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Biochemistry Summary Hannah Subgrunski p. 4 11-19-11 In this unit, we studied biochemistry.

Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life processes. We learned that plants and animals depend on each other for their own survival, and the formulas for photosynthesis and respiration, as follows. Photosynthesis: CO + H O = C H O + O . Respiration for animals: C H O + O = CO + H O. The chemical processes that cycle energy from the sun through living things are photosynthesis, which is performed by plants, and cellular respiration, which is performed by both. Cellular respiration is when an organism takes in one substance, and releases what they dont need. A plant takes in carbon dioxide through the stomata, and releases oxygen. An animal takes in oxygen and it circulates through the bloodstream, and lets out carbon dioxide, which is then used by plants The cycle will (hopefully) last for eternity. Plants have leaves, which are typically flat and wide to capture as much sunlight as possible. Within the leaf, right underneath the epidermis, are the palisade cells. These cells do the majority of photosynthesis because a) they have the most chloroplasts, and b) they are right at the top, where the light would be strongest. In animals, food is only usednot made. Digestion takes energy from food and is absorbed into the bloodstream to be circulated around the body by the heart. Plants and animals both perform respiration, but only animals digest. Plants use water to make food in chloroplasts. They use sun energy to split the molecules of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen and carbon dioxide atoms combine into glucose, and the oxygen is released as a waste product. They cannot get pure hydrogen naturally, so this is the most practical system available to them. Animals use water to keep themselves hydrated and functioning- the plasma in blood is mostly water. Plants and animals need each other because one organisms waste products are the other organisms life support. Please see the diagram below.

In plants, there are organelles (tiny organs that make up and work in a cell) called chloroplasts. Theyre like the kitchens of the cells. In said chloroplasts, there is a substance called chlorophyll, which is a green pigment that harnesses the suns energy to

make glucose. Glucose is made of carbon dioxide and water, put together by solar energy. The carbon dioxide is taken in through the stomata, where it will mingle with the spongy mesophyll until needed. Tiny root hairs on roots take in water. When the plant makes the glucose, it stores it as starch so the sugar doesnt get washed away when the rain falls. When animals come along and eat the plants, they use the energy stored in the starch. Water is diffused into the microscopic root hairs. Its also called osmosis. The water molecules want to move to where they are scarce into the hairs. The sap gets up the tree by root pressure, where osmotic pressure in the roots makes the sap zip up through the xylem. The raw product of photosynthesis is glucose, a simple sugar. Its stored as starch so the rain doesnt wash it away. In animals, the sugar from the food they eat enters through the villi in the small intestine to enter the bloodstream. Oxygen enters the bloodstream through the alveoli in the lungs. The heart pumps the blood around the body for circulation and full-motion abilities. In this unit, we learned how photosynthesis works, that both plants and animals do respiration, but in the opposite order of each other, the various structures and functions, and the chemical formulas for photosynthesis and respiration.