUAL union all SELECT parameter, value FROM nls_database_parameters WHERE parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET' Parameters : = Timing (in usec) =

96
exec_ : prep_bind_exec_: prep_ : bind_exec_ : fetch_ : fetch_free_ : = resultset = Total Column : Total Row : Message Code : = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : Total Packet : (1) (0) (0) (0) (1) (1) 2 21 1403 10 6 1247 0 0 0 938 641

=== Order Nr. 15 === Total Time Use : 2851 (usec) Statement Nr. : 15 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 2 SQL : select 1 from sys.obj$ where 1=0 Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 2851 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 2 Total Row : 0 Message Code : 942 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 50 Total Packet : 2 === Order Nr. 16 === Total Time Use : 3522 (usec) Statement Nr. : 1 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : select * from v$version where banner like '%Oracle%' Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 3522 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (0) 0 fetch_free_ : (0) 0 = resultset = Total Column : 1 Total Row : 1

97
Message Code = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch Total Packet : 1403 : 10 : 2

=== Order Nr. 17 === Total Time Use : 5915 (usec) Statement Nr. : 14 Client Port : 39717 Stmt ID : 3 SQL : select parameter,value from nls_session_parameters union all SELECT 'DB_TIMEZONE' name, DBTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE' name, SESSIONTIMEZONE value FROM DUAL union all SELECT 'SESSION_TIMEZONE_OFFSET' name, TZ_OFFSET(SESSIONTIMEZONE) value from DUAL union all SELECT parameter, value FROM nls_database_parameters WHERE parameter='NLS_CHARACTERSET' Parameters : = Timing (in usec) = exec_ : (1) 1181 prep_bind_exec_: (0) 0 prep_ : (0) 0 bind_exec_ : (0) 0 fetch_ : (1) 3998 fetch_free_ : (1) 736 = resultset = Total Column : 2 Total Row : 21 Message Code : 1403 = traffic = MaxRows/Fetch : 10 Total Packet : 6

****************************** * End of SQL Timing Analysis * * (re-arranged by time used) * ******************************

Figure A.2 The full length of Figure 5.12

98

Appendix B: Struct Variables

struct CBindVal { long bvl_num; double bvl_flt; std::string bvl_str; tm bvl_ymd; std::string bvl_rid; char bvl_byt; int byt_size; int type;

/* type BVL_NUM=number, BVL_FLT=float, BVL_STR=string, VL_YMD=datetime, BVL_RID=rowid, BVL_BYT=bytes */ }; struct CBindVar { CBindVal* bVal; int num; }; struct CResultSet { int totalCol; int totalRow; struct CColumn { std::string name; int len; int type; }; CColumn* cCol;

struct CRow { CBindVal* cVal; }; CRow* cRow; };