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Zoology Scientific study of the diversity of animal life Why do you have to Study Zoology?

Understand the natural world Learn to protect the environment Develop skills for learning

Identified the bacterium that causes anthrax Identified the bacterium that causes tuberculosis

Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 Developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax Demonstrated the existence of germs Invented Pasteurization

What is life? No simple definition o o The history of life shows extensive and ongoing change called evolution Answer must be based on the common history of life on earth Myths To Explain Biological Processes Disease caused by evil spirits Brain produces snot Blood determines heredity Heart is for emotions

Germ Theory of Disease Germs cause disease Predictions of the Germ Theory o o o o o Many diseases are caused by germs Diptheria Whooping cough Measles Plague

Modern medicine uses the Germ Theory to guide research

How Does Science Separate Myths from Reality?

Ramifications of Germ Theory Previous concepts about the cause of many diseases incorrect o o o Evil spirits Bad thoughts Excess blood

Scientific Method
Observation Hypothesis : Prediction Test Hypothesis: Experiment Further Observations Conclusion

Theory vs Scientific Theory Theory (as used outside of science) Guess Speculation Has not been tested

Edward Jenner 1749-1823 Smallpox Scientific method

Robert Koch 1843-1910

Scientific Theory Principle Tested many times Explains many different phenomena Makes predictions Falsifiable

Germ Theory of Disease: Germs cause infectious disease Atomic Theory: Matter is made if tiny atoms Gene Theory (Chromosomal Theory): Genes on chromosomes determine heredity Cell Theory: All living things are made of cells

Falsify Germ Theory Smallpox occurs without the smallpox virus Tuberculosis occurs without the TB bacterium Discovery of a different type of cause for infectious diseases Law vs Theory Law Observation that has been repeated numerous times Law of gravity Does not explain the observation Theory Explains why or how something in nature happens Which is most important to a scientist? Theory is the most important Theory: Explains laws, hypotheses and facts Law: States what happens Hypothesis: Untested theory Fact: Observation

Theory of Evolution Populations of organisms change over time Changes result in new species that share a common ancestor. Evolution is both a fact and a theory Fact: Evolution is documented in the fossil record and has been observed in our lifetime. Theory: How evolution happens

Scientists no longer ask if evolution occurs. They study how evolution occurs. Evolution is the major theory that guides research in Zoology Science A body of knowledge gained from studying the natural world It is tested against the natural world o o Does not use supernatural explanations New discoveries can revise previous conclusions It is falsifiable Its conclusions are not absolute.

Major Scientific Theories

General Properties of Living Systems

Chemical Uniqueness: Living systems

Metabolism: Living organisms maintain

demonstrate a unique and complex molecular organization


o Small molecules are assembled into macromolecules: Nucleic Acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids

themselves by acquiring nutrients from their environments


o Metabolic processes include: Digestion Energy production (Respiration) Synthesis of required molecules and structures by organisms Development: All organisms pass through a

Complexity and Hierarchical Organization:

characteristic life cycle


o Development describes the characteristic changes that an organism undergoes from its origin to its final adult form Environmental Interaction: All animals interact

Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex hierarchical organization


o In living systems there exists a hierarchy of levels that includes: Macromolecules Cells Organisms Populations Species

with their environments


Ecology: The study of organismal interaction with an environment All organisms respond to environmental stimuli Movement: Living systems and their parts

Possession of a Genetic Program: A genetic

program provides fidelity of inheritance


o o o Nucleic Acids: Polymers built of repeated units called nucleotides DNA: Long, linear, chain of nucleotides containing genetic information Sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA determines the order of amino acids in proteins o Genetic Code: correspondence between base sequences in DNA and the sequence of amino acids in a protein

show precise and controlled movements arising from within the system Living systems extract energy from their environments permitting the initiation of controlled movements
Characteristics of Animals: Eukaryotes: cells contain membrane-enclosed nuclei Heterotrophs: Not capable of manufacturing their own food and must rely on external food sources

Cells lack cell walls

Medial Refers to a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the body Lateral Refers to a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body Distal (Reference to the extremities only) Refers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limb Proximal (Reference to the extremities only) Refers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limb Superficial Refers to a structure being closer to the surface of the body than another structure Deep Refers to a structure being closer to the core of the body than another structure Ventral Towards the front or belly Dorsal Towards the back Prone Lying face down Supine Lying face up. Unilateral Pertaining to one side of the body Bilateral Pertaining to both sides of the body Anatomical Planes Sagittal plane The plane dividing the body into right and left portions Frontal plane The plane dividing the body into front and back portions Transverse plane The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions The Origin and Chemistry of Life Earth 4.6 BYA hot, barren, little liquid water,

Anatomy - study of the structure and relationship


between body parts. Physiology -study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole

Morphology - study of the form and structure of


organisms and their specific structural features. History During the Renaissance (Rebirth) the study of human life and medicine began to flourish. Scientist, Doctors and Artist would experiment and practice on the dead and incarcerated. Cadavers were positioned flat on their backs, thus making it easier to draw and reference from that position. Anatomical Position Standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward Is the standard reference point in which all positions, movements, and planes are described Positions and Directions Superior Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the body

Inferior Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body Anterior Refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body Posterior Refers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body

o o o o

geologically active Only a trace of free oxygen (reducing environment) liquid water becomes more common

Experimented with garden peas

Atmosphere CH4, NH3, H2O, H2, CO2

Mendels Hypotheses Each parent has two factors (alleles) Each parent gives one of those factors to the offspring Tall has TT; Short has tt Tall is DOMINANT; Short is recessive

Over time, the earths crust cooled Elements necessary for life (C, N, H, O, P, S) are dissolved in water

Abiotic Molecular Evolution o Russian biochemist Alexander I. Oparin and British biologist J.B.S. Haldane 1920s Gradual, progressive assembly of small organic molecules into more complex forms CarbohydratesLipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Law of Segregation Alleles separate during gamete production Gametes have one allele for each trait During fertilization gametes combine at random to form individuals of the next generation Discovery of Chromosomes in 1900 Confirmed Law of Segregation Allele Member of a paired gene o One allele comes from each parent Represented by a single letter Chromosomes are in pairs Each chromosome has one of the allele pair

Stanley Miller and Harold Urey (1953) Produced urea, amino acids, and simple fatty acids Organic Molecules > Polymerization > RNA, protein > Proteinoid Microspheres (Protocells) > Metabolism (Catalysis) > Cells Phototrophs- use light energy to fix carbon production of O2 ! Changes atmosphere Chemotrophs - use chemical energy to fix carbon and nitrogen Gregor Mendel 1823-1884 Father of Genetics Monk in Austria

Dominant & Recessive Alleles o Dominant alleles are expressed Recessive alleles are not expressed in the presence of a dominant allele Recessive alleles are only expressed if both recessive alleles are present

Gene A unit of heredity that controls the development of one trait Homozygous Both alleles alike (AA or aa) Heterozygous Alleles are different (Aa) Genotype Genetic make up Represented by alleles TT & Tt are genotypes for TALL pea plants A trait Genotype determines the phenotype Tall is a phenotype

Three alleles give four blood types AA or AO = Type A blood BB or BO = Type B blood AB = Type AB blood OO = Type O blood Mutation - Change in a gene nucleotide sequence is often altered Produce abnormal protein

Phenotype

Levels of Mutation Molecular level o o o o o Deletion of nucleotides Addition of nucleotides Substitution of nucleotides Change in structure Change in number of chromosomes

Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes of the same pair Each homologue will have one allele for a paired gene Homologous chromosomes pair up during meiosis Only one of each homologue will be in each gamete Normal Sickle Cell Anemia Albinism PKU Dwarfism Hemophilia AA PP Dd XH XH / XHy Aa Pp Dd XH Xh aa pp DD Xh Xh / Xhy SS Carrier Ss Sick ss

Chromosomal level

Causes of Mutations Spontaneous o o Random About 1/100,000 chance of a gene mutating Induced o Caused by mutagens

Nondisjunction - One pair of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis Trisomy- Zygote ends up with 3 chromosomes instead of 2 for a given chromosome pair.

Karyotype-Often arranged with autosomes in descending order and sex chromosomes separate Trisomy 21 18 13 Xxy X Disease Down Syndrome Edward Syndrome Patau Syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome Turner Syndrome

Types of Tissues 1.) Epithelial- layers of cells that cover organ surfaces. Serve as protection, absorption, and secretion. (eg. Skin, Sweat gland) 2.) Connective- Holds everything together. Has an extracellular matrix layer that separates the cells. (eg. Blood) 3.) Nervous-composed of individual cells called neurons and supporting nervous cells (eg. Brain. Spinal cord, Neurons) 4.) Muscle- the contractile tissue of the body. Allows movement. (eg. Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac) Types of Muscle Skeletal: used for voluntary movement and locomotion; Skeletal muscle is attached to bone by tendons Smooth: used for involuntary movement; Located in the walls of many hollow organs such as stomach, bladder, esophagus, intestine Cardiac: involuntary muscle found only in the wall of the heart; Used to pump blood in circulatory system Specialized connective tissue 2.1. cartilage (hyaline,fibrocartilage, elastic) o Matrix- clear intercellular ground substance

Aneuploidy Missing or extra chromosome Polyploidy Extra set of chromosomes Usually lethal Common in cancer Common in plants

Fetal testing can determine abnormal karyotypes How is the body organized? Cell- the smallest structural and functional unit in organisms; the building block of life Tissue- a group of similar cells that performs a specialized function within an organism Organ-a structure consisting of a group of specialized tissues that performs a specialized function Organ System- a set of interconnected or interdependent parts that function together in a common purpose or produce results that cannot be achieved by one of them acting alone

Lacunae-spaces or cavities in the matrix where the cartilage cells are found

Polygonal

Square polygons

Liver cells

Stores glucose, nitrogenous waste product

o o

Chondrocytes-the cartilage cells present in the lacunae Perichondrium covering of a cartilage Amorphou s No definite shape WBC

Engulfing bacteria

Anton van Leeuwenhoek Made improvements to the simple microscope in 1648 Saw microscopic critters in pond water 1674

Types of Cells Prokaryotes The cell DOES NOT have a true nucleus; cells without membrane-bound structures Function Tend to be smaller than Eukaryotes Not as many organelles as Eukaryotes Ex: All bacteria, pond scum cells with membrane-bound structures contain organelles which are special structures that perform important cellular functions Ex: All plants, animals, fungi, & protists Eukaryotes The cell HAS a true nucleus

Robert Hooke Cell Spherical Stellate Squamous Columnar 1 person to see cells & identify them saw
st

cell walls in cork 1665; He gave cells their name! Shapes Globular Star-like Pavement/thi n and flat Pillar like tall & longitudinal Pyramidal Fusiform Slightly triangular Tapering spindle shaped Cuboidal Cube-shaped Kidney tubules Osmotic concentratio n gradient Cells lining Smooth muscles Sources Egg cell Nervous tissue Cheek cell intestine s Easily shed off Absorption of digested food Secreting products Muscle contraction

Fertilization Impulses

Animal Cell rounder shape; no cell wall; no chloroplasts Lysosomes: Contains enzymes to digest waste Cell Wall: Provides support and protection for the cell; found in plant cells and bacteria; is made of cellulose

Chloroplasts: Converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy by photosynthesis Found only in plants, bacteria, and some protists Vacuole: Stores water, salts, protein, & carbs Plant cells have a single large vacuole (stores water) Animal cells have many small vacuoles

NUCLEAR MEMBRANE separates nucleus from cytoplasm controls movement of materials in & out of nucleus NUCLEOLUS Aka little nucleus Found in the nucleus

CELL MEMBRANE Outer covering, protective layer around ALL cells For cells with cell walls,the cell membrane is inside the cell wall Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & waste products out of the cell. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell; found in both plant & animal cells Composed of a Lipid bilayer (contains lipids and proteins) CYTOPLASM Gel-like material in the cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm

NUCLEUS The control center of the cell contains DNA, chromatin, & chromosomes DNA contains coded instructions needed to make proteins Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material CHROMATIN contains genetic code that controls cell made of DNA & proteins

Golgi Apparatus Sorts & Packages proteins from the ER Ribosomes Makes proteins with the help of RNA and Amino Acids Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around the cell Assembly of Lipids Assists with Protein Synthesis Rough ER: contains ribosomes Smooth ER: no ribosomes

CYTOSKELETON scaffolding-like structure in cytoplasm helps the cell maintain or change its shape made of protein helps the cell maintain its shape Contains microfilaments & microtubules

Mitochondria: Power-house of the cell makes ATP (energy); found in both plants & animals o Converts food into compounds that the cell uses for growth, development, and movement Evolution Changes in a population over time Earths Position in the Universe 400 years ago the general public thought that the earth was the center of the universe Sun revolves around the earth The earth does not move

HMS Beagle 1831-1836 Ostrich in Africa Adaptive Radiation Land Iquana & Marine Iquana Different Tortoises on Each Island Origin of Species 1859

Natural Selection One mechanism of evolution Main concepts of natural selection Overproduction of offspring Inherited variation in offspring Competition Best adapted in a given environment survive and reproduce to increase their kind They are naturally selected

Galileo and Corpernicus Demonstrated scientific evidence that the sun is at the center of our solar system and the earth moves around the sun Galileo and the Church Religious leaders felt the heliocentric theory (sun at the center) was a direct contradiction to the literal interpretation of the Bible. Galileo found guilty of heresy Copernican System (Heliocentral Theory) Did not destroy peoples belief in God Public now accepts the overwhelming evidence for the heliocentric theory Theory of Evolution Science has overwhelming evidence that all life is constantly evolving Charles Darwin 1809-1882

Overproduction of Offspring Elephants (very slow reproductive rate) o If all the offspring of one elephant pair survive and all their offspring survive then: o o Beetles o o A handful that weighs 10 mg each 82 weeks = 61,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 ton o The weight of the earth! 750 years = 19,000,000 elephants 1200 years = Enough elephants to cover the earth!

Variation of Offspring Offspring of the same parents are different from each other

Competition Since more individuals are born than can survive for an extended period of time, they compete for resources Food Living space Mates

Allows us to see how life has changed over time

Life Has Changed Millions of species have been found that are different from life today Horse Evolution 50 Million Years of Change Homologous Structures Same structures used for different purposes Homoplasy Analogous Structures Similar structures due to convergent evolution, Molecular Biology The study of the molecules of life including DNA and proteins Homeobox or HOX First discovered in fruit flies in 1983 Later found in mice, man and other organisms Controls embryonic development of different body regions Evolution of New Body Plan Hox gene Ubx of crustacean mutated in lab Caused suppression of leg development Mechanism for evolution of insect body plan 400 MYA Comparing DNA Human DNA compared to: Chimpanzee 99% same Gorilla 97.7% same Orangutan 96.3% same Another human 99.9% same

Best adapted to a given environment are selected to survive Brown bears Adapted to survive in Oklahoma Polar bears Adapted to survive in Alaska

Evolution is Change Changing alleles in a population can produce new species Dogs have evolved from wolves Man has artificially selected traits to produce the various dog breeds Nature uses natural selection and other mechanisms for evolution Scientific Disciplines That Give Evidence for Evolution Paleontology Comparative anatomy Biogeography Molecular biology Others

Paleontology Study of fossils Allows us to see anatomical similarities between living species and organisms that lived in the past

Comparing Protein Sequences Many proteins in all of man are identical Organ transplants require similar proteins in the donor and the recipient o A sibling or parent is often the best source for an organ transplant Molecular Clock The further you go back in time, the more proteins (and DNA) are different. be used to estimate time when two species shared a common ancestor Related Organisms Close similarity of protein sequences indicates close relationship Cytochrome C Protein used to release energy from food 104 amino acids 20 of the amino acids occupy the same position in all eukaryotes Pattern of Evolution Originally Based on Fossil Record DNA comparisons confirm the same pattern Protein sequences confirm the same pattern 150 years of research by thousands of scientists demonstrate beyond doubt that life evolves. Zoology is the study of animals. This includes the study of the following characteristics of animals :

o o o

Structure/function Classification Lifestyle

General Features of Animals Heterotrophy : animals cant make their own food, and must obtain their food Mobility: animals have the ability to move Multicellularity: animals are composed of many cells

Differences in protein sequences and DNA can Diploidy: adults have two copies of each chromosome Sexual reproduction : animals reproduce sexually, egg cell and sperm cell Absence of a Cell Wall: animal cells lack a cell wall Blastula formation: after fertilization the zygote produced from the sperm and egg forms a hollow ball of cells (blastula) Animal Cell Specialization Most animals reproduce sexually with an egg and a sperm uniting to form a zygote. This zygote cell then divides into solid ball of cells (morula) and then a hollow ball (blastula) Cells in the morula have the ability to change into specialized cells for the animal. ( Hair cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, etc.) These original cells capable of being specialized cells are called stem cells.

As a result of the DNA in the cells, animals show a wide variety of differences. The development of the animal through its genetic code and environment shapes the animals anatomy and behavior. o

form specialized structures such as nerve cells, blood cells, skin cells, etc. Growth : the final stage of embryo development results in division of specialized cells to produce organs, organ systems, and the animal. Ectoderm Skin Brain all other neurons sense receptors sex organs pancreas Mesoderm notochord muscles blood bone Endoderm lining of gut lining of lungs lining of bladder Liver

Animal Embryonic Development Upon fertilization of an animal egg by a sperm, a zygote is formed. The chromosomes in the egg and the diploid (2) set of chromosomes containing genes for the zygotes development Embryonic Development Once a zygote is formed, it appears that genes found in the egg control the development of the zygote into a blastula. Studies have shown that proteins produced by genes from the egg determine the initial differentiation of cells into specialized body parts. Four stages of embryonic development: o o o

chromosomes in the sperm combine to form a spinal cord

Studies have shown that proteins built by the eggs genes determine the steps of development. In some studies it was found that the addition of a protein during the patterning stage will cause an animal to have two heads, two tails, no skin, etc.

Cleavage: the process of the zygote dividing Tissues: animal cells are organized into tissues at different rates at each end of the cell to o Example of tissues : muscle tissue, skin tissue, produce a ball of approximately a thousand cells.(blastula) nerve tissue, etc.

Patterning: In this stage cells organize themselves into layers and masses. This process is called gastrulation

Body Symmetry Animals have a body plan or shape. o o Sponges have the simplest body plan. Sponges have an irregular or asymmetrical. Radial Symmetry some animals have body parts arranged around a central axis. Some

Differentiation: the third stage of embryonic development includes the division of cells to

aquatic animals show this symmetry. Ex) sea anemone, jellyfish, etc. o Bilateral symmetry: a body plan of all other animals which show distinct right and left halves. o Cephalization : having nerves, brain at one end of the body Three basic body plans: Acoelomate : animals with no body cavity. Pseudocoelomate : animals with a falsebody cavity Coelomate : animals with a body cavity within the mesoderm. Body Segmentation Segmented animals have similar units called segments. kingdom Animalia contains about 35 major divisions or phyla. Phylogenetic tree : a branching diagram to show animal relationships based upon the anatomy of living animals Animal Body Systems Digestion Animals need to acquire energy through food. Most animals digest or break down their food within a digestive cavity or system. Enzymes play an important role in the digestion of food.

Simple animals have a gastrovascular cavity, while others have a digestive tract.

Respiration Repiration is the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide gas. Simple animals achieve this through diffusion, while other animals achieve this with gills, or lungs. Circulation Many materials must be transported to and from the cells of animals. Two types of circulatory systems achieve this : Open circulatory system and closed circulatory systems. Open : a heart pumps blood into the body cavity Closed : heart pumps blood through blood vessels Conduction of Nerve Impulses Animals have nerve cells (neurons) which carry messages which allow for coordination of the body. (senses) Simple animals contain ganglia which are a cluster of neurons. Other animals have brains to coordinate all sensory information Support Animals achieve support by the following : Hydrostatic skeleton : consists of water under pressure in a cavity Exoskeleton : rigid external skeleton

Endoskeleton : hard material bone embedded within an animal

Reproductive Strategies Two types of reproduction Asexual : reproduction that doesnt involve the fusion of two gametes. Sexual : a new individual is formed by the union of gamestes. Some animals are hermaphrodites. This means they have both testes and ovaries, and can produce both types of gametes (sperm and eggs) Ex. : slugs, some fishes, and earthworms

Fertilization Animals may have external fertilization or internal fertilization. External : sperm fertilizes the egg outside of the body Internal : sperm and egg union occurs within the females body