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A Framework for Education Engineering for IT Service

삼성SDS

for Education Engineering for IT Service 삼성 SDS 박준성 1. Introduction This paper presents a framework

박준성

1. Introduction

This paper presents a framework for designing effec- tive educational programs for professionals who provide IT services. Section 2 discusses the classification and the lifecycle of IT services that goes through

service marketing, service engineering and service

engagement. Section 3 decomposes the latter three functions into service objects(such as service oppor- tunity, solution architecture, engagement process, edu- cation curriculum, etc.) and shows complex relation- ships among those objects. Section 4 suggests a sys- tematic process of resource planning for IT services based on the architectural model of service objects. Section 5 elaborates on education engineering for IT services. The main idea underlying the education en- gineering framework presented in this paper is that education should be planned as a part of the re- source planning and developed as a part of the ser- vice engineering. Section 6 provides some concluding remarks.

2. Classification and Lifecycle of IT Services

IT service is the service of planning, developing and operating computer-based systems for service

clients. Table 1 shows a taxonomy of IT services. Each cell in the matrix is called an IT service line which is a collection of service activities that pro- duce a package of IT deliverables. Each service line can be further classified along various dimensions such as the target market segment, business domain, delivery mode, technology used, etc. For example, a subclass of the Application Implementation service line can be the implementation of a packaged application for supply chain management in electronics industry. IT service providers should create value for ser- vice clients. The IT service provider may be internal or external to the organization where the client be- longs. The service provider should study, understand and even develop service opportunities for the client to innovate and improve its business exploiting IT. Once service opportunities are identified, the provider should make sure that it has the capability to successfully provide IT services for realizing those opportunities. If the clients demand exists and the providers capability is prepared, the latter will pro- pose and try to reach an agreement to deliver the service at some cost to the client. As such, IT ser- vice goes through a lifecycle of service demand, service

engineering, and service engagement as shown in

Table 1 Sample Taxonomy of IT Services

Architecting & Planning

Implementation

Operation

Business Model

Application

User Interface

Process

Data

Technical

Infrastructure

Middleware

System Software

Hardware

Network

Management of IT Service

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Middleware System Software Hardware Network Management of IT Service 8 2008. 2. 정보과학회지 제 26 권

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Figure 1 IT Service Lifecycle Figure 1. The terms marketing and sales in paren- theses

Figure 1 IT Service Lifecycle

Figure 1. The terms marketing and sales in paren- theses are more appropriate in case of external service providers. IT service engineering is to prepare the provider with the service capability to successfully deliver the IT service. It includes such activities as stipulating a standard process of service engagement(from sales through delivery), developing methodology guidelines for tasks carried out along the process, harvesting and generalizing artifacts produced from engagements to accumulate reusable assets, and educating service professionals to obtain proper levels of competencies for performing required tasks and turning the out- puts into assets. A service engagement for a client requires a ser- vice agreement or contract. It often requires several service lines to be delivered in combination. For example, an external service provider may conduct a system integration project for a client within a pre- determined budget and time duration, where it develops an application along with supporting technical infra- structure. A service engagement hence requires a

team of professionals with different competencies for different service activities for different service lines. Whenever there are gaps between competencies re- quired for service engagements and those already possessed by service professionals, the service pro- vider will need education of internal people or recruit- ment of people from outside. In short, education is a part of service engineering to prepare sufficient competencies for intended service engagements.

3. Architectural Model of IT Service Business

An architecture of IT service business is shown in Figure 2 which shows important service objects in each service function and relationships among those objects.

For a service opportunity and the ensuing service engagement, appropriate engagement processes are

selected depending on the set of service lines involved in the engagement. An engagement process for a service line usually goes through multiple phases. The process defines IT artifacts to be produced in each phase and the service activities required to

in each phase and the service activities required to Figure 2 Sample Architectural Model of IT

Figure 2 Sample Architectural Model of IT Service Business

A Framework for Education Engineering for IT Service

to Figure 2 Sample Architectural Model of IT Service Business A Framework for Education Engineering for

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produce those artifacts. IT service disciplines(such as component-based software engineering, project management, configuration management, etc.) are applied to specify methodologies for carrying out those service activities in the engagement process. A standard process is essential for IT service en- gagements because it is that process which assigns professional jobs and roles to activities performed for different service lines. Professionals having a specific job and playing specific roles should be edu- cated to possess sufficient competencies for the pro- cess activities they are assigned to perform. Com- petency comprises the fundamental knowledge of rele- vant disciplines, the skills of applying the knowledge at work, and the process ability to execute standard processes and methodologies[3]. Figure 2 demonstrates complex and intimate relation- ships between education and other service objects(such as service line, discipline, process, methodology, com- petency, job and role, etc.), and how education can systematically contribute to the value created for clients through engagements. To summarize, standard engage- ment processes and methodologies provide guidelines as to who(which jobs and roles) should perform what activities in order to create and deliver required artifacts to the client. Knowing the competencies re- quired to perform those activities, one can recognize a gap between demanded and currently available types and amounts of those competencies. This gap can be filled by education programs.

4. Resource Planning for IT Service Business

4.1 Resource Planning Model

The question arises as to how a service provider can always keep the minimum required number of pro- fessionals who together have the right mix of com- petencies to deliver valuable services in all intended service engagements for clients. This question is

generally about resource planning for IT services. This

is a critically important management function for any service provider yet without many established best practices. It is contrasting that MRP, MRP II, ERP and extended ERP have evolved and reached a matured level for the manufacturing industry, but that corres- ponding disciplines have not been developed to a com- parable maturity level for the IT service industry[2]. Resources used by an IT service provider in ser- vice engagements include people, computing facilities (such as desktop, mobile devices, servers, storages, system software, middleware, etc.), and intellectual properties(such as standard delivery process, applica- tion development methodologies, reusable software frameworks, etc.). IT service providers usually pur- chase computing facilities from hardware and software product vendors, while utilizing their own people and intellectual properties in delivering the services. The more reusable intellectual properties they have, the more cost, speed and quality of the services will improve. Therefore, an important business strategy for an external IT service provider is to make the transition from labor-based services to asset-based services where effort and cost of professionals engaged are saved due to the reuse of pre-built intellectual properties. Figure 3 integrates resource management functions such as resource planning, acquisition and allocation into the IT service lifecycle shown in Figure 1.

allocation into the IT service lifecycle shown in Figure 1. Figure 3 Resource Planning Model for

Figure 3 Resource Planning Model for IT Services

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shown in Figure 1. Figure 3 Resource Planning Model for IT Services 10 2008. 2. 정보과학회지

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Figure 4 Resource Planning Process for IT Services As shown in Figure 3, types and

Figure 4 Resource Planning Process for IT Services

As shown in Figure 3, types and volumes of resources required for delivering valuable IT services to target clients must be planned based on the demand for services anticipated for the planning period. Long and mid term resource planning is necessary because it often takes more than a year to develop and roll out IT service resources such as a standard engagement process, IT engineering methodologies and competencies, and reusable IP assets. Short term resource planning is equally important to fill the gap between required and possessed capabilities caused by the fluctuation of demands for different service lines. Given available resources, their allocation needs to be optimized over the pipeline of engagement oppor- tunities and the existing portfolio of engagement commitments. The education to prepare professionals with required competencies should therefore be planned for varying time framesanywhere from a month to prepare for an upcoming engagement project to a 2- year period to ride a new wave of technology trends.

4.2 Resource Planning Process

A systematic process for planning resources for IT services is suggested in Figure 4. This process can be applied for an individual service opportunity(and the ensuing engagement), or at an aggregate level, viz. at the level of service line or at the level of the entire services of a service provider. Required resources are identified based on the solu- tion architecture(see Figure 2). Designed for a service opportunity or a service line, this architecture spe- cifies high-granule IT artifacts that should be created and delivered to the client. Figure 5 presents an example of solution architecture. Given the solution architecture, one can develop a

work breakdown structure(WBS) which shows what

develop a work breakdown structure (WBS) which shows what Figure 5 Sample Solution Architecture for Application

Figure 5 Sample Solution Architecture for Application Implementation Service Line

activities should be performed in each phase of the engagement process to create each component in the solution architecture and to manage engagement services. Table 2 shows a sample WBS. Given the WBS, a bill of resources exhibited in Table 3 can be developed that determines the resources needed to successfully perform every activity in the WBS. For example, to perform the WBS in Table 2, one needs to implement BPM, which requires such resources as: a BPM product to purchase; process modelers with knowledge of the business domain, pro- cess modeling notation(such as BPMN) and methodo- logy; skills to execute the process using a standard tool(such as BPEL), a process reference model perti- nent for the target domain, etc. The solution architecture, work breakdown structure, and the bill of resources are important tools for re- source planning for IT services which should always include educational planning. For each type of re- source required in the bill of resources, its demand is estimated for different planning horizons and the gap between the demand and the current inventory is

A Framework for Education Engineering for IT Service

and the gap between the demand and the current inventory is A Framework for Education Engineering

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Table 2 Sample Work Breakdown Structure

   

Engagement Process

 

Sales Process

 

Delivery Process

 
 

Solution

     

Project

Requirement Development

Architecture Design

 

Construction

System

Conversion

 

Components

Launch

Test

           

Requirement Elicita-

         

Business

tion and Analysis

 

To

Application

Business Service Identi- fication

Build

Application Archi-

         

tecture Design

   

Relational

Business Vocabulary

Data Architecture

Database

     

Business Semantics Model

Design

 

Multi-Channel

   

Channel Reqt Analysis

Technical Archi-

 

Gateway

Package Gap Analysis

tecture Design

To

Business

     

Business Event and Process Model

Reuable Assets Analysis Devt Standards and Templates Implementation Architecture

Design and Test

   

Buy

Process

Management

……

         

Technical

Infrastructure

   

Current Infrastructure and Interoperability Analysis

Non-Functional Reqt Analysis Architectural Strategy

 

       

Project Planning and Tracking

 
 

Project

 

Requirement Management

 
 

Management

Configuration Management Product and Process Quality Assurance

 

Table 3: A Sample Bill of Resources

 
   

Engagement Process for Transformation Service

 

Human

 

Edu-cation

Reusable

Solution

Resource

 

Competency

 

Course

Asset

Component

 

Phase

   

Activity

 

Job

Role

Discipline

Metho-dology

Tool

   
       

Reqt

   

Reqt

Use Case

Reqt Eng.

 

Analysis

System

Analyst

System

Analysis

Engineering

Modeling

Business

Reqt Devt

 

Business

Service

Service-

Oriented

Component

Service-

Oriented

Reference

Model

Indentifn

   

Archi-tecture

Business Model

Archi-tecture

Business

   

Application

     

Software

 

Software

Application

Application

Architecture

Architecture

IT

Architect

App.

Architecture

Software

Archi-tecture

Architecture

Architecture

Reference

Design

   

Design

Design

Design

Architecture

   

             
 

Construction

 

             
 

 

             
 

                   
       

Business

   

Business

Business Process

   

Process

Reqt Devt

 

System

Process

Business

 

Process

Analyst

Modeling

Process

Modeling

Process Mgmt

Reference

Business

 

Modeling

Management

Notation

Model

Process

     

Business

             

Management

Construction

Process

System

Package

Execution

Designer

Impln

 

               

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measured to develop resource acquisition plans. Service engineering is then invoked to acquire necessary resources. In the next section, we look into education engineering which is a part of service engineering.

5. Education Engineering for IT Services

5.1 Curriculum Design

In Section 4 we have seen that education must be planned as part of resource planning. It should start from forecasting and analyzing the opportunities of IT service engagements for all clients. The collection of solution architectures for all identified opportunities allows enumeration of high-level artifacts that should be created and delivered. Through the construction of the work breakdown structure and the bill of re- sources and an analysis of resource gaps, we can de- termine competencies of different jobs and roles to be developed through education. Education builds required competences which consist of the knowledge of relevant disciplines, skills to apply them at work and the ability to execute standard engagement processes and methodologies. In order to design the high-level curriculum, we can map IT service disciplines to the IT service taxonomy matrix in Table 1. Table 4 shows an example of this mapp- ing. In Table 4 Enterprise Architecture(EA) is a re- cently prevailing, very comprehensive discipline that spans all the rows in the Architecting & Planning column. Service-Oriented Architecture(SOA) is another recently growing discipline that addresses the inter- section of the Application Process row and both Ar- chitecting & Planning and Implementation columns. Information Technology Infrastructure Library(ITIL) is a widely adopted best practice for Management of

IT Service for Operation, while Capability Maturity Model Integration(CMMI) is the same for Manage- ment of IT Service for Implementation. Like the service line classification, IT service disciplines can be classified into many hierarchical levels. An example of a narrowly defined discipline can be the service- oriented development of a Java application for billing systems for mobile telecommunication services. Although the service line-discipline mapping can provide a blueprint of what subject areas to cover in the curriculum, it is difficult to select an optimal set of disciplines to teach among a vast number of IT service disciplines given target clients and limited resources. New and better IT service disciplines evolve rather fast. It has to be determined when to introduce an emerging discipline into the curriculum. The re- source planning model and process discussed in Section 4 provides a systematic and holistic approach to make such decisions on the composition of a detailed curri- culum. Given the curriculum designed, courses are developed that are delivered in class or online. Various Web communication technologies should be utilized for online coursesvideo, audio and documents played in sync as well as Web 2.0 style communication and collabo- ration. For both in-class and online courses, complete and detailed reference materials must be provided such as text books, reference manuals, journal articles, Web references, etc.

5.2 Education Management

The quality of course materials and instructors are critical success factors for IT service education. World- class materials and instructors should be employed

Table 2 Sample Mapping of IT Service Disciplines to the Taxonomy of IT Services

Architecting & Planning Implementation Operation Business Model EA BPM UI Web 2.0 App. Process SOA
Architecting & Planning
Implementation
Operation
Business Model
EA
BPM
UI
Web 2.0
App.
Process
SOA
CBD,
SODA
Data
Metadata Mgmt
TDD,
MDD
Middleware
ESB
System SW
Grid Computing
Tech. Infra.
Hardware
Network
Network Design
Mgmt of IT Service
CMMI
ITIL
A Framework for Education Engineering for IT Service
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Figure 5 Information Systems Architecture for IT Service Providers although they may be costly. It

Figure 5 Information Systems Architecture for IT Service Providers

although they may be costly. It can help reduce the cost if one takes the train-the-trainers approach. In this approach the best-selected professionals are trained in world-class education programs. These in turn provide training and mentoring for other peer professionals. They should also be encouraged to generate intellectual properties from their own work, which are provided as reusable best practices to other professionals. In addition to explicit knowledge learned individually from in-class and online courses, tacit knowledge mutually learned inside formal groups such as centers of competency and informal groups such as commu- nities of practice is essential to build effective com-

petency[5].

Figure 5 shows an information systems architecture for IT service providers that can facilitate organiza- tional learning. The architecture suggests that explicit knowledge such as methodology components, learning objects and reusable artifacts are made available as process con- tent, leaning content and ad hoc search content from a common repository. The architecture also supports collaborative teamwork along formal business pro- cesses as well as via informal communications. Education and human resource management must be tightly linked. The education program should provide certification of competencies for different jobs, roles and ranks. Certification may require passing the exit test of required courses as well as passing inspec- tion by subject matter experts of actual artifacts the trainee produced in engagements. Another important thing to watch out for is if the trainee is repeatedly assigned the tasks for which education was pro- vided, so that explicit knowledge gained through train-

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vided, so that explicit knowledge gained through train- 14 2008. 2. 정보과학회지 제 26 권 제

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ing be internalized to tacit knowledge through repeated learning by doing.

5.3 Economics of Education

A successful IT service provider should maintain that the value created for the client through a service engagement is greater than the price(or the charge- back in case of internal service providers) paid by the client, which in turn is greater than the cost of resources directly and indirectly used by the pro- vider. Table 5 shows a sample financial model for external IT service providers[4]. Out of the revenue created from service deliveries, direct cost(including labor cost, cost of computing facilities and software purchased, cost of subcontracted services and other expenses) accounts for 67% genera- ting a gross margin of 33%. The gross margin covers service marketing, service sales, service engineering expenditures, the cost of unutilized labor, and general and administrative expenses, leaving the remaining 15% of operating profit. Education, as a part of service engineering, is costly because it lowers labor utilization in addition to incurring expenses. The contribution of education to profit should be greater than the investment in education. It should contribute to increasing the

Table 5 A Sample Financial Model for External IT Ser- vice Providers

Revenue

100%

Direct Cost of Service Delivery

67%

Gross Margin

33%

Cost of Service Marketing & Sales

8%

Cost of Service Engineering

2%

Cost of Unutilized Labor plus G&A

8%

Operating Profit

15%

revenuethrough enabling delivery of new service lines to create new sources of revenue; through innovating and differentiating services from competitors thus raising the price of services; and by addressing increased demand for existing service lines to main- tain the market share. It should also reduce the cost of sales and delivery by improving the knowledge, skill, productivity of professionals and decreasing the cost of quality that includes prevention cost, appraisal cost, and internal and external failure costs[1]. On the contrary, if investment in education is limited to an insufficient level to raise the operating profit in the short run, competencies of professionals will erode quickly resulting in declines of market share, service prices and eventually profit.

6. Conclusion

We have discussed a systematic and holistic approach to engineering education programs for IT services. This approach is characterized as market driven, ar- chitecture based, process centric and asset oriented. Education planning has to be market driven for the investment in education to have high returns. It has to be architecture based so as to allow an analysis of the bill of resources to be performed on detailed solution artifacts and hence to allow a selection of low-granule subjects to cover in the education curri- culum. It needs to be process centric so that relevant subjects are taught for different jobs and roles, who are supposed to perform those process activities calling for competencies gained from the learned subjects. It should be asset oriented, meaning that education should enable professionals to harvest reusable intellectual assets from their engagements, which in turn are used for cost saving in future engagements and as learning materials for future employees.

Although the framework for education engineering suggested in this paper was illustrated for individual IT service providers, its basic structure and mecha- nism can be applied to workforce planning and edu- cational planning at the national level.

References

[1] Jack Campanella, Principles of Quality Costs, ASQ Quality Press, 1999. [2] Henry Chesbrough and Jim Spohrer, Service Science, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 48, Issue 7(July

2006).

[3] Bill Curtis, William E. Hefley, Sally A. Miller, The People Capability Maturity Model, Addison Wesley,

2002.

[4] Thomas E. Lah, Mastering Professional Services,

2005.

[5] William L. Miller and Langdon Morris, Fourth

Generation R&D, Wiley, 1999.

and Langdon Morris, Fourth Generation R&D, Wiley, 1999. 박준성 Dr. Park is Executive Vice President and

박준성

Dr. Park is Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer leading IT service engineering and innovation at Samsung SDS. Prior to joining SDS in 2001, he was a tenured associate professor of Information Systems in the Henry B. Tippie College of Business in The University of Iowa. He obtained Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary: Computer Science and Industrial Engineering from The Ohio State University in 1988. He has published numerous articles in edited books, professional magazines and leading academic journals such as Management Science, INFORMS Journal on Computing, Telecommunication Systems, Information Systems, Information Technology and Management, International Journal of Technology Management, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, European Journal of Operational Research, Journal of Heuristics, Location Science, etc. E-mail : june.park@samsung.com

A Framework for Education Engineering for IT Service

Heuristics, Location Science, etc. E-mail : june.park@samsung.com A Framework for Education Engineering for IT Service 15

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