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Joint Annual Conference of I.A.S., ISPQS, IHCS

Economic Organizations of Gupta Period and its Role in Social Empowerment

Dr. Ankit Agarwal

In the Beginning of Human Life

Livelihood & Survival

Need

In the Beginning of Human Life Livelihood & Survival Need Human as a Food Gatherer Need

Human as a Food Gatherer

Need

Human

unity

Roaming in

Roaming in

Protection from wild animals

Effects

Roaming in Roaming in Protection from wild animals Effects Efforts groups groups Effects Population increase Need

Efforts

in Roaming in Protection from wild animals Effects Efforts groups groups Effects Population increase Need fulfill

groups

groups

Effects

Population

increase

Need fulfill

Effects

from wild animals Effects Efforts groups groups Effects Population increase Need fulfill Effects Effects Need increase

Effects

Need increase

First Revolution In Human Life

AchieveAchieve yieldyield forfor survivalsurvival

HumanHuman asas aa FoodFood ProducerProducer

Need Efforts
Need
Efforts
HumanHuman asas aa FoodFood ProducerProducer Need Efforts TechnicalTechnical developmentdevelopment MaximumMaximum
HumanHuman asas aa FoodFood ProducerProducer Need Efforts TechnicalTechnical developmentdevelopment MaximumMaximum

TechnicalTechnical

developmentdevelopment

MaximumMaximum utilizationutilization ofof labourlabour

Effects

utilizationutilization ofof labourlabour Effects Fulfillment of basic human needs HumanHuman
utilizationutilization ofof labourlabour Effects Fulfillment of basic human needs HumanHuman

Fulfillment of basic human needs

HumanHuman organizedorganized onon thethe basisbasis ofof economiceconomic reasonreason

SurplusSurplus productionproduction

Origin Of Economic Organization

SurplusSurplus productionproduction

Efforts

Organization SurplusSurplus productionproduction Efforts Arranged and Organized these activities Development of

Arranged and Organized these activities

Development of Trade, Industry & Craft

Need

Efforts

Development of economic organization

Need

Trade of Indus Civilization

Development Of Economic Organizations :In the Primary Stage

Fulfillment of economic need

of society:In the Primary Stage Fulfillment of economic need Increase commercial activities Civilization Need of Skilled

Increase

commercial

activities

of economic need of society Increase commercial activities Civilization Need of Skilled Labour Efforts Reputation
of economic need of society Increase commercial activities Civilization Need of Skilled Labour Efforts Reputation

Civilization

Need of Skilled Labour

Efforts

Reputation

increase

Vedic & Later

Vedic period

Need

Need of Skilled Labour Efforts Reputation increase Vedic & Later Vedic period Need Efforts Professional Education

Efforts

Professional

Education

Indus

Need

Efforts

Development Of Economic Organizations: In the Secondary Stage

600-300

B.C.

IInd Revolution based on Utilization of Metal

monetary

management

Need

Need

based on Utilization of Metal monetary management Need Need Efforts Establishment of commercial activities Efects G
based on Utilization of Metal monetary management Need Need Efforts Establishment of commercial activities Efects G

Efforts

Establishment of commercial activities

Need Need Efforts Establishment of commercial activities Efects G o o d w i l l
Need Need Efforts Establishment of commercial activities Efects G o o d w i l l

Efects

Goodwill increase

Controlling position of business activities

Development Of Economic Organizations

Attach with Military activitiesDevelopment Of Economic Organizations Attach with Administrative work Maurya Period Post Maurya Period Attach with

Attach with Administrative workOf Economic Organizations Attach with Military activities Maurya Period Post Maurya Period Attach with Judicial work

with Military activities Attach with Administrative work Maurya Period Post Maurya Period Attach with Judicial work
with Military activities Attach with Administrative work Maurya Period Post Maurya Period Attach with Judicial work

Maurya

Period

activities Attach with Administrative work Maurya Period Post Maurya Period Attach with Judicial work Goodwill

Post Maurya Period

Attach with Judicial work

activities Attach with Administrative work Maurya Period Post Maurya Period Attach with Judicial work Goodwill Increase

Goodwill

Increase

Development of these Activities before the Gupta Period

Development of these Activities before the Gupta Period 600 B.C. 300 B.C. 100 B.C. 300 A.D.

600 B.C.

of these Activities before the Gupta Period 600 B.C. 300 B.C. 100 B.C. 300 A.D. Commercial

300 B.C.

100 B.C.

before the Gupta Period 600 B.C. 300 B.C. 100 B.C. 300 A.D. Commercial activities Development Period
before the Gupta Period 600 B.C. 300 B.C. 100 B.C. 300 A.D. Commercial activities Development Period

300 A.D.

Commercial

activities

Development

Period

Establish

Period

Establish

Period

Establish

Period Establish Period Establish
Period
Establish
Period
Establish

Administrati-

Development

Period

Establish

Period

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-ve activities

Military

Development

Development

Establish

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

activities

Judicial

activities

Development

Period

Establish Period
Establish
Period

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Period

Period

Period

Period

Types Of Economic Organization In Gupta Period

1. Sreni (Guild)

Different social background of members

Created to achieve economic goals

Related to same trade or production of specific commodity or craft like Guild of Jewelers, Guild of wine growers, Guild of Handcrafters etc.

Types Of Economic Organization In Gupta Period

2. Nigam

Same region

Same level of traders like retailer, wholesaler etc.

Created to solve the business related problems

Types Of Economic Organization In Gupta Period

3. Kulik

Organization of producer of same commodity like sugar Industry, Textile etc.

4. Sarth

Related to distance trade Probably organized on the basis of trade area

Economic Organization : Expansion

Vertically Expansion

Kalidass mentioned guilds of architects

Description of Jambu-Dvip Pragyapti about 18 types of guilds

Well-known Historian like Altekar & Block accept vertical expansion of such organization

Horizontal expansion

Description of Mahavastu about many different guilds of Kapilvastu like Pravarik (Seller of sheets), Sidhukarak (Distiller), Maniyar (jewellers)

Economic Organization : Working

Independent and free hold in own field

These were working jointly according to need

Joint seals of Nigam and Kulik from Bhita

Joint seals of sreni, Kulik and Nigam from Basarh

Economic Organization :Joint Working

Samrajya Sarth Sreni Kulik Nigam (Country) Pranta Sreni Kulik Nigam Sarth (State) Aahar / Visay
Samrajya
Sarth
Sreni
Kulik
Nigam
(Country)
Pranta
Sreni
Kulik
Nigam
Sarth
(State)
Aahar /
Visay
(District)
Sreni
Kulik
Nigam
Sarth
City /
Town /
Sreni
Kulik
Nigam
Sarth
village

Inner Structure of Economic Organization

Development on

Democratic

base

Economic Organization Development on Democratic b a s e Democratic approach Own Independent Constitution State would

Democratic approach

Own Independent Constitution

b a s e Democratic approach Own Independent Constitution State would respect that Specific Flag &

State would respect that

Specific Flag & Office

Economic source of organizations

DonationSpecific Flag & Office Economic source of organizations Interest of money Penalty (members) Benefit received from

Flag & Office Economic source of organizations Donation Interest of money Penalty (members) Benefit received from
Flag & Office Economic source of organizations Donation Interest of money Penalty (members) Benefit received from

Interest of moneySpecific Flag & Office Economic source of organizations Donation Penalty (members) Benefit received from social work

Penalty (members)Specific Flag & Office Economic source of organizations Donation Interest of money Benefit received from social

Benefit received from social workrespect that Specific Flag & Office Economic source of organizations Donation Interest of money Penalty (members)

Inner Structure of Economic Organization

President

Elected on the basis of merits and demerits between the members of organization

Karya-chintak

Working as a assistant of President

Working for community welfare were

their responsibility

Person who was not child, old, miser, voluptuary were not eligible

Inner Structure of Economic Organization

Members

Person, who was responsible, honest,

competent, religious and knower of the Vedas- as per Brahaspati smrti

Follow the constitution and rules of organization

Individually & collectively responsible for capital investment, social and religious works, profit & losses, donation on the basis of mutual agreement

Relation with Monarchy

Such organizations received authorization letter from the monarchy.

The set parameters by the monarchy and society can not overruled by such organizations

These organizations should not work

against the monarchy and fulfill their responsibility for the same

Relation with Monarchy

Responsibility of Kings

Execution of

economic organization

In case of fraud and breach of contract against such organization to be punished by monarchy

punishment passed by

Protection of these secrets

Relation with Monarchy

Rights of King

If these organizations were not give

taxes properly, King had right to collect 8 times penalty

Inspection and Supervision of such organization

Power to impose penalty of any

irregularities of such organizations

Commercial Activities

Running Trade & Industry

Manufacturing of daily usage product

Production integration

Price & Quality assessment

Distribution & Marketing of product

Professional Education

Work as a banker

Work as a Trusty

Earning Foreign Wealth

Other Activities

Social Activities

Construction of Infra-Structure like road, garden, halls, pond, canal etc. Arrange the marriages of poor peoples

Moral advancement of society

Religious Activities

Publicity Of religious view

Establish the religious theory in society

Construction of Mythological places

Administrative Work Members of such organization were administrator of major cities in Gupta period

Other Activities

Military Work Maintain a army Used their army in the state interest in adverse time Judicial Work Economic organizations were included in gradation of courts – Brihaspati Smrti Economic organizations stand second position in four type of courts –Narad Smrti

THANK YOU