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MAA KAAMAL MEDICAL CENTER DIPLOMA COURSE IN NURSING (C.C.N.) DIPLOMA IN PRACTICAL NURSING (D.P.N.

) HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH FOR NURSES

Importance of English in Nursing: Medical field mi a>g\[Jn& Xin a[ piyin) j$r)yit hi[y C[. dr[k Nurse n[ English pr p&rti[ kib& hi[vi[ ji[ea[. aipN) miyti C[ k[ English aGr) BiPi C[, t[mi> di[P kdic aipni[ piyi[ nbLi[ hi[vini[ C[. tmn[ g&jrit) BiPimi> ai[C) tkl)f pD[ C[ kirNk[ t[ aipN) mitZBiPi C[ an[ ai BiPi aipN[ si>BL)n[ (Syi C)a[, a[j r)t[ jyir[ tm[ a>g\[J sBr vitivrNmi> rh[Si[ Ryir[ aipi[aip tmir) a>g\[J BiPi s&Frvin) j C[ t[mi ki[e S>kin[ AYin nY) t[Y) a>g\Jni[ Dr riyi vgr tmir) ri[jbri[jn) J>dg)mi> yipk pN[ a>g[J bi[lvini[ p\yRn kri[, a>g\[J BiPin& si(hRy vi>cn kri[ an[ tmiri aiyy< vc[ tmiri English knowledge mi> K&bj vFir[ YS[. ai (vPymi> aipN[ English grammar pr Kis Bir aip)S&, yin aipi[, grammar aivD) jviY) English nh)> aivD[ t[ni miT[ tmir) pis[ yipk SdB>>Di[L hi[vi[ ji[ea[ j[ (nym)t vi>cn an[ Sdi[ yid yid riKvin) mh[ntY) aivS[.

Unit 1 : Singular and Plural Nouns : a[k vcn an[ bh& vcn
A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. : Noun a[Tl[ nim For the plural form of most nouns, add s. bottle bottles cup cups pencil pencils desk desks sticker stickers window windows For nouns that end in ch, x, s, or s sounds, add es. box boxes watch watches moss mosses bus buses For nouns ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es. wolf wolves wife wives leaf leaves life lives Some nouns have different plural forms. child children woman women man men mouse mice goose geese Nouns ending in vowels like y or o do not have definite rules. baby babies toy toys
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kidney kidneys potato potatoes memo memos stereo stereos A few nouns have the same singular and plural forms. sheep sheep deer deer series series species species Quiz Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence. 1) I have three (child, children). 2) There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women). 3) (Baby, Babies) play with bottles as toys. 4) I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box. 5) A few men wear (watch, watches). 6) I put a (memo, memos) on the desk. 7) I saw a (mouse, mice) running by. 8) There are few (bus, buses) on the road today. Answers 1) children 2) men, woman 3) Babies 4) potatoes 5) watches 6) memo 7) mouse 8) buses

Unit: 2 Indefinite and Definite Articles : ci[kksti an[ aci[kksti dSi<vti aiT)<ks
The words a, an, and the are special adjectives {(vS[PN} called articles. Indefinite Articlesa, an anused before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound: gN) Skiy t[vi nim ni p\Ym axrni[ ucir Avr hi[y Ryir[ an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange
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aused before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u): gN) Skiy t[vi nim ni p\Ym axrni[ ucir y>jn hi[y Ryir[

a stamp, an honest an M.B.A. a B.B.A. a book a pencil an orange a dozen a gallon a girl who was wearing a yellow hat I felt a bit depressed.

2. Definite Article (the) Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context: ci[kks p\kirn& nim aYvi agiuni vikymi> vpriy[l hi[y t[ nim b)ji vikymi> vprit& hi[y t[ni miT[ Please close the door. I like the clothes you gave me. Used to indicate a noun that is unique: any hi[y t[v& nim Praise the Lord! The Narmada River is near to Bharuch. [Quiz 28.1] Choose the correct article in each sentence. 1) Did you bring (a, an, the) umbrella? 2) Are you looking for (a, an, the) shampoo? 3) I checked (a, an, the) mailbox again. 4) Can I have (a, an, the) spoon please? 5) I was born into (a, an, the) poor family. 6) She will come back in (a, an, the) hour. 7) Have you been to (a, an, the) Space Needle Tower in Seattle? 8) I would love to talk to one of (a, an, the) managers. 9) What (a, an, the) amazing view! 10) The helicopter landed on (a, an, the) roof of a building. View Answers

1] 1) an 2) the 3) the 4) a 5) a 6) an 7) the 8) the 9) an 10) the

Unit : 3 Capitalization
Capitalization means using a capital letter (for example, A instead of a). Always capitalize the following: The first word in a sentence. vikyni[ p\Ym axr I grew up in India. She left a message on my phone. The pronoun I. I = h&> Yt& hi[y Ryir[ This country is where I dreamed of. The first letter of a proper noun (specific name). nim , aTkni[ p\Ym axr David wants to play soccer with us. This letter is from Chirag. I graduated from the University of Surat. I like Coca-Cola. She likes Dairy Milk chocolates. The first letter of months, days, and holidays (but not seasons). Mh)ni, (dvsi[ an[ rjiai[ni[ p\Ym axr, t&ai[ nh). Today is June 8, 2011. Sushils birthday is this Thursday. The shops are closed on Holi. This summer is going to be very hot. The first letter of nationalities, religions, races of people, and languages. riOT^)yti, Fm<, ji(t, BiPini p\Ym axr We often eat Italian food. I want to master many languages, such as Spanish, Tamil, Chinese, and English. There is one Hindu temple my town. The first letter in a persons title. This is Dr. Simon. I got it from Mr. Tom.
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Geographic areas: cities, states, countries, mountains, oceans, rivers, etc. Sh[r, rijy, d[S, pv<ti[, sm&Wi[, nd)ai[ vg[r[ My destination is Mumbai, India. Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The first letter of each major word in the title of a book, movie, article, etc. p&Atkni (SP<k an[ ai p\kirni lKiNni dr[k Sdi[ni[ p\Ym axr Lord Krishnas Shrimad Bhagvad Gitais my favorite novel. I found the article How to Write a Good Cover Letter in this magazine. Quiz Correctly write each sentence using proper capitalization. 1) i was born in shanghai, china, but grew up in the united states. 2) mrs. ohana gave me the bible. 3) if you walk two more blocks, you will be able to see mt. rocky. 4) my family will have a summer vacation in hawaii. 5) I didnt want to cook tonight, so I just ordered thai food for dinner. Answers 1) I was born in Shanghai, China, but grew up in the United States. 2) Mrs. Oza gave me the Bible. 3) If you walk two more blocks, you will be able to see Mr. Rocky. 4) My family will have a summer vacation in Hawaii. 5) I didnt want to cook tonight, so I just ordered Thai food for dinner.

Unit: 4 Nouns nim


Count nouns gN) Skiy pen, computer, bottle, spoon, desk, cup, television, chair, shoe, finger, flower, camera, stick, balloon, book, table, comb, etc. pens, computers, bottles, spoons, desks, cups, televisions, chairs, shoes, fingers, flowers, cameras, sticks, balloons, books, tables, combs, etc. a few pens, a few computers, many bottles, some spoons, every desk, each cup, these televisions, the number of chairs, a few shoes, a few fingers, many flowers, some cameras, every stick, each balloon, these books, the number of tables, many combs, etc. a pen, the computer, a bottle, the spoon, a desk, the cup, a television, the chair, a shoe, the finger, a flower, the camera, a stick, the balloon, a book, the table, a comb, etc. Non-count nouns gN) n Skiy water, wood, ice, air, oxygen, English, Spanish, traffic, furniture, milk, wine, sugar, rice, meat, flour, soccer, sunshine, etc. Sugar is sweet. The sunshine is beautiful.
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I drink milk. He eats rice. We watch soccer together. The wood is burning. We ate some rice and milk. I hope to see some sunshine today. This meat is good. She does not speak much Spanish. Do you see any traffic on the road? That wine is very old.

Possessive Nouns mil)k) dS<k a[.v.


John's book Kerry's car Grandma's mirror

b.v. The kids' toys My parents' house The teachers' lounge b[ y(ktn) mi(lk) a[kj vAt& miT[ hi[y Ryir[ apostrophe s fkt b)J y(ktni nim aigL j lgivv& John and Mary's new house David and Sue's wedding Tom and Doug's car b[ y(ktn) mi(lk) alg alg vAt& miT[ hi[y Ryir[ apostrophe s bn[ y(ktni nim aigL lgivv& Susan's and Beth's books Jean's and Dan's pants Ben's and Jim's offices Quiz Which of the following is not correct? 1) Dr. Hunts has a new computer. 2) Dr. Hunts's new computer is working well. 3) Dr. Hunts' computer is new. Answer 2

Unit : 5 Pronouns sv<nim


A pronoun takes the place of a noun. : nimn) jyia[ vipr) Skiy

Personal Pronouns y(ktdS<k I go to school. You are a student. They are Koreans. He works here. We gave her food. The word it' refers to an object {vAt& aYvi y(kt}: I drank it. It is big. They cut it into halves. Memorize the personal pronouns: Singular Singular Singular Plural Plural Plural Subject Object Reflexive Subject Object Reflexive First Second Third Male I you he me you him her it myself yourself himself herself itself we you they they they us you them them them ourselves yourselves themselves themselves themselves

Third Female she Third Neutral it

Quiz Write the correct pronoun in each blank. 1) I ate an apple. was delicious. 2) You look tired. should rest. 3) She is a teacher. I gave a book. 4) They are my friends. I like very much. 5) He saw the movie. was fun. Answers 1) it 2) you 3) her 4) them 5) it

Unit 6 Verbs (k\yipd


'Be' Verbs (k\yipd tr)k[ be= hi[v& Be (k\yipd a(AtRv dSi<v[ C[. t[n) siY[ subject = (vPy ji[Diy[l hi[vi[ ji[ea[.

I am a doctor. ah)> am be C[ jyir[ doctor subject C[. He is sleepy. We are here. Negative sentences need not' after the verb. nkiriRm viky I am not a doctor. He is not sleepy. We are not there. The verb comes first in interrogative sentences. p\niY< viky Am I a doctor? Is he sleepy? Are we there? "Are not" (is not) can be shortened to "aren't" (isn't). He isn't sleepy. We aren't there.

Present I am You are He is She is It was We are You are They were Quiz

Negative I am not You are not (aren't) He is not (isn't) She is not (isn't) It was not (wasn't) We are not (aren't) You are not (aren't) They were not (weren't)

Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Was it? Are we? Are you? Were they?

Which of the following sentences are written correctly? 1) I am thirsty. 2) You are kind. 3) He am not sad. 4) She are not tall. 5) It is not moving. 6) We aren't tired. 7) Is they running? 8) Are you ready? Answers 1, 2, 5, 6, and 8 Action Verbs Action verbs express action and are the most common verbs. t[ kimg)r) dSi<v[ C[ an[ yipk p\miNmi> vpriy C[.
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Action verbs need s at the end with third-person, singular subject. a[.v. vikymi> (k\yipdn) piCL s lgivi[ He eats bread. She walks to the station. It floats on the sea. Negative sentences need do not, does not, or did not. I do not eat bread. He does not eat bread. You did not walk to the station. It does not float on the sea. Interrogative sentences begin with do, does, or did. Do you eat bread? Does he eat bread? Does she walk to the station? Did they finish it? Do not can be shortened to don't, does not to doesn't, and did not to didn't. I don't eat bread. She doesn't walk to the station. It doesn't float on the sea. They didn't finish it. Affirmative Sentence I sing a song. You sing a song. He (she) sings a song. We sing a song. They sang a song. Quiz Correct the verb errors in the sentences below. Some sentences may be correct as is. 1) I runs a marathon. 2) You look sleepy. 3) She do not dance. 4) Does you leave today? 5) We don't stay here. 6) It come with rice. Answers
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Negative Sentence I do not (don't) sing a song. You do not (don't) sing a song.

Interrogative Sentence Do I sing a song? Do you sing a song?

He (she) does not (doesn't) sing Does he (she) sing a a song. song? We do not (don't) sing a song. They did not (didn't) sing a song. Do we sing a song? Did they sing a song?

1) runs -> run 3) do -> does 4) Does -> Do 6) come -> comes

Unit 7 Adjectives (vS[PN


Adjectives describe or modify nouns. nimni aY<mi> vFiri[ kr[ t[ (vS[PN I like fairy tales. A fairy tale is an imaginary story that has unrealistic characters in a fantastic background. It makes me forget about the real world and refreshes my tired mind. Adjectives generally appear immediately before the noun. (vS[PN mi[TiBig[ nimn) aigL lig[ A pretty girl Red flowers A long stick Heavy boxes Warm weather Quiz 1] Write opposite adjectives using the appropriate prefix. 1) Clear 2) Definite 3) Correct 4) Expensive 5) Complete 2] Underline all adjectives in the following sentences. In the spring, red roses blossom in my cute small garden. The beautiful birds also sing in the big oak tree. View Answers 1] 1) unclear 2) indefinite 3) incorrect 4) inexpensive 5) incomplete 2] red, cute, small, beautiful, big, oak
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Comparative and Superlative Adjectives b[ vAt&n) srKimN) mi> comparative an[ b[ krti vFir[ vAt&n) srKimN)mi> superlative adjectives vpriy C[. Adjective Comparative adjective Superlative adjective old older oldest young younger youngest pretty prettier prettiest long longer longest short shorter shortest bright brighter brightest close closer closest happy happier - happiest Adjectives with two or more syllables do not change but instead add more to form comparatives and most to form superlatives. respectable more respectable most respectable beautiful more beautiful most beautiful preferable more preferable most preferable hardworking more hardworking most hardworking Some adjectives have different forms of comparatives and superlatives. good better best bad worse worst little less least much (many) more most far further - furthest The word than typically appears in comparative sentences. Amy is smarter than Betty. Chad is stronger than Dan. Greg is more diligent than his brother. I have more apples than he. She likes him more than me. Superlatives are typically accompanied by the word the. Tom is the oldest man in town. Paul is the tallest boy in the neighborhood. That shade of blue is the most beautiful color. This is the longest song that I have ever heard. Quiz 1] Write the appropriate comparative or superlative form of the word cold in each blank. Yesterday was a cold day. Today is day yet. than yesterday. Tomorrow will be the

2] Which of the following sentences is incorrect?


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1) Mary is shorter than Jane. 2) The moon is more closer to the earth than the sun. 3) I have the best score on the exam.

3] Fill in the blanks. 1) My friend has a pretty purse, but I have a one. 2) The weather is yet to come! 3) Today's sunshine is beautiful than yesterday's. Answers 1] colder, coldest 2] 2 3] prettier, best, more

Unit 8 Tense kiL


Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: present, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect progressive tenses. (k\yi kyir[ bn) t[ verb tense Y) jiN) Skiy C[. m&y kiL #iN p\kirni C[. vt<min kiL, B&tkiL an[ B(vOy kiL, dr[k m&y kiL fr) sidi[, cil&, p*N< an[ cil& p*N< a[m cir Bigmi> vh[>ciy[li hi[y C[. n)c[ dr[k kiL miT[n) viky rcni aip[l) C[. Simple Present finish Past Future finished will finish Progressive am/is/are finishing was/were finishing will be finishing Perfect have/has finished had finished will have finished Perfect Progressive have/has been finishing had been finishing will have been finishing

Simple Tense sidi[ kiL kiym) aYvi (nym)t bnt) GTni miT[ sidi[ kiL vpriy. sidi vt<minkiLmi> be ni $p tr)k[ do vpriy C[ j[ni[ simiy vikyp\yi[gmi> li[p Yiy C[ {#i).p&.a[.v. mi> does vpriy C[ j[ni[ li[p Ye (k\yipd piCL s lgivvimi> aiv[ C[.} run

I run a marathon this year. (present)

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I ran a marathon last year. (past) I will run a marathon next year. (future) You eat lunch now. You ate lunch an hour ago. You will eat lunch in one hour. They see a movie once a week. They saw a movie yesterday. They will see a movie tomorrow. He knows it. He knew it the day before yesterday. He will know it by tomorrow. She learns English. She learned English the last two years. She will learn English next year. We cook our supper every night. We cooked our dinner already. We will cook breakfast tomorrow.

eat

see

know

learn

cook

Quiz 1] Fill in the blanks with appropriate verb forms. 1) I 2) He 3) I Answers 1] 1) sang 2) will write 3) will go Progressive Tense j[ t[ vKt[ (k\yi cil& C[ t[v& dSi<vvi progressive tense vpriy C[ j[mi> be ni $p tr)k[ am/is/are/was/were/will be/shall be + (k\.p.n& ing viL& $p vpriy C[. run

a song at the concert yesterday. a letter to his girlfriend tomorrow. to the library to borrow some books this weekend.

I am running a marathon right now. (present progressive) I was running a marathon at this time last year. (past progressive) I will be running a marathon next Sunday. (future progressive)

eat
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You are eating lunch now. You were eating lunch when you saw me. You will be eating lunch in the meeting. He is learning English at my desk. He was learning English the last two years. He will be learning English then. They are cooking my supper now. They were cooking our dinner when you called me. They will be cooking breakfast by the time you come home.

learn

cook

Perfect Tense B&tkiLmi> S$ Yy[l) GTni vit krt) vKt[ pN cil& hi[y Ryir[ perfect tense vpriy C[. j[n) vikyrcni has/have/had/will have + (k\.p. n& B&t kZd>tn& $p hi[y C[. The past participle form of the verb. = B&t kZd>tn& $p run

I have run several marathons this year. (present perfect) I had run many marathons in the past. (past perfect) I will have run a marathon by the time I turn 30. (future perfect) You have learned a lot about English grammar this semester. You had learned the basics of English grammar in elementary school. You will have learned a lot about English grammar when I finish college. He has known her since I was young. He had known her until she passed away. He will have known her for 20 years next month. They have cooked supper every night this week. They had cooked supper every night until the stove broke. They will have cooked supper every night by the time this diet ends.

learn

know

cook

Quiz 1] Using the following sentence and create three more sentences using the present, past, and future progressive tenses. I sing a song on the big stage. 2] Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given.

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1) He 2) I

(exercise) hard since last year. (study) math as my major since high school.

Answers 1] I am singing a song on the big stage. I was singing a song on the big stage. I will be singing a song on the big stage. 2] 1) has exercised 2) have studied Perfect Progressive Tense B&tkiLmi> vir>vir bn[l) GTni vit krt) vKt[ pN cil& hi[y an[ B(vOymi> pN bnt) rh[vin) hi[y Ryir[ perfect progressive tense vpriy C[. vikyrcni mi> have/has/had/ will have + (k\.pd n& ing viL& $p It has been raining, and the street is still wet. I have been running, and I am still tired. She has been practicing the piano, and she is much better now.

It had been raining, and the street was still wet. I had been running, and I was still tired. She had been practicing the piano, and she had gotten much better. By tonight, it will have been raining several hours, and the street will be very wet. By next summer, I will have been running for almost a year, and I will be fit and healthy. By the time of the concert, she will have been practicing the piano for several months, and she will be much better.

Quiz Choose the incorrect sentence from the following. 1) I have been sleeping all day today. 2) They will have been walking for almost an hour by the time they arrive at their destination. 3) She have been eating a lot recently. Answers 3) have -> has

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Unit 9 Regular and Irregular Verbs (nym)t an[ a(nym)t (k\yipd


Regular verbs form their past and past participle by adding ed (d). (nym)t (k\yipdmi> m&L $pni C[D[ d aYvi ed lgivviY) B&tkiL an[ B&tkZd>tn& $p bn[ C[. Base Verb learn study cook solve ask watch listen Past learned studied cooked solved asked watched listened Past Participle learned studied cooked solved asked watched listened

Irregular verbs do not have definite rules, but there are a few patterns. a(nym)t (k\yipdmi> m&L $p, B&tkiL n& $p an[ B&tkZd>tn& $p alg alg hi[y C[.

Base Verb grow know begin draw drive fly give speak swim go take find spend teach

Past grew knew began drew drove flew gave spoke swam went took found spent taught

Past Participle grown known begun drawn driven flown given spoken swum gone taken found spent taught

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pay feel buy meet have feed keep cut hit set shut fit Quiz

paid felt bought met had fed kept cut hit set shut fit

paid felt bought met had fed kept cut hit set shut fit

Find the past and past participle forms of the following verbs using your dictionary: bring drink think tell eat make beat

Unit 10 Auxiliary Verbs shiyk (k\yipd


An auxiliary verb n& kiy< main (full) verb n[ mdd krvin& C[ t[Y) t[n[ "helping verb." pN kh[ C[. Can : Skv& - xmti Used to express ability (to be able to do something): xmti dSi<v[ I can make jewelry. He cant speak French. Can you open this jar? Used to ask for permission: s>m(t m[Lvvi Can I use your bathroom? Can I leave now?
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Can I raise the volume? Used to make requests or suggestions: (vn>(t aYvi s&cn dSi<vvi Can I have more napkins? Can I have the bill? You can take this spot if you like. You can do whatever you want. May : Skyti Used to ask for formal permission: ai]pcir)k s>m(t m[Lvvi May I come in? May I say something now? May I ask one question? Used to suggest something that is possible: j[ vAt& Sky C[ t[ dSi<vvi miT[ She may agree with this plan. They may not be happy about what happened. It may shower tonight. Will : hS[ Used to express desire, preference, choice, or consent: eCi, ps>dg) aYvi s>m(t dSi<vvi I will take this duty. Will you stop talking like that? Used to express the future: B(vOy dSi<vvi It will rain tomorrow. The news will spread soon. Used to express capacity or capability: xmti dSi<vvi This bucket will hold two gallons of water. This airplane will take 200 passengers. Used to express determination, insistence, or persistence: WQ (nyy aYvi aig\h dSi<vvi I will do it as you say. Shall : hS[ Mainly used in American English to ask questions politely (it has more usages in British English). For the future tense, will is more frequently used in American English than shall. American English mi> t[ni[ vFir[ upyi[g Yti[ nY) pr>t& mZdZtip*v<k p\n p&Cvimi> vpriy C[. Shall we dance? Shall I go now? Lets drink, shall we? Often used in formal settings to deliver obligation or requirement: jvibdir) an[ j$r)yit dSi<vvi You shall abide by the law. There shall be no trespassing on this property.
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Students shall not enter this room.

Should : krv& ji[ea[ : frj Often used in auxiliary functions to express an opinion, suggestion, preference, or idea: mt, s*cn,ps>dg) aYvi (vcir dSi<vvi You should rest at home today. I should take a bus this time. He should be more thoughtful in the decision-making process. Used to ask for someones opinion: ay y(ktni[ mt jiNvi What should we do now? Should we continue our meeting? Should we go this way? Where should we go this summer? Must : krv& j ji[ea[ - aig\h Used to express something formally required or necessary: ai]pcir)k r)t[ j$r) bibt dSi<vviaig\hni aY<mi> I must complete the project by this week. The government must provide health care for everybody. Everyone must save the natural resources of the earth. The building must have a fire alarm. You must answer my question right now. Used to show that something is very likely: j[ Yvin) GN) Skyti rh[l) hi[y t[ dSi<vvi He must be a genius. You must be joking! There must be an accident. She must be very tired. Have to /Has to : krv& j pDS[ - frj piDvimi> aiv[ Ryir[ Used to express something compulsary required or necessary: frJyit r)t[ j$r) bibt dSi<vviaig\hni aY<mi> I have to complete the project by this week. The government has to take care of health of everybody. Everyone has to save the natural resources of the earth. The building has to have a fire alarm. You have to answer my question right now. Quiz 1] Fill in the blanks using an appropriate auxiliary verb. 1) I 2) You
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leave now. It is too late. have seen him. His dance was amazing.

3) 4)

we have lunch together? we read the email?

2] Choose the right word for each blank. 1) She amazing. 2) Professor, 3) You 4) I Answers 1] 1) should 2) should 3) Shall 4) Should 2] 1) must 2) may 3) must 4) can (can, could, may, might, must) have practiced a lot. Her performance was (can, could, may, might, must) I ask a question? (can, could, may, might, must) be kidding! How is that possible? (can, could, may, might, must) speak both English and Chinese fluently.

Unit 11 Prepositions nimyi[g) ayy


"On", "At", and "In" A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence. nim, sv<nim aYvi Sdsm&h nimn[ ay viky siY[ ji[Dti Sdn[ preposition kh[ C[. Preposition nkk) krvi miT[ ki[e Kis (nym hi[tin Y) , vi>c)n[ aYn[ si>BL)n[ mi[Ti Big[ ayis Ye jiy C[. to the office ai[f)s pr at the desk m[j pr on the table T[bl pr in an hour a[k klikmi> about myself miri (vP[ A preposition is used to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object. (dSi, AYin, smy aYvi ki[e vAt&ni p(rcy miT[ preposition vpriy C[.

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On upr Used to express a surface of something: ki[e vAt&n) spiT) dSi<vvi I put an egg on the kitchen table. The paper is on my desk. Used to specify days and dates: (dvs an[ ti(rK dSi<vvi The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays. I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988. Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer: vAt& aYvi m(Sn dSi<vvi He is on the phone right now. She has been on the computer since this morning. My favorite movie will be on TV tonight. Used to indicate a part of the body: S(rrni Big dSi<vvi The stick hit me on my shoulder. He kissed me on my cheek. I wear a ring on my finger. At : pr Used to point out specific time: ci[kks smy dSi<vvi I will meet you at 12 p.m. The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m. Used to indicate a place: ki[e AYL dSi<vvi There is a party at the club house. There were hundreds of people at the park. We saw a baseball game at the stadium. In : mi>, a>dr Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year: (dvs, m(hni[, t& aYvi vP<mi> aci[kks smy dSi<vvi She always reads newspapers in the morning. In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks. The new semester will start in March. Used to indicate a location or place: AYin aYvi AYL dSi<vvi She looked me directly in the eyes. I am currently staying in a hotel. My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California. Behind : n) piCL, Beside : n) bij&mi, Below : n) n)c[, Above : n) upr, Near : n) nJk, Opposite : n) sim[ Used to indicate a location or place: AYin aYvi AYL dSi<vvi I am currently staying in Maa Kaamal Hostel My hostel is behind my school. My school is located beside Police station,
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Mahidharpura Police station is near Bhagal. My hostel is opposite to temple. My room is on first floor above room no 5 and below room no 16 of second floor.

Of : n&> Used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with: sb>F dSi<vvi The secret of this game is that you cant ever win. The highlight of the show is at the end. The first page of the book describes the authors profile. Dont touch it. Thats the bag of my friends sister. I always dreamed of being rich and famous. Used to indicate reference: s>dB< dSi<vvi I got married in the summer of 2000. This is a picture of my family. I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase. Used to indicate an amount or number: jYi[ aYvi s>yi dSi<vvi I drank three cups of milk. A large number of people gathered to protest. I had only four hours of sleep during the last two days. He got a perfect score of 5 on his writing assignment. To : n[ Used to indicate the place, person, or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something: n) trf gt) dSi<vvi I am heading to the entrance of the building. The package was mailed to Mr. Kim yesterday. All of us went to the movie theater. Please send it back to me. Used to indicate relationship: sb>F dSi<vvi This letter is very important to your admission. My answer to your question is in this envelop. Do not respond to every little thing in your life. Used to indicate a time or a period: smy aYvi smygiLi[ dSi<vvi I work nine to six, Monday to Friday. It is now 10 to five. (In other words, it is 4:50.) For : miT[ Used to indicate the use of something: ki[e vAt&ni vpriS dSi<vvi This place is for exhibitions and shows. I baked a cake for your birthday. I put a note on the door for privacy. She has been studying hard for the final exam. Used to mean because of: kirN dSi<vvi I am so happy for you.
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We feel deeply sorry for your loss. For this reason, Ive decided to quit this job. Used to indicate time or duration: smy aYvi smygiLi[ dSi<vvi Hes been famous for many decades. I attended the university for one year only. This is all I have for today. With : siY[ Used to indicate being together or being involved: siY aYvi ji[DiN dSi<vvi I ordered a sandwich with a drink. He was with his friend when he saw me. She has been working with her sister at the nail shop. The manager will be with you shortly. Used to indicate feeling: ligN) dSi<vvi I am emailing you with my sincere apology. He came to the front stage with confidence. Used to indicate agreement or understanding: s>m(t aYvi smj*t) dSi<vvi Are you with me? Yes, I am completely with you. She agrees with me. By : ni oiri Used to indicate proximity: Can I sit by you? He was standing by me. The post office is by the bank. Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence: km<N) viky dSi<vvi The microwave was fixed by the mechanic. The flowers were delivered by a postman. The branch office was closed by the head office. Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose: ci[kks h[t& Y) kiy< dSi<vvi You can pass the exam by preparing for it. I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter. She finally broke the record by pure effort. Used to indicate a mean or method: miym aYvi pF(t dSi<vvi Please send this package to Russia by airmail. I came here by subway. Quiz 1] Identify all prepositions in the following sentences. After flying for many hours, we finally got off the airplane. We walked out the exit and went
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to the baggage claim area. There were hundreds of different bags on the conveyer belt. I almost picked up the wrong one because it looked like mine. 2] Choose a correct preposition in the sentence. 1) I want to lose 5 kilogram 2) Could you get me this pants 3) She seems to be interested 4) I will come to pick you up 5) This class will be held (on, at, in) one month. (on, at, in) a larger size? (on, at, in) Psychology. (on, at, in) 2 pm tomorrow. (on, at, in) Mondays.

3] Choose the correct preposition in each sentence. 1) I slept (of, to, for) only two hours last night. 2) It was my first trip (of, to, for) Hawaii. 3) Turn off the TV and go straight (of, to, for) bed. 4) This book was written (of, to, for) the people who want to learn how to play a guitar. 5) I was late (of, to, for) school. 6) Spencer is one (of, to, for) my best friends. 4] Choose the correct preposition in each sentence. 1) If she left at 4 p.m., she should be here (with, over, by) now. 2) Go (with, over, by) there and catch my ball. 3) (With, Over, By) your determination, you will be able to achieve your dream. 4) I just found it! It was (with, over, by) the radio on my desk. 5) I knocked him (with, over, by) accidentally. 6) She was (with, over, by) me when the accident occurred. Answers 1] After flying for many hours, we finally got off the airplane. We walked out the exit and went to the baggage claim area. There were hundreds of different bags on the conveyer belt. I almost picked up the wrong one because it looked like mine. 2] 1) in 2) in 3) in 4) at 5) on
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3] 1) for 2) to 3) to 4) for 5) for 6) of 4] 1) by 2) over 3) With 4) by 5) over 6) with

Unit 12 Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions


A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence. vikymi> b[ aYvi b[ krti vFir[ Sdi[n[ ji[Dvin& kiy< conjunction n& C[. There are three types of conjunctions: 1. Coordinating Conjunctions Connect words, phrases, or clauses that are independent or equal Avt>#i aYvi srKi Sdi[, vikyi[ aYvi vikyi>S n[ ji[D[ C[. and, but, or, so, for, yet, and not 2. Correlative Conjunctions Used in pairs ji[D)mi> vpriy C[. both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also 3. Subordinating Conjunctions Used at the beginning of subordinate clauses vikyn) S$aitmi> m&kiy although, after, before, because, how, if, once, since, so that, until, unless, when, while, where, whether, etc. Coordinating Conjunctions 1. Andmeans "in addition to": an[ We are going to a zoo and an aquarium on a same day. 2. Butconnects two different things that are not in agreement: pr>t& I am a night owl, but she is an early bird. 3. Orindicates a choice between two things: aYvi Do you want a red one or a blue one?
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4. Soillustrates a result of the first thing: t[Y), agiuni vikyni an&s>Finn[ aigL vFirvi This song has been very popular, so I downloaded it. 5. Formeans "because": n[ kirN[ I want to go there again, for it was a wonderful trip. 6. Yetindicates contrast with something: ti[ pN He performed very well, yet he didnt make the final cut. Correlative Conjunctions 1. Either/or a[k aYvi b)j& I am fine with either Monday or Wednesday. You can have either apples or pears. 2. Neither/nor ph[l& pN nh) an[ b)j& pN nh) He enjoys neither drinking nor gambling. Neither you nor I will get off early today. 3. Not only/but also ph[l& ti[ Kr& j pr>t& b)j& pN Not only red but also green looks good on you. She got the perfect score in not only English but also math. Subordinating Conjunctions 1. Althoughmeans "in spite of the fact that": Cti pN Although it was raining, I ran home. She showed up, although she felt sick. Although my mom told me to come home early, I stayed out late. 2. Afterindicates "subsequently to the time when": bid Please text me after you arrive at the shopping mall. We were forced to stop watching TV after the electricity went out. I always tell my daughter that she can have dessert after she eats her dinner. 3. Beforeindicates "earlier than the time that": ph[li He had written a living will before he died. Before he contacted me, I was going to call him. I need to finish the dishes before my wife gets home. 4. Becausemeans "for the reason that": kirN k[ Because he was smart and worked hard, he was able to make a lot of money. They stopped building the house because it was pouring. I love dogs because they are so cute. 5. Ifmeans "in the event that": ji[ hi[y/Yiy ti[ If it is sunny tomorrow, we can go to the beach. If I receive a promotion, you will be the first to know. You can watch TV if you finish your homework. 6. Sincemeans "from the time when": ci[kks smy Y) Ive been a singer since I was young. Since he graduated, he has been doing nothing. This building has been remodeled three times since I lived here.
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7. Untilmeans "up to the time that": Ryi> s&F) {smy} Dont go anywhere until I come back. She didnt realize her talent in painting until her teacher mentioned it. They wont allow us to sit until everyone arrives. 8. Unlessmeans "except, on the condition": Ryi> s&F) {(AYt)} You will not pass the exam unless you get a score of 80 or higher. I will not tell you anything unless you tell me what you know first. Unless you ask her, you will never know. 9. Whenmeans "at that time": t[ smy[ When I came in the room, everyone looked at me. I woke up when my baby was crying. I started looking for a gas station when my gas light went on. 10. Whilemeans "during the time": t[ smy dryin Someone called you while you were at the meeting. We met while we were working at the University. My dog started barking while I was talking on the phone. Quiz 1] Write the correct conjunction in each sentence. 1) my friend I are taking the geography class. 2) Do you want to go swimming golfing? 3) I studied grammar for a long time, I still make mistakes. 4) wood bricks can be used as homebuilding materials. 5) I wasnt feeling well this morning, I had to go to work. 2] Fill in the blanks with an appropriate conjunction. 1) Could you email me you receive the offer? 2) I want to buy it it is expensive or not. 3) Dont do that I allow it. 4) you are confident with it, you should go for it. 5) I didnt enrol this semester I could go backpacking in Europe. 6) My neighbours cat has been missing last Friday. 7) I own a house, I am required to pay property taxes. View Answers 1] 1) Both, and 2) or 3) but (yet)
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4) Either, or 5) yet (but) 2] 1) when 2) whether 3) unless 4) If 5) so that 6) since 7) Because

Unit 13 Wh questions
Wh questions ni[ upyi[g (v(vF AYL, (AY)t), y(kt, vAt&, smy an[ kirN jiNvi miT[ Yiy C[. WH- word + do + SUBJECT + VERB PHRASE Who: ki[N Who is known as God of Cricket? Sachin Tendulkar is known as God of Cricket. Who is your Father? My father is a farmer. Who killed Mahatma Gandhi? Nathuram Godse Killed Mahatma Gandhi. Whose: ki[n& Whose book is this ? This is Rameshs book. Whose performance is best in class? Ashas performance is best in class. What: S&>? What hit the dog? A car hit the dog What if Radhas favourite subject? English is Radhas favourite subject. What is your name? My name is Akash Patil. What did Nita buy?
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Nita bought umbrella. When: kyir[? When was Vijays appointment? Vijays appointment was at four oclock. When did Nitin arrive? Nitin arrived afternoon. When is Diwali? Diwali is in the month of October. Which: ky&? Which book do you like most? I like Shrimad Bhagvad Gita most. Which window is broken? The second window is broken. Which car met accident? GJ 5-2250 met accident. Where: kyi> Where do you live? I live in Surat. Where did Gandhiji born? Gandhiji born in Porbandar. Where are the keys? The keys are on the table. Why: Si miT[? Why is Mitul thin? Mitul is thin because he is sick. Why do you worry? I am worried for my exams. Why did Sita kidnapped? Sita kidnapped as she crossed Laxman Rekha How : ke r)t[? How beautiful is Priya? Priya is very beautiful. How did Rakesh run to school?
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Rakesh ran quickly to school. How was your day today? It was very fine.

Unit 14 Conversation vitc)t


Greeting a(Bvidn

Hi, hello. Good morning, good afternoon, good evening. How are you? How are you doing? How do you do?

Responding to greeting a(Bvidn ni[ p\Ry&tr


Hi, hello. Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening. I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't complain/Not bad. How about you?/And you? How do you do?

Introducing yourself: pi[tini[ p(rcy aipvi[ Here are expressions to introduce yourself:

My name is ... I'm .... Nice to meet you; I'm ... Pleased to meet you; I'm ... Let me introduce myself; I'm ... I'd like to introduce myself; I'm ...

Introducing others: ayni[ p(rcy aipvi[ Here are expressions to introduce others:

Jayesh, please meet Nilesh. Jayesh, have you met Nilesh? I'd like you to meet Lina. I'd like to introduce you to Bharat. Lila, this is Bharat. Bharat this is Lila.

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Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:


Nice to meet you. Pleased to meet you. Happy to meet you. How do you do?

How to express ability xmti dSi<vv)


I can't help you.I am busy. I'm unable to help you. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well; I could work hard. Now I can't. I'm too old. I can stand on my head for five minutes. Can you speak Arabic? Yes, I can. I can speak good English. vt<minkiL I can't stand on my head. vt<minkiL I was unable to visit him. B&tkiL I couldn't eat at all when I was ill. B&tkiL I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job. B(vOykiL The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions. B(vOykiL

Asking for and giving permission: s>m(t mi>gv) / aipv) When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. It is desirable to use the word "please." s>m(t mi>gti aYvi aipti h>m[Si mZd& bni[, an[ please ni[ upyi[g kri[ Asking for Permission: s>m(t mi>gv)

Can I go out, please? May I open the window, please? Please, can I have a look at your photo album? Please, may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone?

Giving Permission: s>m(t aipv)


Yes, please do. Sure, go ahead.

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Sure. No problem. Please feel free.

Refusing to give permission: s>m(t nkirv)


No, please dont. Im sorry, but thats not possible. I'm afraid, but you can't.

Dialogue: Lina, eight years old, is asking her mother for permission to use the computer... l)ni aiq vP<n) C[ j[ t[n) miti pis[ ki[y&Tr viprvin) m>j*r) mi>g[ C[. Lina: Her mother: Lina: Her mother: Lina: Please mum, can I use the computer? No, dear you can't. It's time to go to bed. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early. Thanks a lot mummy.

How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English. For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways.

Digital: the easier way - "Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour - "twenty to three"

Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time. What time is it? Whats the time? Asking about the time: 2.00 It is two oclock 2.06 2.15 2.25
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It is six minutes past two It is quarter past two It is twenty five past two

2.30 2.45 2.55

It is half past two It is a quarter to three It is five minutes to three

12.00 It is twelve noon, It is twelve midnight Telephone conversations


Good Morning, It is Maa Kaamal Hospital, How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs....., please? Who's calling, please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs... here. It's Mr/Mrs... speaking. Mr/Mrs... speaking. Please hold the line... Just a second. I'll see if she/he is in. Hang on for a moment.

Unit 15 Vocabulary SdB>Di[L


People Man, woman, baby, boy, girl, child, old man, Gender: (l>g a>g\[J g\imrmi> pN g&jrit)n) j[mj #iN l)>g aiv[l) hi[y C[. p&l)>g p&$Pvick : Masculine Man, father, uncle, boy, husband A#i)l)>g- A#i) vick : niytr ji(t: Neuter Feminine Woman, mother, aunt, girl, child, cousin, wife relation, parents

teacher,

Family members Daughter, son, father, mother, brother, husband, wife, children, parents, grand parents, grand father, grand mother, uncle, aunty, neighbour, cousin, nephew, in laws (brother in law, son in-law) Cardinal Numbers: Zero, one, two...., ten, twenty, thirty,..., hundred, thousand, lac,..., Ordinal Numbers - used for ranking: 1st: first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, twenty second, twenty third, fiftieth, hundredth, etc...

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Months days and times of the day January, February,...., Monday, Tuesday...., Morning, Early morning, noon, afternoon, evening, night, Midnight Seasons Summer, Winter, Monsoon, autumn, spring Weather: What is the weather like? It is rainy. Rainy, cloudy, windy, snowy, sunny, nice, fine, cold, warm, hot etc Occupations (jobs) Carpenter, cook, farmer, fireman, fisherman, gardener, doctor, engineer, teacher, advocate, lawyer, journalist, nurse, laboratory assistant, surgeon, physician, plumber, mechanic, painter, postman, policeman, secretary, singer, taxi driver, soldier, waiter, pilot, tailor, actor, goldsmith etc.. Colours Black, white, blue, green, yellow, pink, brown, grey, orange, purple, red etc Parts of the body Arm, back, beard, ear, elbow, eye, eyebrow, eyelashes, face, finger, foot, hair, hand, leg, mouth, neck, nose, shoulder, tongue, tooth, lips, moustache, knee, head etc.. Rooms and Places in the Home Bedroom, Living room ,Bathroom, Hall, Shed, Basement, Porch, Terrace, Study room, Balcony etc. Objects of the home Television, remote control, power point, plug, arm chair, chair, table, dining table, door, door handle, ward rob, bedside table, bed, carpet, mirror, curtain, drawer, towel, vase etc Animals Lion, cheetah, tiger, fox, buffalo, cow, goat, dog, cat, monkey, donkey etc Birds Parrot, sparrow, peacock, dove, cuckoo, hen Flowers Rose, lily, sunflower, lotus etc Electrical - Electronic appliances Fridge, television, radio, iron, fan, air conditioner, oven, air cooler etc Cities, Villages, States, Countries, Male names, Female names, Surnames complete this list

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Human Body One of the first things you need to know when working in English is the parts of the body. You will need to learn the names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts. You will also need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts. Here are the basics to get you started. Head Inside the head is the brain, which is responsible for thinking. The top of a person's scalp is covered with hair. Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead. Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing, the nose for smelling, and the mouth for eating. On the outside of the mouth are the lips, and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. Food is swallowed down the throat. At the sides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. At the bottom of a person's face is the chin. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeks and chin. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body. Upper Body At the top and front of the upper body, just below the neck is the collar bone. On the front side of the upper body is the chest, which in women includes the breasts. Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's breasts. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist. The navel, more commonly referred to as the belly button, is located here as well. On the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and the lungs for breathing. The rear side of the upper body is called the back, inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body. Upper Limbs (arms) The arms are attached to the shoulders. Beneath this area is called the armpit or underarm. The upper arms have the muscles known as triceps and biceps. The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow. Between the elbow and the next joint, the wrist, is the forearm. Below the wrist is the hand with four fingers and one thumb. Beside the thumb is the index finger. Beside the index finger is the middle finger, followed by the ring finger and the little finger. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails. Lower Body Below the waist, on left and right, are the hips. Between the hips are the reproductive organs, the penis (male) or the vagina (female). At the back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. They are also commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children). The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting food, the bladder for holding liquid waste, as well as the liver and the kidneys. This area also contains the woman's uterus, which holds a baby when a woman is pregnant. Lower Limbs (legs) The top of the leg is called the thigh, and the joint in the middle of the leg is the knee. The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the lower leg is the calf. The ankle connects
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the foot to the leg. Each foot has five toes. The smallest toe is often called the little toe while the large one is called the big toe. At the ends of the toes are toenails. Medical Specialists Medical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. They either treat specific parts of the body, such as the back or the brain, or they specialize in certain diseases, such as cancer. Family doctors keep a list of local specialists and can help patients choose the right specialist for each medical issue. In many cases specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will see a patient. Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. Study the list and then check your understanding by taking the quiz. allergist: anaesthesiologist: cardiologist: chiropractor: dentist: dermatologist: fertility specialist: gynaecologist: massage therapist: midwife: naturopath: neurologist: obstetrician: occupational therapist: oncologist: ophthalmologist: paediatrician: physical therapist: podiatrist: psychiatrist: radiologist: specializes in determining food and environmental allergies specializes in pain prevention during surgery heart specialist back specialist tooth specialist skin specialist helps people who have difficulty getting pregnant specializes in women's needs specializes in muscle relaxation helps women deliver babies in a natural way specializes in natural cures and remedies brain specialist specialist for pregnant women specializes in workplace health tumour specialist, including cancer specializes in eye diseases specialist for babies and children specializes in the body's movement foot specialist specialist in mental health specializes in imaging tests

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Unit 16 Conversation s>vid


Doctor's Diagnosis Physician Your test results have come in. I'm afraid the prognosis isn't good. You have a long road to recovery. We have several options to discuss. The blood test came back negative. The transfusion was a success. It looks like you're ready to go home. I'd like to keep you here over night. We'll know more in a few days. You're not in the clear yet. We've ruled out diabetes. I'm hoping to get to the bottom of this soon. Patient I don't understand what this means. Am I going to need surgery? Is it good news or bad? When will the tests results come in? How long do I have to stay in the hospital? What is the success rate? Are they going to run more tests? Is this a common problem for people my age? I'd like to discuss other options. I'm going to get a second opinion. Sample Conversation Doctor: Hi Jessica. How are you feeling today? Patient: A bit better. Doctor: That's good to hear. Are you still feeling nauseous? Patient: No, I haven't felt sick to my stomach since you switched my medication. Doctor: Great. Say, your test results came in this morning. Patient: It's about time. Is it good news or bad?

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Doctor: I guess it's a bit of both. Which do you want first? Patient: Let's get the bad news over with. Okay. It looks like you're going to need surgery to remove the tumour from your Doctor: leg. After the operation you're going to have to stay off your feet for at least three weeks. That means no soccer. Patient: I was afraid you were going to say that. Now for the good news. The biopsy shows that the tumour is benign, which Doctor: means it's not cancerous. We're going to take it out anyway just to be on the safe side. Patient: Wow, that's a load off my mind. Thanks Doctor. Doctor: Don't get too excited. We still need to get to the bottom of all of this weight loss.

Patient: I've probably just been so worried about this stupid lump. Doctor: These things often are stress related, but we're still going to do a few blood tests just to rule a few things out.

Patient: Things like what? Cancer? Doctor: Actually, I'm thinking more along the lines of a food allergy. Visiting Hours Part of being a nurse, involves dealing with the people who are close to your patients. When a patient is staying in a hospital or other health facility, it is often necessary to welcome, monitor, and inform visitors on a daily basis. In many cases you may form stronger relationships with the patients' visitors than the patients themselves. Depending on the condition of the patient, certain loved ones will be allowed to visit, while others will not. It is a difficult time for people who have loved ones in the hospital. Showing them compassion and explaining the rules is much easier if you have the necessary English skills. Study the different people that may come to visit the patient. Then read some typical concerns and questions that visitors may have, and some appropriate responses that you may be able to give them. Booking a Doctor's Appointment Patient I need to make an appointment. I need to see the doctor. When is the doctor free?
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I need to renew my prescription. Do you think the doctor could squeeze us in today? I need to make an appointment for my husband. My child needs to come in for a check-up. The doctor wants to see me again in two week's time. Receptionist What is your chart number? What is the appointment regarding? Which day/what time is good for you? Is January the 3rd okay with you? How does four o'clock sound? We'll see you then. I'm sorry the doctor is not taking new patients. We'll call you if there are any cancellations. We're running an hour behind schedule. Dr Jones is away. You'll be seeing Dr Lindsay. Sample Conversation Receptionist: Good morning , It is Maa Kaamal Hospital, How can I help you? Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. Patel.

Receptionist: Do you know your chart number? Caller: No, sorry. It's at home and I'm at work right now.

Receptionist: No problem. What's your name, please? Caller: Prakash Gandhi.

Receptionist: Okay Mr Gandhi. Hold one moment while I grab your chart, please. Caller: Sure.

Receptionist: Thanks for waiting. Now, what do you need to see the doctor about? Caller: Well, I've been fighting a cold for more than a week, and I think I might have a chest infection or something. My cough is getting worse each day. Hmm. Doctor Patel is off tomorrow. Do you think it can wait until Wednesday? Oh, I was really hoping to get in today or tomorrow in case I need some antibiotics. Maybe I'll have to go to the walk-in-clinic instead.

Receptionist:

Caller:

Receptionist: Actually, we had a cancellation for 2:00pm today if you can get away from

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the office. Caller: Receptionist: Caller: Gee, it's almost 1:00pm already. I think I can make it if I leave right now. We're running a bit behind schedule, so you can probably count on seeing the doctor around 2:30. That's great. Thanks for fitting me in.

Receptionist: No problem, Mr. Mason. We'll see you in an hour or so.

Unit 17 Essay writing (nb>F l[Kn


MY SELF My name is Ravina Patel and I am twelve years old. My father name is Mr. Rajiv Patel, is a doctor and my mother , Mrs. Bhavnaben is a teacher . They love me very much. My mother tells me nice stories everyday. Every Sunday, I go out for picnic with my parents. I am slim and healthy .My complexion is fair and I have long hair. My hobbies are reading, listning to music and playing chess. I like going to school, which is quit close to my house . My teachers are very nice and encourage me for sports. I like them very much. I am student of class VII. I have many friends with whom I play in the big park near my house. We visit each other at home often. I wish to be a nurse. MY HOBBY A hobby is what we do in our spare time .It is an activity that brings joy and we find it interesting Drawing and gardening are my two hobbies. I love drawing and I spend most of my spare time to draw various pictures. I have a collection of my drawing. I like to draw pictures of National heroes and nature. Gardening is my another hobby. I have many kinds of plants at home and nearly 50 pots. During summer, I water my plants every day. I love to see my plants first in the morning. They look so green and fresh. The beautiful & colourful flowers give me a lot of pleasure and peace.

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MY FATHER Shri Avinashbhai Patel is my father. He has a job with government. He leaves home around 8 oclock in the morning and returns at 6 oclock in the evening . He works five days in a week. Saturdays and Sundays are holidays. On his off-days, he takes us out for picnics and outings. Last Sunday he took us to a circus show, which we enjoyed a lot . He wakes up early in the morning and do exercises regularly. He is very regular in his work and strict in discipline. He is very kind and co-operative. He regularly helps me in my homework too. He was born in a village near to Navsari. He struggled a lot in his career. I found her always honest and loyal towards his work. I is my hero. He loves us very much and we love and respect him a lot. MY MOTHER My mother, mrs. Shantaben is a housewife and is very hard-working. She is always busy and does a lot of work at home. She has a great deal of energy. She is the first to wake up in the morning and the last one to go to bed at night. She washes clothes, cooks for us and even helps us with our homework. Sometimes, she tells us interesting stories of heroism from Indias struggle for freedom and from religious books. She is very good singer also. I really enjoy listening to her. She is very fond of devotional songs, which she sings every morning. She is healthy, beautiful and a very cheerful person. There is always a smile on her face. She loves us all. MY FAMILY We have a small family, consisting of four members. Besides my parents, myself and my elder sister. We live in Rampur village near mandvi town. My sister and I go to the same nursing school and we are learning nursing. The nursing school is in Surat city, we go to school by train daily in the morning. In the afternoon, we return with our friends. My father works in a factory in Vapi, he has to travel by bus to go there. He is very humble person. We have a lot of fun with him at home. He is very understanding person and head of our family. He is very fond of sports and watching TV.
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My mother, on the other hand, is a slightly serious person. She is a hardworking person and doing lot for our family. My mother is my roll model. My parents are loving and kind. They are quite strict too. They give us everything what we need but not everything we want. MY NURSING SCHOOL Maa Kaamal Medical Center is my Nursing school. It is there in Surat city. It is located near to Surat railway station. My nursing school is connected with Maa Kaamal Hospital. We go to school for 4 hours daily. In my school there are two class rooms each of having 70 students capacity. Class rooms are located on 3rd and 4th floor of the building. On 1st and 2nd floor there is a hospital in which we learn practical lessons too. Dr. Anilkesar Gohil is our Director. He is head of our Maa Kaamal Family which includes nursing school, hospital and women welfare foundation. Ms. Vidhiben Patel is our Center head. She is little strict but loving too. She is also delivering lectures on midwifery subject. Ms. Pranitaben Ingle is our Assistant center head. She is taking care of our exam and classroom related issues. She is a teacher of Principle and practice in nursing subject. She is always co-operating and helpful to us. Ms. Harshidaben Patel is our English teacher. She is tall and beautiful. She is reserved in nature but very punctual in her work. There is a 60 bed girls hostel near to our school which is for students who reside in Surat and study. There is a computer laboratory in our school. There are 12 computers in it. We learn computer fundamentals related to nursing profession. There are 4 teachers in computer center. In my nursing school there is friendly atmosphere but discipline is not compromised. We enjoy learning all the subjects. I like to go to my nursing school regularly as I learn lessons of how to live life joyfully along with nursing science principles.
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THE HOSPITAL

The word Hospital is arrived from the word Hospus which means host. Patients are treated like guests in the hospital. Hospital is the place where sick, weak and injured people cured. This is medical and social organization. The hospital is important part of our society. Maa Kaamal General Hospital is located in Surat city. It is 15 bed general hospital. It is small hospital but it has all departments related to treatment of various disease. In Outer patient department doctor examine the patient and diagnose the disease. Doctor may go for various investigations. According to the reports patients may be given medicines and send home or may be advised to admit in the hospital so that doctor can administer medicines under his and nursing staff supervision. In Surgical Department, there is an operation theatre where various surgeries are performed. In paediatric department children disease are treated. There is pathological laboratory in hospital where various investigations like blood test, urine test etc are done. There is a pharmacy store from where medicines are dispatched. There are many doctors and paramedical staff in the hospital. Hospital is working round oclock for 24 hours, 365 days. Hospital is a place like temple. It is the place where sick people get cured.
THE DOCTOR The medical profession is a highly noble one. Doctors dedicate their lives to treating and curing patient .They are highly respected members of our society. When we fall sick, we go to a doctor for treatment. Based on the symptoms and the condition of the patients, the doctor treats all diseases. In case of serious illness, sometimes, a doctor asks to get our blood tested or for an X-ray. Based on the reports, he gives us the necessary medicines. In case of injuries, the doctor cleans and bandages our wounds in order to mitigate the pain. In case of serious injuries, after first aid the doctor advises to go to a hospital for further treatment .

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There are many types of doctors. Surgeons for surgery, Physicians for common treatments, those who treat all kinds of illnesses are known as General Practitioners, or GPs and who have specialised in particular diseases are known as specialists. What the doctor says is often accepted as the final word by patients. Doctors are respected so much that they are often treated next to Gods. A NURSE Nursing profession is the noble profession. I like nurse most as she devotes her life to welfare of sick patients. Maya is the nurse at the hospital . She looks very smart in her white dress and apron. She is a symbol of service and humility. She not only tends to patients in the wards but she also assists doctors in the operation theatre as well. She has a tough job, working long hours. Sometimes she has to be on night duty. She has a remain alert at all times, kipping her eye on each patient and his or her condition .In case of emergency, she quit calls the doctor. She checks temperature and administers medicines to all the patients. She gives medicines through injections to patients .She has to fill in their charts regularly ,with the latest information .When the doctor is on his rounds ,she keeps him informed about the patients conditions. There are so many patients she has to look after, Maya does not get enough time to rest and relax. Yet , she always seems to have a smile on her face ,which makes it easy for her to deal with patients. Like Maya, there are many other nurses in the hospital . She belongs to Ahwa and lives in the nurses s quarters within the hospital compound. The rest of her family is in Ahwa. She is planning to get married soon. Maya is such a hardworking and selfless nurse that she seems like an angel to all the patients. Her kindness is an advantage and helps them get well soon.

GOOD HEALTH To be healthy ,one has to be free of any illness of body , mind and spirit .A healthy person can lead a happy life under all circumstances .On the other hand ,those who are not very healthy have to struggle even under the best circumstances .besides ,it is hard to be happy when one is unhealthy . Good health comes from knowing the needs and requirements of our body. It is important to man age our daily routine .The first rule of good health is to eat and sleep on time. One must not overeat, or eat unhealthy food .Very oily, rich and sweet things should be avoided .One must eat a balanced diet, which should include vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates etc . Along with this, one must also eat fruits. It is also very important to exercise and keep fit .walking, cycling swimming and jogging are good for health .Yoga is another very good way to ensure ourselves to stay healthy and fit. 45

Good health is like the morning sun, soft and pleasing. It is only when we are healthy that we are pleasing. It is only when we are healthy that we are able to concentrate on other important areas of our life. Good heath is the very foundation of a happy life and of all meaningful activities.

A MORNING WALK Exercise helps us keep fit, both in mind and body. Walking is the best form of exercise and suits people of all ages. Early morning is considered a good time for a walk. The air is fresh, there is certain quietness everywhere and the rays of the early morning sun are pleasing. I go for a morning walk everyday. My friend Rajat accompanies me. Sometimes when he does not come, I go alone. He is my classmate and lives near to my house .I wake up very early , at 5.00 a.m. and go out for my walk . We walk briskly along a road leading to the out skirts of the city. The cool morning breeze, the chirping of the birds and the magnificent rising sun greet us . The whole scene, flooded with the rich golden light of the sun, is fascinating. It is all too poetic. We race for some distance and then walk slowly for some time. There is a beautiful park in our colony .We take off our shoes and walk on the dewy grass. Our morning walk takes a more than an hour everyday. We get back home around 6.15 a.m. We feel refreshed, happy and well prepared for our day .A morning walk gas a wonderful effect on the mind and stays with the walker for the rest of the day.

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Write essays on following

My city/village, My best friend, Visit to a blood bank Picnic My favourite: teacher


My country: India

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Exercise
Translation Use of i/me/my I am Shankarbhai Ramjibhai Shrimali. I am a farmer. This is my axe. It is a strong axe. I like my farming articles. Give me 100 gm grain and my hard work will convert it to 10 kgs. We farmers are son of soil. Soil feeds us, soil is our mother, soil is our life. You are a nurse. Patient care is your responsibility. You like nursing. Patient is your God. As you like, but dont forget that you (all) are students and hard work is your duty. This is Chirag. He is a kind person. You will always find him with smiling face. His speech is sweet. You may ask him for help anytime. She is Ms. Nisha Bhanabhai Nayka. Her nursing knowledge is very good. Ask her any question for nursing , she will give you correct answer. It is my nursing school. I like it very much. It is small but its structure make it beautiful. They are cricketers. Indians give them respect like God. They play for India and Cricket board pays them healthy salary. Sachin Tendulkar is a great cricketer. He is a hero for all cricket lovers. We are proud of our cricket team. We get happy on their victory.

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