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An acronym for liberalization Exchange Management System that was introduced from March 1, 1992 under which the rupee was made partially convertible. The objective was to encourage exporters and induce a greater inflow of remittances through proper channels as well as bring about greater efficiency in import substitution. Under the system, percent of eligible foreign exchange receipts such as exports earnings or remittances was to be converted at the market rate and the balance 40% at the official rate of exchange. Importers could obtain their requirements of foreign exchange from authorized dealers at the market rate. Because of certain weaknesses, this system was replaced by a unified exchange rate in March 1993. This unification was recommended as an important step towards full convertibility by the committee on balance of payments under the chairmanship of C Ragranajan. Under the unified rate system all foreign exchange transactions through authorized dealers out at market determined rate exchange. Exchange rate of Indian Rupee is fixed by market depending on demand & supply theory with effect from March 1, 1993. This is known as LERMS.There is no control by RBI or Government.

Modified Value Added Tax, introduced in 1986, is a tax for allowing relief to final manufacturers on the excise duty borne by their suppliers for goods manufactured by them. It has now been replaced by the CENVAT scheme Modvat stands for "Modified Value Added Tax". It is a scheme for allowing relief to final manufacturers on the excise duty borne by their suppliers in respect of goods manufactured by them. eg ABC Ltd is a manufacturer and it purchases certain components from PQR Ltd for use in manufacture. POR Ltd would have paid excise duty on components manufactured by it and it would have recovered that excise duty in its sales price from ABC Ltd. Now, ABC Ltd has to pay excise duty on toys manufactured by it as well as bear the excise duty paid by its supplier, PQR Ltd. This amounts to multiple taxation. Modvat is a scheme where ABC Ltd can take credit for excise duty paid by PQR Ltd so that lower excise duty is payable by ABC Ltd.

A replacement for the earlier MODVAT scheme and is meant for reducing the cascading effect of indirect taxes on finished products. The scheme is a more extensive one with most goods brought under its preview. Cenvat, or the Central Value Added Tax, is a component of the tax structure employed by many countries in the western section of Europe. The inspiration for Cenvat is derived from a tax system that is generally referred to as VAT, or a Value Added Tax. Both Cenvat and VAT are designed with the express purpose of minimizing a cascading effect when it comes to taxes on income, goods and services, and other forms of tax revenue. The aim of Cenvat is to aid in maintaining a tax structure that is considered equitable for both the citizens incurring the tax and the government that is collecting the tax revenue. One notable example of Cenvat can be found in India. Originally designated as a modified value added tax, this approach placed some limits on the type of taxation that could occur on goods used in the manufacturing process of finished consumer products. Modvat was later designated as Cenvat, and continued to function as a means of promoting industry within the country while still receiving some form of tax revenue from the effort.


The ease with which a country's currency can be converted into gold or another currency. Convertibility is extremely important for international commerce. When a currency in inconvertible, it poses a risk and barrier to trade with foreigners who have no need for the domestic currency.

Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value. Convertibility is an important factor in international trade, where instruments valued in different currencies must be exchanged The state of or the ease with which a currency may be exchanged for a foreign currency. Currency convertibility is vitally important in the foreign exchange market; higher convertibility means that a currency is more liquid and, therefore, less difficult to trade. Factors affecting convertibility include the availability of foreign currency reserves in a given country and domestic regulations seeking to protect local investors from bad investment decisions in, say, a currency undergoing a period of hyperinflation. A few socialist governments even issue inconvertible currencies, such as the Cuban peso, in order to protect their citizens from perceived capitalist infiltration