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Sonny An

US History Honors January 13th, 2012

Chapter 14, Sections 2 & 3 Textbook Notes Section 2: Criticism and Reformation September 1933: Dr. Francis E. Townsend, retired physician, launches social security program for the elderly. o o 60+ years of age to retire (given $20 monthly, but must spend it), freeing up jobs for younger people. 1935: Townsends plan soundly defeated in Congress, despite 5 million followers. 1933 to 1934: National income rose 25%. AAA: Landowners given checks to not use their land, instead, evicted farmers and did not share the subsidy. Southern Tenant Farmers Union (STFU): African American + white farmers protesting against unfair treatment of farmers. Non-violent. o o Harassed by landowners using law enforcement agents, STFU appeals to Roosevelt. Too often he [Roosevelt] has talked like a cropper [tenant farmer] and acted like a planter [landowner]. 1933: National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) permitted all workers to join unions. o Unionization: Formation of unions, increased conflicts between workers and management. Father Charles E. Coughlin: Roman Catholic priest, demagogue: A leader who gains power by appealing to peoples prejudices and fears vs. reason. o o o Called FDR a great betrayer and a liar, also had lots of anti-Semitism. Mid-1930s: Radio listenership of 30 million. Silenced by superiors within the church.

Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana: Share Our Wealth, Every man a king, but no one wears a crown. Radical. o September 1935: Assassinated. The largest collection of millionaires ever assembled under the same roof.

1934: American Liberty League to destroy the New Deal. o Mid-1930s: Supreme Court overturns NIRA and AAA, both unconstitutional. 1935: Roosevelts Second New Deal. o $4.8 billion relief program = WPA (Works Progress Administration) led by Harry Hopkins. Nationwide projects. 1|Page

Sonny An
US History Honors January 13th, 2012 o

August 1935: Social Security Act to offer pensions for elderly, orphaned, and those injured in industrial accidents. Did not apply for minorities.

July 1935: Wagner Act: Restored workers rights to join unions. o National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): Enforced the Wagner Act. 1936: Soil Conservation Act: Required farmers to reduce the acreage of certain crops. 1935: Rural Electrification Act (REA): Lent money to groups of farmers who organized to build power plants. June 1935: Public Utility Holding Company Act, eliminate corruption and inefficiency in utility industries and reduced consumers costs. 1935: Revenue Act: Increased taxes on incomes of wealthy corporations and individuals. 1936: Presidential election: FDR vs. Alfred Landon, FDR wins every state except 2. February 1937: FDR tries to increase the # of justices on the Supreme Court, unsuccessful.

Section 3: The Impact of the New Deal Easter 1939: Marian Anderson sings at Lincoln Memorial. o o Supposed to be at Constitution Hall, refused by Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). Eleanor Roosevelt resigns from DAR, promotes Andersons free concert. Eleanor Roosevelt: Women-only reporter conferences, worked to get women appointed to political posts. o o o Discrimination: Prejudicial treatment. Mary McLeod Bethune, head of Negro Affairs Division of the National Youth Administration. Harold Ickes, secretary of the interior: Improve race relations, support AfricanAmerican building projects. FDR spoke against lynching, however, did not support anti-lynching legislation, afraid of losing Southern votes. 1934: Indian Reorganization Act, authored by John Collier to promote Native American cultures and preserve tribal ownership of reservation lands. o Prevented government from seizing unclaimed reservation land and selling it to non-Native Americans. Federal regulation: Expansion of federal government into almost all aspects of peoples lives, direct legacy of the New Deal. 2|Page Roosevelts black cabinet: Kept him informed about African-American situation.