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11.1 Introduction

Columns

Types of failure : fracture, buckling, fatigue, creep rupture etc., it depends on materials, kind of loads, condition of supports another type of failure is buckling, consider specifically for columns if a compression member is relatively slender, it may fail by bending or deflecting laterally rather than by direct compression of the material buckling may occurs in column, cylindrical walls etc.

consider a structure consists of two rigid bars pinned at B with a rotational spring having stiffness

AB

k

and

BC,

in the idealized structure, the two bars are perfectly aligned and the axial load P has its line of action along the longitudinal axis, the spring is unstressed and the bars are direct compression now suppose the structure is disturbed by some external force, the rigid bars rotate a small angle and a moment develops in the spring

when the disturbing force is removed, if P is relatively small, the structure will return to its initial straight position, it is said to be stable, is P is large, the lateral displacement of point B will increase and the

bars will rotate through larger and larger until structure collapses, the structure is said to be unstable the transition between the stable and unstable conditions of the axial load known the critical load Pcr consider the bar the spring, then MB = 2

k

B, (for small 0

(2

4 k CC L

the stability of the structure is increased either by increasing its stiffness or by decreasing its length

2

if P if P if P

< > =

Pcr, the structure is stable Pcr, the structure is unstable Pcr, the structure is in neutral

the three equilibrium conditions are analogous to those of a ball placed upon a smooth surface as shown

consider a slender column with perfectly straight and is made of a linear elastic material (ideal column)

if P

small,

= P/A

it is in stable equilibrium

if P is gradually increased, it will reach a condition of neutral equilibrium, the corresponding load is called critical load Pcr if P is higher, the column is unstable any may collapse by buckling

if P position if P

<

Pcr,

Pcr,

straight or a slightly bent position if P > Pcr, the structure is in unstable equilibrium in the

straight position and will buckle under the slightest disturbance actual columns do not behave in the idealized manner because imperfections always exists

to determine Pcr,

M =

4

let then

k2

= v"

P/EI + k2 v = 0

with boundary conditions v(0) v(0) then v(L) case 1. value of C1 = = v = = = v(L) = 0 = 0

0 => C2 C1 sin kx

0 => C1 sin kL 0

that means the column remains straight for any may also have any value (this is known as

kL, that is P

case 2.

sin kL =

=>

kL

= 0,

k2 kL for kL =

= 0 => P = n with n

P are

P =

1, 2, 3,

5

value of

P,

C1 must equal

v =

C1 sin kx

1, 2, 3,

the lowest critical load for a column with pinned ends is obtained when n = 1 EI CCC L2

2

Pcr =

the corresponding buckled shape (mode shape) is v = C1 sin x/L (1st mode)

buckling of a pinned-end column in the first mode (n = 1) is called fundamental case the critical load for an ideal elastic column is also known as the Euler Load, the bifurcation point B occurs at the critical load for x = thus C1 = L / 2 sin x/L v(L/2) = 1 v = C1

for n =

Pcr(n = 2)

4 Pcr(n = 1)

Pcr

~ n2

the only way to obtain higher Pcr is to provide lateral support at the inflection position

Pcr =

EI CCC L2

Pcr Pcr

~ EI ~ 1 / L2

i.e.

I m => Pcr m

material away from NA may increase I consider two cross sections A : I11 B : I11 > I22 > I22 I22 (I22)A to calculate Pcr A and B

u,

do not depends on

but

Pcr must be

<

A,

and the critical stress can be calculated = Pcr CC A r EI = CCC A L2 is the radius of gyration, then

2

cr

recalled

= (I / A )2

2

cr

E CCC (L/r)2

7

= L/r

(depends only on the dimensions of the column), the critical stress is inverse proportional to the slenderness ration of the column, it is obtained a plot of vs. L/r as shown, this curve is called

cr

Euler's curve, the curve is valid only when the critical stress is less than

y

Effects of Large Deflections, Imperfections, and Inelastic Behavior A : ideal elastic column (small deflection) B : ideal elastic column (large deflection) [exact expression for v" are used) C : elastic column with imperfections D : inelastic column with imperfections if column with imperfection, it will have a small initial curvature, thus it produce deflection from the onset of loading, the large the imperfections, curve C moves

to the right, if column is constructed with great accuracy, curve closely to curve A C approaches more or B

if the stress exceed the proportional limit, the curve reaches a maximum and turns downward, only extremely slender columns remain elastic for the loading up to Pcr stockier columns behave inelastically and follow curve

8

D,

Pmax

Pcr,

D represents

catastrophic collapse

Optimum Shapes of Columns a column shaped shown in figure will have a large critical load that a prismatic column made from the same volume of materials for a prismatic column with pinned ends that is free to buckle in any lateral direction, thus Pcr I is calculated by for the cross

is the circular shape is the most efficient section for column? the answer is "no", for same cross-sectional area I() > I() by 21%, i.e. Pcr is

21% higher

Example

a pinned column

support at midpoint B E =

pl

220 GPa

L=8m Pallow = ?

for the IPN 220 section I1 = 3,060 cm4 I2 = 162 cm4 A = 39.5 cm2

case 1. if the column buckles in the plane z 2-2 direction E I2 4 2 EI2 4 2 x 200 GPa x 162 cm4 Pcr = CCC = CCC = CCCCCCCCCC = (L/2)2 L2 (8 m)2 case 2. if the column buckles in the plane z 1-1 direction E I1 CCC L2

2 2

200 kN

cr

= =

cr cr

case 1. case 2.

pl pl

(OK) (OK) 80 kN

Pallow = Pcr / n

200 / 2.5

11.4 Columns with other Support Conditions for a column with pinned end, it is known as fundamental case

now consider a column fixed at the base and free at the top, the bending moment at distance x is

10

P ( - v)

E I v" or v" +

= M k2 v =

= k2

P ( - v)

where k2 = P / EI, this is a second order differential equation with constant coefficients, the general solution can be obtained

v =

C1 sin kx

+ C2 cos kx = = v'(0)

+ = 0

= C1 cos kx = 0 => C1

C2 sin kx = 0

v'(0)

thus the deflection curve for the buckled column is v = v(L) = (1 => cos kx) cos kL = 0

= 0 or cos kL = 0

11

Pcr =

n2 2 E I CCCC 4 L2

1, 3, 5,

2

v =

1, 3, 5,

for

n=1 n=3

EI / 4L2

v = (1 - cos x/2L)

Pcr(n = 3) = 9 Pcr(n = 1)

Effective Lengths of Columns the critical load for columns with various support conditions can be related to Pcr of a pinned-end column (fundamental mode)

the effective length of a column is the distance between point of inflection (zero moment) in its deflection curve for fixed-free column, the effective length is Le = 2L as

then the general formula for critical load can be written Pcr = EI CCC Le2

2

K = K

for

fixed-free

= 2

12

Pcr =

EI CCC Le2

4 2 EI = CCCC L2

R (L - x) = -Pv + R (L - x) k2 = P C EI

EI v"

k2 v

R = C (L - x) EI

R C1 k - C = 0 P R = 0

C1 tan kL + C2 = 0

13

kL

tan kL => k L

4.4934

the corresponding critical load is 20.19 EI CCCC L2 Le = 2.046 2 EI CCCCC L2 0.7 L EI CCC Le2

2

Pcr =

where

0.699 L j

= 4.4934 / L

Le

14

L n

= 3.25 m = 3

100 mm 72 GPa

P =

pl

100 kN

E = 2.046 2 EI CCCCC L2 =

= 480 MPa

[d4 (d - 2t)4] / 64

2.046 2 (72 x 109 Pa) [(0.1 m)4 (0.1 m - 2t)4] 300,000 N = CCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCC (3.25 m)2 64 t and I = = 0.008625 m = 6.83 mm = 2.18 x 106 mm4 = 1,999 mm2

A = then r

= (I / A) 2 =

33.0 mm

cr

15

<

pl

= 480 MPa

(OK)

11.5 Columns with Eccentric Axial Loads assume that a column is compressed by loads P that are applied with a small eccentricity e, it is equivalent to a centric load P and a couple of M0 = Pe the bending moment in the column at distance x is M = M0 + P(-v) = Pe Pv

boundary conditions v(0) then we have C1 then = -e C2 = - e (1 cos kL) / sin kL = - e tan (kL/2) - e [tan (kL/2) sin kx + cos kx 1] = 0 v(L) = 0

v =

each value of e produces a definite value of the deflection, the maximum deflection at the midpoint is

16

- v(L/2) =

2

EI / L2

2

( P / EI) 2 = (P

/ Pcr L2)2

/L (P / Pcr)2

e [sec { /L (P / Pcr)2} 1]

ex. 11.3 P = 7 kN h = 30 mm E = 110 GPa Lmax = ? the critical load for fixed-free column is Pcr =

2

e = 11 mm b = 15 mm

max

= 3 mm

EI / 4L2

17

= h b3 / 12

2

0.844 cm2

Pcr =

(110 GPa)( 0.844 cm2) 2.29 kN-m2 CCCCCCCCCC = CCCCC L2 4L2 e [sec { /L (P / Pcr)2} 1] = (11 mm) [sec { /L (7 kN L2 / 2.29)2} 1]

= 3 mm

18

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