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VALVE SIZING USING KIMSIZE

This Bulletin will walk you through the sizing procedures for calculating the capacity or required flow coefficient for Kimray Control Valves and Regulators. Instructions are also provided for determining the correct glycol circulation rate for gas dehydration. Instructions are provided for: Gas Capacity Calculation Simple Liquid Capacity Calculation Expanded Liquid Capacity Calculation for Volatile Fluids Steam Capacity Calculations Glycol Pump Sizing Generating and Printing Reports from these Calculations Adding Printed Formulas to the Reports In all of the valve and regulator calculations you will be dealing with two essential variables which are used to completely describe the flow characteristics of any given Kimray Control Valve or Regulator. Flow Coefficient: Cv Cv has been is use since 1944 and is widely accepted as the universal measurement tool for expressing valve capacity. By definition the valve flow coefficient, Cv, is the number of gallons per minute of water which will pass through a given flow restriction with a pressure drop of 1 psi. For example, a valve with a maximum Cv of 10 would pass 10 gallons of water per minute with a pressure differential of 1 psi. The relationship is such that a valve with a Cv of 2 would have twice the capacity as a valve with a Cv of 1. Critical Flow Factor: Cf The critical flow factor is a dimensionless expression of the pressure recovery ratio in a valve. In simpler terms, the Cf value allows us to compensate for the fact that at a given fixed upstream pressure, the volume of fluid passing through a control valve will increase as the downstream pressure decreasesto a point. Beyond this point, further decreases in the downstream pressure will not increase the flow rate. A flow rate through a valve with a higher Cf value will continue to increase at greater pressure drop than the flow through a valve with a low Cf value.

Valve Sizing with an Unknown Cf value Some families of Kimray valves have the same or nearly the same Cf value throughout a size range of valves, while the Cf will vary widely throughout another family of valves. Dealing with valves with a narrow range of Cf values is simple, but when calculating capacity in valves with a wide range of Cf values, it is best to assume a number in the middle of the range and begin calculations. Cf values in Kimray valves range from .55 to .94. Because a large number of Kimray valves have a Cf of .75 and because that number is in the middle of the full range of Cf values, we recommend using .75 as the value when you are solving for the Cv in order to determine the size of valve or valve trim to use. Once the approximate Cv is determined, you can go back to the tables and enter the correct Cf value for the size of valve required. This will allow you to solve for the exact maximum capacity. Now, lets go to Kimsize and try it out. 1

GAS CAPACITY CALCULATION Go to the opening screen.

Select Gas Sizing.

Notice in the lower section of the screen that there are three options for calculating: Calculate Flow Rate: This will be used when the valve has already been selected, and you need to know its maximum capacity. For this calculation a value for Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Flow Rate (Q). Calculate Valve Coefficient: This will be used when the desired flow rate is known, and you are now trying to determine what size valve or valve trim to use. For this calculation a value for Flow Rate (Q) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) Lookup CV: This will be used to determine the (Cf) and (Cv) of the valve you choose. Hitting this tab will bring up a complete listing of every valves (Cf) and (Cv) values. If you know the valve you want, simply click the checkmark beside it and it will automatically be put into the formula.

Look up CV and CF

After the appropriate valve has been selected, you will be taken back to the sizing screen to fill in the rest. If the Specific Gravity or Flowing Temperature is not known, an estimate will usually be fine. Now enter the upstream and downstream pressures. When all the appropriate blanks are filled, click on either Calculate Flow Rate or Calculate Valve Coefficient. After the Flow Rate or Valve Coefficient is computed, you may see red text that says Critical Flow. This just means you have reached the maximum volume for the given pressures of the valve chosen. See Critical Flow Section on page 1. 3

Choosing the correct Valve When using a valve as a regulator, we suggest choosing equal percentage trim and sizing the valve between 50 to 80 percent of its capacity. This may take several tries to find the correct valve or trim size for your conditions.

Critical Flow Reached If when you clicked to calculate your computer chimed and a note appeared near the lower right of the Kimsize screen saying, Critical Flow Rate Reached, do not be alarmed. This is only intended to point out the condition of critical flow has been reached. As has been already stated, at a given fixed upstream pressure, the volume of fluid passing through a control valve will increase as the downstream pressure decreasesto a point. Beyond this point, further decreases in the downstream pressure will not increase the flow rate. A flow rate through a valve with a higher Cf value will continue to increase at greater pressure drop than the flow through a valve with a low Cf value.

Printing Results After the calculation is run and you would like to print the calculation, then hit Print View at the top of the screen. This will take you to the follow screen.

Now hit Print Page and the follow screen will appear in a new pop up window, you can send the document to the printer from this screen. This will also list the formula and parameters for the equation.

Your information will appear here.

SIMPLE LIQUID CAPACITY CALCULATION Go to the opening screen.

Select Simple Liquid Sizing.

Notice in the lower section of the screen that there are two options for calculating: Calculate Flow Rate: This will be used when the valve has already been selected, and you need to know its maximum capacity. For this calculation a value for Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Flow Rate (Q). Calculate Valve Coefficient: This will be used when the desired flow rate is known, and you are now trying to determine what size valve or valve trim to use. For this calculation a value for Flow Rate (Q) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) Lookup CV: This will be used to determine the (Cf) and (Cv) of the valve you choose. Hitting this tab will bring up a complete listing of every valves (Cf) and (Cv) values. If you know the valve you want, simply click the checkmark beside it, and it will automatically be put into the formula. If the Specific Gravity is not known, an estimate will usually be fine. If the value for Critical Flow Factor (Cf) is not known see Valve Sizing with an Unknown Cf value (page 1). When all the appropriate blanks are filled, click on either Calculate Flow Rate or Calculate Valve Coefficient. Critical Flow Reached If when you clicked to calculate your computer chimed and a note appeared near the lower right of the Kimsize screen saying, Critical Flow Rate Reached, do not be alarmed. This is only intended to point out the condition of critical flow has been reached. It is generally true, however, that cavitation does not occur unless the condition of critical flow has been reached. There is no simple way to predict cavitation, but we can usually avoid cavitation by avoiding critical flow. As has been already stated, at a given fixed upstream pressure, the volume of fluid passing through a control valve will increase as the downstream pressure decreasesto a point. Beyond this point, further decreases in the downstream pressure will not increase the flow rate. A flow rate through a valve with a higher Cf value will continue to increase at greater pressure drop than the flow through a valve with a low Cf value. Choosing the correct Valve When using a valve as a regulator, we suggest choosing equal percentage trim and sizing the valve between 50 to 80 percent of its capacity. This may take several tries to find the correct valve or trim size for your conditions. Printing Results See Page 5.

EXPANDED LIQUID CAPACITY CALCULATION Go to the opening screen.

Select Expanded Liquid Sizing.

The Expanded Liquid Sizing program will only be used when flashing may occur, usually because the liquid has a low vapor pressure. Some very specific values are required which are not involved in the Simple Liquid Sizing program. Pressure at thermodynamic critical point, and the vapor pressure must both be provided. If these values cannot be provided, you will not be able to make responsible recommendations for valve sizing. Notice in the lower section of the screen that there are two options for calculating: Calculate Flow Rate: This will be used when the valve has already been selected, and you need to know its maximum capacity. For this calculation a value for Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Flow Rate (Q). Calculate Valve Coefficient: This will be used when the desired flow rate is known, and you are now trying to determine what size valve or valve trim to use. For this calculation a value for Flow Rate (Q) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) Lookup CV: This will be used to determine the (Cf) and (Cv) of the valve you choose. Hitting this tab will bring up a complete listing of every valves (Cf) and (Cv) values. If you know the valve you want, simply click the checkmark beside it, and it will automatically be put into the formula. If the value for Critical Flow Factor (Cf) is not known see Valve Sizing with an Unknown Cf value (page 1). When all the appropriate blanks are filled, click on either Calculate Flow Rate or Calculate Valve Coefficient. Critical Flow Reached If when you clicked to calculate your computer chimed and a note appeared near the lower right of the Kimsize screen saying, Critical Flow Rate Reached, do not be alarmed. This is only intended to point out the condition of critical flow has been reached. It is generally true, however, that cavitation does not occur unless the condition of critical flow has been reached. There is no simple way to predict cavitation, but we can be usually avoid cavitation by avoiding critical flow. As has been already stated, at a given fixed upstream pressure, the volume of fluid passing through a control valve will increase as the downstream pressure decreasesto a point. Beyond this point, further decreases in the downstream pressure will not increase the flow rate. A flow rate through a valve with a higher Cf value will continue to increase at greater pressure drop than the flow through a valve with a low Cf value. Printing Results See Page 5.

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STEAM SIZING Go to the opening screen.

Select Stem Sizing.

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Notice in the lower section of the screen that there are two options for calculating: Calculate Flow Rate: This will be used when the valve has already been selected, and you need to know its maximum capacity. For this calculation a value for Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Flow Rate (Q). Calculate Valve Coefficient: This will be used when the desired flow rate is known, and you are now trying to determine what size valve or valve trim to use. For this calculation a value for Flow Rate (Q) must be provided. The only value which is not required is Valve Flow Coefficient (Cv) Lookup CV: This will be used to determine the (Cf) and (Cv) of the valve you choose. Hitting this tab will bring up a complete listing of every valves (Cf) and (Cv) values. If you know the valve you want, simply click the checkmark beside it, and it will automatically be put into the formula. If the value for Critical Flow Factor (Cf) is not known see Valve Sizing with an Unknown Cf value (page 1). When all the appropriate blanks are filled, click on either Calculate Flow Rate or Calculate Valve Coefficient. Critical Flow Reached If when you clicked to calculate your computer chimed and a note appeared near the lower right of the Kimsize screen saying, Critical Flow Rate Reached, do not be alarmed. This is only intended to point out the condition of critical flow has been reached. As has been already stated, at a given fixed upstream pressure, the volume of fluid passing through a control valve will increase as the downstream pressure decreasesto a point. Beyond this point, further decreases in the downstream pressure will not increase the flow rate. A flow rate through a valve with a higher Cf value will continue to increase at greater pressure drop than the flow through a valve with a low Cf value. Printing Results See Page 5.

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GLYCOL PUMP SIZING Go to the opening screen.

Select Glycol Sizing.

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This program will allow you to calculate the required circulation rate of Glycol for adequate dehydration of natural gas. The variables in this calculation are: Gas Temp in Contactor: Actually what is desired here is the best estimate of the temperature of the gas when it left the ground. Gas Pressure In Contactor: Self explanatory Glycol volume / Water Removed: This is gallons of glycol required to remove each pound of water. The default value is 3. Some operators prefer to use 4. This requires a higher glycol circulation rate, and is considered by many to be excessive, but it is up to you. Allowable Water Content: This is in pounds of water per million cubic feet of gas. In most regions the default value of 7 is fine. In colder northern regions the value is often required to be 5 pounds per million cubic feet. You select. Gas Flow Rate: The current daily rate of gas being dehydrated When all variables are filled, select Calculate. The result is the Glycol Circulation Rate in gallons per hour. Once this is derived you can select the appropriate Kimray Glycol Pump. You can select the appropriate pump from the following table.

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Cf and Cv Values for Kimray Valves and Regulators


Pilot Operated Regulators Catalog Section A

Type 1" 1" Reduced 2" 2" Removable 2" Reduced 3" 4" 6"

Size 1.00" .50 2.00" 2.00" 1.25" 3.00" 4.00" 6.00"

Cf 0.74 0.75 0.75 0.84 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

Cv 13.2 5.0 52.0 47.0 21.0 117.0 210.0 480.0

Note: The Cv for the following regulators must be adjusted according to the table on the right. All Back Pressure Non Venting Pressure Reducing

Pressure Drop 0 - 3 psi 3 - 6 psi 6 - 12 psi > 12 psi

% of Rated Cv < 50% 80% 90% 100%

Mechanical Oil Valves

Catalog Section C2

Type 2" 3" 4" 6"

Inner Valve Size 1.50" 2.25" 3.00" 4.88"

Cf 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79

Cv 23.3 43.8 70.1 277.0

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Cf and Cv Values for Kimray Valves and Regulators


1 High Pressure Motor Valves Catalog Section E1

Inner Valve 1/8 Carbide 3/16 Carbide 1/4 Carbide 3/8 Carbide 1/8 Nominal 3/16 Nominal 1/4 Nominal 3/8 Nominal 1/2 Nominal

Cf 0.73 0.74 0.68 0.74 0.58 0.59 0.78 0.91 0.94

Cv 0.45 1.00 1.93 3.86 1.06 1.51 2.17 3.22 5.72 0.34 1.99 6.49 12.00 Catalog Section E1

1/8 Equal %age 0.75 1/4 Equal %age 0.66 1/2 Equal %age 0.78 15/16 Soft Seat 1 Metering Valves Inner Valve 1/4 Equal %age 1/2 Equal %age 1/4 Linear Cf 0.66 0.78 0.65 0.65

Cv 1.99 6.49 1.80

1/2 Linear

0.83

6.08

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1 Non-Freeze Dump Valve

Catalog Section E1

Inner Valve 1/4 Carbide 3/8 Carbide 1/8 Nominal 3/16 Nominal 1/4 Nominal 3/8 Nominal 1/2 Nominal

Cf 0.76 0.71 0.74 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.77

Cv 1.85 4.15 0.43 1.07 2.11 3.96 6.34

Cf and Cv Values for Kimray Valves and Regulators


2 High Pressure Motor Valves Inner Valve 1/4 Carbide 3/8 Carbide 1/2 Carbide 3/4 Carbide 1 Carbide 1/4 Nominal 3/8 Nominal 1/2 Nominal 3/4 Nominal 1 Nominal 3/4 65 PCN 7/16 Equal %age 5/8 Equal %age 7/8 Equal %age Cf 0.65 0.76 0.80 0.78 0.70 0.55 0.77 0.78 0.80 0.77 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.66 Catalog Section E1 Cv 2.10 4.07 7.20 13.11 19.90 2.96 4.04 7.20 12.20 21.25 9.42 5.44 10.76 17.40

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2 Metering Valve

Catalog Section E1

Inner Valve 7/16 Equal %age 5/8 Equal %age 7/8 Equal %age

Cf 0.60 0.58 0.66

Cv 5.44 10.76 17.40

Balanced High Pressure Motor Valve Type 2" 2" 3" 3 4" 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 Inner Valve Size 2" 1 1/2" 3" 2 3" 4 3 6 3/4 4 3/8 Refined EP Standard EP Cf 0.76 0.75 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

Catalog Section E1 Cv 57.0 28.6 107.0 52.6 104.0 222.0 115.0 550.0 222.0 630.00 810.00 453.00 884.00 1091.00 655.00

Reduced EP(6) 0.75 Refined EP Standard EP 0.75 0.75

Reduced EP(8) 0.75

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Cf and Cv Values for Kimray Valves and Regulators


Low Pressure Motor Valves Type Pressure Closing 1" 1" Reduced 1" Reduced 2" 2" Removable 2" Reduced 3" 3" Reduced 4" 4" Reduced 6" 6" Reduced Size 1.00" .50 .75 2.00" 2.00" 1.25" 3.00" 1.62" 4.00" 2.00" 6.00" 3.00" Cf 0.74 0.86 0.75 0.75 0.84 0.84 0.75 0.82 0.75 0.80 0.75 0.80 Catalog Section E2 Cv 13.2 5.6 8.7 52.0 47.0 24.0 117.0 34.2 210.0 55.0 480.0 120.0

Note: Unless a diaphragm assist spring is used the Cv should be adjusted for the following conditions Pressure Drop 0 - 3 psi 3 - 6 psi 6 - 12 psi > 12 psi Pressure Opening Type 1" 1" Reduced 1" Reduced 2" 2" Removable 2" Reduced 3" 3" Reduced 4" 4" Reduced 6" 6" Reduced Balanced Low Pressure Motor Valve Size 1.00" .50" .75" 2.00" 2.00" 1.25" 3.00" 1.62" 4.00" 2.00" 6.00" 3.00" % of Rated Cv < 50% 80% 90% 100% Cf 0.74 0.86 0.75 0.75 0.84 0.84 0.75 0.82 0.75 0.80 0.75 0.80 Cv 13.2 5.6 8.7 52.0 47.0 24.0 117.0 34.0 210.0 55.0 480.0 120.0 Catalog Section E3

Type 2" 3" 4" 6"

Inner Valve Size 1.50" 2.25" 3.00" 4.88"

Cf 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79

Cv 23.3 43.8 70.1 277.0

Cf and Cv Values for Kimray Valves and Regulator


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3 Way Motor Valves Low Pressure

Catalog Section E4

Type 2" 3"

Cf 0.79 0.79

Cv Upper Port Cv Lower Port 36.4 81.0 32.0 72.0

High Pressure

Type 1" 2"

Cf 0.70 0.70

Cv Upper Port Cv Lower Port 8.3 27.7 13.8 38.1

2 High Pressure Splitter Valve

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Type 2"

Cf 0.70

Cv Upper Port 7.5

Cv Lower Port 10.5

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