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Read and Talk


811.11124(075.8) 81.432.1 923.1 57 3 (31) 29.11.2011 . .

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Read and Talk ( ). . ( , , ) . . , . 811.11124 (075.8) 81.432.1 923.1

ISBN 978-985-460-477-0 (. 2) ISBN 978-985-460-476-3

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INTRODUCTION .. UNIT 1. ASPECTS CULTURE OF 6 27 36 41 47 47 53 59 67 67 78 78 83 91 103 103 105 107 110 5 6

English Is a Crazy Language... A Confluence of Cultures How to Plan a Town Capital Cities UNIT 2. LIFESTYLE. MODERN

Confessions of a Shopaholic Shopaholic Abroad.............. Shopaholic Ties the Knot UNIT 3. PRESS.. THE

Do We Have the Press We Deserve?.......................................................... UNIT 4. CARE... MEDICAL

Laugh Your Stress Away. Bills Eyes The Emergency Ward.. HOME READING. Simply Divine..

Can You Keep a Secret?.............................................................................. Revenge Is Sweet. The Way up to Heaven For Services Rendered.

112 114 116 116 116

Makeover. 116 APPENDIX . Tasks for Reading.. Non-Guided 117 118 119

I Tasks for The Undomestic Goddess by S. Kinsella... II Tasks for Man and Boy by T. Parsons.. III Tasks for Man and Wife by T. Parsons... IV Tasks for How to be Good by N. Hornby... REFERENCE

The book is the second part of Read and Talk and is designed to provide guidance for advanced students majoring in English and Intercultural Communication. It comprises pieces of reading in which issues worth discussing are raised. The book contains short stories and extracts from novels by modern authors, magazine articles, essays, jokes arranged topically in several units and is devised to provoke argument. Each unit consists of texts (or references to the required texts) and exercises: vocabulary drills, specific tasks and assignments aimed at developing deliberation skills and thus assisting to reach a higher standard of language acquisition that of intellectual communication. The activities suggested focus on the English language as a tool of intelligible communication (rather than language as a structure). It is the authors intention to provide motivation in debating the issues of Modern Lifestyle, Aspects of Culture, The Press and Medical Care and to equip those who have chosen language as a career with due linguistic skills. The book offers a selection of stories and extracts from novels for home reading and tasks for non-guided reading. The texts assembled in the book are either unabridged short stories and articles or extracts from novels. In both cases, the spelling, punctuation and specific graphic elements of the original are saved.

Unit 1 Aspects of Culture English Is a Crazy Language I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words. To be well/better/best off, indispensable, vagary, purport, marvel, rigid, misperceive, engender, spoof, lunacy. 2. Choose a suitable word from Ex. 1 to fill in the gaps. Make sure to use it in the appropriate form. 1. His wealth fluctuates with the of the stock market. 2. It is a of engineering, still functioning today. 3. The law is moral and . 4. The main of my writing is to tell you that we have found a house for the next half year. 5. Our teacher is a disciplinarian. 6. His idea was considered total . 7. Its not a good idea to change jobs; youre where you are. 8. Such policies have controversy. 9. The letter to express peoples opinion. 10. One cannot but ... at these stunning cathedrals. 11. Mike Myers comedy flop The Love Guru has dominated the Golden Raspberries, the prizes awarded to the worst Hollywood movies of the year. 12. People who social reality in this way tend to feel lonelier and less satisfied with life. 3. In what situation would you use the following set expressions? Give your own examples. To be mad about smth/smb, every nook and cranny, taken aback, kit and caboodle, spick and span, a near miss, go back and forth, innocent bystanders, a hit-and-run play, in fine fettle, daylight savings time, annals of history, hue and cry, might and main.

4. Match the words and their definitions. loopy beam pretentious insanity rigid inescapable paradox claiming or demanding a position of distinction or merit, especially when unjustified marked by a lack of flexibility, rigorous and exacting a seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true extreme foolishness, folly to emit or transmit ineluctable, unavoidable offbeat, crazy

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the text.

English Is a Crazy Language

By R. Lederer

English is the most widely spoken language in the history of our planet, used in some way by at least one out of every seven human beings around the globe. Half of the worlds books are written in English, and the majority of international telephone calls are made in English. English is the language of over sixty percent of the worlds radio programs, many of them beamed, ironically, by the Russians, who know that to win friends and influence nations, theyre best off using English. More than seventy percent of international mail is written and addressed in English, and eighty percent of all computer text is stored in English. English has acquired the largest vocabulary of all the worlds languages, perhaps as many as two million words, and has generated one of the noblest bodies of literature in the annals of the human race. Nonetheless, it is now time to face the fact that English is a crazy language. In the crazy English language, the blackbird hen is brown, blackboards can be blue or green, and blackberries are green and then red before they are ripe. Even if blackberries were really black and blueberries really blue, what are strawberries, cranberries, elderberries, huckleberries, raspberries, boysenberries, mulberries, and gooseberries supposed to look like? To add to the insanity, there is no butter in buttermilk, no egg in eggplant, no grape in grapefruit, neither worms nor wood in wormwood, neither pine nor apple in pineapple, neither peas nor nuts in peanuts, and no ham in a hamburger. (In fact, if somebody invented a sandwich consisting of a ham patty in a bun, we would have a hard time finding a name for it.) To make matters worse, English muffins

werent invented in England, french fries in France, or danish pastries in Denmark. And we discover even more culinary madness in the revelations that sweetmeat is candy, while sweetbread, which isnt sweet, is made from meat. In this unreliable English tongue, greyhounds arent always grey (or gray); panda bears and koala bears arent bears (theyre marsupials); a woodchuck is a groundhog, which is not a hog; a horned toad is a lizard; glowworms are fireflies, but fireflies are not flies (theyre beetles); ladybugs and lightning bugs are also beetles (and to propagate, a significant proportion of ladybugs must be male); a guinea pig is neither a pig nor from Guinea (its a South American rodent); and a titmouse is neither mammal nor mammaried. Language is like the air we breathe. Its invisible, inescapable, indispensable, and we take it for granted. But when we take the time, step back, and listen to the sounds that escape from the holes in peoples faces and explore the paradoxes and vagaries of English, we find that hot dogs can be cold, darkrooms can be lit, homework can be done in school, nightmares can take place in broad daylight, while morning sickness and daydreaming can take place at night, tomboys are girls, midwives can be men, hours especially happy hours and rush hours can last longer than sixty minutes, quicksand works very slowly, boxing rings are square, silverware can be made of plastic and tablecloths of paper, most telephones are dialed by being punched (or pushed?), and most bathrooms dont have any baths in them. In fact, a dog can go to the bathroom under a tree no bath, no room; its still going to the bathroom. And doesnt it seem at least a little bizarre that we go to the bathroom in order to go to the bathroom? Why is it that a woman can man a station but a man cant woman one, that a man can father a movement but a woman cant mother one, and that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesnt rule a queendom? How did all those Renaissance men reproduce when there dont seem to have been any Renaissance women? A writer is someone who writes, and a stinger is something that stings. But fingers dont fing, grocers dont groce, hammers dont ham, and humdingers dont humding, if the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldnt the plural of booth be beeth? One goose, two geese so one moose, two meese? One index, two indices one Kleenex, two Kleenices? If people ring a bell today and rang a bell yesterday, why dont we say that they flang a ball? If they wrote a letter, perhaps they also bote their tongue. If the teacher taught, why isnt it also true that the preacher praught? Why is it that the sun shone yesterday while I shined my shoes, that I treaded water and then trod on soil, and that I flew out to see a World Series game in which my favorite player flied out? If we conceive a conception and receive at a reception, why dont we grieve a greption and believe a beleption? If a horsehair mat is made from the hair of horses and a camels hair brush from the hair of camels, from what is a mohair coal made? If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a humanitarian eat? If a firefighter fights fire, what does a freedom fighter fight? If a weightlifter lifts weights, what does a shoplifter lift? If pro and con are opposites, is congress the opposite of progress?

Sometimes you have to believe that all English speakers should be committed to an asylum for the verbally insane. In what other language do people drive in a parkway and park in a driveway? In what other language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? In what other language do privates eat in the general mess and generals eat in the private mess? In what other language do men gel hernias and women get hysterectomies? In what other language do people ship by truck and send cargo by ship? In what other language can your nose run and your feet smell? How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, whats going on? and whats coming off ? be the same, and a bad licking and a good licking be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites? How can sharp speech and blunt speech be the same and quite a lot and quite a few the same, while overlook and oversee are opposites? How can the weather be hot as hell one day and cold as hell the next? If button and unbutton and tie and untie are opposites, why are loosen and unloosen and ravel and unravel the same? If bad is the opposite of good, hard the opposite of soft, and up the opposite of down, why are badly and goodly, hardly and softly, and upright and downright not opposing pairs? If harmless actions are the opposite of harmful actions, why are shameless and shameful behavior the same and pricey objects less expensive than priceless ones? If appropriate and inappropriate remarks and passable and impassable mountain trails are opposites, why are flammable and inflammable materials, heritable and inheritable property, and passive and impassive people the same and valuable objects less treasured than invaluable ones? If uplift is the same as lift up, why are upset and set up opposite in meaning? Why are pertinent and impertinent, canny and uncanny, and famous and infamous neither opposites nor the same? How can raise and raze and reckless and wreckless be opposites when each pair contains the same sound? Why is it that when the sun or the moon or the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible, and that when I wind up my watch, I start it, but when I wind up this essay, I shall end it? English is a crazy language. How can expressions like Im mad about my flat, No football coaches allowed, and Ill come by in the morning and knock you up convey such different messages in two countries that purport to speak English? How can it be easier to assent than to dissent but harder to ascend than to descend? Why is it that a man with hair on his head has more hair than a man with hairs on his head; that if you decide to be bad forever, you choose to be bad for good; and that if you choose to wear only your left shoe, then your left one is right and your right one is left? Right? Small wonder that we English users are constantly standing meaning on its head. Lets look at a number of familiar English words and phrases that turn out to mean the opposite of or something very different from what we think they mean:

I could care less. I couldnt care less is the clearer, more accurate version. Why do so many people delete the negative from this statement? Because they are afraid that the nt less combination will make for a double negative, which is a no-no. I really miss not seeing you. Whenever people say this to me. I feel like saying, All right, Ill leave! Here speakers throw in a gratuitous negative, not, even though I really miss seeing you is what they want to say. The movie kept me literally glued to my seat. The chances of our buttocks being literally epoxied to a seat are about as small as the chances of our literally rolling in the aisles while watching a funny movie or literally drowning in tears while watching a sad one. We actually mean The movie kept me figuratively glued to my seat but who needs figuratively, anyway? If we must resort to a clich, The movie kept me glued to my seat is the clearest, most sensible way of expressing our emotions. A non-slop flight Never get on one of those. You'll never get down. A near miss. A near miss is, in reality, a collision. A close call is actually a near hit. My idea fell between the cracks. If something fell between the cracks, didnt it land smack on the planks or the concrete? Shouldnt that be My idea fell into the cracks (or between the boards)? Ill follow you to the ends of the earth. Let the word go forward to the four corners of the earth that ever since Columbus we have known that the earth doesnt have any ends. The first century b.c. These hundred years occurred much longer ago than people imagine. What we call the first century b.c. was, in fact, the last century b.c. Daylight savings time. Not a single second of daylight is saved by this ploy. A hot-water heater. Why heat hot water? A hot cup of coffee. Who cares if the cup is hot? Surely we mean a cup of hot coffee. A one-night stand. So whos standing? Doughnut holes. Arent these little treats really doughnut balls? The holes are whats left in the original doughnut. (And if a candy cane is shaped like a cane, why isnt a doughnut shaped like a nut?) I want to have my cake and eat it, too. Shouldnt this timeworn clich be I want to eat my cake and have it, too? Isnt the logical sequence that one hopes to eat the cake and then still possess it? The announcement was made by a nameless official. Just about everyone has a name, even officials. Surely what is meant is The announcement was made by an unnamed official. Preplan, preboard, preheat and prerecord. Arent people who do such things simply planning, boarding, heating, and recording? Who needs the pretentious prefix? Put on your shoes and socks. This is n exceedingly difficult maneuver. Most of us put on our socks first, then our shoes.

A hit-and-run play. If you know your baseball, you know that the sequence constitutes a run-and-hit play. The bus goes back and forth between the terminal and the airport. Again we find mass confusion about the order of events. You have to go forth before you can go back. Underwater and underground. Things that we claim are underwater and underground are obviously surrounded by, not under, the water and ground. I got caught in one of the biggest traffic bottlenecks of the year. The bigger the bottleneck, the more freely the contents of the bottle flows through it. To be true to the metaphor, we should say, I got caught in one of the smallest bottlenecks of the year. I lucked out. To luck out sounds as if youre out of luck. Dont you mean I lucked in? Because we speakers and writers of English seem to have our heads screwed on backward, we constantly misperceive our bodies, often saying just the opposite of what we mean: Watch your head. I keep seeing this sign on low doorways, but I havent figured out how to follow the instructions. Trying to watch your head is like trying to bite your teeth. Theyre head over heels in love. Thats nice, but we do almost everything head over heels. If we are trying to create an image of people doing cartwheels and somersaults, why dont we say, Theyre heels over head in love? Put your best foot forward. Now, lets see ... We have a good foot, a better foot, but we dont have a third and best foot. Its our better foot that we want to put forward. Put your best foot forward is akin to May the best team win. Usually there are only two teams in the contest. Keep a stiff upper lip. When we are disappointed or afraid, which lip do we try to control? The tower lip, of course, is the one we are trying to keep from quivering. Im speaking tongue in cheek. So how can anyone understand you? They do things behind my back. You want they should do things in front of your back? They did it ass backwards. Whats wrong with that? How else are they supposed to do it? English is weird. In the rigid expressions that wear tonal grooves in the record of our language, beck can appear only with call, cranny with nook, hue with cry, main with might, fettle only with fine, aback with taken, caboodle with kit, and spic and span only with each other. Why must all shrifts be short, all lucre filthy, all bystanders innocent, and all bedfellows strange? Im convinced that some shrifts are lengthy and that some lucre is squeaky clean, and I've certainly met guilty bystanders and perfectly normal bedfellows. Why is it that only swoops are fell? Sure, the verbivorous William Shakespeare invented the expression one fell swoop, but why cant strokes, swings, acts, and the like also be fell? Why are we allowed to vent our spleens but

never our kidneys or livers? Why must it be only our minds that are boggled, and never our eyes or our hearts? Why cant eyes and jars be ajar, as well as doors? Why must aspersions always be cast and never hurled or lobbed? Doesnt it seem just a little loopy that we can make amends but never just one amend; that no matter how carefully we comb through the annals of history, we can never discover just one annal; that we can never pull a shenanigan, be in a doldrum, or get a jitter, a willy, a delirium tremen, a jimjam, or a heebie-jeebie; and that. sifting through the wreckage of a disaster, we can never find just one smithereen? Indeed, this whole business of plurals that dont have matching singulars reminds me to ask this burning linguistic question, one that has puzzled scholars for decades: If you have a bunch of odds and ends and you get rid of or sell off all but one of them, what do you call that doohickey with which youre left? What do you make of the fact that we can talk about certain things and ideas only when they are absent? Once they appear, our blessed English doesnt allow us to describe them. Have you ever seen a horseful carriage or a strapful gown? Have you ever run into someone who was combobulated, sheveled. gruntled, chalant, plussed, ruly, gainly, maculate, pecunious, or peccable? Have you ever met a sung hero or experienced requited love? I know people who are no spring chickens, but where, pray tell, are the people who are spring chickens? Where are the people who actually would hurt a fly? All the time I meet people who are great shakes, who can cut the mustard, who can fight City Hall, who are my cup of tea, and whom I would touch with a ten-foot pole, but I cannot talk about them in English and that is a laughing matter. If the truth be told, all languages are a little crazy. As Walt Whitman might proclaim, they contradict themselves. Thats because language is invented, not discovered, by boys and girls and men and women, not computers. As such, language reflects the creativity and fearful asymmetry of the human race, which, of course, isnt really a race at all. Thats why six, seven, eight, and nine change to sixty, seventy, eighty, and ninety, but two, three, four, and five do not become twoty, threety, fourty, and fivety. Thats why we can turn lights off and on but not out and in. Thats why we wear a pair of pants but, except on very cold days, never a pair of shirts. Thats why we can open up the floor, climb the walls, raise the roof, pick up the house, and bring down the house. In his essay The Awful German Language, Mark Twain spoofs the confusion engendered by German gender by translating literally from a conversation in a German Sunday school book: Gretchen. Wilhelm, where is the turnip? Wilhelm. She has gone to the kitchen. Gretchen. Where is the accomplished and beautiful English maiden? Wilhelm. It has gone to the opera. Twain continues: A tree is male, its buds are female, its leaves are neuter; horses are sexless, dogs are male, cats are female tomcats included.


Still, you have to marvel at the unique lunacy of the English language, in which your house can simultaneously burn up and burn down, in which you fill in a form by filling out a form, in which you add up a column of figures by adding them down, in which your alarm clock goes off by going on, in which you are inoculated for measles by being inoculated against measles, and in which you first chop a tree down and then you chop it up. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. What accounts for the fact that has English become the most widely-spoken languages in the world? In what spheres is English applicable on an international level? 2. What words can be misleading in terms of their form? Explain the essence of this phenomenon. 3. The author gives a lot of examples of inconsistent, illogical usage of words. Can you recall any? 4. Why does the author say that we English users are constantly standing meaning on its head? 5. What plural forms do not have corresponding singular forms? What word/form would you use if you were to express the idea of singularity? 6. Which words can be used only with a negative prefix? 3. Analyze the examples in bold type from the text. Can they be considered incongruous? Do native speakers/foreigners perceive them as such? Give your reasons. Translate these expressions into Russian. Do the translated variants produce the same humorous effect? Think of similar incongruous expressions in the Russian language and ways of translating them into English. 4. Find at least ten cases of illogical, misleading usage of words in your native language (or any other foreign language you speak) and role-play the following situation. You are a native speaker. A foreigner is confused by some expressions in your native language and asks you to help them clarify the meaning of some misleading expressions. Before you act the situation out, discuss the most appropriate means (verbal or nonverbal) to get the message clear to a foreigner.

III. Follow-up activities

1. You are a) a student learning a foreign language; b) a professor of linguistics; c) a journalist writing for a popular magazine. Get ready to participate in a panel discussion and prepare a three-minute speech on the problem: All languages are a little crazy and contradict themselves.

2. You are a teacher of the English language. Explain to your students that it is not enough to know a foreign language well. In order not to be confronted with embarrassing situations, one has to be aware of the norms of its usage.

IV. Additional tasks

Task 1. Check your knowledge of English by doing the following quiz. When you are through and get the correct answers, say which words seemed the most confusable ones. The meaning of which unfamiliar words did you manage to figure out correctly? What helped you guess their actual meaning?

Confusable English
Here is a small quiz that presents more words that are not what they seem. Beware and be wary as you choose the correct definition for each entry. Avoid taking a simplistic (theres another one!) approach. 1. antebellum a) against women; b) against war; c) after the war; d) before the war. 2. apiary a) school for mimics; b)place where apes are kept; c) place where bees are kept; d) cupboard for peas. 3. aquiline a) resembling an eagle; b) relating to water; c) relating to synchronized swimming; d) resembling a porcupine. 4. cupidity a) strong desire for wealth; b) strong desire for love; c) strong desire for amusement parks; d) obtuseness. 5. disinterested a) lacking a bank account; b) unbiased; c) bored; d) lacking rest. 6. enormity a) great wickedness; b) great size; c) normal state; d) cowardice. 7. forestress a) ancient hair style; b) female forester; c) dread anticipation; d) emphasis on first part of word. 8. friable a) easily crumbled; b) easily fried; c) unhealthy; d) relating to holy orders. 9. herpetology the study of a) herbs; b) herpes; c) female pets; d) reptiles. 10. hippophobia the fear of a) hippopotami; b) horses; c) getting fat; d) hippies. 11. infinitesimal a) very small; b) very large; c) relating to intestines; d) hesitant.

12. inflammable a) calm; b) incredulous; c) not easily set on fire; d) easily set on fire. 13. ingenuous a) insincere; b) innocent; c) clever; d) mentally dull. 14. meretricious a) falsely attractive; b) worthy; c) good tasting; d) diseased. 15. presently a) generous with gifts; b) now; c) soon; d) presidentially. 16. prosody the study of a) drama; b) music; c) prose; d) versification. 17. restive a) serene; b) festive; c) fidgety; d) pensive. 18. risible a) disposed to laugh; b) easily lifted; c) fertile; d) relating to dawn. 19. toothsome a) displaying prominent teeth; b) missing teeth; c) palatable; d) serrated. 20. votary a) democratic country; b) enthusiast; c) electoral college; d) revolving tool. Task 2. Read the text and give an extended answer to the following questions. How can it happen that a single word develops two polar meanings? Are there any Janus-faced words in Russian? Can they become a source of confusion and misperception or is the meaning always clear from the context?

Janus-Faced English
In the year 1666 a great fire swept through London and destroyed more than half the city, including three quarters of St Pauls Cathedral. Sir Christopher Wren, the original designer of the Cathedral and perhaps the finest architect of all time, was commissioned to rebuild the great edifice. He began in 1675 and finished in 1710, a remarkably short period of time for such a task. When the magnificent edifice was completed, Queen Anne, the reigning monarch, visited the Cathedral and told Wren that his work was awful, artificial, and amusing. Sir Christopher, so the story goes, was delighted with the royal compliment, because in those days awful meant full of awe, awe-inspiring, artificial meant artistic, and amusing, from the muses, meant amazing. That was three hundred years ago. Today, the older, tottering meanings of awful, artificial, and amusing have virtually disappeared from popular use. Indeed, the general rule of language is that when a single word develops two polar meanings, one will become obsolete. Occasionally, though, two diametrically opposed meanings of the same English word survive, and the technical term for these schizophrenics is contronym. More popularly, they are known as Janus-faced

words because the Greek god Janus had two faces that looked in opposite directions. Heres a little finger exercise. Remember that Im the teacher, so you must try to do what I ask. Make a circle with the fingers on your left hand by touching the tip of your index finger to the tip of your thumb. Now poke your head through that circle. If you unsuccessfully tried to fit your head through me small digital circle, you (and almost any reader) thought that the phrase poke your head meant that your head was the poker. But if you raised your left hand with the circle of fingers up close to your forehead and poked your right index finger through that circle until it touched your forehead, you realized that the phrase poke your head has a second, and opposite, meaning: that the head is the pokee. Here are two sentences that will solidify your understanding of how Janusfaced words work: The moon is VISIBLE tonight. The lights in the old house are always INVISIBLE. Although the two capitalized words are opposite in meaning, both can be replaced by the same word out. When the moon or sun or stars are out, they are visible When the lights are out, they are invisible. Here are some contronymic sentences that show how words wander wondrously and testify to the fact that nothing in the English language is absolute: with. alongside; against: a. England fought with France against Germany, b. England fought with France; clip. fasten; separate: a. Clip the coupon to the newspaper. b. Clip the coupon from the newspaper; fast. firmly in one place; rapidly from one place to another: a. The pegs held the tent fast. b. She ran fast; bolt. to secure in place; to dart away: a. Ill bolt the door. Did you see the horse bolt?; trim. add things to; cut away: a. Lets trim the Christmas tree. b. Lets trim the hedge; dust. remove material from; spread material on: a. Three times a week they dust the floor. b. Three times each season they dust the crops; weather. withstand; wear away: a. Strong ships weather storms. b. Wind can weather rocks; handicap. advantage, disadvantage: a. Whats your handicap in golf? b. His lack of education is a handicap; commencement. beginning; conclusion: a. Beautiful weather marked the commencement of spring. b. She won an award at her high school commencement; bold up. support: hinder: a. Please hold up the sagging branch. b. Accidents hold up the flow of traffic; keep up. continue to fail; continue to stay up: a. The farmers hope that the rain will keep up. b. Damocles hoped that the sword above his head would keep up;


left. departed from; remaining: a. Ten people left the room. b. Five people were left in the room; dress. put items on; remove items from: a. Lets dress for the ball. b. Lets dress the chicken for cooking; temper. soften; strengthen: a. You must temper your anger with reason. b. Factories temper steel with additives; cleave. separate; adhere firmly, a. A strong blow will cleave a plank in two. b. Bits of metal cleave to a magnet; strike. secure in place; remove: a. Use a firm grip to strike the nail. b. When the show is over, well strike the set; give out. produce; slop producing: a. A good furnace will give out enough energy to heat the house. b. A broken furnace will often give out; sanction. give approval of; censure: a. The plans to sanction the event. b. Should our country impose a new sanction on Libya?; screen. view; hide from view: a. Tonight the critics will screen the film. b. Defensemen mustnt screen the puck; oversight. careful supervision; neglect; a. The foreman was responsible for the oversight of the project. b. The foremans oversight ruined the success of the project; qualified. competent, limited: a. The candidate for the job was fully qualified. b. The dance was a qualified success; moot. debatable; not worthy of debate: a. ital punishment is a moot point. b. That the earth revolves around the sun is a moot point; certain. definite; difficult to specify: a. I am certain about what I want in life. b. I have a certain feeling about the plan; mortal. deadly, subject to death: a. The knight delivered a mortal blow. b. All humans are mortal; buckle. fasten together; fall apart: a. Safe drivers buckle their seat belts. b. Unsafe buildings buckle at the slightest tremor of the earth; trip. to stumble; to move gracefully: a. Dont trip on the curb. b. Lets trip the light fantastic; put out. generate; extinguish: a. The candle put out enough light for us to see. b. Before I went to bed, I put out the candle; unbending. rigid; relaxing: a. On the job Smith is completely unbending. b. Relaxing on the beach is a good way of unbending; wear. endure through use; decay through use; a. This suit will wear like iron. b. Water can cause mountains to wear; scan. examine carefully, glance at hastily: a. I scan the poem. b. Each day, I scan the want ads; fix. restore; remove part of: a. Its time to fix the fence. b. Its time to fix the bull; seeded. with seeds; without seeds: a. The rain nourished the seeded field. b. Would you like some seeded raisins?; critical. opposed; essential to: a. Joanne is critical of our effort. b. Joanne is critical to our effort;

better. admire more; be suspicious of: a. I think better of the first proposal than the second. b. If I were you, Id think better of that proposal; take. obtain; offer a. Professional photographers take good pictures. b. Professional models take good pictures; impregnable. invulnerable to penetration; able to be impregnated: a. The castle was so strongly built that it was impregnable. b. Treatments exist for making a childless woman more impregnable; below par. excellent; poor: a. Her below par score won the golf tournament. b. Im disappointed in your below par performance on the spelling test; down hill. adverse; easy: a. When the source of capital dried up, the fortunes of the corporation went down hill. b. After you switch to diet drinks, it will be all down hill for your weight-loss program; wind up. start; end: a.1 have to wind up my watch. b. Now I have to wind up this discussion of curious and contrary contronyms. Task 3. Read the text and spot animal idioms. In what situations would their usage be appropriate? How many idioms could you use in e.g. a description of a person without making it sound unnatural? Describe a person you know in five sentences using 5 animal idioms, then choose the best description among the students in your class.

A Visit to the Language Zoo

Many childrens magazines feature picture puzzles in which the young readers are asked to identify a number of hidden animals. In a cloud may lurk a cow, in the leaves of a tree may be concealed a fish, and on the side of a house may be soaring an eagle. The English language is like those childrens pictures. Take a gander at what follows, and you will discover almost three hundred creatures from the animal world hidden in the sentences, a veritable menagerie of zoological metaphors. (Did you catch one of them in the last sentence?) Human beings, proclaims one dictionary, are distinguished from the other animals by a notable development of brain with a resultant capacity for speech and abstract thinking. Perhaps so, but how truly different is our species from our fellow organisms with whom we share the planet? I mean holy cow, holy cats, and holy mackerel a little bird told me that the human race is filled with congressional hawks and doves who fight like cats and dogs til the cows come home, Wall Street bulls and bears who make a beeline for the goose that lays the golden egg, cold fish and hotdoggers, early birds and night owls, lone wolves and social butterflies, young lions and old crows, and lame ducks, sitting ducks, and dead ducks. Some people are horny studs on the prowl for other party animals, strutting peacocks who preen and fish for compliments, clotheshorses who put on the dog with their turtlenecks and hush puppies, young bucks and nytailed foxy chicks in

puppy love who want to get hitched, or cool cats and kittenish lovebirds who avoid stag parties to bill and coo and pet and paw each other in their love nests. Other people have a whale of an appetite that compels them to eat like pigs (not birds), drink like fish, stuff themselves to the gills, hog the lions share, and wolf their elephantine portions until they become plump as partridges. Still others are batty, squirrelly, bug-eyed, cod-eyed cuckoos who are mad as march hares and look like something the cat dragged in; crazy as coots, loons, a bedbugs; and who come at us like bats out of hell with their monkeyshines and drive us buggy with their horsing around. As we continue to separate the sheep from the goats and to pigeonhole the human race, we encounter catnapping, slothful sluggards; harebrained jackasses who, like fish out of water, doggedly think at a snails pace; dumb bunnies and dumb clucks who run around like chickens with their heads cut off; birdbrained dodos who are easily gulled, buffaloed, and outfoxed; asinine silly gooses who lay an egg whenever, like monkey-see-monkey-do, they parrot and ape every turkey they see; clumsy oxen who are bulls in china shops; and top dogs on their high horses, big fish in small ponds, and cocky bullies high up in the pecking order who rule the roost and never work for chicken feed. Leapin lizards, we can scarcely get through a day without meeting crestfallen, pussyfooting chickens who stick their heads in the sand; henpecked underdogs who get goose pimples and butterflies and turn tail; scared rabbits who play possum and cry crocodile tears before they go belly up; spineless jellyfish who clam up with a frog in the throat whenever the cat gets their tongue; mousy worms who quail and flounder and then, quiet as mice, slink off and then return to the fold with their tails between their legs; and shrimpy pipsqueaks who fawn like toadies until you want to croak. Lets face it. Its a dog-eat-dog world we live in. But doggone it, without beating a dead horse, I do not wish to duck or leapfrog over this subject. Its time to fish or cut bait, to take the bull by the horns, kill two birds with one stone, and, before everything goes to the dogs and weve got a tiger by the tail, to give you a birds-eye view of the animals hiding in our language. Dog my cats! Its a bear of a task to avoid meeting catty, shrewish, bitchy vixens with bees in their bonnets whose pet peeve and sacred cow is that all men are swine and chauvinist pigs and in their doghouse. Other brutes who get your goat and ruffle your feathers are antsy, backbiting, crabby, pigheaded old buzzards, coots, and goats who are no spring chickens, who are stubborn as mules, and who grouse, bug, badger, dog, and hound you like squawking, droning, waspish gadflies that stir up a hornets nest and make a mountain out of a molehill. And speaking of beastly characters that stick in your craw, watch out for the parasites, bloodsuckers, sponges, and leeches who worm their way into your consciousness and make you their scapegoats; the rat finks and stool pigeons who ferret out your deepest secrets and then squeal on you, let the cat out of the bag, and fly the coop without so much as a Tough turkey. See you later, alligator; the snakes-in-the-grass who come out of the woodwork, open a can of worms, and then, before you smell a rat, throw you a red herring; the serpentine quacks who

make you their gullible guinea pig and cats-paw; the lowdown curs and dirty dogs who sling the bull, give you a bum steer, and send you on a wild goose chase barking up the wrong tree on a wing and a prayer; the card sharks who hawk their fishy games, monkey with your nest egg, put the sting on you, and then fleece you; the vultures who hang like albatrosses around your neck, who live high on the hog, who feather their own nests and then the straw that breaks the camels back crow about it looking like the cat that swallowed the canary; the black sheep who play cat and mouse and then cook your goose and make a monkey out of you with their shaggy dog stories before they hightail it out of there; and the lousy varmints, polecats, skunks, and eels who sell you a white elephant or a pig in a poke and, when the worm turns and you discover the fly in the ointment, weasel their way out of the deal. Its a real jungle out there, just one unbridled rat race; in fact, its for the birds. But lets talk turkey and horse sense. Dont we go a tad ape and hog wild over the bright-eyed and bushy-tailed eager beavers who always go whole hog to hit the bulls-eye; the eagle-eyed tigers who are always loaded for bear; and the ducky, loosey-goosey rare birds who are wise as owls and happy as larks and clams? Lucky dogs like these are the cats pajamas and the cats meow, worthy of being lionized. From the time theyre knee-high to a grasshopper, theyre in the catbird seat and the world is their oyster. So before you buzz off, I hope you'll agree that this exhibit of animal metaphors has been no fluke, no hogwash, no humbug. I really give a hoot about the animals hiding in our English language, so, for my swan song. I want you to know that, straight from the horse's mouth, this has been no dog-and-pony show and no cock-and-bull story. It really is a zoo out there. Task 4. This time, spot food idioms and explain whether they are commonly used in English or not. Make a list of English food idioms, classify them and try to make a similar list of food idioms in Russian. Was it an easy task for you to recall food idioms in your native language? What accounts for this fact?

You Said a Mouthful

Now that you have uncovered the hidden herds of animals, flocks of birds, swarms of insects, and universities of fish that metaphorically run, fly, creep, and swim through our English language, its lime to nibble on another spicy, meaty, juicy honey of a topic that I know youll want to savor and relish. Feast your eyes now on the veritable potpourri of mushrooming food expressions that grace the table of our English language and season our tongue. As we chew the fat about the food-filled phrases that are packed like sardines and sandwiched into our everyday conversations,

Ill sweeten the pot with some tidbits of food for thought guaranteed to whet your appetite. I know whats eating you. Ive heard through the grapevine that you dont give a fig because you think Im nutty as a fruitcake; that youre fed up with me for biting off more than I can chew; that you want me to drop this subject like a hot potato because Im a spoiled rotten weenie; and that youre giving me the raspberry for asking you to swallow a cheesy, corny, mushy, saccharine, seedy, soupy, sugarcoated, syrupy topic that just isnt your cup of tea. I understand that youre beet red with anger that Im feeding you a bunch of baloney, garbage, and tripe; that Ive rubbed salt in your wounds by making you ruminate on a potboiler thats no more than a tempest in a teapot; that Ive upset your apple cart by rehashing an old chestnut thats just pie in the sky and wont amount to a hill of beans; that you want to chew me out for putting words in your mouth; mat youre boiling and simmering because you think Im a candy-assed apple polisher whos out to egg you on. But nuts to all that. Thats the way the cookie crumbles. Eat your heart out and stop crying in your beer. Im going to stop mincing words and start cooking with gas, take my idea off the back burner and bring home the bacon without hamming it up. No matter how you slice it, this fruitful, tasteful topic is the greatest thing since sliced bread, the icing on the cake. Rather than crying over spilt milk and leaping out of me frying pan and into the fire, Im going to put all my eggs into one basket, take potluck, and spill the beans. Im cool as a cucumber and confident that this crackerjack, peachy-keen, vintage feast that Ive cooked up will have you eating out of the palm of my hand. I dont wish to become embroiled in a rhubarb, but beefing and stewing sound like sour grapes from a tough nut to crack kind of like the pot calling the kettle black. But if youve digested the spoonfed culinary metaphors up to this point in this meal-and-potatoes chapter, the rest will be gravy, duck soup, a piece of cake, and easy as pie just like taking candy from a baby. Just think of the various people we meet every day. Some have taste. Others we take with a grain of salt. Some drive us bananas and crackers. Still others are absolutely out to lunch: * the young sprouts and broths of lads who feel their oats and are full of beans; * the sally, crusty oldsters who are wrinkled as prunes and live to a ripe old age well beyond their salad days; * the peppery smart cookies (no mere eggheads, they) who use their beans and noodles to cut the mustard; * the half-baked meat heads, the flaky couch potatoes, and the pudding-headed vegetables who drive us nuts with their slow-as-molasses peabrains and who gum up the works and are always in a pickle, a jam, hot water, the soup, or a fine kettle of fish; * the unsavory, crummy, hard-boiled, ham-fisted rotten apples with their cauliflower ears, who can cream us, beat the stuffing out of us, make us into mincemeat and hamburger, and knock us ass over teakettle and flatter than a pancake;

* the mealymouthed marshmallows, Milquetoasts, milksops, half-pints, and cream puffs who walk on egg-shells and whose knees turn to jelly as they gingerly waffle and fudge on every issue to see which side their bread is buttered on; * the carrot-topped, pizza-faced string beans and bean poles who, with their lumpy Adams apples, are long drinks of water; * the top bananas, big cheeses, and big breadwinners who ride the gravy train by making a lot of lettuce and dough and who never work for peanuts or small potatoes; * the honeys, tomatoes, dumplings, cheesecakes, and sweetie pies with their peaches-and-cream complexions, strawberry blond hair, almond eyes, and cherry lips; * the saucy tarts who wiggle their melons and buns and fritter away their time buttering up their meal tickets and milking their sugar daddies dry; * the salt-of-the-earth good eggs who take the cake, know their onions, make life a bowl of cherries, and become the apples of our eye and the toasts of the town. Hot dog! I hope youre pleased as punch that this souped-up topic is a plum, not a lemon: the berries, not the pits. The proof of the pudding is in the eating, and this cream of the crop of palate-pleasing food figures is bound to sell like hotcakes. Im no glutton for punishment for all the tea in China, but, if Im wrong, Ill eat crow and humble pie. I dont wish to take the words right out of your mouth, but, in a nutshell, it all boils down to the fact that every day we truly eat our words. Task 5. In the text below you will find violent idioms. What connotation do they have? Are they appropriate in any text/speech? In what everyday situations can you use them? Watch several TV programmes and read several newspaper/magazine articles. Where are violent idioms used more commonly and why?

Violent English
Everyone deplores violence these days. Many articles and books, radio and television programs, and self-help and encounter groups are designed to help us curb our tempers. And with the specters of international terrorism and nuclear warfare haunting our horizon, it may be that the future of the human race depends upon our ability to channel our violent impulses and to locate solutions based on cooperation rather than aggression. When we tackle, wrestle, and grapple with the problem of violence, we are bound to be struck by a crucial idea. If our view of reality is shaped and defined by the words and phrases we use, then violence is locked deep in our thoughts, frozen in the clichs and expressions of everyday life. Ill be hanged! we are likely to exclaim as this insight hits us with a vengeance. I believe that Ive hit the nail right on the head! Lets take a stab at the issue of violence in our everyday parlance with a crash course on the words we use to describe disagreements. First, we rack our brains

assembling an arsenal of arguments. Then we attempt to demolish the oppositions points with a barrage of criticism, attack their positions by nailing them dead to rights, letting them have it with both barrels, and shooting down their contentions. We break their concentration by puncturing their assumptions, cut them down to size by hammering away at their weaknesses, torpedo their efforts with barbed criticism, and then, when push comes to shove, assault their integrity with character assassination. If all else fails, we try to twist their arms and kill them with kindness. Now we can begin to understand the full impact of the expression to have a violent disagreement. The world of business is a veritable jungle of cutthroat competition, a roughand-tumble school of hard knocks, and dog-eat-dog world of backbiting, backstabbing, and hatchet jobs. Some companies spearhead a trend of price gouging. Other firms beat the competition to the punch and gain a stranglehold on the market by fighting tooth and nail to slash prices in knock-down-drag-out, no-holds-barred price wars. Still other companies gain clout by putting the squeeze on their competitors with shakeups, raids, and hostile takeovers. Then the other side gets up in arms and screams bloody murder about such a low blow. No wonder that business executives are often recruited by headhunters. No wonder that bleeding hearts who cant fight their own battles are likely to get axed, booted, canned, discharged, dumped, fired, kicked out, sacked, or terminated. One would hope that sporting contests would provide an escape from lifes daily grind. But once again we find mayhem and havoc embedded in the adversarial expressions of matters athletic. In fact, we cant get within striking distance of a big game without running or bumping into some ticket scalper whos out to rip us off and get away with murder. Once inside the stadium or arena, we witness two teams trying to battle, beat, clobber, crush, dominate, maul, pulverize, rout, slaughter, steamroll, thrash, throttle, wallop, whip, wipe out, kick the pants off, make mince-meat out of, stick it to, and wreak havoc on each other with battle plans that include suicide squeezes, grand slams, blitzes, shotgun offenses, aerial bombs, punishing ground attacks, and slam dunks. Naturally both sides hope that they wont choke in sudden death overtime. Fleeing the battlefields of athletics at breakneck speed, we seek release from our violent language by taking in some entertainment. We look to kill some time at a dynamite show thats supposed to be a smash hit blockbuster and a slapstick riot that well get a kick and a bang out of. But the whole shootin match turns out to be a bomb and a dud, rather than a blast and a bash. The lead may be a knockout and stunning bombshell, but she butchers her lines and her clashing outfit grates on our nerves. Sure as shootin, were burned up and bored to death with the sheer torture of it all. We feel like tearing our hair out, eating our heart out, gnashing our teeth, snapping at others, and kicking ourselves. So, all bent out of shape, we go off half-cocked and beat it home feeling like battered, heartbroken nervous wrecks. The situation is explosive. Weve been through the meat grinder, and were ready to blow our tops and stacks, shoot off our mouths, wring somebodys neck, knock his block and socks off, and go on the warpath. Weve got a real axe to grind.

Even alcohol and drugs wont offer any releases from the prison of violence in which we English speakers are incarcerated. However blitzed, bombed, hammered, plowed, smashed, stoned, or wasted we become, we must eventually crash. Its like using a double-edged sword to cut off our nose to spite our face. If language is truly a window to the world and if the words and expressions we use truly affect the way we think, can we ever really stamp out violence? Task 6. Read the text. What does Farmer Pluribus suggest in order to improve and simplify the English language? See how many incorrect plural forms you can identify. Explain how they are formed and give the correct variants of the plural forms. Which of them are commonly used nowadays and which ones have become obsolete?

Foxen in the Henhice

Recently I undertook an extensive study of American dialects, and a friend told me about a farmer named Eben Pluribus who spoke a most unusual kind of English. So I went to visit Farmer Pluribus, and here is a transcript of our interview: Mr. Pluribus. I hear that youve had some trouble on the farm. Well, young fella, times were hard for a spell. Almost every night them danged foxen were raiding my henhice. Excuse me, sir, I interjected. Dont you mean foxes? Nope, I dont, Pluribus replied. I use oxen to plow my fields, so its foxen that Im trying to get rid of. I see. But what are henhice? I asked. Easy. One mouse, two mice; one henhouse, two henhice. You must be one of them city slickers, but surely you know that henhice are what them birds live in that, when theyre little critters, they utter all them peep. I think Im beginning to understand you, Mr. Pluribus. But dont you mean peeps? Nope, I mean peep. More than one sheep is a flock of sheep, and more than one peep is a bunch of peep. What do you think I am, one of them old ceet? I havent meant to insult you, sir, I gulped. But I cant quite make out what youre saying. Then you must be a touch slow in the head, Farmer Pluribus shot back. One foot, two feet; one coot, Iwo ceet. Im just trying to easify the English language, so I make all regular plural nouns irregular. Once theyre all irregular, then its just the same like theyre all regular. Makes perfect sense to me, I mumbled. Good boy, said Pluribus, and a gleam came into his eyes. Now, as I was trying to explain, them pesky foxen made such a fuss that all the meese and lynges have gone north.

Aha! I shouted. Youre talking about those big antlered animals, arent you? One goose, two geese; one moose, a herd of meese. And lynges is truly elegant one sphinx, a row of sphinges: one lynx, a litter of lynges. Youre a smart fella, sonny, smiled Pluribus. You see, I used to think that my cose might scare away them foxen, but the cose were too danged busy chasing rose. Oh, oh. Youve lost me again, I lamented. What are os and rose? Guess you aint so smart after all, Pluribus sneered. If those is the plural of that, then cose and rose got to be the plurals of cat and rat. Sorry that Im so thick, but Im really not one of those people who talk through their hose, I apologized, picking up Pluribuss cue. Could you please tell me what happened to the foxen in your henhice? Id be pleased to, answered Pluribus. What happened was that my brave wife, Una, grabbed one of them frying pen and took off after them foxen. I wondered for a moment what frying pen were and soon realized that because the plural of man is men, the plural of pan had to be pen. Well, Pluribus went right on talking, the missus wasnt able to catch them foxen so she went back to the kitchen and began throwing dish and some freshly made pice at them critters. That part of the story stumped me for a time, until I reasoned that a school of fish is made up of fish and more than one die make a roll of dice so that Una Pluribus must have grabbed a stack of dishes and pies. Pluribus never stopped. Them dish and pice sure scarified them foxen, and the pests have never come back. In fact, the rest of the village heard about what my wife did, and they were so proud that they sent the town band out to the farm to serenade her with tubae, harmonicae, accordia, fives, and dra. Hold up! I gasped. Give me a minute to figure out those musical instruments. The plural of formula is formulae, so the plurals of tuba and harmonica must be tubae and harmanicae. And the plurals of phenomenon and criterion are phenomena and criteria, so the plural of accordion must be accordia. You must be one of them genii, Pluribus exclaimed. Maybe, I blushed. One cactus, two cacti; one alumnus, an association of alumni. So one genius, a seminar of genii. But let me get back to those instruments. The plurals of life and wife are lives and wives, so the plural of fife must be fives. And the plural of medium is media, so the plural of drum must be dra. Whew! That last one was tough.


Good boy, sonny. Well, my wife done such a good job of chasing away them foxen that the town newspaper printed up a story and ran a couple of photographim of her holding them pen, dish, and pice. My brain was now spinning in high gear, so it took me but an instant to realize that Farmer Pluribus had regularized one of the most exotic plurals in the English language seraph, seraphim; so photograph, photographim. I could imagine all those Pluribi bathing in their bathtubim, as in cherub, cherubim; bathtub, bathtubim. Well, crowed Pluribus. I was mighty pleased that ererybody was so nice to the missus, but that aint no surprise since folks in these here parts show a lot of respect for their methren. Brother, brethren; mother, methren. I rejoined. That thought makes me want to cry. Have you any boxen of Kleenices here? Sure do, young fella. And Im tickled pink that youve caught on to the way Ive easified the English language. One index, two indices and one appendix, two appendices. So one Kleenex, two Kleenices. Makes things simpler, dont it? I was so grateful to Farmer Pluribus for having taught m his unique dialect that I took him out to one of them local cafeteriae. I reported my findings to the American dialect Society by calling from one of the telephone beeth in the place. Yep, youve got it. One tooth, two teeth. One telephone booth, two telephone beeth. Makes things simpler, dont it?


A Confluence of Cultures I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Lane, advent, dispossess, pillage, desecration, encounter, prudence, emulate, uproot, heinous, frge, fashion, ploy, influx, wantonness, witting, superabundant, defraud, shorthanded, minuscule, requisite, inadvertently, exempt, exonerate, contravene, incite, set foot, set sail, oblivion. 2. Make sure you pronounce these words correctly. If necessary, look up their pronunciation in a dictionary. Arsenal, mosaic, triracial, genocide, uniqueness, monochromatic, empathy, geopolitical, infamous, missionary, apocalypse, bureaucracy, empire, sovereignty, machinations, scrupulous, mercantilism, evangelical. 3. Build adjectives from the following words. Use the patterns suggested. Columbus effort line prejudice continue universe intrude less al ian ous ive ial

4. Choose the appropriate prefix to build words with negative meaning (ir-, dis-, in-, il-, un-). possess reparable interested advertently legitimate witting location interestedness invited

5. Match the words on the left with the words on the right to build up compounds. far short super back free ill

abundant holders flung gotten handed room

hard free fork ship assembly

booting nosed wrights tongued men

6. Match the words on the left with the words on the right to make up word combinations. Explain their meaning in English and provide an appropriate context for their usage. beyond set testify stand sit set draw run the moral pale sail foot on ones hands in sore need of as if from the plague on ones behalf a moral bead

7. The text suggests that all language is loaded with value judgments. For example, the influx of white people into Indian America can be called colonization, imperialism, settlement, emigration or invasion. And the participants of this process can be referred to as imperialists, conquistadors, trespassers, killers or Europeans, whites, colonists, strangers, settlers. Which of these words bear a negative meaning, which are neutral or positive? Does the use of such words give us any idea of a persons attitude to the subject matter?

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the text.

A Confluence of Cultures
Contemporary American society is the direct descendant of the colonists and slaves who sailed in Columbuss wake.
By James Axtell

We might well call America a Columbian mosaic because it was the Italian admiral who effectively bound together all of the worlds continents with the shipping lanes of one continuous ocean sea. When Columbus bumped into America en route to Asia after a maritime apprenticeship in Europe and Africa, he made it likely indeed, inevitable that the peoples of the worlds insular continents would no longer live in splendid isolation. Although he never set foot

on the North American continent, he was personally responsible for introducing Europeans to America and Americans albeit in chains to Europe. It was left to Nicolas de Ovando, his successor as governor of the Indies, to introduce African slaves to the western hemisphere in 1502, just as Columbus set sail on his fourth and final voyage. The paternity of triracial America is not in doubt; the only question is, How did the new American mosaic that had taken shape by 1790 come about? One short answer is that Columbus and his European successors found a virgin paradise of innocence and harmony and proceeded to rape the land, kill the natives, and pillage Africa to replace the American victims of the genocide. There is, of course, some truth to that, but not enough to be morally useful or historically honest. If we can take our itchy fingers off the trigger of moral outrage for a spell, we might be able to view the human phase of what is being called the Columbian Encounter less as an excuse for passing judgment than as a vehicle for understanding. For we stand in sore need of some critical distance from the irreparable problems of the past. We might well cultivate a little disinterestedness toward both the failing and successes of our predecessors in hopes of taking courage and counsels of prudence from their struggles and solutions. Since their circumstances their field of experiences, opportunities, and limitations are never the same as ours, we cannot draw universal laws from their actions, good or ill. We can only try to emulate their good example and to avoid their worst mistakes by paying close attention to the historical circumstances in which they acted, by recognizing that their time is not our time and that we must be equally alert to the complexity and uniqueness of our own circumstances as we strive to thread a moral path through the present. Perhaps then we can see that the American social mosaic of the 1990s is the lineal descendant of the 1790s, and that, although we cannot change the facts of history, we can, through a critical and disinterested examination of their causes, suggest a few ways to improve the personal and group relations Americans continue to fashion in their modern mosaic. A test of moral mettle and patience arises as soon as one begins to discuss the influx of Europeans or white people into monochromatic Indian America. On the simplest level, what do we call the process and the participants? Since all language is loaded with value judgments, it makes quite a difference whether we refer to the process as colonization, imperialism, settlement, emigration, or invasion. By the same token, were the newcomers imperialists, conquistadors, invaders, trespassers, and killers, or were they, on balance, only Europeans, whites, colonists, strangers, and settlers? It has been one of the cardinal rules of the historical canon one I see no reason to lay aside that the parties of the past deserve equal treatment from historians, equal respect and empathy but also equal criticism and justice. As judge, jury, prosecutor, and counsel for the defense of people who can no longer testify on their own behalf, the historian cannot be any less than impartial in his or her judicial review of the past. For that reason, I suggest, we should avoid language that is inflammatory or prejudicial to any historical person or party.

How, then, did the face of America become so blanched when only 300 years earlier it had been uniformly brown? The short answer is that Europeans emigrated in great numbers to the Americas and, when they got there, reproduced themselves with unprecedented success. But a somewhat fuller explanation must take account of regional and national variations. The first immigrants, of course, were Spanish, not merely the infamous conquistadors, whose bloody feats greatly belied their small numbers, but Catholic priests and missionaries, paper-pushing clerks and officials who manned the farflung bureaucracy of empire, and ordinary settlers: peasants, artisans, merchants, and not a few hidalgos, or minor noblemen. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Spaniards entered American ports. They were joined by 450,000 in the next century. The great majority were young men; only in the late 16th century did the proportion of women reach one-third. This meant that many men had to marry, or at least cohabit with, Indian women, which in turn gave rise to a large mestizo or mixed population. In sharp contrast to the moderately large number of Spanish immigrants were the French in Canada, which Voltaire dismissed as a few acres of snow. In a century and a half, Mother France sent only 15,000 emigrants to the Laurentian colony, the majority of them against their will. Only 500 paid their own way, many of them were merchants eager to crash in on the fur and import trade. the rest were reluctant engages (indentured servants), soldiers, convicts, and filles du roi or Kings girls, sent to supply the colonys superabundant, and lonely bachelors with wives. Not until 1710 were the Canadian genders balanced. But even in the 17th century, Canadians married young and produced often, doubling the population at least every 30 years. Fortunately for their Indian hosts and English neighbors, this high rate of natural increase was wasted on a minuscule base population. The biggest source of white faces in North America was Great Britain. In the 17th century she sent more than 150,000 of their sons and daughters to the mainland colonies and at least 350,000 more in the next century. In 1690, white people numbered around 194,000; a hundred years later they teemed at more than three million. Yet numbers alone do not allow us to draw a moral bead on the early American story. We must know not only how many Europeans immigrated to or invaded Indian America but why. For many but by no means all settlers of New England, religion played a key role in their decision to uproot their families and move to America. But religious motives did not always guarantee the health, sovereignty, or well-being of the American natives. New England missionaries not only reduced the native landbase by resettling the Indians in smaller, anglicized praying towns, but inadvertently increased the natives risk of contagious disease. In other words, good intentions alone are not sufficient to exempt historical actors from criticism, and history, unlike the law, has no statute of limitations. Other motives are equally hard to exonerate or condemn wholesale. Can we blame ordinary European farmers, craftsmen, and merchants for wanting to forge a

better life for their families, even if they wound up on land that once belonged to Americas native inhabitants? The vast majority of immigrants hardly, if ever, saw the original owners, much less cheated or forced them from their land. Even male freeholders seldom knew about the back-room chicanery of their elected representatives who speculated with ill-gotten Indian lands. Much less could the voters control the machinations of imperial officials and army officers who schemed for native property. If we blame ordinary colonists for wanting lower taxes, less crowding, more land, higher wages, healthier climates, more and better food, and family harmony, we will have to include most of the human race in the blame. On the other hand, immigrants were not only drawn to America but pushed out of Europe. Many shipped out because they were trying to run away from something. We may have little sympathy for those who chose to evade their civil responsibilities and the law, but what about the scrupulous avoiders of sin and immorality, who ran from drinking, gambling, and wantonness as if from plague? If we want to take a hard-nosed stance on the spoiling, illegitimate, or immoral character of white immigration, we would do better to focus on those who came solely to hijack Americas wealth to Europe, often with the health, witting or unwitting, of its native owners and trustees, or those who carried war and destruction to Indian country, directly or indirectly in pursuit of European geopolitical objectives. Obviously it is easier to pillory the designers, and to some extent the agents, of military and economic imperialism than it is the immigrants who carried no conscious intent to defraud, harm, or dispossess anyone. Oppressive Spanish mine owners, freebooting pirates, absentee owners of West Indian sugar plantations, and fork-tongued traders who swindled Indians of their furs and skins with watered rum and false measures undoubtedly deserve our censure, mostly because they contravened the moral standards of their own day. At the same time, we should recognize that to condemn every aggressive military, religious, or economic action in the past is to question some of the fundaments of Western society, past and present. If everything associated with mercantilism, capitalism, evangelical religion, and armed force is beyond the moral pale, we may find it difficult, if not impossible, to approach Americas past or the histories of most of the worlds cultures with the requisite empathy, understanding, and disinterestedness. Another topic that requires an abundance of all three qualities but allows ample room for moral judgment is slavery. Nineteen percent of the population of the newly founded United states was black, the result of a legal, culturally sanctioned, but heinous trade in African slaves. The slave trade was already ancient by the time America was brought into the European orbit in 1492. But the discovery of gold, the development of sugar plantations, and the founding of cities


in Spanish and Portuguese America created a vast new market for the human chattels brought from the African interior by rival African kings, merchants and war chiefs. Before independence, the Spanish alone transported 1.5 million blacks to their colonies, perhaps 200,000 before 1650. In the Caribbean the blacks replaced Indian laborers who had died in massive numbers from oppression, dislocation, and imported diseases. By the 17th century, the native populations of Mexico and coastal Peru were also seriously depleted, so black slaves were substituted as panners of gold, cutters of sugar cane, sailors, shipwrights, and particularly domestic servants in urban households. They did their work so well that by the 18th century the majority of these blacks were free, especially the women and children of the cities who were often liberated when their owner died. In Canada the French preferred Indian slaves from the eastern Plains and Great Lakes. In 125 years they imported only 1,132 Africans (fewer than 10 a year), mostly as household servants in Quebec and Montreal. In contrast, French Louisiana between 1719 and 1735 imported some 7,000 Africans. Yet in 1735 only 3,400 remained to be counted. The same loss of life must have occurred during the next 50 years: more than 20,000 slaves arrived, but the black population in 1785 was only 16,500. Even the importation of slaves could not keep pace with Louisianas morbid climate and the physical demands of plantation labor. The English demand for black labor grew much more slowly than did the Spanish, largely because the supply of indentured servants from the British Isles was adequate until the late 17th century. After 1720, demand for acculturated west Indian slaves outstripped the supply, and 80 per cent of the slaves for English plantations came directly from Africa. Although the condition of perpetual bondage was never easy, life on English farms and plantations for economic more than humanitarian reasons was tolerable enough to allow the black population to increase naturally as well as by constant infusions of new Africans. Despite the uninvited presence of some four million Europeans and Africans, it could be argued and was that America in 1790 had plenty of elbow room for natives and strangers. Even if the natives had been at full, pre-Columbian strength, some said, a slight change in their economy would have freed up enough land for all the newcomers without any noticeable pinch. By giving up the wild, nomadic life of the hunter for the taming, sedentary life of the farmer, the Indians (by which was meant male Indians) would require only a fraction of their former lands. And if for some perverse reason they did not like the sound of foreign neighbors, they could always move west, beyond the Mississippi River where the white man would never think of moving. But of course the natives were not at full strength in 1790, and their room for maneuvering was greatly circumscribed by nearly 300 years of cultural crowding and numerical decline. In the South, where they were at their strongest, they had suffered a 72 per cent drop in population since 1685, while the white settlers had multiplied 21 times and the blacks nearly 18. Contemporaries who wishfully asserted that eastern America was big enough for everyone assumed that the natives were primarily hunters who chased

wild game over the whole map. Although native men did have to range far and wide to provide the fish and meat that made up 25 to 50 per cent of their diet, in fact the Indians in the huge area claimed by the kings of England subsisted primarily on vegetables corn, beans, and squash cultivated by women in the most fertile soils available. Among these three-season fields they lived in semipermanent towns and villages ranging from several hundred to a couple of thousand inhabitants. The advent of European farmers in search of those same fields put them on a predestined collision course with the Indians. The issue that was to be decided over the next three centuries was whether an intrusive group of farmers (and land speculators) would replace an ingenuous group of farmers. How this was in fact done varied from colony to colony. But in general the English (and their reluctant black helpers) prevailed by out-producing the natives and causing their precipitous decline as independent people. The Indians could not reproduce themselves because their mortality rates far outstripped their birthrates. The single greatest cause of native deaths was epidemic diseases imported from Europe without malice. European afflictions such as smallpox, typhus, diphtheria, measles, mumps, and whooping cough many of the childhood diseases turned into adult killers because the natives had acquired no immunities to them. The second major cause of the Indian apocalypse was war and the dislocation, starvation, and exposure that accompanied it. In every so-called Indian war in colonial America, the warring Indians invariably reacted to European provocations, usurpations, or desecrations, arrogations much more specific and serious than mere trespassing on Indian soil. Because they were quickly outnumbered by the prolific and technologically superior newcomers, warring tribes or confederacies had to have their backs to the wall or their stoical patience exhausted before they would risk armed conflict. In every English colony, native people found themselves regarded as environmental impediments to colonial improvement, not unlike awkwardly placed swamps or indiscriminating wolves. If the crowding of the English did not kill them through war or contagion, the colonists developed an arsenal of tactics to wrest the land from them or to dispirit them enough to move voluntarily. One way was to incite civil war between rival tribes and to reward one side for producing Indian slaves, who were then sold to the West Indies, often for black slaves. Another was to play on the reasonable native regard for European trade goods, particularly cloth, metal tools, guns and alcohol. By extending credit, the English traders got the Indians into deep debt, which could not be settled without selling land or hunting the local fur-bearing fauna to oblivion. But there was an even more effortless ploy: English farmers simply released their corn-loving cattle and swine into the natives unfenced fields. The Indian plea on this score to the Maryland legislature in 1666 speaks eloquently for the plight of most coastal Algonquians in the 17th century. Your Hogs and Cattle injure Us,


You come too near Us to live and drive Us from place to place, the Algonquian chief complained matter-of-factly. We can fly no farther; let us know where to live and how to be secured for the future from the Hogs and Cattle. But the assemblymen, like their successors in the national congress of 1790, sat on their hands as Indian America was slowly but inexorably transmuted into a lopsided mosaic predominantly white and significantly black, with only a fading margin and a few shrinking islands of native brown. 2. How many parts can the text be divided into? Define the subject matter of each part. According to what principle are these parts arranged? Pay special attention to the introductory and concluding parts and explain whether they are proportionally arranged and why the author has chosen this particular way of beginning and ending his essay. 3. Make up a detailed plan of the text and ask your group-mates two questions based on each part of the text. 4. Comment on the meaning and functions of the following emphatic constructions. What idea is emphasized in each case? 1. We might well call America a Columbian mosaic because it was the Italian admiral who effectively bound together all of the worlds continents with the shipping lanes of one continuous ocean set. 2. The great majority were young men; only in the late 16th century did the proportion of women reach one-third. 5. What is the authors attitude to the influx of white people in America? Does he give any value judgments or does he try to be impartial? Prove your point by providing evidence from the text. 6. Role-play the following situation. You are a teacher of history that participates in a panel discussion dedicated to the ethical principles of treating historic facts. Decide what opinion you are going to fashion and express your point, delivering a persuasive speech. You have to stick to a time limit of two minutes, thus it is advisable to make use of various emphatic constructions (similar to the ones given in Ex. 4) to highlight the main points of your speech.

III. Follow-up activities

1. (a) You are a historian. Write an article about the history of Americas population. Try to present the facts in an objective manner. (b) You are a journalist. Write an article about the history of Americas population. Give your personal view of the issue.

2. You are a teacher of history. Explain to your students why Americas population is called a lopsided mosaic and how it has been formed.

IV. Additional task

Task 1. Read the following jokes and retell them a) presenting the information as historic facts; b) presenting the information as your own subjective opinion.

The Fate of Discoverers

Christopher Columbus did not know where he was sailing. When he landed he did not know where he was. When he got back to Spain he did not know where he had been.

Is it easy to be original?
Soon after Columbus discovered America, he was in company with Mendoza, the Grand Cardinal of Spain; and, as he was then the hero of the day, it was natural that the greatest honours were assigned to him. A shallow courtier present felt indignant that a foreigner was loaded with so many honours and abruptly asked Columbus whether he thought the Indies would have never discovered, if he had not had the good fortune to find them. To this Columbus made no reply, but, taking an egg, invited the company to make it stand on one end. Everyone attempted it, but in vain. Then he took the egg, struck it upon the table so as to break the end, and left it standing on the broken part. Everyone might do that, exclaimed the courtier. Theres nothing in that. Quite right, replied Columbus, but the only difference between me and everyone is, I did what others might have done.


How to Plan a Town I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words. Dispense with, effeminate, muddle, vestige, conceit, ingenious. 2. Make sure you pronounce these words correctly. If necessary, look up their pronunciation in a dictionary. Decadent, yogis, conspiracy, hieroglyph, thoroughfare, camouflage, promenade, viaduct. 3. Think of appropriate contexts to use the following expressions. Weak and effeminate peoples, to keep up ones fighting spirit, century-old practices and tricks, an ingenious compliment, further precautions, to claim without immodesty, to shatter smbs morale.

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the text. In the first five paragraphs several sentences contain mistakes. Spot the mistakes and correct them.

How to Plan a Town

By G. Mikes

Britain, far from being a decadent democracy is Spartan country. This is mainly due because of the British way of building towns, which dispenses with the reasonable comfort enjoyed by all others weak and effeminate peoples of the world. Medieval warriors wore steel breast-plates and leggings not only for defence but also to keep up their fighting spirit; priests of the Medieval ages tortured their bodies with hair-shirts; Indian yogis take their daily nap laying on a carpet of nails to remain fit. The English plan their towns in such a way that these replace the discomfort of steel breast-plates, hair-shirts and nail-carpets. On the continent doctors, lawyers, bookmakers just to mention about a few examples are sprinkled all over the city, so you can call on a good or at last expansive doctor in any district. In England the idea is that it is the address that makes the man. Doctors in London are crowded in Harley Street, solicitors in

Lincolns Inn Fields, second-hand-bookshops in Charing Cross Road, newspaper offices in Fleet Street, tailors in Savile Row, car-merchants in Great Portland Street, theatres around Piccadilly Circus, cinemas in Leicester Square, etc. If you have a chance for replanning London you can greatly improve on this idea. All greengrocers should be placed in Horsey Lane ( 6), all butchers in Mile End (E.1), and all gentlemens conveniences in Bloomsbury (W.C.). Now I should like to give you a little practical advice of great help on how to build an English town. You must understand that an English town is a vast conspiracy to mislead foreigners. You have to use century-old practices and tricks. 1. First of all, never build a street straight. The English love privacy and do not want to see one end of the street from the other end. Make sudden curves in the streets and build them S-shaped too; the letters L, T, V, W and O are also becoming increasingly popular. It would be a fine tribute to the Greeks to build a few and -shaped streets; it would be an ingenious compliment to the Russians to favour the shape of , and I am sure the Chinese would be more than flattered to see some hieroglyph-shaped thoroughfares. 2. Never build the houses of the same street in a straight line. The British have always been a freedom-loving race and the freedom to build a muddle is one of their most ancient civic rights. 3. Now there are further camouflage possibilities in the numbering of houses. Primitive continental races put even numbers on one side, odd numbers on the other, and you always know that small numbers start from the north or west. In England you have this system too; but you may start numbering your houses at one end, go up to a certain number on the same side, then continue on the other side, going back in the opposite direction. You may leave out some numbers if you are superstitious; and you may continue the numbering in a side street; you also give the same number to two or three houses. But this is far from the end. Many people refuse to have numbers altogether, and they choose names. It is very pleasant, for instance, to find a street with three hundred and fifty totally similar bungalows and look for The Bungalow. Or to arrive in a street where all the houses have a charming view of a hill and try to find Hill View. Or search for Seven Oaks and find a house with three apple trees. 4. Give a different name to the street whenever it bends; but if the curve is so sharp that it really makes two different streets, you may keep the same name. On the other hand, if, owing to neglect, a street has been built a straight line it must be called by many different names (High Holborn, New Oxford Street, Oxford Street, Bayswater Road, Notting Hill Gate, Holland Park, and so on). 5. As some cute foreigners would be able to learn their way about even under such circumstances, some further precautions are necessary. Call streets by various names: street, road, place, mews, crescent, avenue, rise, lane, way, grove, park, gardens, alley, arch, path, walk, broadway, promenade, gate, terrace, vale, view, hill, etc.

Now the further possibilities arise: a. Gather all sorts of streets and squares of the same name in one neighbourhood: Belsize Park, Belsize Gardens, Belsize Green, Belsize circus, Belsize Yard, Belsize Viaduct, Belsize Arcade, Belsize Heath, etc. b. Place a number of streets of exactly the same name in different districts. If you have about some twenty Princes Squares and Warwick Avenues in the town, the muddle you may claim without immodesty will be complete. 6. Street names should be painted clearly and distinctly on large boards. Then hide these boards carefully. Place them too high or too low, in shadow and darkness, upside down and inside out, or, even better, lock them up in a safe in your bank, otherwise they may give people some indication about the names of the streets. 7. In order to break down the foreigners last vestige of resistance and shatter his morale, one further trick is advisable: introduce the system of squares real squares, I mean which run into streets like this: Princes Square Princes Square Leinster Square Leinster Square Leinster Square Leinster Square

Princes Square

With this simple device it is possible to build a street of which the two sides have different names. P.S. I have been told that my above-described theory is all wrong and is only due to my Central European conceit, because the English do not care for the opinion of the foreigners. In every other country, it has been explained, people just build streets and towns following their own common sense. England is the only country of the world where there is a Ministry of Town and Country Planning. This is the real reason for the muddle. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Why does the author compare the British way of planning a town to steel breastplates, hair-shirts and nail-carpets? 2. What tips about town and city planning does the author give? Explain how it is possible to build a street the two sides of which have different names.

Princes Square

3. Is the authors advice on how to build an English town really practical? 4. What is the purpose of such an elaborate way of planning every British town? 3. The story is written in a serious tone. Nevertheless, it produces a humorous effect. What elements of the story contribute to this effect? In ten sentences, retell the story. Try to deliver your story in a humorous tone (or a matter-offact way, scientific manner etc.). 4. The British people seem to be proud of the century-old practices and tricks which they use to mislead the foreigners and are never going to give these gimmicks up. Do you support this opinion? Give a short answer explaining your point. 5. In groups of 35, role-play the following situation. One of you is the host of a talk show. Invite your guests to discuss the Belarusian way of town and country planning.

III. Follow-up activities

1. You are a foreigner visiting an English town. Complain to your friend about the British way of building towns. 2. You are a member of the Ministry of Town and Country Planning. Suggest measures to improve the British way of building towns. 3. Write an article for your local magazine entitled It is the address that makes the man.

IV. Additional tasks

Task 1. Sort out the two stories and retell them.

A stranger in London / The new hedge clipper

1. The stranger got out and ran up to the policeman. 2. He was about half way round his garden when his neighbour arrived. 3. Then he disappeared into Waterloo station. 4. Thanks very much, was the grateful reply. 5. Would you mind paying my fare, officer? he said. Ive train to catch. 6. He called a taxi and asked the driver to take him to Waterloo, mentioning that he had a train to catch at three oclock. 7. Thats all right, at least I can now go back to bed and sleep in peace, he said, walking back to his own house. 8. One Saturday morning a friend of mine decided to use his new hedge clipper.

9. The policeman told him and the stranger handed him the money. 10. The job was quickly finished and my friend thanked his neighbour for his help. 11. Can I give you a hand? the neighbour asked my friend. 12. At half past two the taxi drew up at Waterloo, the driver smiling broadly. 13. What is the fare from Euston to Waterloo? he asked the policeman. 14. A stranger arrived in Euston just before midday. 15. For two hours he sat back enjoying the sights of London. Task 2. Read one sentence of the story at a time and then comment on what you have read, paying attention to illogical usage of the language. I have lived in the centre of London for the last ten years and will be moving to a cottage in a small village next month. When I moved in I was only two years old so I enjoyed the large garden and fields that surrounded our farm. When I went to school it became more difficult, as I had to take the underground to the nearest airport and from there went by tractor. Anyway all that is over now and I am looking forward to the nice little penthouse flat that will soon be my home. Task 3. Read the passage and uncover the lies. Explain why you classify these statements as a lie.

Bungalows for sale

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Capital Cities I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Awe-inspiring, haphazard, tacky, grubby, clogged, bustling, soaring, in-your-face, to fall prey to, to work ones magic, to get ones bearings, exhilarating. 2. Match definitions a-h to the adjectives 1-8 on the right. Then decide which of the adjectives you would use to describe the noun phrases in the box below. a) rather dirty b) full of people who are very busy or lively (especially of a place) c) not organised, not arranged according to a plan d) very tall or high in the sky (especially buildings or trees) e) so loud, big or noticeable that you just cant ignore it f) cheap and badly made or vulgar g) giving a feeling of respect and amazement h) blocked so that nothing can pass through (especially a place) 1 awe-inspiring 2 haphazard 3 tacky 4 grubby 5 clogged 6 bustling 7 soaring 8 in-your-face

plastic souvenirs, tree tops, arteries, beauty, advertising campaigns, childrens hands, approach to work, market, seaside postcards, tower blocks, waterways, scenery, action movies, old trainers, coastal resorts, collection of people 3. Look at the verbs below. Match each one with an appropriate phrase from the list on the right. Use the expressions in contexts of your own. to make to work to get to fall to live to put a finger (on smth) prey to (smth) on top of one another its magic your bearings way for the new


II. Discussing the text

1. The following extracts from guide books describe five of the worlds most famous cities. Work in small groups. Read the descriptions and decide which city is being described in each text. 1. There is little point in portraying it as something it is not. Its beauty is not as awe-inspiring as other cities. It is not even particularly old, and much of what may have constituted its historical legacy has over the centuries been all too quickly sacrificed to make way for the new. It is a largely modern city, a product of the 19th and 20th centuries, and the expanses of its outer dormitory suburbs and peripheral high-rise apartment jungles are an oppressive introduction for anyone driving into the city for the first time. It may lack the historical richness and sophistication of other European capitals, but it oozes a life and character that, given the opportunity to work its magic (it doesnt take long), cannot leave you indifferent. Leaving aside the great art museums, the splendour of the main square and the Royal Palace, and the elegance of the city park, the essence of this city is in the life pulsing through its it streets. In no other European capital will you find the city centre so thronged so late into the night as here, especially if you go out at weekends. Everyone seems to stay out late, as though some unwritten law forbade sleeping before dawn. In this sense it is a city more to be lived than seen. 2. The city is like a history lesson come to life. As you walk among the long stone palaces or across the Charles Bridge, with the Vltava flowing below and pointed towers all around, youll feel as if history had stopped back in the 18th century. Goethe called it the prettiest gem in the stone crown of the world. A millenium earlier in 965 the Arab-Jewish merchant Ibrahim Ibn Jacob described it as a town of stone and lime. For these reasons the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Today it is a city of over a million inhabitants, the seat of government and leading centre of much of the countrys intellectual and cultural life. Unlike other capitals in this region, which were major battlefields during WW2, it escaped almost unscathed and after the war, lack of modernisation prevented haphazard modern development. since 1989, however, the city centre has been swamped by capitalism as street vendors, cafes and restaurants take over pavements, streets and parks as they did prior to 1948. How you feel about the citys current tourist glut may depend on where youre coming from. If youre arriving from Western Europe it may all seem quite normal, but if youve been elsewhere in for a bit of a shock. as youre being jostled by the hawkers and hordes of tourists, you may begin to feel that it has become a tacky tourist trap, but try to overcome that feeling and enjoy this great European art centre for all its worth.


3. This is a cosmopolitan mixture of the third and First worlds, of chauffeurs and beggars, of the establishment, the avowedly working class and the avant-garde. Unlike comparable European cities, much of it looks unplanned and grubby, but that is part of its appeal. Visiting the city is like being let loose on a giant-sized Monopoly board clogged with traffic. Even though you probably wont know where the hell you are, at least the names will look reassuringly familiar. The city is so enormous, visitors will need to make maximum use of the underground train system: unfortunately, this dislocates the citys geography and makes it hard to get your bearings. 4. The sheer level of energy is the most striking aspect of this capital city. Its true the larger picture can be somewhat depressing shoebox housing estates and office blocks traversed by overhead expressways crowded with traffic. But this is the countrys success story in action. The average suburb hasnt fallen prey to supermarket culture though: streets are lined with tiny specialist shops and bustling restaurant, most of which stay open late into the night. Close to the soaring office blocks exist pockets of another time an old wooden house, a kimono shop, a small inn, an old lady in a traditional dress sweeping the pavement outside her home with a straw broom. More than anything else, this is a place where the urgent rhythms of consumer culture collide with the quieter moments that linger from older traditions. Its a living city and youll never run out of things to explore. 5. They dont come any bigger than this king of the hill, top of the heap. No other city is arrogant enough to dub itself Capital of the World and no other city could carry it off. It is a densely packed mass of humanity seven million people in 309sq miles (800sq km) and all this living on top of one another makes the inhabitants a special kind of person. Although its hard to put a finger on what makes it buzz, its the citys hyperactive rush that really draws people here. In a city that is so much a part of the global subconscious, its pretty hard to pick a few highlights wherever you go youll feel like youve been here before. Bookshops, food, theatre, shopping, people: it doesnt really matter what you do or where you go because the city itself is an in-your-face, exhilarating experience. 2. Read the extracts again and point out the facts that helped you decide which city is being described. 3. Work with a partner and discuss these questions. 1. Which description appeals to you most? Why? Choose two or three phrases which you find evocative. 2. Have you been to any of these cities? Do the extracts reflect your experiences? 3. Do the extracts make you want to visit any of these cities?


4. Complete these sentences using appropriate phrases from the text. Make any changes to the phrases that are necessary. 1. No matter how stressed you feel, once you let the beauty on the beach and the warmth of the sun on you, you will begin to wind down and relax. 2. The old town is built on the edge of a cliff overlooking the gorge, using up every bit of spare space. Some houses are even built into the cliff face and people in a warren of narrow cobbled streets. 3. The medieval clock tower offers a landmark which is visible wherever you are in the town, making it very easy . 4. It is difficult exactly what makes this grey, industrial town such a popular tourist destination. 5. Its very easy the charm of the market stall holders and people often end up spending much more than theyd expected to. 6. Far too often historic town centres are carved up and charming old buildings torn down . 5. Look at the adverbial phrases below and decide which of them have negative or limiting meaning. under no circumstances, quite often, only after a long night, never, not until hed finished, seldom, at once, frequently, only then, usually, only after a long wait, not a word, rarely, even in the summer, on no account 6. Rewrite the sentences below, starting with the word or words given. Example: You will rarely see such a superb example of modern architecture. Rarely will you see such a superb example of modern architecture. 1. I rarely visit a city more than once, but this place is really special. Rarely 2. I had never seen anything so breathtakingly beautiful before. Never before 3. You should not go out alone at night under any circumstances. Under no circumstances 4. You will only be able to see and feel the heart of this beautiful old town by wandering down its narrow side streets. Only 5. You will only begin to understand the special charm of this place after you have spent an evening there. Only after you


6. You cant really understand exactly how beautiful the view is until you clomb to the top. Not until 7. Speak about your plans for the holidays. Use at least ten expressions from Ex. 5 and 6.

III. Follow-up activities

1. Describe your home town or a place you know well. 2. You are a tour guide in one of the cities mentioned in the texts (decide which one). Tell your tourist group about the main attractions of this city.

IV. Additional tasks

Task 1. Read Juliettes e-mail to her friends and correct her mistakes. There are at least twenty mistakes. From: Juliette <juliette@kanga.com> Subject: Australia Attachments: Picture of Sydney Harbour Dear all, As I didnt write for so long, I thought it was time I dropped all you a line or two from not-so-sunny Australia! The weather has got quite bad here unfortunately in sydney over the last few days. I think summer is finally over! Never mind it, itll give me the chance to do all the things Ive been putting off while Ive been lying on the beach taking it easy! Life here is great Ive just found a job which is working in a cafe little and friendly near the harbour. Actually, Lena, its the place recommended your friend. It only is a few hours each week, but the pay is good and there are working there some great people. the most of them are also travelling round the world like me. In fact, a few days ago I met someone thinking he met you all in Vietnam. Do you remember an English guy called Kim? He says it was somewhere in the mountains he told me the name, but I cant remember it. Anyway, Im here in Australia for almost a month now. As you know, Marcella decided to for a while stay in Thailand with Yuichi. They seem totally in love! He is really nice actually. Im sure Marcella has told you all about it by now! Anyway, I was really glad to stop moving after all the buses, trains and planes I was taking to get here from Bangkok. Well, I say moving! Often the buses would stop in some remote town or village for what was feeling like ours!

Nobody dared get off in case the bus suddenly left without them. At the time I wished I flew here, but looking bak, it was an experience I suppose! Consequently, I spent when I first arrived a few days relaxing and wandering round the city and then I went on a trip along the coast for a couple of weeks before going to the Blue Mountains for few days. The mountains, which arent that far from Sydney actually, absolutely are incredible very beautiful and peaceful. So, what about you lot? You must e-mail me back and let me know all the gossip back home. Miguel and Virginia, hows the new house? And how are you two, Lena and Stefan? By the way, are you hearing the new Superhead CD yet? If not, you should check out it its brilliant! It was where you first met at their concert, wasnt it? Well, Ill finish now as Ive got to go and work at the cafe. I miss you all lots if only you are all here with me. Now that Ive stopped travelling around for a while, Ill write more often I promise! Hope you like the picture! Write back soon. Lots of love Juliette xxxxx


Unit 2 Modern Lifestyle Confessions of a Shopaholic I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Beckon, discreet, elated, supercilious, awe-stricken, high-powered, squint, weirdo, gimmick, outperform, canny, stunned, windfall, twinge, eligible, stutter, poignant, mesmerized, jostle, denounce, misconstrue. 2. Fill in the appropriate prepositions. 1. He fell disfavour with his superiors. 2. The local shopkeepers were all trying to rip the tourists. 3. The prosecuting lawyer tried to catch the witness by clever questioning. 4. It is obvious that their eyes glaze at long lists of technical terms. 5. The sight of her just bowled him . 6. His anger surprised him: he was more keyed than he had anticipated. 7. There were hundreds of boys and girls milling on the lawn. 8. The word profession is taking a new meaning. 3. Make up compounds. Use them in the sentences of your own. head whiz hood wind big high awe high well air heart wrong powered shot head footed hunt wrenching disposed stricken flying kid wink fall


4. Insert the words in the sentences below. beckon, equity, thrust, elated, itemize, supercilious, flabbergast, ebb, muffle, curt, flippant, denounce twinge,

1. She felt a of toothache. 2. He smiled when I described my modest collection. 3. They shared the work of the house with reasonable . 4. The sound of the bell was by the curtains. 5. He gave a answer. 6. They were all to hear of the victory. 7. I was absolutely when she told me the price. 8. The ministers action was in all the newspapers. 9. I could see her to me from the other end of the room. 10. A hospital is scarcely the place for such remarks about death. 11. Lets the bill. 12. The actress said she had been perfectly happy until fame was upon her. 13. His courage slowly away as he realized how hopeless the situation was. 5. Match the words to make up phrases. Explain their meaning in English. to summon to jump to be ahead to be to stifle to disappear to keep tabs to see to stir up to strike to be good from the record at figures a bit of trouble on the cards smth coming a yawn into a puddle of the game in fright ones inner resources on the dosh

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the following extract from the book.

Confessions of a Shopaholic
By S. Kinsella

This high-yield, 60-day access account offers tiered, rates of interest on investments of over .2,000, I type onto the screen, copying directly from a press release in front of me. Long-term savers may also be interested in a new stepped48

rate bond which requires a minimum of 5,000. I type a full stop, take a sip of coffee, and turn to the second page of the press release. This is what I do, by the way. Im a journalist on financial magazine. Im paid to tell other people how to organize their money. Of course, being a financial journalist is not the career I always wanted. No one who writes about personal finance ever meant to do it. People tell you they fell into personal finance. Theyre lying. What they mean is they couldnt get a job writing about anything more interesting. They mean they applied for jobs at The Times and The Express and Marie-Claire and Vogue and GQ and all they got back was Piss off. So they started applying to Metalwork Monthly and Cheesemakers Gazette and What Investment Plan? And they were taken on as the crappiest editorial assistant possible on no money whatsoever and were grateful. And theyve stayed on writing about metal, or cheese, or savings, ever since because thats all they know. I myself started on the catchily titled Personal Investment Periodical, I learned how to copy out a press release and nod at press conferences and ask questions that sounded as though I knew what I was talking about. After a year and a half believe it or not I was headhunted to Successful Saving. Of course, I still know nothing about finance. People at the bus stop know more about finance than me. Schoolchildren know more than me. Ive been doing this job for three years now, and Im still expecting someone to catch me out. That afternoon, Philip, the editor, calls my name, and I jump in fright. Rebecca? he says. A word. And he beckons me over to his desk. His voice seems lower all of a sudden, almost conspiratorial, and hes smiling at me, as though about to give me a piece of good news. Promotion, I think. It must be. He read the piece I wrote on international equity securities last week (in which I likened the hunt for long-term growth to the hunt for the perfect pair of summer mules) and was bowled over by how exciting I made it all sound. He knows its unfair I earn less than Clare, so hes going to promote me to her level. Or even above. And hes telling me discreetly so Clare wont get jealous. A wide smile plasters itself over my face and I get up and walk the three yards or so to his desk, trying to calm but already planning what Ill buy with my raise. Ill get that swirly coat in Whistles. And some black high-heeled boots from Pied a Terre. Maybe Ill go on holiday. And Ill pay off that blasted VISA bill once and for all. I feel buoyant with relief. I knew everything would be OK... Rebecca? Hes thrusting a card at me. I cant make this press conference, he says. But it could be quite interesting. Will you go? Its at Brandon Communications. I can feel the elated expression falling off my face like jelly. Hes not promoting me. Im not getting a raise. I feel betrayed. Why did he smile at me like that? He must have known he was lifting my hopes. Something wrong? inquires Philip. No, I mutter. But I cant bring myself to smile. In front of me, my new swirly coat and high-heeled boots are disappearing into a puddle, like the Wicked

Witch of the West. No promotion. Just a press conference about... I turn over the card. About a new unit trust. How could anyone possibly describe that as interesting? Theres just one essential purchase I have to make on the way to the press conference and thats the Financial Times. The FT is by far the best accessory a girl can have. Its major advantages are: 1. Its a nice color. 2. It only costs eighty-five pence. 3. If you walk into a room with it tucked under your arm, people take you seriously. With an FT under your arm, you can talk about the most frivolous things in the world, and instead of thinking youre an airhead, people think youre a heavy-weight intellectual who has broader interests, too. At my interview for Successful Saving, I went in hold-copies of the Financial Times and the Investors Chronicle and I didnt get asked about finance once. As I remember it, we spent the whole time talking about holiday villas and gossiping about other editors. So I stop at a newsstand and buy a copy of the FT. Theres some huge headline about Rutland Bank on the front page, and Im thinking maybe I should at least skim it, when I catch my reflection in the window of Denny and George. I dont look bad, I think. Im wearing my black skirt from French Connection, and a plain white T-shirt from Knickerbox, and a little angora cardigan which I got from M&S but looks like it might be Agnes B. And my new square-toed shoes from Hobbs. Even better, although no one can see them, I know that underneath Im wearing my gorgeous new matching knickers and bra with embroidered yellow rosebuds. Theyre the best bit of my entire outfit. In fact, I almost wish I could be run over so that the world would see them. Its a habit of mine, itemizing all the clothes Im wearing, as though for a fashion page. Ive been doing it for years ever since I used to read Just Seventeen. Every issue, theyd stop a girl on the street, take a picture other, and list all her clothes. T-Shirt: Chelsea Girl, Jeans: Top Shop, Shoes: borrowed from friend. I used to read those lists avidly, and to this day, if I buy something from a shop thats a bit uncool, I cut the label out. So that if Im ever stopped in the street, I can pretend I dont know where its from. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Becky says: Im paid to tell other people how to organize their money. Do you agree that she gets money for something she cant do efficiently? Give your reasons. How do people get into such professions? 2. Do you believe Beckys professional skills have improved since her first job at Personal Investment Periodical? Provide arguments to prove your point. 3. What are Beckys responsibilities at work? How is she treated by her boss and colleagues? 4. Why do you think Becky doesnt get a promotion?

5. Does Becky enjoy what she is doing? What job would suit her more? 6. What ploy does Becky resort to in order to make people take her seriously? Do you think it works? 7. Is dressing well essential for Becky? Is there a dress code she has to follow? Compare her dreams and reality as regards shopping at large and clothes in particular. 3. Read the remaining parts of the book and dwell on the following issues. 1. How does Becky behave during press conferences? Can you call her behaviour business-like? Give your reasons. What is she planning to change in the future? 2. Does Becky manage to produce a favourable impression on high-powered people and top-notch specialists? What makes people laugh at her in some situations? 3. Comment on the incident with the Websters. Is Becky qualified enough to give recommendations to Martin and Janice as regards their financial matters? Is Becky to blame? Could she have seen it coming? Think what you would have said to the Websters if you were in Beckys shoes. 4. Why doesnt Eric Foreman fit Beckys idea of a high-powered journalist? What are Beckys assumptions about him based upon? Who does Eric Foreman call fat cats and why? Does he attend conferences just to stir up a bit of trouble? 5. What tips on writing an article did Eric Foreman give to Becky? Did Becky act professionally when collecting information for the article? Can adding some human interest to the article be called a lie? Or is it only an exaggeration? 6. How did Becky start her TV career? Was she well-prepared for her first interview? What made people take Becky as a financial expert during the show? Did Beckys participating in the show boost her career? What was the aftermath of the TV show for Brandon Communications? 4. Becky is in the habit of itemizing clothes (her own and other peoples). How does she describe/speak about clothes? Compile Beckys clothes and fashion vocabulary. 5. Dwell on the notion of dumbing-down effect. What does it mean? What TV programmes follow this principle and what does it depend on? Make use of the following words and expressions: attention span, frustrated, the more dumbed down the better, tricky questions, to let the figures sink into the audiences mind.


6. Compare Lukes and Beckys behaviour during the high-powered debate and the arguments each of them provides. Whose persuasive strategy and tactics are more effective and why? 7. Dwell on the role of non-verbal means of communication in the last episode where Becky is having a business meeting with Luke Brandon. Do you believe she overdid it? Give your reasons. 8. During the TV programme Becky meets several celebrities. Each of them is peculiar in their own way. Do they behave the way celebrities normally do? Find evidence in the text to support your point. Prove that celebrities are only human after all. 9. Compare Beckys manner of communicating with different people: Luke and Alicia, Suze, the Websters, Eric Foreman, the hosts and guests of the TV show. How can you characterize Becky as a communicant? What tips would you give Becky in order to improve her communicative skills? 10. One of Beckys communicative failures was that she couldnt persuade the Websters she did not fancy Tom. Life would be a lot easier if conversations were rewindable and erasable, like videos, says Becky. How should she have behaved in order to produce a different impression on Martin, Janice and Tom himself if their conversations had been rewound and erased?

III. Follow-up activities

1. How do people choose a career? Make up a list of things that have to be taken into consideration when youre thinking over your job prospects. 2. Imagine that you had to take up a career you dont want. How would you feel? What would happen if you had to work in a sphere you know nothing about? 3. Work out recommendations for a journalist on writing a good article. 4. What are the ways of making your speech more persuasive? How can you produce the desired effect on the audience? 5. Role-play a talk show, where the guests hold opposing views (e.g. a shopaholic vs. an economical person, a financial expert vs. a person that knows nothing about finance, a representative of a financial company and a client that has been ripped off by the company etc.).


Shopaholic Abroad I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Hit off, measly, lean, overdraft, tangible, haul, batter, line up, pare down, skimp, dismay, lenient, stock up, to have/develop a good rapport with smb, to get ones bearings. 2. Fill in the gaps with the suitable word from the box. Put the words in the correct form. lean, hit off, pare down, tangle, overdraft, line up, lenient, snap, dismay, haul, skimp, measly, jolt, tangible, batter, teeter

1. That fine thread easily. 2. My mother-in-law and Tom did not it . 3. We felt a series of as the plane touched down. 4. The lid shut. 5. Hes been up before the court on a charge of dangerous driving. 6. She along in her high-heeled shoes. 7. The ship was to pieces by the storm. 8. Its been a year for business. 9. We must costs to improve our profitability. 10. the glasses and Ill fill them. 11. When you make this dish, dont on the cream. 12. We are paying off a large . 13. They were filled with by the outcome of the trial. 14. This judge always passes sentences. 15. He gave me a little gift. 16. The police need proof of his guilt before they charge him. 3. Define the following words and phrases in English. Make up sentences with these words. To leave smb in the lurch, to have/develop a good rapport with smb, cutting edge, to have a quick peek, to get ones bearings. 4. Match the words and their definitions. stock up scuttle to move down suddenly and swiftly a thick piece or lump of smth which has been

sidle swoop wodge

broken or cut off the whole to move uncertainly or secretively, as if ready to turn and go the other way to provide oneself with a full store of goods to rush with short quick steps

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the following extract from the book.

Shopaholic Abroad
By S. Kinsella

OK, dont panic. Dont panic. Its simply a question of being organized and staying calm and deciding what exactly I need to take. And then fitting it all neatly into my suitcase. I mean, just how hard can that be? I step back from my cluttered bed and close my eyes, half hoping that if I wish hard enough, my clothes might magically arrange themselves into a series of neat folded piles. Like in those magazine articles on packing, which tell you how to go on holiday with one cheap sarong and cleverly turn it into six different outfits. (Which I always think is a complete con, because, OK, the sarong costs ten quid, but then they add loads of clothes which cost hundreds, and were not supposed to notice.) But when I open my eyes again, the clutter is all still there. In fact, there seems to be even more of it, as if while my eyes were shut, my clothes have been secretly jumping out of the drawers and running around on my bed. Everywhere I look, all around my room, there are huge great tangled piles of... well... stuff. Shoes, boots, T-shirts, magazines... a Body Shop gift basket that was on sale... a Linguaphone Italian course which I must start... a facial sauna thingy... And, sitting proudly on my dressing table, a fencing mask and sword which I bought yesterday. Only forty quid from a charity shop! I pick up the sword and experimentally give a little lunge towards my reflection in the mirror. It was a real coincidence, because Ive been meaning to take up fencing for ages, ever since I read this article about it in the Daily World. Did you know that fencers have better legs than any other sports people? Plus if youre an expert you can become a stunt double in a film and earn loads of money! So what Im planning to do is find some fencing lessons nearby, and get really good, which I should think Ill do quite quickly. And then this is my secret little plan when Ive got my gold badge, or whatever it is, Ill write to Catherine Zeta Jones. Because she must need a stunt double, mustnt she? And why shouldnt it be me? In fact shed probably prefer


someone British. Maybe shell phone back and say she always watches my television appearances on cable, and shes always wanted to meet me! God, yes. Wouldnt that be great? Well probably really hit it off, and turn out to have the same sense of humour and everything. And then Ill fly out to her luxury home, and get to meet Michael Douglas and play with the baby. Well be all relaxed together like old friends, and some magazine will do a feature on celebrity best friends and have us in it, and maybe theyll even ask me to be... Hi Bex! With a jolt, the happy pictures of me laughing with Michael and Catherine vanish from my head, and my brain snaps into focus. Suze my flat-mate is wandering into my room, wearing a pair of ancient paisley pyjamas. What are you doing? she asks curiously. Nothing! I say, hastily putting the fencing sword back. Just... you know. Keep fit. Oh right, she says vaguely. So hows the packing going? She wanders over to my mantelpiece, picks up a lipstick and begins to apply it. Suze always does this in my room just wanders about picking things up and looking at them and putting them down again. She says she loves the way you never know what you might find, like in a junk shop. Which Im fairly sure she means in a nice way. Its going really well, I say. Im just deciding which suitcase to take. Ooh, says Suze turning round, her mouth half bright pink. What about that little cream one? Or your red holdhall? I thought maybe this one, I say, hauling my new acid green shell case out from under the bed. I bought it at the weekend, and its absolutely gorgeous. Wow! says Suze, her eyes widening. Bex! Thats fab! Where did you get it? Fenwicks, I say, grinning broadly. Isnt it amazing? Its the coolest case Ive ever seen! says Suze, running her fingers admiringly over it. So... how many suitcases have you got now? She glances up at my wardrobe, on which are teetering a brown leather case, a lacquered trunk and three vanity cases. Oh, you know, I say, shrugging a little defensively. The normal amount. I suppose I have been buying quite a bit of luggage recently. But the thing is, for ages I didnt have any, just one battered old canvas bag. Then, a few months ago I had an incredible revelation in the middle of Harrods, a bit like St Paul on the road to Mandalay. Luggage. And since then, Ive been making up for all the lean years. Besides which, everyone knows good luggage is an investment. Im just making a cup of tea, says Suze. Dyou want one? Ooh, yes please! I say. And a KitKat? Suze grins. Definitely a KitKat. Recently, we had this friend of Suzes to stay on our sofa and when he left he gave us this huge box full of a hundred KitKats. Which is such a great thankyou present, but it means all we eat, all day long, is KitKats. Still, as Suze pointed out last night, the quicker we eat them, the quicker theyll be gone so in a way, its more healthy just to stuff in as many as possible.

Suze ambles out of the room and I turn to my case. Right. Concentrate. Packing. This really shouldnt take long. All I need is a very basic, pared-down capsule wardrobe for a mini-break in Somerset. Ive even written out a list, which should make things nice and simple. Jeans: two pairs. Easy. Scruffy and not quite so scruffy. T-shirts: Actually, make that three pairs of jeans. Ive got to take my new Diesel ones, theyre just so cool, even if they are a bit tight. Ill just wear them for a few hours in the evening or something. T-shirts: Oh, and my embroidered cutoffs from Oasis, because I havent worn them yet. But they dont really count because theyre practically shorts. And anyway, jeans hardly take up any room, do they? OK, thats probably enough jeans. I can always add some more if I need to. T-shirts: selection. So lets see. Plain white, obviously. Grey, ditto. Black cropped, black vest (Calvin Klein), other black vest (Warehouse but actually looks nicer), pink sleeveless, pink sparkly, pink I stop, halfway through transferring folded T-shirts into my case. This is stupid. How am I supposed to predict which T-shirts I'm going to want to wear? The whole point about T-shirts is you choose them in the morning according to your mood, like crystals, or aromatherapy oils. Imagine if I woke up in the mood for my Elvis is Groovy T-shirt and I didnt have it with me? You know, I think Ill just take them all. I mean, a few T-shirts arent going to take up much room, are they? Ill hardly even notice them. I tip them all into my case and add a couple of cropped bra-tops for luck. Excellent. This capsule approach is working really well. OK, whats next? 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Describe Beckys room. What can the contents of the room tell us about the person who lives in it? 2. What are Beckys plans for the future? What is she planning to take up? Is it going to work? What plans will be (or will never be) carried out and why? 3. Does Becky buy only the things she needs? Did she really buy that much luggage because she believed it was a good investment? 4. What tips was Becky following when she was packing? Where did she get them from? 5. What kind of list did Becky make? Did it help? 6. Is capsule approach working really well with Becky?


3. Read the remaining parts of the book and dwell on the following issues. 1. Does the principle Buy Only What You Need work with Becky? Do you think Becky could do just with one pair of shoes? 2. Beckys new job on TV pays well. Why is her overdraft higher than it used to be? What recommendations were given to Becky by her bank manager? 3. How did Becky behave on the walking tour around New York and why? Did she hit it off with the tour guide and the other tourists in the group? 4. Describe Beckys visit to the sample sale and its aftermath. 5. Did Becky manage to visit the Guggenheim Museum in the end? Describe her impressions of visiting the Guggenheim Museum Store. 4. Find evidence in the text proving that Becky is a mad collector and sometimes behaves like a real weirdo. (a) Think of the arguments you could use to talk Becky out of buying everything she sees. (b) Help Becky to find an item she really needs. (c) Explain to Becky how many pairs of shoes a regular person living in Great Britain/the USA/Belarus needs. 5. Now that you have read the second book of the Shopaholic series, expand Beckys clothes and fashion vocabulary. Categorize the items, e.g. colours, articles of clothing and accessories, designs, etc. Working in small groups, see who can provide a more emotionally coloured description of a bag/dress/pair of shoes. 6. As Beckys friend Suze points out, the quicker they eat a box of KitKats, the quicker theyll be gone so in a way, its more healthy just to stuff in as many as possible. Does this sound logical? Think of counterarguments to dissuade Becky from carrying out her plan. 7. Is Becky good at telling lies? Comment on the episode in the gift shop, when Becky is telling a story about her godson. How could Becky have avoided the embarrassing situation she was confronted with in the shop? 8. Comment on the episode where Becky is having a conversation with her bank manager Derek Smeath. Can you call this communication successful on Beckys part? Give your reasons. 9. Describe a typical culture-conscious tourist. Is Becky a person of the kind? What is her ridiculous idea of acclimatizing to a new city and customs and traditions of a foreign country? Explain to Becky how normal people acclimatize themselves in similar cases.


10. Do you agree with Becky that shopping abroad has its advantages? How many advantages does Becky mention and does she manage to convince you? Can you think of more items to add to this list? 11. Shop-assistants often use canny gimmicks to make their customers stock up on things they dont really need. Are these ploys effective? Recall Beckys visit to an avant-guard fashion shop as an example.

III. Follow-up activities

1. You are Beckys friend. Work out some useful tips for Becky on how to be organized. 2. You are a bank manager. Explain to your client what the key to controlled shopping is. 3. You are a tour guide. Work out some useful tips for a person who is going to take part in a walking tour in a foreign town or city. 4. Itemize advantages and disadvantages of shopping at home vs. shopping abroad. Role-play an argument between a) a British shopaholic and an American shopaholic; b) a British shopaholic and a Belarusian shopaholic as regards the best shopping opportunities. 5. Agree or disagree: You dont actually need to see a piece of art in flesh to appreciate it. Support your point of view. 6. Role-play an argument between a culture conscious person and a shopaholic as regards the best places to visit in a foreign country. 7. In pairs, role-play the following situation. A shopaholic has made an appointment with their psychologist. (a) The shopaholic suffers from their addiction greatly and would like to break themselves of this bad habit. They ask the psychologist for assistance. (b) The shopaholic will not acknowledge the fact that something is wrong with them and it takes the psychologist a lot of effort to persuade the client to discard their bad habit.


Shopaholic Ties the Knot I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Fizz, surge, flair, abashed, plaintive, swarm, ingrained, wistful, whip, dote, squashy, mollified, dither, fluster, surreptitious, hitch, loophole, eventuality, savour, relish, salvage, sham, envisage, marshal. 2. Match the words and their definitions. dither ingrained plaintive marshal abashed wistful relish whip surge squashy envisage to arrange in good or effective order thoughtful and rather sad to move quickly or suddenly to see in the mind as a future possibility a sudden powerful forward movement soft and easy to press and crush uncomfortable and ashamed in the presence of others fixed firmly and deeply expressing suffering or sorrow to behave nervously and uncertainly because one cannot decide to be pleased and satisfied with

3. Fill in the words from the active vocabulary list. 1. She has a true for the theatre. 2. You didnt put the top back on the soda and now the has gone out. 3. He bought his angry wife some flowers, but she refused to be . 4. A technical prevented the book from coming out on time. 5. She drank the wine slowly, every drop. 6. There is a in the tax laws. 7. He on his youngest son. 8. The agreement was a ; neither side intended to keep to it. 9. The photographers round her. 10. The shouts of the crowd the speaker and he forgot what he was going to say. 11. After it was revealed that hed also stolen from his employers, there was little he could do to his battered reputation. 12. We must be prepared for all . 13. When no one was looking he took a puff on his cigarette.


4. In what situations would you say the following? Provide your own context for these utterances. Then find them in the text and check their actual usage. 1. Ive run a tad over schedule. 2. I cant be a bridesmaid without a dress, can I? 3. Couldnt they find anyone else to marry except from their own family? 4. Whos the bride? You or me? 5. Thats not very weddingy. 6. People call my methods unorthodox. 7. You dont choose your dress, you meet your dress. 8. Your mother-in-law is in her element. 9. Hats off to you.

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the following extract from the book.

Shopaholic Ties the Knot

By S. Kinsella

As I reach the second floor, theres music coming from the door of our apartment, and I feel a little fizz of anticipation inside. Thatll be Danny, working away. Hell probably have finished by now! My dress will be ready! Danny Kovitz lives upstairs from us, in his brothers apartment, and hes become one of my best friends since Ive been living in New York. Hes a fabulous designer, really talented but hes not all that successful yet. Well, to be honest, hes not successful at all. Five years after leaving fashion school, hes still waiting for his big break to come along. But, like he always says, making it as a designer is even harder than making it as an actor. If you dont know the right people or have an ex-Beatle as a father, you might as well forget it. I feel so sorry for him, because he really does deserve to succeed. So as soon as Suze asked me to be her bridesmaid, I asked him to make my dress. The great thing is, Suzes wedding is going to be stuffed full of rich, important guests. So hopefully loads of people will ask me who my dress is by, and then a whole word-of-mouth buzz will start, and Danny will be made! I just cant wait to see what hes done. All the sketches hes shown me have been amazing and of course, a hand-made dress will have far more workmanship and detail than youd get off the peg. Like, the bodice is going to be a boned, handembroidered corset and Danny suggested putting in a tiny beaded love-knot using the birthstones of all the bridal party, which is just so original. My only slight worry tiny niggle is the weddings in two days time, and I havent actually tried it on yet. Or even seen it. This morning I rang his doorbell

to remind him I was leaving for England today, and after hed eventually staggered to the door, he promised me hed have it finished by lunchtime. He told me he always lets his ideas ferment until the very last minute then he gets a surge of adrenalin and inspiration, and works incredibly quickly. Its just the way he works, he assured me, and hes never missed a deadline yet. I open the door, and call Hello! cheerfully. Theres no response, so I push open the door to our all-purpose living room. The radio is blaring Madonna, the television is playing MTV, and Dannys novelty robot dog is trying to walk up the side of the sofa. And Danny is slumped over his sewing machine in a cloud of gold silk, fast asleep. Danny? I say in dismay. Hey, wake up! With a start, Danny sits up and rubs his thin face. His curly hair is rumpled, and his pale blue eyes are even more bloodshot than they were when he answered the door this morning. His skinny frame is clad in an old grey T-shirt and a bony knee is poking out of his ripped jeans, complete with a scab which he got rollerblading at the weekend. He looks like a ten-year-old with stubble. Becky! he says blearily. Hi! What are you doing here? This is my apartment. Remember? You were working down here because your electricity fused. Oh. Yeah. He looks around dazedly. Right. Are you OK? I peer at him anxiously. I got some coffee. I hand him a cup and he takes a couple of deep gulps. Then his eyes land on the pile of post in my hand and for the first time, he seems to wake up. Hey, is that British Vogue? Er... yes, I say, putting it down where he cant reach it. So hows the dress doing? Its going great! Totally under control. Can I try it on yet? Theres a pause. Danny looks at the mound of gold silk in front of him as though hes never seen it before in his life. Not yet, no, he says at last. But it will be ready in time? Of course! Absolutely. He puts his foot down and the sewing machine starts whirring busily. You know what? he says over the noise. I could really do with a glass of water. Coming up! I hurry into the kitchen, turn on the tap, and wait for the cold to come through. The plumbing in this building is a little bit eccentric, and were always on at Mrs Watts, the owner, to fix it. But she lives miles away in Florida, and doesnt really seem interested. And other than that, the place is completely wonderful. Our apartment is huge by New York standards, with wooden floors and a fireplace, and enormous floor-to-ceiling windows.


(Of course, Mum and Dad werent at all impressed when they came over. First they couldnt understand why we didnt live in a house. Then they couldnt understand why the kitchen was so small. Then they started saying wasnt it a shame we didnt have a garden, and did I know that Tom next door had moved into a house with a quarter of an acre? Honestly. If you had a quarter of an acre in New York, someone would just put up ten office blocks on it.) OK! So hows it I walk back into the living room and break off. The sewing machine has stopped, and Dannys reading my copy of Vogue. Danny! I wail. What about my dress? Did you see this? says Danny, jabbing at the page. Hamish Fargles collection demonstrated his customary flair and wit, he reads aloud. Give me a break! He has zero talent. Zero. You know, he was at school with me. Totally ripped off one of my ideas. He looks up at me, eyes narrowed. Is he stocked at Barneys? Erm... I dont know, I lie. Danny is completely obsessed with being stocked at Barneys. Its the only thing he wants in the world. And just because I work there as a personal shopper, he seems to think I should be able to arrange meetings with the head buyer for him. In fact, I have arranged meetings with the head buyer for him. The first time, he arrived a week late for the appointment and shed gone to Milan. The second time, he was showing her a jacket and as she tried it on, all the buttons fell off. Oh God. What was I thinking of, asking him to make my dress? Danny, just tell me. Is my dress going to be ready? Theres a long pause. Does it actually have to be ready for today? says Danny at last. Like literally today? Im catching a plane in six hours! My voice rises to a squeak. Ive got to walk down the aisle in less than... I break off and shake my head. Look, dont worry. Ill wear something else. Something else? Danny puts down Vogue and stares at me blankly. What do you mean, something else? Well... Are you firing me? He looks as though Ive told him our ten-year marriage is over. Just because Ive run a tad over schedule? Im not firing you! But I mean, I cant be a bridesmaid without a dress, can I? But what else would you wear? Well... I twist my fingers awkwardly. I do have this one little reserve dress in my wardrobe... I cant tell him Ive actually got three. And two on hold at Barneys. By whom? Er... Donna Karan, I say guiltily. Donna Karan? His voice cracks with betrayal. You prefer Donna Karan to me?


Of course not! But I mean, at least its there, the seams are actually sewn... Wear my dress. Danny Wear my dress! Please! He throws himself down on the floor and walks towards me on his knees. Itll be ready. Ill work all day and all night. We havent got all day and all night! Weve got about... three hours. Then Ill work all three hours. Ill do it! You can really make a boned embroidered corset from scratch in three hours? I say incredulously. Danny looks abashed. So... um... we may have to rethink the design very slightly. In what way? He drums his fingers for a few moments, then looks up. Do you have a plain white T-shirt? A T-shirt? I cant hide my dismay. Itll be great. I promise. Theres the sound of a van pulling up outside and he glances out of the window. Hey, did you buy another antique? An hour later I stare at myself in the mirror. Im wearing a full sweeping skirt made of gold silk topped by my white T-shirt, which is now completely unrecognizable. Dannys ripped off the sleeves, sewn on sequins, gathered hems, created lines where there were none and basically turned it into the most fantastic top Ive ever seen. I love it. I beam at Danny. I love it! Ill be the coolest bridesmaid in the world! Its pretty good, isnt it? Danny gives a casual shrug, but I can see hes pleased with himself. I take another gulp of my cocktail, draining the glass. Delicious. Shall we have another one? What was in that? Erm... I squint vaguely at the bottles lined up on the cocktail cabinet. Im not sure. It took a while to get the cocktail cabinet up the stairs and into our apartment. To be honest, its a bit bigger than I remembered, and Im not sure itll fit into that little alcove behind the sofa, where Id planned to put it. But still, it looks fantastic! Its standing proudly in the middle of the room, and weve already put it to good use. As soon as it arrived, Danny went upstairs and raided his brother Randalls drinks cupboard, and I got all the booze I could find in the kitchen. Weve had a Margarita each and a Gimlet, and my invention called the Bloomwood, which consists of vodka, orange and M&Ms, which you scoop out with a spoon. Give me the top again. I want to pull in that shoulder tighter. I peel off the top, hand it to him, and reach for my jumper, not bothering about trying to be modest. I mean, this is Danny. He threads a needle and starts expertly gathering along the hem of the T-shirt. So, these weird cousin-marrying friends of yours, he says. Whats that about?

Theyre not weird! I hesitate for a moment. Well, OK, Tarquin is a tiny bit weird. But Suze isnt at all weird. Shes my best friend! Danny raises an eyebrow. So couldnt they find anyone else to marry except from their own family? Was it like, OK, Moms taken... my sister, too fat... the dog... mm, dont like the hair. Stop it! I cant help giggling. They just suddenly realized they were meant for each other. Like When Harry Met Sally. He puts on a film-trailer voice. They were friends. They came from the same gene pool. Danny... OK. He relents, and snips off the thread. So, what about you and Luke? What about us? Dyou think youll get married? I... I have no idea! I say, feeling a slight colour coming to my cheeks. I cant say its ever crossed my mind. Which is completely true. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Is Danny Kovitz a successful designer? How can one be a fabulous designer, really talented and not all that successful at the same time? Give your reasons. 2. Describe Beckys flat. Does it come up to British standards? 3. Where does Becky work? Is she satisfied with her present position? Compare it with the job she used to have. 4. Why isnt Danny stocked at Barneys? What prevents him from reaching this goal? 5. What dress was Danny planning to make for Becky? What did he make in the end? Compare the plan and the result, mentioning as many differences as possible. On what occasion was Becky going to wear the dress? 3. Read the remaining parts of the book and dwell on the following issues. 1. Describe Suze and Tarquins wedding ceremony. How did Becky feel during the ceremony? Why was Suze doing it all wrong with the bouquet? 2. Did Becky expect that Luke would propose to her? How did she envisage her engagement and married life? 3. Compare Beckys, her parents and Elinors plans for the wedding and their ideas about the process of wedding preparations. 4. Why was Becky in two minds about the wedding? Why cant she tell her parents that she doesnt fancy a wedding in Oxshott? On the other hand, why didnt Becky tell Elinor and Robyn she was planning to cancel her New York wedding? Imagine you were in Beckys shoes. Help her sort out the arguments for and against either variant of her wedding ceremony.

5. Why does Becky feel like a guest at her New York wedding? Was she elated by her second wedding and everything her parents had prepared for it? Which wedding did Becky enjoy more? Give your reasons. 4. Consider the issue of choosing a wedding dress. One option for Becky was to wear her mothers wedding dress. Another option was to buy a posh outfit from Dream Dress. Yet one more option was to rely on Danny and his flair for fashion. Dwell on these three alternatives. Which variant did Becky eventually choose for her wedding and why? 5. Split in two teams and conduct a mini-debate on the topic A hand-made dress vs. an off the peg dress which is better? 6. Dwell on Robyns approach to her job. Prove that having a high-powered wedding planner is (is not) worth it. 7. Compare the British and American traditions associated with wedding cakes. Which option would Becky rather go for? 8. Danny claims to be an adherent of a deconstructive approach to design. What does it mean? Is Danny being serious when he speaks about fashion and design in this way? 9. Comment on the issue of wedding contracts. Why cant Becky call her wedding off? What were the terms of her wedding contract? Is there a loophole in her case? Were the recommendations given to Becky by the topnotch lawyer Garson Low worth the money he usually charged? 10. What does Suze mean by saying Its a bit late for normality? Can it really be applied to Beckys case? 11. Summing up the facts from all the three books of the Shopaholic series, make a list of useless things Becky has bought (such as the cocktail cabinet, a fencing mask, a Linguaphone Italian course etc.). Imagine that you work as a guide in the Museum of Useless Things of the 21st Century, where most of Beckys pointless purchases are exhibited. Take a group of tourists around the museum.


III. Follow-up activities

1. Agree or disagree: You cannot succeed if you dont know the right people. You can refer to Dannys case or you can speak about Becky, Robyn, Elinor or Alicia. 2. Work in pairs. Persuade your interlocutor that things shouldnt be done by halfmeasures. Choose your part: a. Becky is speaking to Danny about his future career; b. Robyn is speaking to Becky about her New York wedding ceremony; c. Elinor is speaking to Becky about her wish to have a wedding ceremony in Oxshott. 3. (a) You are a student taking a cross-cultural studies course. You assignment is to compare British and American wedding ceremonies and preparations for them in terms of cultural peculiarities. Deliver the results of your findings to your class in the form of a report. (b) You are a friend of Beckys and have attended both of her wedding ceremonies. Share your impressions of them explaining which variant you would rather choose if you were in Beckys shoes.


Unit 3 The Press Do We Have the Press We Deserve?

I. Vocabulary work
1. Study the following words.

Salacious, voracious, sibling, delve, ogle, harrowing, hapless, flawed, crass, besmirch, jeopardize, hallmark, gloat, liaison, freelance, muckraking, discreet, harass, fraud, lowbrow, prurient. 2. Insert the following words in the sentences below. hallmark gloat liaison freelance muckraking discreet harass fraud

1. is a working association or connection. 2. Those gossip columnists really enjoy . 3. She got a two-year sentence for . 4. The thief over the stolen jewels. 5. I feel rather by all the pressures at the office. 6. She does translation work for several agencies. 7. It wasnt very of you to ring me up at the office. 8. Clear expression is a of good writing. 3. Match the words and their definitions. flagging raunchy pompous catch-all recount priggish characterized by excessive self-esteem or exaggerated dignity, pretentious exaggeratedly proper to top or outmaneuver (a competitor) obscene, lewd, vulgar to narrate the facts or particulars of an impulse

scoop impetus

declining, weakening something designed to cover a variety of situations or possibilities


4. Match the adjectives with suitable nouns. front hapless ambitious voracious indelible posh freelance salacious prurient catch-all muckraking gloating salacious lowbrow page interest reporting readers dailies press victim press interest neighbours reporters photographers stain law

5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions. 1. We readers are partly to blame the low standards which we complain. 2. We are spoiled choice, though practice people choose the paper that best reflects personal views. 3. If you cant affect decisions made you high, why worry them? 4. The question that arises this theatre cruelty is why a government that guards its own privacy so jealously the Official Secrets Act gives its citizenry no legal right privacy. 5. The editor protested that it would prevent him even publishing that Mr Browne was home bed a cold.

II. Discussing the text

1. Look through the title, the subtitle and the introductory paragraph. What means are used by the author to attract the readers attention? Who do you think will be interested in reading this article up to the end?


2. Read the whole text.

Do we have the press we deserve?

What makes millions of people buy a peepshow masquerading as a newspaper? Isnt it time that the reading public took a stand?
By D. Rudnick

The Press Council received a complaint against the News of the World for running a front page story about Eastenders actor David Scarboro. Although he had a history of mental illness and was particularly vulnerable, the News of the World reported that Scarboro had tried to kill himself over a flagging TV career and turbulent sex life. A few months later, he killed himself. Davids father believed that the lies told by the newspaper were a major contributing factor in his sons death. While we cluck our tongues in disapproval at the way some papers behave, as a nation we also lake a prurient interest in salacious reporting, whether it is true or not. Perhaps we as readers are partly to blame for the low standards of which we complain. The British are voracious readers of newspapers. At the top end of the market. There are our quality newspapers which stand comparison with any in the world. We are spoiled for choice, though in practice people choose the paper that best reflects their personal views and tells them what they want to hear. A wit once remarked that the Times is read by those who govern the country, The Daily Telegraph by those who used to govern the country, The Guardian by those who think they should be governing the country, the Financial Times by those who own the country, the Daily Mail by the wives of those who own and govern the country, and The Sun by those who dont care who governs the country as long as shes got big boobs. The gulf between the posh dailies and their raunchy, down-market siblings is wide and getting wider, reflecting Britains continuing class divisions. The quality papers such as The Independent and the Financial Times delve behind the headlines, while the tabloids such as The Sun and Daily Mirror, seem more determined to provide their readers with entertainment. What makes millions of people buy a newspaper in which news play such a minor role? The circulation figures of The Sun and the News of the World tell their own tale: boobs are big business, and naughtiness especially in high places commands a high sales premium, while life and death issues like nuclear disarmament are treated cursorily, if they are treated at all. If the standards of our press are deteriorating, it is because the press barons the Murdochs, Maxwells and so on are in it to make money, and they do so by giving the punters what they obviously want. So the market rules, OK? Maybe it was always so: the press barons of yesteryear the Northcliffes and Beaverbrooks were also market oriented, but at least they had some sense of social responsibility. Perhaps todays ogling tabloids merely reflect our more avid

lust for the instant fix and looser social mores leading the press downhill rather than up. Other countries have their low-brow press, but the British variety is peculiarly British in its puritan-fed taste for voyeurism, hypocritically peering at the neighbours from behind the lace curtains. Many women are known to buy The Sun, which (for those of you who dont know) now carries male as well as female cheesecake. Sex apart, what is news? To millions of people the comings and goings of Bush and Thatcher and the problems of Gorbachev are boring and utterly remote from their immediate preoccupations. If you cant affect decisions made for you on high, why worry about them? Why not sit back and enjoy the passing show? Everyone loves a laugh, and what better than to laugh at the pompous representatives of authority when they are caught with their dignity around their ankles? The great British public just like its counterparts abroad feels reassured, even morally vindicated, when its governors are seen to be only human after all, no better than the rest of us at fighting the temptations of sex, drink or whatever. But at the bottom of this fairground populism lies a nasty snake. If the wages of sin are increased circulation, the penalty of exposure can be harrowing, even tragic, for a hapless victim. The editors of The Observer and The Sunday Times (Donald Trelford and Andrew Neil) were both recently lampooned because of their association with Pamella Bordes, a former House of Commons research assistant. Worse, the brilliant captain of Englands cricket team, Mike Gatting, was sacked after a barmaid recounted her association with him to The Sun and Daily Mirror. Much worse, an obscure but worthy MP, John Golding, was forced out of office after the News of the World had run lengthy interviews with a prostitute with whom he had allegedly shared 100 nights of kinky sex. How can it be in the public interest to expose the flawed private lives of public figures like these, whose ability to do their job was in no way impaired or reduced by their peccadillos? What a sneer waste of talent! When a government minister with a sensitive security job (John Profumo in the early Sixties) had a liaison with a call girl who also entertained a Soviet diplomat, the muckraking press was concerned less with national security than with the battle to boost circulation and scoop their rivals. The distinction has long been blurred between stories of salacious interest that titillate the public, and stories which it is genuinely in the public interest to expose, e.g. fraud and corruption in high places. News has always had some of the qualities of soap opera witness the Ted and Maggie saga. But it is frequently in local papers that one finds the worst examples of juicy parish pump scandal. How many terrified, apparently respectable burghers have seen their lives crash around them, as gloating neighbours tuck into their tabloids to see the vicar exposed as a transvestite and his wife as a nymphomaniac? The question that arises from this theatre of cruelty is why a government that guards its own privacy so jealously through the Official Secrets Act gives its citizenry no legal right to privacy. Why should we have to read horror stories of

news hounds harassing accident victims or their nearest and dearest, as it is alleged happened after Lockerbie? Can people in such circumstances not be protected from the crass insensitivity of some pressmen and their accompanying photographers? Film stars, TV stars and pop stars, politicians and the royal family all have at one time or another suffered the intrusions of ambitious reporters and freelance photographers peering over the wall in the hope of catching them off-guard relaxing. The rumour of scandal, even when its proved to be groundless, leaves an indelible stain. Mud sticks and reputations can be irretrievably besmirched. Surely everyone should have the right to reply when they have been wronged by the press. A bill to give us this right was recently introduced by the Labour MP Tony Worthington, but it was then talked out by a Conservative backbench filibuster. In a bitter debate Mr Worthington said he was aware of the risks of interfering with press freedom, but the lying of some newspapers was undermining the freedom of individuals. The Conservative co-sponsor of the bill, Jonathan Aitken (himself a former journalist), said some tabloids had abandoned journalism for voyeurism. The reporters profession, he declared angrily, has been infiltrated by rent boys, pimps, bimbos, spurned lovers, prostitutes and perjurers. Another Conservative MP, John Browne, tabled a bill to curb press intrusion into privacy, but he withdrew it after it got a rough ride not so much from Parliament as from the media. The News of the Worlds managing editor, Stuart Kuttner, protested that it would prevent him even from publishing that Mr Browne was at home in bed with a cold. He also pointed out that many stories of public concern had to start in some cases with inquiries into peoples personal lives. There is some truth in all of this; a badly drafted, catch-all law designed to protect privacy could indeed throw out the baby with the bath water, if it muzzled the press by frightening journalists off all forms of investigation. If journalists went in daily fear of fines or prosecution they would shy away not only from salacious matter but also from serious issues of definite public concern. Cynics argue that in reality the government and most Conservative MPs are reluctant to curb press freedom for fear of offending the newspaper magnates who tend to support them politically, notably Rupert Murdoch with his Sun, News of the World, Times and Sunday Times. But times are nevertheless changing; the Government is slowly responding to the demand for curbs on the more outrageous abuses of press freedom. Freedom is not the same as license, and abuses of press freedom are increasingly seen by some as jeopardizing freedom itself. Timothy Renton, Minister of State at the Home Office, has served notice on newspaper bosses that they have a year or two in which to clean up their acts though he has not specified what he will do if they fail to comply. Still, the press has been put on probation. Mr Renton has set up a committee to look into invasions of privacy, so we await further developments.


Meanwhile there are straws in this wind of change; the Star has broken its connection with an even more earthy tabloid, the Sunday Sport, after protests from its advertisers, and the Sun has appointed an ombudsman. Last but not least, that venerable institution, the Press Council, has acquired a discreet but tough new chairman, Louis Blom-Cooper, who means business in his sanitising of the press. The Councils function is to hear and adjudicate on complaints brought by the public against newspapers. Up to now it has been rather a toothless watchdog but Mr Bloom-Cooper, a legal eagle of destruction, has instilled a new method of urgency. He has moved quickly to propose the creation of a new offence under civil law which would protect both an individuals reputation and privacy. He wants this offence to include defamation and the unauthorized disclosure of personal information that would cause annoyance or embarrassment, unless justified by a genuine public interest. Cheque-book journalism id not exactly the hallmark of a decent, caring society. It is about time that personal privacy and civilized journalism values were given the force of law. Most of our press say they would welcome it; only papers whose profits were built on others pain would have anything to fear. But lets not be priggish about it: we get the press we deserve just as we get the government we deserve. For press standards to improve, the impetus must come from us, to show the press moguls we prefer news to boobs. At present, though, most of us are giving them the opposite message. 3. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Are readers to blame for the low standards of the press? 2. How do the papers people choose reflect their personal views? Give examples from the text. 3. To what extent can reporters interfere into public figures private lives? 4. Is it in the public interest to expose the private lives of public figures? 5. Who is interested in reading about scandalous lives of celebrities in the first place? 6. Has the government tried to curb press freedom? 7. What is the Press Council and what are its functions? 4. The text is replete with emotionally charged words and phrases. In what contexts would you use the following words and expressions voracious readers, a peepshow masquerading as a newspaper, flagging TV career, prurient interest in salacious reporting, raunchy, down-market siblings, to scoop the rivals? Which of them could sound offensive? 5. Explain how you understand the following idiomatic expressions: to throw out the baby with the bath water, a toothless watchdog, to get a rough ride. In what contexts can you use them?

6. Read the following opinions, which are taken from different Internet resources, about the freedom of the press and say whether you personally support the idea of curbing press intrusion into privacy or not. Give your reasons. Who (what organization, committee, ministry, newspaper editors themselves etc.) should be responsible for it? In the United States, the government may not prevent the publication of a newspaper, even when there is reason to believe that it is about to reveal information that will endanger our national security. By the same token, the government cannot: Pass a law that requires newspapers to publish information against their will. Impose criminal penalties, or civil damages, on the publication of truthful information about a matter of public concern or even on the dissemination of false and damaging information about a public person except in rare instances. Impose taxes on the press that it does not levy on other businesses. Compel journalists to reveal, in most circumstances, the identities of their sources. Prohibit the press from attending judicial proceedings and thereafter informing the public about them.

Freedom of Expression has always been the basic requirement for the media. But sometimes the media transgresses its limitations, social ethics, code of conduct etc. in the name of freedom of expression. Thats why some experts have been emphasizing on code of conduct for media. Journalists have been opposing the idea and have suggested self-regulations. Self-regulation is an ideal situation, but the fact is that it may not be effective to regulate the media, particularly in the scenario of growing competition among the channels for supremacy in the business of ratings.

The issue of the freedom of the press is a very controversial one, especially in the current context. Some aggressive caricatures or publications about peoples private life have recently created a polemic about the freedom of the press and many people tend to think that this freedom should be restricted to respect morals and everyones private life.

Few newspaper stories linger in the mind days, weeks, or even years after being printed. But of the ones that do, most originate in international conflict, political races, or scandal. Scandal journalism is big business unto itself. It is profitable titillation focusing on greed, lust, and all evils that men do, guaranteeing a large and voracious audience. But this muckraking is not limited to the publications that loom over grocery-store checkout counters. Yellow journalism and rumormongering are becoming a part of the mainstream media. There are at least two major scandal categories: one involving famous people and one in which the people involved become famous because of the scandal. Any story involving celebrity public figures immediately acquires the stamp of newsworthiness. People, including journalists, generally assume (perhaps erroneously) that because famous people are important, the story itself is important. This effectively hands major media outlets a ready-made reason for providing the public with every minute detail of the lives of the parties involved. Of course, what is relevant to one journalist (or reader) can be considered offensive by another. Are there any guidelines in the newsroom? Not according to Howard Kurtz of the Washington Post, who wrote in his book Media Circus that the plain truth is that there are no rules anymore, no corner of human behavior into which prying reporters wont poke. Salacious tidbits arent solely in the domain of the National Enquirer, he continues. All of the media, from the prestige press to the sensationalist rags, have been infected by a tabloid culture that celebrates sleaze.

More and more, legal considerations are influencing, if not determining, day-to-day decisions in the media. Each of the following could represent a major legal problem: a TV news report quoting a police officer about a drunk driver who caused a fatal accident; a mistake that associated the wrong name or home address with criminal wrongdoing; a record bought at a local store thats used as background music for a commercial; a TV drama based on the life of a well-known person publishing controversial excerpts on a web site from a new novel; a TV cameraman who accompanies the police into a home during a drug raid; a photo from a web page used in a student newspaper announcing that a local businessman has contracted AIDS. Any one of these could launch a costly lawsuit. How costly? Well, the average cost of just defending yourself from a libel suit (which could result from

the last statement) is about $550,000. If you happen to lose the suit, the settlement could amount to millions of dollars on top of that. Although most legal restraints, such as shield laws, laws against defamation, libel, invasion of privacy, etc., are in the publics best interest, others are not, such as when a large corporation threatens a costly lawsuit if a true story about their wrongdoing is printed or broadcast.

III. Follow-up activities

1. You are participants of a panel discussion on the subject Do we have the press we deserve?. Choose your own part, e.g. chairman of the Press Council, an editor, a journalist working for a quality paper/tabloid, a famous politician/actor/sportsman harassed by reporters, a reader etc. 2. Conduct a mini-survey. You are to interview 10 people (chosen according to a certain principle) to find out about their reading habits. Present the results of your survey in class.

IV. Additional tasks

Task 1. Match the headings with the articles. 1. Whales have brains more complex than any species, including man 2. Jury disqualify Bay Bea: Britain go into lead 3. Pack up and go! 4. New bid to end hunger strikes 5. Missing links? 6. Whats this, overtime? 7. Now U.S. doctors slam civil defense 8. Small talk 9. The slim blue line 10. France rushes industry takeover a. If half as much energy and enthusiasm were channelled into planning a holiday wardrobe as in planning the holiday itself much confusion would be happily avoided. Packing puts even the most orderly of organisers into a panic. Each summer our fashion department is flooded with pleas for what to pack for readers who are accompanying their husbands on business trips to Europe, taking coach journeys


through the Alps or sabbatical to the Far East, and for the lucky few, planning far away cruises to the tropics. b. Britain, who finished joint second behind the United States in yesterdays third inshore race of the international series, took the team lead in the Admirals cup last night after the International Jury disqualified the American yacht Bay Bea. c. The French government has overruled its own doubters and decided to act swiftly to nationalise industries as planned in President Mitterrands election programme amounting to one fifth of French industry. A three-stage programme to be unveiled in the national Assembly today by the Prime minister, Mr Mauroy, is expected to announce the takeover of banks (including extensive industrial holdings held by banks), armaments and steel in the autumn. d. The government decided last night to send in a representative to the Maze prison in an attempt to end the IRA hunger strike. An official from the Northern Ireland office is expected to read out to the prisoners a statement outlining terms for a solution. e. They used to be the essential small accessory for the big businessman. But in the past few years, the price of pocket tape recorders has come down and youre now as likely to find one in a handbag or a trouser pocket as in the hand of a captain of industry. They are emerging from the business machine world to be used for shopping lists, interviews, telephone conversations and even for listening to music. f. More young policewomen are joining the fight against crime as growing numbers of men quit the force. And if present recruitment trends continue eventually there could be more women officers than men, police chiefs were told yesterday. g. They have been hunted to the brink of extinction to make mink food, margarine, cosmetics, fertilizer, whale steaks and lubricating oil. There are cheap, plentiful substitutes for all whale products. But the massacre of the whales continues, led by Norway, Iceland, Spain and Japan. This year, more than 15,000 of these highly-intelligent marine mammals will suffer agonizing deaths as they are chased down at sea and blasted with massive harpoons. h. Meet people in London with whom you have something in common. LINKUP offers a fresh approach to making friends in London by linking you with on going groups of members who share your interests. LINKUP groups go out together in town and locally for meals/drinks/films/theatre/music/walks/swimming/Sunday brunches/parties etc., escape to the country or just meet at someones place for a coffee. Each group is different, of course, but the atmosphere is always informal and friendly. i. If the civil defense budget were in my hands, I would spend all $120 million on morphine, says one American scientist who has studied the effects of nuclear war. Civil defense money is worse than wasted now. It misleads. It may let people believe they can get away in a nuclear war. They cant.

Task 2. Act out the story.

Publican Jailed for Assault

Brian S, aged 38, a publican at M was found guilty at Bristol crown Court yesterday of assaulting a gentle tax man who was removing bar furniture as payment of an outstanding tax debt. Mr S was sentenced to three months imprisonment for an assault on Mr David T, aged 42, a tax collector. Mr and Mrs S had both denied causing bodily harm to Mr T at their public house on June 15.


Unit 4 Medical Care Laugh Your Stress Away I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words. Recoil, trigger, play up, defuse, foible, maneuver, disinterested, inanimate, the butt of a joke, stress buster, belly laugh, temporary stress release. 2. Use the following word combinations in contexts of your own. Temporary stress release, an immediate recoil, inanimate sources of frustration, disinterested observation, to be caught in a situation, to step back from a situation, to come as a refreshing shock, to take the edge off the situation. 3. Choose the right definition of the words in bold type. 1. The physiological effects of a good laugh work against stress. Exercise has psychological benefits as well as physiological ones. a) pertaining to emotions c) pertaining to nutrition b) pertaining to bodily processes d) pertaining to the lifespan of an organism 2. After a slight rise in heart rate and blood pressure during the laugh itself, theres an immediate recoil. After he fired the powerful shotgun, the recoil knocked him backwards. a) clicking sound c) increase b) winding something in loops d) drop or movement backwards 3. Muscles relax and blood pressure sinks below prelaugh levels, and the brain may release endorphins, the same stress reducers that are triggered by exercise. Exercising, eating chocolate, and being in love release endorphins in the body. a) hormones in the brain that cause c) hormones in the body that causes hunger feelings of sadness and depression b) chemicals in the brain that cause d) chemicals in the brain that reduce drowsiness and confusion pain and produce a sense of well-being 4. Muscles relax and blood pressure sinks below prelaugh levels, and the brain may release endorphins, the same stress reducers that are triggered by exercise. The rioting in the city was triggered by the judges unfair ruling. a) activated c) prevented b) pulled a trigger d) increased or grew larger

5. While our cave-dwelling ancestors were stressed by actual life-threatening situations like bumping into a woolly mammoth, times have changed. Scientists do not know for sure why the mammoth disappeared. a) a type of large moth c) extinct type of elephant once b) animal that looks similar to a human found throughout the northern being hemisphere d) rare bird 6. The same kind of disinterested observation makes the tale of your disastrous vacation seem funny after you get safely home. Referees and umpires must be disinterested in who wins the games they officiate at. a) deeply interested c) knowledgeable b) uninterested d) impartial or free from bias 7. The continental drift moves faster. During World War II, continental warfare enveloped nearly all of Europe. a) of or like a continent, a principal land c) related to travel mass of the earth d) pertaining to the nations of the b) pertaining to water or the ocean world 8. This maneuver helps take the edge off the situation, redirects your tension, and helps you see things as not so impossible after all. I tried to talk the police officer out of giving me a speeding ticket by being friendly and polite, but the maneuver failed. a) joke c) excuse b) strategy d) mistaken idea 9. Making fun of your own foibles can save face in an embarrassing situation youll have people laughing with you, rather than at you. He was a practical joker and a nonstop talker, but he was so talented that we overlooked these foibles. a) fatal flaws in ones character c) minor weaknesses of character b) careless mistakes d) humiliating experiences 10. Inanimate sources of frustration, like computers and copying machines, are also safe objects of humor. The actors performance was so stiff that he seemed almost inanimate. a) unfamiliar c) like a cartoon character b) lively or spirited d) lacking lifelike qualities


II. Discussing the text

1. Read the text. What is the topic and the implied main idea of paragraphs 6, 7 and 9?

Laugh Your Stress Away

If fast relief is what youre after, then laughter really is the best medicine.
By S. Lally

1. Humor is one of the best on-the-spot stress busters around. Its virtually impossible to belly laugh and feel bad at the same time. If youre caught in a situation you cant escape or change (a traffic jam, for example), then humor may be the healthiest form of temporary stress release possible. 2. Even when you can change the situation, humor helps. Research by Alice M. Isen, Ph.D., a psychologist at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, shows that people who had just watched a short comedy film were better able to find creative solutions to puzzling problems than people who had either just watched a film about math or had just exercised. In other studies, Dr. Isen found that shortly after watching or experiencing comedy, people were able to think more clearly and were better able to see the consequences of a given decision. 3. The physiological effects of a good laugh work against stress. After a slight rise in heart rate and blood pressure during the laugh itself, theres an immediate recoil: Muscles relax and blood pressure sinks below prelaugh levels, and the brain may release endorphins, the same stress reducers that are triggered by exercise. A hearty ha-ha-ha also provides a muscle massage for facial muscles, the diaphragm and the abdomen. Studies show it even temporarily boosts levels of immunoglobulin A, a virus-fighter found in saliva. 4. While our cave-dwelling ancestors were stressed by actual life-threatening situations like bumping into a wooly mammoth, times have changed. Nowadays, stress is usually not caused by the situation itself, but by how we perceive that situation, says Allen Elkin, Ph.D., program director of Manhattans Stress Management and Counseling Centers. Getting a new perspective is what comedy is all about. Several philosophers and writers have pointed out that comedy and tragedy are different ways of looking at the same stressful event. 5. Comedy works by stepping back from a situation and playing up its absurdities. The same kind of disinterested observation makes the tale of your disastrous vacation seem funny after you get safely home. For stress busting, the trick is to find ways to laugh at the situation while its happening. Even if you dont consider yourself much of a comedian, here are a few simple techniques you can use:


The Bart Simpson maneuver 6. How would your favourite cartoon character or comedian react to the situation? Imagining what would happen can give you a chuckle, making the situation less annoying. You can even pretend youre the star of a TV comedy, and this frustrating episode is tonights plot, says Steve Allen Jr., M.D., an assistant professor of a family medicine at SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse (yes, hes the son of well-known comedian Steve Allen). Ballooning 7. In your mind, consciously exaggerate the situation: Blow it completely out of proportion and into absurdity into a comedy routine. In that long, long checkout line, dont say This waiting is killing me; I hate this. Say: Ill never get to the front of this [line]. The woman ahead of me is covered in cobwebs. The guy in front of her grew a beard standing in line. The cashier must be part snail. The continental drift moves faster. This maneuver helps take the edge off the situation, redirects your tension, and helps you see things as not so impossible after all. Your running commentary, however, is probably best kept to yourself. If people stare at you because you seem to be laughing for no reason, pretend youre reading the scandal sheets. You dont have to be a master of one-liners to be funny. There are gentle forms of humor that can defuse anxiety in a group without making anyone feel like the butt of a joke. Pick a safe subject 8. Making fun of your own foibles can save face in an embarrassing situation youll have people laughing with you, rather than at you. Inanimate sources of frustration, like computers and copying machines, are also safe objects of humor. Lay it on the line 9. Sometimes just telling the truth or pointing out the obviuos can get a laugh. People are accustomed to exaggeration and truth bending (too many TV commercials, perhaps), so plain speaking can come as a refreshing shock. For example, after delivering a series of lengthy explanations during a question-andanswer period, some people have been known to put everyone in stitches by simply replying to the next question with Gee, I dont know. This kind of humour is a way of fighting stress by accepting our short-comings, says Joel Goodman, Ed.D., director of the HUMOR Project in Saratoga Springs, New York. Clip a cartoon 10. Keep a file of jokes and cartoons that make you laugh. Paste a few up where youre likely to need them at work, on the refrigerator, wherever. 2. True or false. 1. The author believes that humor may be the healthiest way to relieve stress. 2. During a good laugh, there is a slight rise in heart rate and blood pressure. 3. After a good laugh, blood pressure returns to its prelaugh level. 4. Our cave-dwelling ancestors were stressed by life-threatening situations.

5. The trick to stress busting is find ways to laugh at the situation after it has happened. 6. Getting a new perspective is what comedy is all about. 3. Select the best answer. 1. Alice Isen, Ph.D., concluded that after watching or experiencing comedy, people a) felt better temporarily but then became depressed again; b) were able to think more clearly and see the consequences of a given decision; c) reported no difference; d) gradually became more relaxed and cheerful. 2. The physiological effects of a good laugh include a) relaxation of the muscles; b) lowering of blood pressure; c) release of endorphins; d) all of the above. 3. The Bart Simpson maneuver for reducing stress is to imagine a) yourself removed from the stressful situation; b) yourself as Bart Simpson; c) how your favourite cartoon character or comedian would react; d) none of the above. 4. Ballooning, a technique to reduce stress, consists of a) seeing yourself attached to a balloon which is floating away from the stressful situation; b) consciously exaggerating the situation by blowing it out of proportion into absurdity; c) releasing your tension by inhaling and exhaling deeply; d) visualizing your stress as a balloon that explodes and disappears. 4. Discuss the following issue: What is the most important overall message the writer wants the reader to understand about stress? 5. In pairs, role-play the following situation. A patient complains to his psychologist about being under constant pressure and feeling depressed. The psychologist advises the patient on the possible ways of fighting stress.

III. Follow-up activities

1. The author of the text says, Stress is not usually caused by the situation itself, but by how we perceive the situation. Suppose that you are to give a presentation in one of your classes. A few minutes before class, someone spills coffee on you in the cafeteria. You have a large coffee stain on your shirt, but there is no time to change before class Explain at least two ways you could perceive the situation and how you could apply one or more of the five stress-busting techniques to help you deal with the situation. Develop one more original technique for stressbusting. (It must be safe and legal!) 2. You are a psychologist. Deliver a speech at a conference on methods of fighting with stress.

Bills Eyes I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Smudge, wet blanket, to put ones mind to smth, limp, suspense, verify. 2. Choose one of the active words to fill in each gap. 1. The children waited in to hear the end of the story. 2. Cant we stay a bit longer? Dont be such a ! 3. I like these shoes. 4. The prisoners statement by several witnesses. 5. He seems to be developing a . 6. I like lettuce to be crisp, not and soggy. 7. The incident is a on his character. 8. Im sure youll be able to do it if you it. 3. Study the expressions and use them in contexts of your own. to be short-sighted/long-sighted to go blind to wear glasses/contact lenses to be as blind as a bat to read Braille to be colour blind to visit an oculist to be hard of hearing to go deaf to wear a hearing aid to be as deaf as a post to lip-read to use sign language to be tone deaf (of music) to go to an ear specialist

4. Look at the list of words formed from the word sense. Complete the sentences with an appropriate word from the list or the word sense, which you will use three times. sensible sensitive sensation sensational sensual sensuous senseless 1. What should you say? Youll just have to use your common . 2. The news of the scandal caused a . 3. Ive always found the buzzing of bees has a very attraction. 4. I think the thing to do would be to stop now and get a good nights sleep. 5. In one I think youre right, but not completely. 6. Kleidorfs defeat of Real Madrid in the European Cup was . 7. Its trying to argue with him; he never listens to a word anybody says.

8. Shes very on the subject of divorce, so be careful what you say. 9. I felt a of deja vu when I was turned down for the job the second time. 10. The cashier at the bank has incredibly hands. 5. Complete each sentence with the appropriate phrase. a sense of homour a sense of fairness a sense of discipline a sense of duty a sense of adventure a sense of fun a sense of power a sense of timing a sense of balance

1. Having a little red button not far from his desk must give a President an enormous . 2. Without a youll never be able to hit the ball correctly. 3. Some people say that a is the only thing that makes difficult situations bearable. 4. He went ahead and arrested his uncle through a . 5. One of the major tasks of parents should be to give their children a . 6. His inborn led him to the slopes of the Himalayas. 7. At high altitudes one is apt to lose ones . 8. His is so strong, he protests to umpires on behalf of his opponent. 9. Personally, I dont call putting dead fish in friends beds a sign of a healthy .

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the text. In one part of the text all punctuation has been removed. Can you put it back? Start a new paragraph when you think it is necessary and dont forget part of the text may be a dialogue and will have to be punctuated as such.

Bills Eyes
By W. March

The nurse came into the room where Bill sat and glanced around to assure herself that everything was in readiness for the doctor. They werent used to such famous men in hospitals of this sort, and she was afraid each time he came to see Bill that he would ask some question which she could not answer, some technical thing which she had learned in her probationary days and had promptly forgotten, such as, Define lymph, Miss Connors, and state briefly the purpose it serves in the economy of the body. She dragged her forefinger over the table, examined it critically for smudges, and looked briskly about her for a dustcloth. Since there was none, she lifted her uniform above her knees and held it away from her body while she wiped the table clean with her underskirt. She was conscious of the exposure of her thighs, and she

turned her head slowly and looked at Bill. He was a strong, thickset man with a muscular neck and a chest so solid that it seemed molded from the metals with which he had once worked. He was, she judged, about twenty-five. The fact that such a young, full-blooded man could neither see the charms that she exhibited, nor react to them, because of his blindness, as a man should, excited her, and she began to talk nervously: Well, I guess youll be glad to get this over with. I guess youll be glad to know for certain, one way or the other. I know now, said Bill. Im not worrying. Theres no doubt in my mind now, and there never was. I must say youve been a good patient. You havent been upset like most of them are. Why should I worry? asked Bill. I got the breaks this time, if ever a man did. If there ever was a lucky man its me, if you know what I mean. I was lucky to have that big-time doctor operate on me for nothing just because my wife wrote and asked him to. He laughed contentedly. Christ! Christ, but I got the breaks!... From the way hes treated me, youd think I was a millionaire or the President of the United States or something. [Thats a fact said Miss Connors thoughtfully Hes a fine man She noticed that she still held her uniform above her knees and she dropped it suddenly smoothing her skirt with her palms Whats he like asked Bill Wait she said Youve waited a long time now and if you wait a little longer maybe youll be able to see what he looks like for yourself Ill be able to see all right when he takes these bandages off said Bill Theres no question of maybe Ill be able to see all right Youre optimistic said the nurse. Youre not downhearted Ill say that for you Bill said What have I got to worry about This sort of operation made him famous didnt it If he cant make me see again who can Thats right said the nurse What you say is true Bill laughed tolerantly at her doubts They bring people to him from all over the world dont they You told me that yourself Sister Well what do you think they do it for For the sea voyage Thats right said the nurse You got me there I dont want to be a wet blanket I just said maybe You didnt have to tell me what a fine man he is said Bill after a long silence He chuckled reached out and tried to catch hold of Miss Connors hand but she laughed and stepped aside Dont you think I knew that myself he continued I knew he was a fine man the minute he came into the hospital and spoke to me I knew Then he stopped leaned back in his chair and rubbed the back of one hand with the fingers of the other He had stopped speaking he felt just in time to prevent his sounding ridiculous There was no point in explaining to Miss Connors or anybody else just how he felt in his heart about the doctor or of his gratitude to him There was no sense in talking about those things Miss Connors went to the table and rearranged the bouquet of asters which Bills wife had brought for him the day before narrowing her eyes and holding her face away from the flowers critically She stopped all at once and straightened up Listen she said Thats him now Yes said Bill Miss Connors went to the door and opened it Well Doctor your patient is all ready and waiting for you She backed away

thinking of the questions that a man of such eminence could ask if he really put his mind to it Ill be outside in the corridor she went on If you want me Ill be waiting] The doctor came to where Bill sat and looked at him professionally, but he did not speak at once. He went to the window and drew the dark, heavy curtains. He was a small, plump man, with a high, domed forehead, whose hands were so limp, so undecided in their movements that it seemed impossible for them to perform the delicate operations that they did. His eyes were mild, dark blue and deeply com-passionate. We were just talking about you before you came in, said Bill. The nurse and me, I mean. I was trying to get her to tell me what you look like. The doctor pulled up a chair and sat facing his patient I hope she gave a good report I hope she wasnt too hard on me. She didnt say, said Bill. It wasnt necessary. I know what you look like without being told. Tell me your idea and I'll tell you how right you are. He moved to the table, switched on a light, and twisted the bulb until it was shaded to his satisfaction. Thats easy, said Bill. Youre a dignified man with snow-white hair, and I see you about a head taller than any man I ever met. Then youve got deep brown eyes that are kind most of the time but can blaze up and look all the way through a man if you think hes got any meanness in him, because meanness is the one thing you cant stand, not having any of it in you. The doctor touched his mild, compassionate eyes with the tips of his finger. Youre a long way off, he said laughingly. Youre miles off this time, Bill. He switched off the shaded light on the table, adjusted a reflector about his neck, and turned back to his patient, entirely professional again. The room is in complete darkness now, he said. Later on, Ill let the light in gradually until your eyes get used to it. I generally explain that to my patients so they wont be afraid at first. Christ! said Bill scornfully. Did you think I didnt trust you?... Christ Ive got too much faith in you to be afraid. Ill take off the bandages now, if youre ready. Okay said Bill. Im not worrying anymore. Suppose you tell me about your accident while I work, said the doctor after a pause. Itll keep your mind occupied and besides I never did understand the straight of it. Theres not much to tell, said Bill. Im married and Ive got three kids, like my wife told you in her letter, so I knew I had to work hard to keep my job. They were laying off men at the plant every day, but I said it mustnt happen to me. I kept saying to myself that I had to work hard and take chances, being a man with responsibilities. I kept saying that I mustnt get laid off, no matter what happened. Keep your hands down, Bill, said the doctor mildly. Talk as much as you want to, but keep your hands in your lap. I guess I overdone it, continued Bill. I guess I took too many chances

after all... Then that drill broke into about a dozen pieces and blinded me, but I didnt know what had happened to me at first. Well, you know the rest, Doc. That was tough, said the doctor. He sighed soundlessly and shook his head. That was tough luck. What I am going to say may sound silly, said Bill, but I want to say it once and get it off my chest, because theres nothing Im not willing to do for a man like you, and Ive thought about it a lot... Now heres what I want to say just one time: If you ever want me for anything, all you got to do is to say the word and Ill drop everything and come running, no matter where I am. And when I say anything, I mean anything, including my life I just wanted to say it one time. I appreciate that, said the doctor, and I know you really mean it. I just wanted to say it, said Bill. There was a moments silence, and then the doctor spoke cautiously: Everything that could be done for a man was done for you, Bill, and theres no reason to think the operation was unsuccessful. But sometimes it doesnt work, no matter how hard we try. Im not worrying about that, said Bill quietly, because Ive got faith. I know, just as sure as I know Im sitting here, that when you take off the bandages Ill be looking into your face. You might be disappointed, said the doctor slowly. Youd better take that possibility into consideration. Dont get your hopes too high. I was only kidding, said Bill. It dont make any real difference to me what you look like. I was kidding about what I said. He laughed again. Forget it, he said. Forget it. The doctors small, delicate hands rested against his knees. He leaned forward a little and peered into his patients face. His eyes had become accustomed to the darkness, and he could distinguish Bills individual features plainly. He turned on the small, shaded light, shielding it with his palm. He sighed, shook his head, and rubbed his hands against his forehead with a thoughtful movement. Have you got some kids at home, too? asked Bill. The doctor went to the window. He pulled gently on the cord, and the thick curtains parted and slid back soundlessly. I have three little girls, he said. The autumn sunlight came strongly into the room and lay in a bright wedge across the floor, touching Bills hands, his rough, uplifted face, and the wall beyond. Well, now thats funny. Ive got three little boys... Can you beat that? Its what they call a coincidence, said the doctor. He came back to the chair and stood between Bill and the sunlight. You can raise your hands now, if you want to, he said wearily.


Bill lifted his hairy, oil-stained hands and rested them against his temples. He spoke with surprise. The bandages are off now, aint they, Doc? Yes. The doctor shook his head and moved to one side, and again the strong sunlight fell on Bills broad, good-natured Slavic face. I dont mind telling you, now that 1 got my eyesight back, said Bill, that Ive been kidding about not being afraid. Ive been scared to death most of the time, Doc, but I guess you knew that too. Thats why Ive been acting like a kid today, I guess. Its the relief of having it over and knowing that I can see again... You can turn the light on any time you want to. Im ready. The doctor did not answer. My old lady was in to see me yesterday, continued Bill. She said theyre holding my job for me at the plant. I said to tell em Id be there to claim it on Monday morning. Ill be glad to get back to work again. The doctor was still silent, and Bill, fearing that he had sounded ungrateful, added quickly: Ive had a fine rest these last weeks, and everybody has been pretty damned good to me, but I want to get back to work now, Doc. Im a family man and Ive got responsibilities. My wife and kids would starve to death without me there to take care of them, and I cant afford to waste too much time. You know how it is with your own work, I guess. The doctor went to the door, and spoke gently. Nurse!.. Nurse youd better come in now. She entered at once, went to the table, and stood beside the vase of asters. She looked up after a moment and examined Bills face. He seemed entirely different with the bandages removed, and younger, even, than she had thought. His eyes were round, incorruptibly innocent, and of an odd shade of clear, child-like hazel. They softened, somehow, his blunt hands, his massive chin, and his thick, upstanding hair. They changed his entire face, she thought, and she realized that if she had not seen them she would never have really understood his character, nor would she have had the least idea of how he appeared to the people who knew him before his accident. As she watched him, thinking these things, he smiled again, pursed his lips, and turned his head in the doctors direction. Whats the matter with you? he asked jokingly. What are you waiting for?.. Youre not looking for a tin cup and a bundle of pencils to hand me, are you? He laughed again. Come on, Doc, he said. Dont keep me in suspense this way. You cant expect me to know what you look like until you turn on the lights, now can you? The doctor did not answer. Bill threw out his arms and yawned contentedly, moved in his chair, and almost succeeded in faring the nurse who still stood beside the table. He smiled and winked humorously at the vacant wall, a yard to the left of where Miss Connors waited. The doctor spoke. Im about five feet, eight inches tall, he began in his hesitant, compassionate voice. I weigh around a hundred and seventy-five pounds,

so you can imagine how paunchy Im getting to be. Ill be fifty-two years old next spring, and Im getting bald. Ive got on a gray suit and tan shoes. He paused a moment, as if to verify his next statement. Im wearing a blue necktie today, he continued, a dark blue necktie with white dots in it. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. What kind of hospital was it? 2. What was Miss Connors thinking of before the doctors visit? 3. What happened to Bill? How did he manage to get such a famous doctor to operate on him? 4. While waiting for the doctor, Bill and Miss Connors have a conversation. Bill seems to be sure that he will see again, but Miss Connors has doubts, and at the same time she admires Bills optimism. Find evidence in the text to prove it. 5. Is Bill really that optimistic? 6. Why was it so important for Bill to know what the doctor looked like? 7. Prove that the doctor was a real professional. Describe his actions. 8. Was Bill calm while the doctor was removing the bandages? 9. Did the doctor like Bills feeling so optimistic? 3. Bills description of the doctors appearance does not correspond to the actual state of things. Give the two portraits of the doctor (the actual one and as seen by Bill) and compare them. Why are they so different? 4. Explain the final scene of the story. Were you shocked by it or was it quite predictable? Give your reasons.

III. Follow-up activities

1. What ten things would you miss most if you were blind or deaf? In other words, what are your favourite sights and sounds? 2. What evidence have you heard of people who are deprived of one sense having unusually developed other senses? 3. Do you believe in a sixth sense? Have you heard of any cases of ESP (extrasensory perception)?


IV. Additional tasks

Task 1. Read the text.

Private Medicine is Concerned about the National Health

Private medicine is a part of the national health. A vital part, it contributes a good deal to the National Health Service. For example, pay beds in NHS hospitals will give 240 million annually to the financially-stretched National Health Service. But its not just a matter of money. Private medicine preserves everyones right to freedom of choice. Some million people choose to go privately when they need treatment. The vast majority are ordinary men and women and their families. They budget for health protection from their earnings through organizations such as ours. Whats more, over eight people out of every ten (82%) believe in the right to pay for private medicine. Whats the Government up to? If it doesnt make financial sense and the vast majority dont want it, why are the Government proposing legislation to phase out pay beds and control private medicine? And why do they want to introduce it in advance of the findings of the Royal Commission on Health? Patients before Politics. A doctors loyalty is to his patients. Thats why the Medical Profession has always shown itself to be completely opposed to any political suggestion that the patients freedom of choice should be tampered with. Such suggestions are rife today. The issue at stake is not just one of professional freedom but also of patient freedom. Task 2. Express your opinion about the following issues. 1. Most people cannot afford to pay for private medicine. 2. If you are a NHS patient, you may have to wait months for a bed in hospital. If you are a private patient, you get a bed very quickly. 3. Many people complain that doctors give too much time to private patients and not enough to NHS patients. 4. Doctors are paid by the National Health Service. They earn extra money from private patients. Look at the advertisement again. Pick out the statements that are not exactly true and explain why. Is this lying? If so, why? If not, what is it?


The Emergency Ward I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words. Reminiscent, infirmity, wheedle, sage, penitent, convivial, vexatious, antidote, disheveled, aggravate, duped, relentlessly, supplicating, misconstrue. 2. Choose the best definition of the italicized word. 1) reminiscent of a market place: a) tending to belong to, b) tending to recall, c) being exactly alike, d) in contrast to; 2) as if they were hawking wares: a) peddling, b) manufacturing, c) comparing, d) arguing over; 3) In the sea of mendicants: Those who a) have imaginary symptoms of illness, b) need medical attention, c) need emergency medical attention, d) beg for favours of treatment; 4) every imaginable infirmity: a) disability, frailty, b) moral weakness, c) personality trait, d) social class; 5) try to wheedle anything: a) ask for special favours for, b) persuade by using flattery, c) believe, accept as true, d) steal, take without permission; 6) The innocent lies next to the sage: A person who is a) wealthy, b) successful, c) wise, d) evil; 7) the penitent patient rubs shoulders with the outraged: a) lacking in confidence, b) talkative, c) skeptical, doubting, d) feeling remorse for ones misdeeds; 8) not always so convivial a place: a) sociable, jovial, b) gloomy, grim, c) surprising, astonishing, d) interesting, fascinating; 9) vexatious rapidity: a) constant, b) dizzying, c) annoying, d) fatiguing; 10) to improve with our ministrations: Acts of a) serving, b) praying, c) kindness, d) faith; 11) this hermetic world: a) completely sealed against escape or entry of air, b) insulated, impervious to outside influence, c) having to do with the occult, magical, d) resembling a place where one can hide from the world; 12) the antidote to my experiences: Anything that a) is used contrary to popular opinion, b) answers, responds, c) relieves or remedies, d) serves as a complement;

13) Disheveled and bundled in several layers: a) shabby, dirty, b) disarranged, untidy, c) disorganized, messy, d) povertystricken; 14) by threatening to aggravate her asthma: a) irritate, annoy, b) use, exploit, c) make worse, d) arouse interest in; 15) feeling empty and duped: a) worthless, b) foolish, c) resentful, d) deceived; 16) relentlessly forward-moving: a) steadily, persistently, b) remarkably, astonishingly, c) rapidly, swiftly, d) smoothly, fluently; 17) an almost supplicating look: a) earnest, b) beseeching, c) penetrating, d) provocative; 18) whose face is tan but wizened: a) wise, b) deeply lined, c) shriveled, d) unblemished; 19) he asks me nonchalantly: a) skeptically, b) quizzically, c) affectionately, d) casually; 20) to misconstrue the evidence: a) misinterpret, b) disregard, c) misplace, d) mismanage. 3. Match the words to make up word combinations from the text. medieval embark on walk off take clamour enduring hawk misconstrue for an audience evidence wares fair in a huff mark to the streets ones new career

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the text.

The Emergency Ward

By S. A. Hoffman

Stephan A. Hoffman attended Harvard Medical School and worked as an intern in the emergency ward at Massachusetts General Hospital, at large hospital in Boston. His book, Under the Ether Dome, describes his experiences working there. In this abstract from his book, Hoffman discusses what it is like to be a novice intern working in the Emergency Ward.

1. The Emergency Ward of a city hospital often resembles a medieval fair. The scene is full of pageantry, a state of commotion prevails, and the atmosphere is reminiscent of a marketplace: people throng in with complaints as if they were hawking wares. Exposing painful chests or stomachs, or waving injured parts in the air, they clamour for an audience. Hoping to attract notice, they will bargain spiritedly, each one entering into an explanation of why his illness, like a piece of merchandise, is more deserving of attention than the next. 2. In the sea of mendicants and merchants, every imaginable infirmity is represented. Like items brought in for sale, none is too plain or pitiful, too colorful, comic, or exotic to encounter. I remember treating an elderly man who developed chest pain after having been beaten by his children, a young physician with a cough who turned out to have lung cancer, a woman who complained of a buzzing sensation in her abdomen and who was thought to be a crock until an X ray revealed that she had a vibrator lodged in her intestine, an attractive young woman with chest pain dead only minutes after her arrival of a massive myocardial infarction, and a gentleman who walked in with an urn inverted on his head, telling us in a reverberating voice that it was the work of a jealous wife. 3. Not only is every imaginable kind of problem on display in an Emergency ward, but every variety of personality is exhibited. There are evangelists and troubadours, the self-styled clowns and princes, tragedians and trouble-makers, even matchmakers. Some people are openly out to profit or to close a deal and will try to wheedle anything from narcotics to immediate attention to a room with a TV. One comes to recognize both the practiced historian, who arrives with a prepared announcement, and the shy one, who fidgets simply in anticipation of having to speak. The innocent lies next to the sage, and the penitent patient rubs shoulders with the outraged. There are both the famous and the unrenowned. I can recall taking care of senators and television personalities as well as of a street nomad who proudly taught me the distinction between a vagrant and a bum. 4. Unfortunately, an Emergency ward is not always so convivial a place. When the pulse of action quickens, and survival becomes the sole priority, the Emergency ward is transformed from a fair to a theater of war. At such times, an interns job is to battle with diseases, and the people who bear them are almost incidental. Rather than being able to appreciate the human comedy around him, an intern is bent on minimizing losses, and he is apt to emerge from a days work shellshocked. If there are calm moments in an Emergency Ward, there are also hectic ones, which tend to leave a more enduring mark. This is why it is so rare for any intern to escape his one-month tour of duty without coming down with a case of combat fatigue. An Emergency Ward is not one but two worlds, which can switch back and forth with vexatious rapidity like images on a Gestalt screen. 5. Even though I was not assigned to do my first of several rotations in the Emergency Ward until the fourth month of internship, I had already had some experience of it. Almost every patient I had admitted to the hospital during my days on call for the wards, the private service, and the intensive-care unit had made his or her first stop in The Pit, as the Emergency Ward is affectionately known, and clipboard and black bag in hand, I would descend there to do my workup. I

had also become acquainted with the Emergency Ward in a purely social capacity. The EW is a way station, a place where house officers stop frequently to trade stories, ventilate, and unwind. Just as it is the medical hub of the hospital for patients, the EW is the social center of the hospital for interns and residents, and like my colleagues I had spent my share of time there. 6. If the thought of managing emergencies intimidated me at the beginning of the year, I welcomed the chance to experience the world of acute care by the time my EW rotation drew near. Much as I hated to admit it, I was already weary of working on the wards. I had spent the first three months of internship on one or another hospital floor, where in spite of daily discharges and admissions, a sizable core of patients would remain. Day after day, my colleagues and I looked after these unfortunate people. When we made our morning rounds, the same faces angry, discouraged, pained turned toward us, serving notice of how little we could do. It was true: few seemed to improve with our ministrations. Many suffered from diseases whose courses were affected minimally or not at all by what we did, and both for them and for us our supposed interventions seemed more like busywork designed to preserve the illusion that we were doing something than like truly curative care. 7. Despite my determination to remain optimistic, I found myself growing discouraged on the wards, and I looked increasingly to the EW for relief from this hermetic world. Not only would I see a different group of people every day, but also I would be more likely to bring about major improvements in their lives, even cures, and I craved this opportunity as if it were the antidote to my experiences so far. 8. On my first day in the EW, I arrived a little early in order to outfit myself appropriately. Having studied the attire of a junior resident who had been on duty there the day before, I copied his example, tying a rubber tourniquet around one belt loop and fixing a pair of EKG calipers to another. A reflex hammer, I had learned from watching a neurologist, could be kept conveniently in a buttonhole of my white coat, and a safety pin, which I would use to test sensation, fit nearly through one of the coats lapels. I studded my pockets with scissors and tape and tucked in several intravenous catheters where I could still find room. Preparing for each rotation of the year, as every intern knows, is very much a matter of looking and becoming one with the part. 9. When 8:00 a.m. arrived and my shift began, I asked the senior resident to sign me up for the first case of the day. To be free of the constraints of ward care was a thrill, and I was eager to embark on my new career. Had I been able to, I would have signed up for every case, and there were times during the month when I nearly succeeded in doing so. Poised in readiness for any and every emergency from asthma to heart attack to overdose, I felt like a privileged member of a repertory company, prepared to perform any of a hundred roles at a moments notice. To do so I needed to command a knowledge not only of how to apply medications, medical props, and emergency techniques, but also of how to use words and gestures to their full effect. In any medical arena, but in the Emergency Ward especially, a doctor is always part actor. Whenever a patient presents to him

for help, he must stage an individualized performance, choosing his words and timing his expressions with care in the hope of moving his audience toward the desired dramatic resolution. 10. It is over four years since my debut in the Emergency Ward, but I still recall exactly how I felt while waiting for my first patient to arrive. As I relive this sense of anticipation, I imagine myself beginning in the EW all over again. Standing at the front desk, where interns and residents congregate, I keep a watchful eye on the door. 11. The first patient to arrive is a middle-aged street dweller. Disheveled, carrying a Lord & Taylor bag, and bundled in several layers of tattered rags, she comes in coughing. Looking on while the nurse obtains her temperature and other vital signs, I entertain a quick differential diagnosis: pneumonia, lung abscess, or tuberculosis. 12. When I ask the woman more about her cough, however, she divulges only that she once lived in France. Meandering over the terrain of her life, she goes on to tell me about her house (did she say on the Rue de Rivoli?), about a string of lovers, and about syphilis, which she claimed to have contracted during a balmy night on a beach in Normandy. Eventually she married, but her husband left her. She returned to the United States and took to the streets. 13. Casting a quick glance at the vital signs on the nurses sheet, I notice that it is only a cold that has brought her in. Indeed, her throat appears benign and her lungs are clear. After undoing the cloths that are swathed about her, I find that there are scars across her belly, and a wave of pity hits me. Following my gaze, she too glances down and gives me a rueful smile. Cest la vie, helas, cest la vie, she says, without providing further explanation. 14. Although her chest X ray is clear (it shows no evidence of pneumonia), I decide to admit her, fully aware that it is strictly a social admission designed to provide her with food, lodging, and a good nights rest. As expected, the junior resident whose turn it is to take the case balks at the admission. Youre weak, Hoffmann, he tells me. She needs to be admitted about as much as I do. Prepared for his attack, I counter, Its an easy case, Jim. Theres hardly anything for you to do. He knows it. She fills one of his beds and couldnt possibly entail less work. Thats why, despite complaining, he agrees to admit the woman. 15. When I am through, the senior gives me a quick lesson on how to evaluate the patient who arrives with shortness of breath, and as we stand together in the front of the EW reviewing the workgroup, in comes a middle-aged woman who is wheezing. Its Clara again, the senior says knowingly as the woman is wheeled to one of the rooms in the rear. She has asthma and is a regular around here. You might as well get to know her. 16. Youre an intern, arent you? Clara asks as I stride into the room. Yes, I am, I answer, Im Dr Hoffmann. Well, I dont want any intern taking care of me; get me a resident, she responds curtly. Not wishing to provoke an argument, I seek out the senior, who patiently but firmly lays down the law. You know how the Emergency Ward works, Clara, he admonishes her. Youve been around long enough to know. Youre assigned to Dr Hoffmann, and if that isnt

agreeable to you, you may leave. As he prepares to return to his work, he turns around and reminds her, Besides, your new clinic doctor is an intern, so your argument doesnt hold steam! 17. Clara agrees to stay. As I take a brief history, (Can you tell me when your breathing became labored? Did anything seem to set it off? Have you been able to take all your medicines?) Clara appears impatient and eventually cuts me off. Look, she says irritably, I just want a shot of epinephrine, an aminophylline drip run it in at forty some Bronkosol to breathe, and my lungs will clear. I always clear with that. A little taken aback, I decide not to argue, since her plan of treatment seems reasonable. Fair enough, I say. 18. But then she tells me that she wants a blood gas test, a test that requires puncturing an artery to measure the oxygen level in the blood. Since there is no reason for her to undergo the procedure, I am caught entirely off guard. It has always been the patient who has refused to undergo this sometimes painful and hazardous but often important test, and I who have had to lobby for it. Now I am compelled to argue the opposite side, and despite my most persuasive case against her undergoing the test, she gives me only a begrudging ear. I want it anyway, she says the instant I finish. I always get a blood gas drawn. 19. When I make a renewed appeal, however, she grows excited and increasingly short of breath. This, I realize, is nothing short of blackmail: by threatening to aggravate her asthma she has literally forced my hand. Reluctantly I draw the specimen from her radial artery, while she looks on with a triumphant smile. Having sent off the test, I begin her on medications, and eventually (how much from medication and how much from my having capitulated to her is unclear) Clara improves. On her way out she is all smiles, and she informs me that I am a good physician. The senior resident also tells me that I did well, giving me a pat on the back. The whole thing leaves me feeling empty and duped. 20. The next patient comes in with jaundice. She is frail and has clearly lost a good deal of weight. The obvious possibility is a malignancy, and as the thought goes through my mind, she actually puts the question to me: Is it cancer? My heart sinks. Put on the spot, I try to find an honest but humane reply. 21. In the middle of examining her, I am called away to assist in a code, the resuscitation of a patient suffering cardiac arrest. The emergency Medical technicians have just wheeled in an elderly man, age and identity unknown, who dropped at a nearby Massachusetts Transit Authority station. The senior asks me to pump on his chest, that is, to continue CPR, and as I do so, one junior resident slips an endotracheal tube down the mans throat so that he can be ventilated and another hurriedly inserts a central line beneath his collarbone so that he can receive intravenous drugs. The senior asks someone to relieve me, then asks me to draw a blood gas specimen from an artery in the mans groin. I have trouble, grow embarrassed, and begin to sweat, but finally obtain it. I relax, thinking my trials to be over. 22. Then the senior asks me if I have inserted the pacemaker; the patients heart has failed to generate a beat. Uh, no, I havent, I reply nervously, unsure of just what awaits me. I am handed a huge needle and syringe and told to attach the syringe to the needle. I do this obediently but reluctantly, thinking that I really

shouldnt be doing this without having had an opportunity to practice first. But I do not argue. I know that it is part of internship to learn by doing and I know that some of that learning must be done under duress. 23. Pointing out the anatomic landmarks on the patients chest, the resident instructs me just where to insert the needle. I do as he tells me, advancing the apparatus through the skin and drawing back on the syringe, so that I will know when I have entered the heart. I am nervous my heart is pounding and my hands are shaking but the senior talks me calmly through the procedure as if he were a pilot on the ground coaching an inexperienced passenger on an airplane through an emergency landing. As I continue to advance the needle slowly, it suddenly fills with blood, signifying that I have reached the mans left ventricle. Under the seniors guidance, I thread a wire (which connects to a pacemaker) through the center of the needle, and after experimenting with its placement in the way that the senior suggests, I hear the junior resident manning the EKG machine shout, Its capturing, youve got a complex. When he asks if anyone can feel a pulse, someone blurts out, Yes! and when he then asks that the blood pressure be taken, it turns out to be not only obtainable, but high. Everyone smiles and pats each other on the back, and the mood relaxes. 24. Trembling but exhilarated, I leave the scene, wondering what my next visitation from a patient will bring, what unexpected twist of plot lies in store for me with the beginning of a new act. As my first shift in the EW plays itself out, I begin to appreciate not only how relentlessly forward-moving is the action, but also how many dramatic turns a day may take, and it strikes me that in the Emergency Ward an intern has as little control over his reactions to a days drama as over the course of action itself. 25. I return to see the woman with suspended cancer, but just as I am about to enter her room, the senior asks me if I can evaluate another patient first. Not only has the code set us back, but the pace has picked up. The senior resident in the Emergency Ward is like an air-traffic controller who polices the flow of patients in and out, and who is always juggling many flights simultaneously. 26. The patient I am asked to evaluate his chest pain. When I walked into the room to shake his hand, he begins to cry. It is three months since he had a heart attack, he tells me, and he is terrified of a recurrence. His pain today lasted only moments and was preceded by a heavy lunch, but he is worried nonetheless. Is this another heart attack? he asks me almost in a whisper. Looking at his electrocardiogram, I tell him that it is too soon to say, but that on the face of things the strip looks reassuring. The patient tells me that he is so incapacitated by fear that he has been unable to return to work. He is a partner in a large firm, his wife informs me, with an almost supplicating look.


27. Just as I begin to examine him, the alarm on the heart monitor at the adjacent stretcher sounds. The patient who occupies the stretcher had also arrived with chest pain and has now arrested. A code ensues, and the man, who is only fifty-four years old, dies. Although the curtains were drawn around him throughout the code, this did not prevent my patient from overhearing all the goings-on. I return to find him silent but shaking uncontrollably. 28. Next in line is a nearly toothless old Hispanic man who playfully withholds his reason for coming. The man, whose face is tan but wizened, gives me a big smile and nods his head up and down. He holds up his medicines and in broken English explains their each and every wonderful effect. Its as if he were an advertisement. I smile, shake my head in disbelief, and ask him whats bothering him, but he only grins. My amusement fades as the game continues, and I cant discover why the devil hes here. There are many other patients to see, and the time pressure has begun to weigh on me. Eventually I seek out the senior. Remember, its Friday afternoon, he tells me. His family has probably dumped him for the weekend. I protest, telling him I find it hard to believe. Do you see any family members around? he asks me nonchalantly. Regretfully, I enter the patients name in the admission book, knowing that I will get flak for this one. It makes me mad that the mans family would do such a thing. 29. At six oclock I sit down just long enough to swallow a pack of M&Ms and make a tally of how many patients I have seen (seven). Although the rest of the night awaits me, I realize that in spite of being keyed up, I am already beginning to slow down. See this guy quickly, would you, Steve? the senior asks as I am just about to return to my last patient. I dont think theres anything medical going on, he explains, but look him over briefly just to make sure. Then rocket him out of here! 30. The man complains of dizziness and chest pains. As I take a history, he confides that he is hooked on heroin. He hasnt been able to get the drug for a day and begs me for a substitute that he can take. Youve gotta understand, Doc, for the wife and kids He breaks down, and I feel sorry for him, but when I explain that all I can offer is hospitalization at a detox center, he grows angry and abusive. Before I realize what is happening, he has smashed several IV bottles and overturned a medical cart. Thanks to a nurse who phoned the security guards, however, less than a minute later he winds up immobilized in four-point restraints. The psychiatrists see him and arrange for him to be admitted to a detox center in the morning. He gets his first dose of methadone. 31. Next, I see an old man with fever and cough who turns out to have pneumonia. I send off all the routine blood work, draw two blood cultures, obtain a chest X ray, put in an IV, and do special stains of his sputum and urine, which I examine under the microscope. Since the man will need an intravenous antibiotic, I arrange for his admission. The intern who comes down to do the honors listens to the patients chest, thinks he hears a new heart murmur, and complains that I havent drawn six blood cultures to exclude the diagnosis of endocarditis, an infection of the heart. Although I disagree with his finding and therefore dont believe the extra blood cultures are indicated, I go ahead and draw them anyway so

as to avoid argument. When the senior resident finds out what the intern has done, however, he is infuriated: What the hell you think youre doing, tying up my intern with stupid things like that? he yells. The intern grows equally enraged, and the two of them get into a shouting match at the patients side. Throughout the argument the old man looks straight ahead of him, smiling vaguely, trying to pretend he doesnt notice. 32. A nurse interrupts the argument to tell me that a young man who is vomiting blood and has a blood pressure of only 60 has just arrived. I run off to see him, and although I would have appreciated his help, my senior stays behind, still absorbed in argument. With the aid of another resident, I place several large intravenous lines and give the man first a saline infusion, then transfusions of blood. Using a fiberoptic instrument, we establish that a large duodenal ulcer is the source of bleeding. 33. Although it takes only an hour and a half from the time of his arrival to stabilize the patient, it takes us over two additional hours to get him a hospital bed: my senior resident had tried to turf him to the surgical service in order to spare the medical house officers another admission, but the surgeons want to see whats in it for them. When the senior finally offers to do a consult on one of their patients (a woman with an acute gall-bladder attack who suffers from other medical problems that they are having trouble managing), they agree to admit our patient. It is all a matter of politics. 34. My next patient is a wealthy woman from Florida who flew up unannounced today. She has had diarrhea off and on for three years and insists on being admitted. She knows the assistant director of the hospital, she says. As I begin to explain that she will have to board on the ward service since there are no more private beds available, her husbands face grows purple. The hell she will, he shouts. Wait until I tell my lawyer! Seeing that I am unmoved (he credits me with far more control over the admitting office than I have), he adds, And why the hell did she have to wait fifteen minutes to be seen? I explain that much as I regretted the wait (though I am beginning to wish that they had waited for four or five hours), such a delay was unfortunately neither avoidable nor unusual. A lady passed out in the X-ray suite, I tell him, and a woman with airway obstruction had also occupied our time. Well, what the hell is that supposed to mean? the husband demands. Dont you think my wife is important enough? 35. Angry, but outwardly unruffled, I do a physical exam and draw some blood tests, determined not to allow my personal feelings to interfere with this patients care. Once again I explain that if the woman wants a private bed she will have to wait until the following morning, and I encourage her to establish a relationship with one of the private doctors. After the husband takes down my name, the two of them walk off in a huff, and when I walk into the lobby several minutes later to meet the family of another patient, I overhear the husband talking on a phone: Can you believe it? It meant nothing to the son of a bitch that we know the assistant director! How much does the momentary madness of illness


excuse? I wonder. Although I know them to have been unreasonable, it nonetheless disturbs me that these people have seen fit to grow angry at me. I take pride in doing a good job and in making patients happy, and it bothers me that in the eyes of this couple I succeeded on neither count. What upsets me almost as much is what they have succeeded in doing: making me angry at them. 36. Still smoldering over this encounter, I learn from the senior that another patient is waiting to be seen. On my way in the door, I am met by his nurse, who gives me a wink. Wondering what she means by this, I begin to take a history and discover that the patient suffers from unremitting eructation, that is, he cannot keep from burping! The man tells me how it has affected his business, his sleep, and his sex life. He laughs (nervously), I laugh, but he confides that his marriage is on the rocks. I try to give him as much of an opportunity to talk as time permits, since a lady with abdominal pain and a man who passed out in the subway are still waiting to be seen. I schedule an upper GI series maybe he has a large hiatus hernia and write him a prescription for antacids. He pumps my hand gratefully, and tears appear in his eyes. 37. And on through the night it continues. I see a young woman who has overdosed on drugs, several elderly women with heart failure, two men with heart attacks, a man with decompensated diabetes who comes in in shock, a woman from a nursing home with a stroke, and a young man with cancer and bone pain so severe that he couldnt take it at home any longer. I never do get back to the woman I suspect has cancer. By the time 9 a.m., the end of my shift, arrives, I feel as though I have seen a large slice of illness and of life. 38. In the ensuing days and nights on call, I learned far more than the technical aspects of emergency medicine. I learned a whole approach to the making of diagnoses, and I acquired an appreciation for how much artistry is involved. Having been at first unsure of my skills as a diagnostician, I grew to be overly confident of them midway through the month, only to become humbled toward the close of my rotation by how easy it was to misconstrue the evidence before me and wind up wide of the mark. Making diagnoses is fraught with hazards for the unwary, and I came to think it a wonder that it could be done at all. 2. Choose the best answer. Explain your choice by providing evidence from the text. 1. Hoffmann describes the Emergency Ward of a city hospital as if it were a) a circus sideshow; b) a college campus; c) a medieval fair; d) a movie set. 2. According to the author, the Emergency Ward patients a) are embarrassed about their afflictions and are reticent to discuss them; b) clamor for an audience and represent their afflictions as if they were wares for sale; c) are complaining and difficult for physicians to deal with; d) reflect the violence of urban ghettos.


3. Hoffman admits that the atmosphere of the Emergency Ward is not always convivial, so that when the action picks up, the physicians sole priority is a) to save time, b) to get to the end of the shift, c) to minimize losses and survive, d) to ask for a transfer to another hospital unit. 4. The Emergency Ward is affectionately known as a) The Dump, b) The War Zone, c) The Hellhole, d) The Pit. 5. Hoffman states that he became discouraged working on the wards for the acutely ill because he came to realize that a) despite their efforts, physicians seldom had much effect on their patients diseases, b) physicians were not the dedicated professionals he assumed them to be, c) modern medical science has not advanced as much as the public thinks, d) the quality of medical care had deteriorated because of extensive budget cuts. 6. According to Hoffman, on the first day working in the Emergency Ward, he felt a) despair, b) a sense of anticipation, c) cautious and wary, d) incompetent. 7. One woman, a street dweller, is admitted as a social admission, meaning that a) she has no money to pay, b) she is desperately ill, c) she will be provided with food and a good nights rest, d) she will be sent to a detoxification unit. 8. By the time his shift ended at 9:00 a.m., Hoffman states that he had a) seen a large slice of illness and of life, b) heard every imaginable complaint and demand, c) misinterpreted medical evidence and wrongly diagnosed several patients, d) been through a combat zone. 3. On the basis of the evidence from the text, mark these statements as accurate inferences, inaccurate inferences or insufficient evidence. 1. The Emergency Ward where Hoffman worked catered primarily to poor people receiving public funds for their medical needs. 2. Despite technological advances, medical science often cannot do much for people suffering from disease. 3. The hospital discourages social admissions because such patients prevent those who really need medical care from getting a hospital bed. 4. Although Hoffman had never inserted a pacemaker, he had studied the procedure in medical school. 5. Hoffman occasionally finds it difficult not to allow his personal feelings about a patient interfere with his professional duties. 4. The author of the text compares the Emergency Ward to a theatre of war, a medieval fair etc., whereas doctors working in the EW are compared to pilots, air-traffic controllers etc. Scan the text once again and see how many other comparisons you can add to this list. Which of them do you think provides the most accurate description of the EW and its employees?


III. Follow-up activities

1. Agree or disagree: Working on the Emergency Ward of a city hospital is an exhausting, often frustrating experience. 2. Describe the work of the Emergency Ward from the point of view of a) a patient, b) a visitor, c) an intern, d) a senior.

IV. Additional tasks

Task 1. Below are the first lines of three jokes. Match them with the other lines which have been jumbled up. a. A man goes to see his doctor and says, Doctor! Doctor! I cant stop shaking. b. A man says to his doctor, Doctor! Doctor! Will I be able to play the violin after the operation? c. A man speaks frantically into the phone, Doctor! Doctor! My wife is pregnant and her contractions are only two minutes apart! 1. No, you idiot! the man shouts. This is her husband. 2. And the man replies, Not really, I spill most of it! 3. Great! the man says. I never could before! 4. Is this her first child? the doctor asks. 5. The doctor asks him, Do you drink a lot? 6. Yes, of course, replies the doctor.



Simply Divine I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words and use them in contexts of your own. Pin down, rebuff, apprehensive, petulant, fat chance, pouting, bow to the inevitable, poke about, lurk, scrape through, plausible. 2. Use the following expressions in contexts of your own. To rebuff smbs conviction, to pin down the exact moment, juggling of priorities, to take zero notice, to feel faintly apprehensive, to feel racked with embarrassment, to scrape through a test. 3. Match the words to make up word combinations. doleful stately social minuscule trendy fashion editor distinction restaurants eyes home area

4. Think of situations in which it would be appropriate to say the following. 1. Whats bitten you? 2. Our circulation is on the up. 3. Im just not an outdoor type of girl. 4. So I take it youre interested. 5. If theres no beginning to her talents, theres certainly no end to her demands. 6. You cant let go of it now. 7. Only if you insist on perceiving it that way. 8. Youre so pretty, and funny, and clever. I just dont understand why youre throwing yourself away on him.


II. Discussing the text

1. Read the required extracts from Simply Divine by W. Holden and consider the questions. 1. What do we learn about Jane, her personality, occupation, relations with Nick? 2. What are Janes responsibilities at work? Describe the people she has to work with. 3. What are editors of glossy magazines like? 4. Did Jane come up to the Fabulous editors expectations? 5. What does Jane do to cheer herself up when shes depressed? Does the gimmick work? 6. Can we call Champagne DVyne a typical celebrity? 7. What attracts the public about Champagne? 8. Do you believe what is printed about Champagne in magazines is actually what she says to the journalists? 9. Will Champagne get married to one of her celebrity friends? 10. Describe Janes friend Tally? Would you expect Jane to have a friend like this? 11. What solutions to Tallys problem are there? 2. Can we call Champagne and Jane opposites? Prove it. Do you believe such opposites could attract? 3. Comment on the supermarket flirting code. What is it? Do you believe such a code exists? 4. Make a list of words that Champagne confuses and recall the episodes in which she uses them. Did it lead to embarrassing consequences?

III. Follow-up activities

1. You are a) a celebrity; b) a journalist; c) a biography writer. Give a portrait of a typical party girl. 2. Agree or disagree: Having to deal with celebrities can turn your life into a nightmare. 3. You are a journalist. Prove that you have to be ahead of the game if you want to work for a glossy magazine.


Can You Keep a Secret? I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the following words and use them in contexts of your own. Swoop, fib, scoff, plummet, flicker, spool, deluded, nip out, pang, tizz, deadpan, linchpin. 2. Match the words to make up word combinations. a jolt to regain a flicker riveted to duck back linchpin to stiffen to recap out of sight the situation of alarm in apprehension expression ones composure of the organization of annoyance

3. Insert the words from Ex. 1. Choose their appropriate form. 1. She at my poem. 2. A smile across her face. 3. He about his age. 4. She used three of thread in one week. 5. Fraudulent ads consumers into sending in money. 6. It is important to recognize jealousy and to it in the bud before it gets out of hand. 7. I felt a in my heart as I greeted him. 8. The children down on the pile of presents. 9. Reduced spending is the of their economic programme. 10. The rock to the bottom of the cliff. 11. She told the joke . 12. I got myself in a this morning because the car wouldnt start and I was late.


II. Discussing the text

1. Read the required extracts from the book Can You Keep a Secret? by S. Kinsella and consider the following questions. 1. What secrets did Emma have? How did she feel when her secrets became known to people? 2. Why did Jack Harpers arrival cause so much confusion in the office? Did the staff behave normally? 3. What can you say about Emmas responsibilities at work? How does it characterize her? What is Emmas behaving normally in the office like? 4. Comment on Emmas relations with her family. Do you think that Kerry tried to embarrass Emma out of spite? 5. Is organizing a Corporate Family Day a good idea? What accounts for the weird behavior of Emmas family members on the Corporate Family Day? What consequence did it have for Emma? 6. Can Emma be called a daydreamer? Can we call her a liar? Find evidence in the text to support your point of view. 7. What makes Jack feel confident that the company will win the womens market? 2. Agree or disagree: Being stressed out is an excuse for blabbering all your secrets to a complete stranger. 3. Lissy, Emmas friend, says that its a basic human right that flatmates should be able to borrow each others clothes. Work out rules of flatmates peaceful coexistence. 4. Agree or disagree: Kerry impersonates an ideal business lady. 5. What tips would you give to Emma concerning her behavior in the episode when all her secrets have been revealed on TV? Do you believe it is possible to find a solution to such a problem at all?

III. Follow-up activities

1. You are a psychologist. Prove that despite a bad start, one can always change the situation for the better. 2. Do you agree that respecting a persons privacy is indispensable for any relations? 3. You write articles for a glossy magazine. Draw a portrait of a typical girl on the street.


Revenge Is Sweet I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words and use them in contexts of your own. Scrawls, foreboding, contrive, brusque, crude, relish. 2. Use the following phrasal verbs and verbal expressions to fill in the blank spaces. get (a) round to smth, go along with, bring someone/oneself to smth, conjure up 1. Ill you as far as the post-office. 2. He facts. 3. I never see her. 4. I cannot myself to believe. 5. You can buy the house if the bank is willing to . 6. When will you my question. 7. She vision of the past. 8. Well your suggestion. 9. I wish I could you to see the wisdom of my plan. 3. Fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate form of the word in brackets. 1. He has been able to clear himself of the of dishonesty (accuse). 2. He may have made an but it is far from being a sincere one (apologize). 3. He has eight children, each of whom, he claims, is more than the other seven (trouble). 4. A lot of money is not always a to the person who has it (bless). 5. Anyone working abroad has to pay a lot for the of his goods to and from home (carry). 6. He blamed his to pass the test on his nervousness (fail). 7. The three-week strike of the workmen has been a to the completion of the bridge (hinder). 8. The of the word a changes the meaning completely (omit). 9. She takes a certain in never asking her neighbours for help (proud). 10. He had no of ideas but he could not express them clearly (scare). 11. The plan to build a new bridge has not yet been given the Governments (approve). 12. The violent storm caused the of several houses (destroy). 13. That rule is not in this case (apply). 14. The teacher punished the child for (obey).

15. Thats a statement, you cant prove it (contest). 16. There is a slight in his words (ambiguous). 17. George is in prison for tax (evade). 4. Look at the expressions in bold in these sentences. Is mind a verb or a noun in each one? 1. Have a good trip. Mind how you go on the roads, theyre terrible at this time of day. 2. They pay really well. Mind you, they can afford it. 3. Dont worry, well sort it out somehow. Something will come to mind. 4. What annoys me about him is the fact that he keeps changing his mind all the time. 5. Stop wasting time, make up your mind! 6. Never mind! Im sure youll do much better next time. 7. Do you mind if I open the window? 8. Dont worry about what other people think, just speak your mind! 9. Bear in mind that youre not as young as you used to be! 5. Match each expression in Ex. 4 with one of these meanings. 1. Say what you honestly think 2. On the other hand 3. Youll think of an idea 4. Dont worry 5. Would it bother you 6. Dont forget 7. Be careful 8. Altering his opinion 9. Make a decision 6. Here are more expressions with mind. Use them in your own sentences. Cross ones mind, pass through ones mind, give a piece of ones mind, half a mind, in mind, in ones minds eye, on ones mind, out of ones mind, put in mind of, read ones mind, mind like a steel trap, mind ones own business, mind ones ps and qs.


II. Discussing the text

1. Read the story Revenge is Sweet by C. Fremlin and consider the tasks below. 2. Which of the characters do these words refer to Felicity, Gerald or Tricia? Describe these three characters adding more words from the text to your vocabulary list. a generous nature, wretched, the eye of hatred, deep-seated need for personal freedom, snub-nosed, perceptive, discarded mistress, a less chiseled cast of feature, sensitive 3. Felicity had several scenarios of revenge. How many, to be exact? Comment on all of them. Which scenario did she choose in the end and why? 4. Agree or disagree: Felicity did not want Gerald back. She only wanted to spite Tricia. 5. Dwell on the moral aspect of revenge. Did Felicity have a right to take her revenge on Gerald and Tricia?

III. Follow-up activities

1. When were you last in two minds about something? 2. When was the last time you spoke your mind? Did you offend anyone? 3. Write a letter, in which you confess having done something wrong. Think of the means you will use to make the addressee as little upset as possible.


The Way up to Heaven I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words and use them in contexts of your own. Twitch, apprehension, flutter, fidget, irrepressible, foible, gloomy, diminutive, bland. 2. Match the words and their definitions. pathological twitch apprehension flutter and fidget bland irrepressible foible gloomy bustling yearning dapper resign yourself to disconsolate hazy flabby strong desire feeling of uneasiness or anxiety unhappy, disappointed busy moving neat in appearance move about in a nervous, irregular way smooth dark and cheerless have a sudden, uncontrollable muscle movement accept without complaining personal peculiarity which she couldnt control like a disease loose and fleshy unclear

II.Discussing the text

1. Read the short story The Way up to Heaven by R. Dahl and consider the tasks below. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Are Mr Foster and Mrs Foster a match? 2. Is the Fosters marriage happy and trouble-free? 3. What evidence is there of Mr Fosters attitude to his wife? 4. How does Mrs Fosters behavior change throughout the story? What accounts for these changes?


3. Discussion: Can Mrs Foster be accused of killing her husband? Was it homicide, manslaughter or just an accident? 4. Think what will happen next, when someone arrives to fix the elevator. Will Mrs Foster get away with the crime? 5. Discussion: Does Mrs Foster deserve to live happily with her grandchildren in France? 6. Agree or disagree: Mrs Foster does not feel guilty about her actions. Prove your point.

III. Follow-up activities

1. Mr Foster brought it on himself, didnt he? 2. One can understand and sympathize with the decision Mrs Foster takes before leaving to France. Do you agree with it?


For Services Rendered I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words and use them in contexts of your own. Sanity, impeccable, delve, disheveled, timid, delusional. 2. Fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate form of the word from Ex. 1. 1. Frank into his pocket and brought out a few coins. 2. I was beginning to doubt my own . 3. She gave me a smile. 4. His wrinkled suit gave him a appearance. 5. The standards of service are . 6. Being organized will help you maintain with a busy schedule and alleviate stress with a more fulfilling agenda that honors work and play allowing you to balance as much as you possibly can. 7. He is living under the that he is incapable of making mistakes. 8. The book into the latest research 9. Shes very and shy when meeting strangers. 10. She has taste in music.

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the short story For Services Rendered by J. Deaver and consider the tasks below. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. Was Harry a good psychiatrist? 2. What was Harrys attitude to his work? 3. Describe Patsys case. 4. Did Peter have any motifs to get rid of his wife? 5. What helped Harry realize that Patsy was pulling his leg? When did you realize Patsy was telling lies? 3. Make a list of things that helped Harry find out the truth about Patsy. Which of these signs were the most significant ones? 4. Discussion: Patsy got what she deserved. Can we say the same about Harry?

III. Follow-up activities

1. Does Harrys noble aim make up for what he did to get the money? Explain your point. 2. Agree or disagree: Despite the fact that Harrys rich patients were quitting, his career will be a successful one. 3. You are a psychiatrist and deliver a speech a conference. Share your recent experience with your colleagues.


Makeover I. Vocabulary work

1. Study the words and use them in contexts of your own. Subsequent, frumpy, malign, exertion, snarl, pouty, demolish. 2. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words from Ex. 1. 1. This job calls for physical and mental . 2. The gloomy house had a influence upon her usually good mood. 3. His misbehaviour and dismissal from the firm were reported in the newspaper. 4. I looked so next to those women. 5. The town hopes to restore the old theater rather than have it . 6. He a threat. 7. We could tell from the way she turned that shed lost the tennis match. 3. Match the words to make up word combinations. subsequent unbroken numerical to confess to accomplish far-fetched to make amends marital bond stories toxicity anniversary the feat ones transgression

II. Discussing the text

1. Read the short story Makeover by B. Callahan and consider the tasks below. 2. Use the text to answer the following questions. 1. How and why did the conflict between Emily and her husband start? 2. What radio programme was Emily listening on her way to the restaurant? 3. When did you guess that Stephanie was talking about Emily? 4. How did Stephanie describe Emily? 5. Why was Emily shocked when she saw Stephanies photo?

6. What did Emily decide to change about her life? How did Todd react to these changes? 7. Recall the episode with Emilys throwing the cake away and a strange dream she had afterwards. Comment on Todds and Emilys behaviour. 8. What changed about Todd? 9. How did Emily find out about Stephanie and Todds plan? Did this plan work? Did Emilys plan work? 3. Comment on the look-alike pattern theory. Does it work in real life? 4. Agree or disagree: A person has to adapt to a new lifestyle as they get older.

III. Follow-up activities

1. Imagine that you are a stylist and Emily is your client. Work out a makeover plan for her. 2. Did Emily feel happy about the changes she had introduced into her life?


APPENDIX Tasks for Non-Guided Reading

I. Tasks for The Undomestic Goddess by S. Kinsella

Choose two topics from the list below to prepare two five-minute presentations making use of the book you have read. 1. Give a description of a typical woman with a career. What is her working day like? Does being busy necessarily mean being stressed out? 2. How is the work at Carter Spink organized? What makes the company thrive? 3. How can one mistake ruin a successful career? 4. Being a full-time housekeeper is not so boring as it may sound. 5. You dont have to be a real expert to produce a favorable impression? Is it right? 6. Cleaning, washing and cooking are an art, arent they? 7. No matter how busy, one should always find time to relax. 8. Compare Samanthas life before and after.

II. Tasks for Man and Boy by T. Parsons

Choose two topics from the list below to prepare two five-minute presentations making use of the book you have read. 1. When a marriage gets wrong, both the spouses are to blame. Is it true with Harry and Gina? 2. Becoming a parent changes you perception of the world completely, doesnt it? What changed about Harry and Gina, when Pat was born? 3. Is it true that parents always love their children, however naughty they are?

4. When turning thirty a person should become more responsible. Is it the same with men and women? 5. It is believed that people dote on their grandchildren more that on their children. Is it true? 6. Working on television cannot but affect your character. Prove it. 7. Cyd can never replace Gina. Does Harry think so? 8. Cyds and Harrys lives are similar in some way, arent they?

III. Tasks for Man and Wife by T. Parsons

Choose two topics from the list below to prepare two five-minute presentations making use of the book you have read. 1. Are those who consider that the first time is more special than the last time really wrong? Do people deserve a second chance, no matter what grave mistakes they have committed? What do you think? 2. Harry used to be a full-time dad, now he is a one-day dad. What has changed? 3. Why doesnt Harry like the idea of calling Cyd his second wife, or his new wife? 4. Did Harry really get on well with Peggy? What complicated their relations? 5. Was Harry really good at what he was doing at his work on TV? 6. Marriage can go wrong if both the spouses have a high-flying career. Is it so with Harry and Cyd? 7. Why did Harry say his mother was made of steel, just like many women of her generation? Does her example inspire you? 8. Is revenge really what Gina needs? 9. Do you believe it was Harry who nearly ruined his second marriage? 10. Comment on Harrys words: You promise to love each other forever And in the end your feelings her feelings are not what they were once upon a time.


IV. Tasks for How to be Good by N. Hornby

Choose two topics from the list below to prepare two five-minute presentations making use of the book you have read. 1. Do you agree that the main character of the book (Katie) is a good person? 2. Can you call David and Katies marriage an ordinary one? 3. Relationships where you end up hating your partner are not uncommon, are they? 4. What can you say about Davids and Katies parenting skills? Which one turns out to be a better parent? 5. David and Katies children have taken after their parents, havent they? 6. Why was Davids column called the angriest man in Holloway? Do you approve of his methods of work? 7. Do you think Davis was really healed by DJ Goodnews? Was it a change for the better? 8. Does Davids plan to change the world work out? 9. Who is the good one Katie or David?


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