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Aerodynamics ءاﻮه ﻚﻴﻣﺎﻨﻳد (ﺺﺨﻠﻣ)

3 rd year Mechanical Engineering تاﺮﺋﺎﻃ -ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻤﻟا

2011/2012

يﺪﻬﻣ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ساﺮﺒﻧ.د سرﺪﻣ

ةدﺎﻤﻟا ﻮﺳرﺪﻣ ﻦﺴﺤﻣ ﺲﻳردإ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ.د ﺪﻋﺎﺴﻣ ذﺎﺘﺳأ

Syllabus

(تاﺮﺋﺎﻄﻟا عﺮﻓ) ةدﺎﻤﻟا تادﺮﻔﻣ

 Subject Number: ME\683 Subject: Aerodynamics Units: 5 Weekly Hours: Theoretical: 2 Experimental: 1 Tutorial : 1 683/ﻚﻤه :عﻮﺿﻮﻤﻟا ﺰﻣر ءاﻮه ﻚﻴﻣﺎﻨﻳد :عﻮﺿﻮﻤﻟا 5 :تاﺪﺣﻮﻟا 2 :يﺮﻈﻧ :ﺔﻴﻋﻮﺒﺳﻷا تﺎﻋﺎﺴﻟا 1 :ﻲﻠﻤﻋ 1 :ﺔﺸﻗﺎﻨﻣ Week Contents تﺎﻳﻮﺘﺤﻤﻟا عﻮﺒﺳﻷا Navier-Stokes equations كﻮﺘﺳ – ﺮﻴﻓﺎﻧ تﻻدﺎﻌﻣ ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ - قﺎﻘﺘﺷﻻا - ﻦﻴﺘﻳزاﻮﺘﻣ ﻦﻴﺘﺤﻴﻔﺻ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻄﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا - ﺎﺗﻮآ نﺎﻳﺮﺟ - ﻲﻜﻴﻣﺎﻨﻳدورﺪﻴﻬﻟا ﺖﻴﻳﺰﺘﻟا - ﻲﻗﻻﺰﻧﻻا ﺪﻨﺴﻤﻟا - ﻦﻴﺘﻧاﻮﻄﺳا ﻦﻴﺑ ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻄﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا - ﻦﻴﺗراود ﻦﻴﺗﺰآﺮﻤﺘﻣ 1 - Introduction 1 - Derivation 2 - Laminar flow between parallel plates 2 - Couette flow 3 - Hydrodynamic lubrication 3 - Sliding bearing 4 - Laminar flow between coaxial rotating cylinders 4 Boundary layer theory ﺔﻤﺧﺎﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ - ﺔﻗﺎﻄﻟا ﻚﻤﺳ ، ﻢﺧﺰﻟا ﻚﻤﺳ ، ﺔﺣازﻹا ﻚﻤﺳ - 5 - Introduction 5 - Displacement, Momentum, and Energy thicknesses 6 - Momentum equation for the boundary layer ﺔﻤﺧﺎﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻠﻟ ﻢﺧﺰﻟا ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻣ - 6 7 - Laminar boundary layer ﺔﻴﻗﺎﺒﻄﻟا ﺔﻤﺧﺎﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟا - ﺔﻴﺑاﺮﻄﺿﻻا ﺔﻤﺧﺎﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟا - ﻲﺑاﺮﻄﺿﻻا ﻰﻟإ ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻄﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا ﻦﻣ لﻮﺤﺘﻟا - 7 8 - Turbulent boundary layer 8 9 - Transition from laminar to turbulent flow 9 10 - Effect of pressure gradient ﻂﻐﻀﻟا راﺪﺤﻧا ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - ﻂﻐﻀﻟا ﻦﻋ ﺊﺷﺎﻨﻟا ﺢﺒﻜﻟا و لﺎﺼﻔﻧﻻا - 10 - Separation and pressure drag Potential flow theory (Ideal fluid) يﺪﻬﺠﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ (ﻲﻟﺎﺜﻤﻟا ﻊﺋﺎﻤﻟا ) ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ - ﺔﻳراﺮﻤﺘﺳﻻا ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻣ - تﺎﻣاوﺪﻟا ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻣ - 11 - Introduction 11 - Continuity equation - Vorticity equation Basic concepts in potential flow يﺪﻬﺠﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺳأ ﻢﻴهﺎﻔﻣ بﺎﻴﺴﻧﻻا ﺔﻟاد - ﺪﻬﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد - ناروﺪﻟا - 12 - Stream function 12 - Potential function - Circulation Basic flow patterns ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺳﻷا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا طﺎﻤﻧأ ﻢﻈﺘﻨﻤﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا - رﻮﻐﻟا ، ﻊﺒﻨﻤﻟا - جودﺰﻤﻟا ﺐﻄﻘﻟا - ةﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﻣاوﺪﻟا - 13 - Uniform flow 13 - Source , Sink - Doublet - Free vortex
 Combination of basic flows نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا طﺎﻤﻧأ ﻊﻤﺟ ﻢﺴﺠﻟا ﻒﺼﻧ لﻮﺣ نﺎﻳﺮﺟ - ﻦﻜﻧار يوﺎﻀﻴﺑ لﻮﺣ نﺎﻳﺮﺟ - ﺔﻧاﻮﻄﺳا لﻮﺣ نﺎﻳﺮﺟ - نارود ﻊﻣ ﺔﻧاﻮﻄﺳا لﻮﺣ نﺎﻳﺮﺟ - 14 - Flow past a half body 14 - Flow past a Rankine oval 15 - Flow past a cylinder 15 - Flow past a cylinder with circulation Incompressible flow over airfoils ﻊﻃﺎﻘﻤﻟا لﻮﺣ ﻲﻃﺎﻐﻀﻧاﻼﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ - ﺎﺗﻮآ طﺮﺷ - ﻦﻔﻠﻜﻟ ناروﺪﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ - ﺔﻘﻴﻗﺮﻟا ﻊﻃﺎﻘﻤﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ - 16 - Introduction 16 - The Kutta condition - Kelvin’s circulation theorem 17 - Thin airfoil theory 17 Airfoil characteristics ﻊﻄﻘﻤﻟا ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ ﺢﻳﺮﻟا ﻖﻔﻧ تارﺎﺒﺘﺧا - ﻂﻐﻀﻟا ﻊﻳزﻮﺗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﺋاﻮﻬﻟا تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﻤﺨﺗ - ﺔﻴﻃﺎﻐﻀﻧﻻا تاﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - زﺪﻟﻮﻨﻳر دﺪﻋ تاﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - 18 - Wind tunnel tests 18 - Estimation of aerodynamic coefficients from pressure distribution - Compressibility effects - Reynolds number effects Airfoil maximum lift characteristics ﻊﻄﻘﻤﻠﻟ ﻊﻓر ﻢﻈﻋأ ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ ﻞﻜﺸﻟا تاﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - زﺪﻟﻮﻨﻳر دﺪﻋ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - ﺔﻴﻔﻠﺨﻟا و ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻣﻷا ﻦﻴﺘﻓﺎﺤﻟا تاﺪﻌﻣ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - 19 - Geometric factors effects 19 - Effect of Reynolds number - Effect of leading and trailing edges devices Incompressible flow over wings ﺔﺤﻨﺟﻷا لﻮﺣ ﻲﻃﺎﻐﻀﻧاﻼﻟا نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ - ﺢﺒﻜﻟا ،ﻊﻓﺮﻟا ،ﻲﻠﻔﺴﻟا فاﺮﺘﺟﻻا ،ناروﺪﻟا - ﺚﺘﺤﻤﻟا دﺪﺤﻤﻟا حﺎﻨﺠﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ - 20 - Introduction 20 - Circulation, downwash, lift and induced drag 21 - Finite wing theory 21 Wing stall حﺎﻨﺠﻟا ءاﻮﻬﻧا ءاﻮﻬﻧﻻا ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ - ءاﻮﺘﻟﻻا و حﺎﻨﺠﻟا ﻞﻜﺷ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ - ءاﻮﻬﻧﻻا ﻰﻠﻋ ةﺮﻄﻴﺴﻟا تاﺪﻌﻣ - 22 - Stall characteristics 22 - Effect of planform and twist - Stall control devices Lift control devices ﻊﻓﺮﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ةﺮﻄﻴﺴﻟا تاﺪﻌﻣ ﻲﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﻊﻓﺮﻟا تاﺪﻌﻣ - ﻊﻓﺮﻟا تﻼﻄﻌﻣ - 23 - High lift devices 23 - Spoilers Flow control devices نﺎﻳﺮﺠﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ةﺮﻄﻴﺴﻟا تاﺪﻌﻣ ﺔﻤﺧﺎﺘﻤﻟا ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ةﺮﻄﻴﺴﻟا - ﺢﺒﻜﻟا ﻞﻴﻠﻘﺗ - 24 - Boundary layer control 24 - Reduction of drag Propellers تﺎﺻﺎﻓﺮﻟا ﻢﺧﺰﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ - ﺔﻄﻴﺴﺒﻟا ﺔﺸﻳﺮﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ - ﻢﺧﺰﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ و ﺔﺸﻳﺮﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﺞﻣد - 25 - Momentum theory 25 26 - Simple blade element theory 26 27 - Combined blade element theory and momentum theory 27 28 - Propeller performance صﺎﻓﺮﻟا ءادأ - 28 Computational methods ﺔﻴﺑﺎﺴﺣ ﻖﺋاﺮﻃ ﻊﻃﺎﻘﻤﻠﻟ حاﻮﻟﻷا ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻃ ﻰﻟإ ﻞﺧﺪﻣ - 29 - Introduction to panel methods for airfoils 29 30 - Introduction to panel methods for wings ﺔﺤﻨﺟﻸﻟ حاﻮﻟﻷا ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻃ ﻰﻟإ ﻞﺧﺪﻣ - 30

References

1- Fluid Mechanics

By Streeter & Wylie

ردﺎﺼﻤﻟا

2- Introduction to Fluid Mechanics By Fox & McDonald

3- Aerodynamics for Engineering Students By Houghton & Carpenter

4- Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance By Roskam & Edward Lan

:ﺔﻇﻮﺤﻠﻣ هو ﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﻠﺣﺮﻤﻠﻟ ءاﻮه ﻚﻴﻣﺎﻨﻳد ةدﺎﻤﺺﺨﻠﻣ ﻦﻤﻀﺘﺗ تاﺮﺿﺎﺤﻤﻟا ﻩﺬه سورﺪ ﻟا لوﺪ ةرﺮ ﻘﻤﻟا ﻳﺮﻈﻨﻟا تﺎﻋﺎﺴ ﻟا رﻮﻀﺣ ﻦﻋ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﻲﻨﻐﺗ

. ﻲﻋﻮﺒﺳﻷا

Chapter One Navier – Stokes Equations

Contents

1- Navier-Stokes equations. 2- Steady laminar flow between parallel flat plates. 3- Hydrodynamic lubrication.

4- Laminar flow between concentric rotating cylinders. 5- Example.

6- Problems;

sheet No. 1

1- Navier-Stokes equations:

The general equations of motion for viscous incompressible, Newtonian fluids may be written in the following form:

x- direction:

ρ

u

u

u

u

p

⎡ ∂ u

2

2

u

2 u

Equations (1) and (2) are called: Navier Stokes equations.

2- Steady laminar flow between parallel flat plates: The fluid moves in the x- direction without acceleration.

v= 0 , w= 0 ,

the Navier-Stokes equation in the x- direction (eq. 1) reduces to:

t

= 0

ρ

t

+ u

x

+ v

y- direction:

v

v  y

 ∂ v

+ w

z

v

=

ρ

g

x

x

p +
μ
+
2
∂ x ∂ y
2
2
⎡ ∂ v
∂ v 2

+

z

2

v

2

- - - - - -(1)

t

+ u

x

+ v

y

+ w

z

⎥ ⎦

=

ρ

g

y

y

+

μ

2

+

x y  2

+

z

2

- - - - - -(2) 2
dp
d u
dx
dy
dh
dx
eq. 3 will be
2
d u
1
d
( p
+
γ h
=
) - - - - - - - - - -(4)
2
dy
μ
dx
Integration of eq. 4:
du
1 d p + h
(
γ
=
dy
μ
) y
dx
+ A
1
d p
(
+ )
γ
h
u =
y
2 +
Ay
+
B
- - - - - - - - - - - (5)
2
μ dx
B.C (Two fixed parallel plates)
y
= 0
u
=
0
B =
0
y
= a
u
=
0
A
2
μ dx
eq. 5 will be
1
d
(
p
+
γ
h
)
(
2
u =
y −
ay ) - - - - - - - - - - - -(6)
2
μ
dx
B.C (One plate is fixed and the other plate moves with a constant
velocity U) (Couette flow)
y
= 0
u
=
0
B
=
0
U
a d p
(
+
γ h
)
y
= a
u
=
U
A
=
a 2
μ dx
eq. 5 will be
1 d (
p + h
γ
)
Uy
(
2
)
u =
y − ay +
- - - - - - - - - - - (7)
2
μ dx
a
For the case of horizontal parallel plates:
dh
= 0
dx
eq. 7 will be
(
)
u =
y − ay +
- - - - - - - - - - - (8)
2
μ dx
a

ρ + =μ

g

x 2

- - - - - - - - - (3)

g

x = g .sinθ = −

g

=

(

a d p

+

γ h

)

1 dp

2

Uy The location of maximum velocity u max may be found by evaluating
du and setting it to
dy
zero.
The volume flow rate is
a
- - - - - - - - - - - -(9)
0
3- Hydrodynamic lubrication:
Sliding bearing
Large forces are developed in small clearance when the surfaces are slightly inclined
and one is in motion so that fluid is wedged into the decreasing space. Usually the oils
employed for lubrication are highly viscous and the flow is of laminar nature.
Assumptions:
The acceleration is zero.
The body force is small and can be neglected.
2
2
2
2
∂ u
∂ u
∂ u
∂ u
〉〉
∂ y ∂ x
∂ y ∂ z
The Navier-Stokes equation in the x-direction (eq. 1) reduces to:
2
d
u
1 dp
=
2
dy
μ dx
Integration:
1
⎛ dp ⎞
u =
y
2 +
Ay
+
B
2 μ ⎝
dx ⎠
B.C
y = 0
u
=
U
B U
=
y
=
h
x
dx h
x

Q

= w u dy

.  Also

2

2

and

2

〉〉

2

u

=

0

A

=

h dp

x

U The volume flow rate in every section will be constant.
h
x
Q =
w u dy
.
assume w
=
1
0
Uh
h
3 dp
x
x
Q =
--------(*)
2 12μ dx
** For a constant taper bearing:
δ=
l
h
= −δ
(h
x
)
x
1
dp
Sub in eq.(*) and solving for
produces:
dx
dp
6
μ
U
12
μ
Q
=
(
2
dx
h
δ
x
)
(
h
δ
x
) 3
1
1
Integration gives:
6
μ U 6 Q
μ
p
( x
) =
+ C
---------(**)
(
2
δ
h
− δ
x
)
δ
(
h
− δ
x
)
1
1
B.C
x
= p
0
p
=
=
0
o
x
= p
l
p
=
o = 0
With these values inserted in eq.(**) we obtain the pressure distribution inside the bearing.
6
μ
Ux h
(
− h
2 )
x
p ( x ) =
h
h
+ h
)
x 2 (
1
2
The load that the bearing will support per unit width is:
l
F
= ∫
p x dx
(
).
0
6
μ Ul
2 ⎡
2(
k −
1) ⎤
F =
ln k −
(
2
− h
)
k + 1
h 1
⎣ ⎢
⎦ ⎥
2
where
h
1
k =
h
2

u

=

1 dp

( 2 μ

dx

2

y

h y

x

)

+

U

⎜ ⎛

⎜ ⎝

1

y ⎞ ⎟

h x

h

1

h

2

Q =

Uh 1

h

2

and

C =

6 U

μ

h

1

+ h

2

δ (

h

1

+ h

2

) 4- Laminar flow between concentric rotating cylinders:
Consider the purely circulatory flow of a fluid contained between two long
concentric rotating cylinders of radius R 1 and R 2 at angular velocities ω 1 and ω 2 .
In
this case the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates are used.
r-
direction:
2
2
2
u
∂ u
∂ u
∂ u
− 1 ∂ p
μ
1
∂ ⎛ ∂ u ⎞
u
∂ u
2
u
∂ u ⎤
u θ
u θ
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
θ
r
+
u
+
− + w
=
+
r
1
+
+
+ g
r
2
2
2
2
2
r
∂ t
∂ r
r ∂
θ
r
z
ρ
∂ r
ρ
r
r
∂ r
⎠ r
r
θ
r
θ
z
θ- direction:
2
2
∂ u
∂ u
∂ u
u u
∂ u
− 1 ∂ p
μ
1
∂ ⎛ r ∂ u ⎞
u
1
∂ u
2
u
∂ u ⎤
u θ
θ
θ
θ
r
θ
θ
θ
θ
r
θ
+
u
+
+ θ
+ w
=
+
⎟−
+
+
+
+ g
r
2
2
2
2
2
θ
∂ t
∂ r
r ∂
θ
r
∂ z
ρ θ ρ
r ∂
r ∂ r
∂ r
r
r
θ
r
θ
z
In the above equations:
u r = 0
w = 0
∂ t
∂ θ
∂ θ
body force = 0
The equation in θ- direction reduces to:
2
d
d
u θ
⎛ u ⎞
θ
+
= 0
2
dr
dr
r ⎠

∂ = 0

,

u

θ

= 0

,

p

= 0 Integration:
1
d
r dr
B
u θ ---------(i)
= Ar +
r
B.C
r
= R
R
1 u
θ =
ω 1
1
r
= =
R
u
R
ω 2
2
θ
2
2
R
1 − R
R
2
1
2
R
2 R
1
2
B =−
(
ω ω
)
2
2
1
R
2 − R
2
1
Sub. in eq.(i) yields:
R
2 − R
r
2
1
The shear stress may be evaluated by the equation:
dr
r
⎠ ⎦
By using eq.(ii):
2
2
μ
R
2 R
τ
1
2
=
(
ω ω
)
2
2
2
1
R
2 − R
r
2
1
5- Example:
1- Using the Navier-Stokes equation in the flow direction, calculate the power required to
pull (1m × 1m) flat plate at speed (1 m/s) over an inclined surface. The oil between the
surfaces has (ρ = 900 kg/m 3 , μ = 0.06 Pa.s).The pressure difference between points 1 and
2 is (100 kN/m 2 ) .
Solution:

(ru )

θ

= A

A =

ω (

+

2

2

2

ω ω

2

1       )

u =

θ

1

2

(

ω

2

2

R 2

ω

1

)

R r

1

2

2

R R

1

2

2

(

ω ω

2

1  )

-------(ii)

τ μ

=

r

d u ⎞ ⎤

θ  The Navier-Stokes equation in x- direction
2
2
2
∂ u
∂ u
∂ u
∂ u ⎤
∂ p
⎡ ∂ u
∂ u
∂ u ⎤
+
2
2
∂ u
∂ u
∂ x
∂ z
The equation reduces to:
2
d u
1 dp
ρ
=
g
x
dy
2 μ
dx μ
Integration
du
1 dp
ρ
=
dy
μ μ
2
μ dx 2
μ
B.C
(b=10 mm)
y
= u
0
=
0
B
=
0
y
= u
b
=− U ⇒
g
x
b 2μ
dx 2
μ
du
1 dp
ρ
U b dp
ρ b
=
y −
g y
+
g x
x
dy
μ dx
μ
b 2
μ
dx 2
μ
The shearing force on the moving plate:
du
F =
μ
× area
dy
y b
=
area=1 m 2
U b dp
b
F
=−
μ +
ρ
g
x
b
2
dx
2
dp
−Δ p
We have
g
=
g
⋅ sinθ
,
=
x
dx
l
3
0.06
×
1
0.01 ⎛ 100
×
10
0.01
F =
⎟ −
×
900 ×
9.81
×
sin 30
0.01
2
1
2
F
=− 528
N
Power
=
F ⋅ U
Power
=
528
× 1 =
528
W
(Ans)

ρ ⎣ ⎢

t

+ u

x

+ v

y

+ w

z

=

ρ

g

x

x

μ

2

+

x y  2

+

z

2

We have:

Acceleration =0 , v=0 , w=0

,

2

= 0

,

2

g y
dx

y

x  +

A

u =

1 dp

y

2

ρ

g y

x

2

+

Ay B

+

F

=

τ

o

×

area

A

=

U

b dp

+

ρ b

 University of Technology Sheet No. 1 Mechanical Engineering Dep. Navier-Stokes Equations Aerodynamics (3 rd year) 2011/2012

1- Using the Navier-Stokes equations, determine the pressure gradient along flow, the average velocity, and the discharge for an oil of viscosity 0.02 N.s/m 2 flowing between two stationary parallel plates 1 m wide maintained 10 mm apart. The velocity midway between the plates is 2 m/s. [-3200 N/m 2 per m ; 1.33 m/s ; 0.0133 m 3 /s]

2- An incompressible, viscous fluid is placed between horizontal, infinite, parallel plates as shown in figure. The two plates move in opposite directions with constant velocities U 1 and U 2 . The pressure gradient in the x-direction is zero. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to derive expression for the velocity distribution between the plates. Assume laminar flow.

b

3- Two parallel plates are spaced 2 mm apart, and oil (μ = 0.1 N.s/m 2 , S = 0.8) flows at a

rate of 24×10 -4 m 3 /s per m of width between the plates. What is the pressure gradient in the direction of flow if the plates are inclined at 60 o with the horizontal and if the flow is

downward between the plates?

[-353.2 kPa/m]

4- Using the Navier-Stokes equations, find the velocity profile for fully developed flow of water (μ = 1.14×10 -3 Pa.s) between parallel plates with the upper plate moving as shown in figure. Assume the volume flow rate per unit depth for zero pressure gradient between the plates is 3.75×10 -3 m 3 /s. Determine:

a- the velocity of the moving plate. b- the shear stress on the lower plate. c- the pressure gradient that will give zero shear stress at y = 0.25b. (b = 2.5 mm) d- the adverse pressure gradient that will give zero volume flow rate between the plates. [3 m/s ; 1.37 N/m 2 ; 2.19 kN/m 2 per m ; -3.28 kN/m 2 per m]

5- A vertical shaft passes through a bearing and is lubricated with an oil (μ = 0.2 Pa.s) as shown in figure. Estimate the torque required to overcome viscous resistance when the shaft is turning at 80 rpm. (Hint: The flow between the shaft and bearing can be treated as laminar flow between two flat plates with zero pressure gradient). [0.355 N.m]

6- Determine the force on the piston of the figure due to shear, and the leakage from the

pressure chamber for U = 0.

[295.1 N ; 1.636×10 -8 m 3 /s]

[ u =

y

(

U

1

+

U

2

)

U

2

]

7- A layer of viscous liquid of thickness b flows steadily down an inclined plane. Show that, by using the Navier-Stokes equations that velocity distribution is:

u =

2

μ

3

μ

8- A wide moving belt passes through a container of a viscous liquid. The belt moving vertically upward with a constant velocity V o , as illustrated in figure. Because of viscous forces the belt picks up a film of fluid of thickness h. Gravity tends to make the fluid drain down the belt. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to determine an expression for the average velocity v av of the fluid film as it is dragged up the belt. Assume the flow is laminar,

γ h

2

3

μ

9- Determine the formulas for shear stress on each plate and for the velocity distribution for flow in the figure when an adverse pressure gradient exists such that Q = 0.

10- A plate 2 mm thick and 1 m wide is pulled between the walls shown in figure at speed of 0.4 m/s. The space over and below the plate is filled with glycerin (μ = 0.62 N.s/m 2 ). The plate is positioned midway between the walls. Using the Navier-Stokes equations, determine the force required to pull the plate at the speed given for zero pressure gradient; and the pressure gradient that will give zero volume flow rate.

[496 N ; 372 kN/m 2 .m]

11- A slider plate 0.5 m wide constitutes a bearing as shown in figure. Estimate:

a- the load carrying capacity. b- the drag. c- the power lost in the bearing. d- the maximum pressure in the oil and its location. [739.6 kN ; 348.6 N ; 348.6 W ; 12500 kN/m 2 ; 150 mm]

12- Consider a shaft that turns inside a stationary cylinder, with a lubricating fluid in the annular region. Using the Navier-Stokes equation in θ-direction, show that the torque per

unit length acting on the shaft is given by:

4 πμω

R

2

1

R

R

2

2

T =

Where: ω = angular velocity of the shaft. R 1 = radius of the shaft. R 2 = radius of the cylinder.

γ

(

2

by y

2 )

sin

θ and that the discharge per unit width is:

Q =

γ

b

3 sin

θ

[

v

av

=

V o

]

[ τ

y

=

0

=

 − 2 U μ

b

;

τ

=

y b

=

4 U

μ

b

;

u

=

3

U

y

b

2

2

2

U

y

b

]

⎜ ⎜

1

⎟ ⎟

1 Problem No. 2 Problem No. 5 Problem No. 8 Problem No. 10 Problem No. 4 Problem No. 6 Problem No. 9 Problem No. 11