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Density Lab

BY JARED FISCHLER

PARTNER: ANTHONY RIBAS

11/29/2011

PURPOSE: TO DETERMINE AND GRAPH THE DENSITY OF VARIOUS LIQUIDS (WATER AND GLYCERIN) AND SOLIDS (GLASS MARBLES AND RUBBER STOPPERS) USING LAB PROCEDURES DEVELOPED BY OUR LAB GROUPS.

MATERIALS
LIQUIDS: 1. 50ML GRADUATED CYLINDER 2. SAFETY GOGGLES 3. APRONS 4. CENTIGRAM (TRIPLE BEAM) BALANCE 5. WATER, GLYCERYN (PROVIDED BY TEACHER) SOLIDS: 1. 50ML GRADUATED CYLINDER 2. WATER 3. CENTIGRAM (TRIPLE BEAM) BALANCE 4. 5 MARBLES 5. 5 RUBBER STOPPERS

PROCEDURES
LIQUIDS
1. Gather materials, put on safety gear, and set up data tables 2. Weigh the graduated cylinder on the triple beam balance and record mass to the thousandths of a gram. This will be the mass you subtract from the total mass of the graduated cylinder + the substance throughout the experiment. 3. Add about 10mL of the substance (either water or glycerin) to the graduated cylinder (measure to the tenths). 4. Weigh the 50mL graduated cylinder with the substance (water or glycerin) in it on the triple beam balance and record the mass to the thousandths of a gram. 5. Use the equation to find the mass of the substance: Mass of a substance = mass of the graduated cylinder with the substance the mass of the beaker without any substance in it at all. 6. Using the amount of substance used in step 3 as the volume, and using the mass found in step 5 as the mass, use: Density = mass divided by volume to find the density of the substance. 7. Repeat steps 3-6 for about 15mL, about 20 mL, about 25mL, and about 30mL of the substance. 8. Find the relative error of your experiment by using: Relative Error = Absolute value of your range of the density (largest smallest) divided by your average density x 100%. 9. Repeat steps 2-8 for each type of substance (water and glycerin)
10.

Clean-up materials and lab area.

SOLIDS
1. Gather materials, put on safety gear, and set up data tables. 2. Add about 30mL of water to the 50mL graduated cylinder (measure to the tenths). 3. Measure the mass of solid of choice to .001g 4. Add one solid (Marble or Rubber stopper) into the graduated cylinder and record change in volume to .01mL 5. Place that solid (either a marble or a rubber stopper) into the graduated cylinder and record the change in volume to the tenths. 6. Using the change in volume found in step 5 as the volume, and using the mass found in step 4 as the mass, use: Density = mass divided by volume to find the density of the solid. Record data. 7. Repeat steps 4-6 for 5 different solids of each type (marbles and rubber stoppers) 8. Clean-up materials and lab area.

DATA
WATER
Trial 1 Mass (In Beaker) Final Mass (Subtracted from beaker mass: 47.891g) Volume Density 65.607g Trial 2 73.868g Trial 3 76.151g Trial 4 88.739g Trial 5 97.569g

17.716g

25.977g

28.260g

40.850g

49.678g

17.3ml 1.01g/ml

25.9ml 1.00g/ml

27.9ml 1.01g/ml

40.2ml 1.01g/ml

49.1ml 1.01g/ml

RELATIVE ERROR= (.02/1.01)*100=1.98%

GLYCERIN
Trial 1 Mass (In Beaker) Final Mass (Subtracted from beaker mass: 64.177) Volume Density 77.710g Trial 2 81.287g Trial 3 85.550g Trial 4 89.560g Trial 5 95.790g 83.240g 86.647g 25.0g 15.2g 18.1g 25.0 15.2ml 18.1ml 1.26ml 1.25ml 1.24ml

13.53g

17.11g

21.43g

25.38g

11.0ml 1.23ml

14.0ml 1.22ml

17.4ml 1.23ml

20.8 1.24ml

RELATIVE ERROR= (.04/1.23)*100=3.25% (.03/1.23)*100=2.43% (.02/1.23)*100=1.6% SOLIDS


Marble 1 Mass Volume of water Volume with solid Final Volume Density Marble 2 Marble 3 Marble 4 Marble 5 Stopper 1 Stopper 2 Stopper 3 Stopper 4 Stopper 5

5.159g

5.192g

5.542g

8.649g

5.469g

2.338g

2.339g 36.8ml

4.191g 38.4ml

4.350g 41.8ml

4.432g 45.1ml

30.5ml 32.8ml 34.5ml 36.6ml 42.6ml 34.6ml

32.8ml 34.5ml 36.6ml 40.1ml 44.8ml 36.8ml 2.3ml 2.2g/ ml 1.7ml 3.1g/ ml 2.1ml 2.6 g/ml 3.5ml 2.5 g/ml 2.2ml 2.5 g/ml 2.2ml 1.1 g/ml

38.4ml 1.6ml 1.5 g/ml

41.ml 3.4ml 1.2 g/ml

45.1ml 3.3ml 1.3 g/ml

48.8ml 3.7ml 1.2 g/ml

CALCULATIONS & RESULTS


1. THE SLOPE TELLS US THE AVERAGE DENSITY SLOPE SOLIDS
1. Marbles, slope = 2 2. Stoppers, slope=1.01

SLOPE LIQUIDS
1. Water, slope = 1 2. Glycerin, slope = 1.07

2. a. Liquids, my discarded values were relatively close to the line, but clearly incorrect. After drawing my line of best fit, I would have known to discard those two values. b. Solids, I did not have any discarded values in my experimentation with solids.

CONCLUSIONS
1. I found the slope using two points from the line of best fit, because it is based off the averages of my numbers. However, it ignores the values that are suspect and are most likely incorrect. This way I get the most accurate number when calculating the average density (slope) 2. Values obtained from the slopes of the line rather than individual values will be more accurate because the line of best fit takes into account all values. This gives us the slope of the average of all of our trials rather than one specific one which may be a little off. 3. The property of water that I have represented in my graphs is Density. The accepted value of this is 1. 4. Compared to the accepted value I had 0% error 5. All the sets of data do not fall directly onto my lines because each trial will differ because of errors we make, which is why we do multiple trials, to ensure the most accurate conclusion. Sources of error included calculation errors, errors due to misreading graduated cylinder (perhaps due to water droplets sticking to the side), and errors due to misreading the triple beam balance.