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AP Biology Semester 1 Final Review Unit 1 (Chapters 1-5 & 8) Macromolecules Carbohydrates (mono, di and polysaccharides) Starch, glycogen,

glucose Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins Forming of Polymers (Condensation) What is given off? Hydrolysis What is added? Understand enzyme-catalyzed reactions Rate of reaction Purpose of coenzymes Feedback inhibition ATP (why important) Cohesive and adhesive properties of water (how do they occur) Unit 2 (Chapters 6,7 &12) Types of cells & organelles associated with the types of cells and their function. Be able to recognize these in a cell drawing Centrioles Mitochondria (endosymbiosis) Lysosome Golgi apparatus Nucelolus Cell Membrane Perioxisome Nucleus Ribosome Vacuole Chloroplast (endosymbiosis) Diffusion (simple and facilitated) Active transport Prokaryote vs Eukaryotic processes/structures Mitosis Differences between plant and animals Phases Osmosis Hyper vs Hypotonic vs Isotonic Turgid, flaccid, plasmolyzed (plant); lysed, normal, shriveled (animal) Water potential Creation of a membrane potential Unit 3 (Chapters 9&10) Role of the following in Cellular Respiration and/or Photosynthesis: Cytochrome FADH2 NAD+ NADP+ Oxygen Compare/Contrast Krebs and Calvin Cycle Chemiosmosis /Hydrogen pumps result of this? Photosynthesis cycles and equation Function of water in photosynthesis How you could increase/decrease photosynthetic yield C3 and C4 plants (commonalities and differences) Respiration cycles and equation Which provides the most ATP? Compare/Contrast Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration (which steps do they both have which are different)

Unit 4 (Chapters 13-15) Purpose of Meiosis Phases When does nondisjunction occur? Gametogenesis; Polar bodies Probability Dominance Homozygous vs Heterozygous One factor and two factor crosses (practice old practice problems) Know ratios: 9:3:3:1 (two heterozygotes for both traits), 3:1 (two heterozygotes for one trait) , 9:3:4 (epistasis) Gene Mapping Karyotype what can you determine; example of disease you might be able to see from this Understand crosses with Multiple loci Sex-linked vs sex-influenced Unit 5 (Chapters 16 & 17) DNA replication (know how DNA is replicated) DNA ligase DNA polymerase Protein synthesis What must be removed from mRNA? RNA polymerase Why analysis of DNA sequences would be a better indicator of differences among same species individuals than amino acid analysis) Unit 6 (Chapters 22-24) Homologous structures convergent evolution gene flow the bottleneck effect geographic isolation hybrid sterility Hardy-Weinberg equations/equilibrium Gene and allele frequencies Types of selection (disruptive, stabilizing, directional) Unit 7 (Chapters 25 & 26) KPCOFGS Homology among the different levels of classification Prokaryote vs Eukaryotic processes/structures Unit 8 (Chapters 27, 28 & 31) Characteristics of prokaryotic cells (what structures do they have/dont have) Unit 9 (Chapters 29 & 30) Major classes of plants (ancestral algae) Tracheophytes, Charophyceans, Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, hornworts), Lycophytes (some mosses), Pterophytes (Ferns, Horsetails) Gymnosperms, Angiosperms Which are ancestors of land plants? Flowering Plant Life Cycle How they are capable of fertilization w/o water What is the evolutionary importance of fruit

Double Fertilization Unit 10 (Chapters 18-21) Transduction Transformation Cloning of genes Restriction enzymes Reverse transcriptase Translocation Conjugation Gel Electrophoresis What determines how the fragments migrate through the gel Why dye is used to stain the fragments What type of gel to use Applications for use Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Cancer cells Characteristics and why cells become malignant (Formal) AP Labs to Review Lab 1 Diffusion and Osmosis Factors that affect diffusion across the membrane How water potential is measured and its relationship to a solute concentration and pressure potential of a solution Water moves from a region where water potential is high to a region where water potential is low The relationship of molarity to osmotic concentration. How to determine osmotic concentration of a solution from experimental data

Lab 2 Enzyme Catalysis The factors that affect the rate of an enzyme reaction such as temperature, pH, enzyme concentration How the structure of an enzyme can be altered, and how pH and temperature affect enzyme function. How to name an enzyme, its substrate and products, and then design a controlled experiment to measure the activity of a specific enzyme under varying conditions. How to calculate the rate of reaction and/or interpret it from a graph.

Lab 3 Mitosis and Meiosis The events of mitosis and meiosis in plants and animal cells. How mitosis and meiosis differ. How to calculate the relative duration of each stage of mitosis. The roles of segregation, independent assortment, and crossing over in generating genetic variation. How to calculate map distance from experimental data.

Lab 4 Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis The equation for photosynthesis and understand the process of photosynthesis. The principles of chromatography and how to calculate Rf values. The relationship between light wavelength or intensity and photosynthetic rate. How to determine the rate of photosynthesis and then be able to design a controlled experiment to test the effect of some variable factor on photosynthesis.

Lab 5 Cell Respiration The equation for cellular respiration. How a respirometer works. The relationship between movement of water in a respirometer and cellular respiration. The effect of temperature and increased metabolic activity on respiration. How to calculate the rate of respiration.

Lab 6 Molecular Biology (the last two bullets wont be an essay response (first 3 could be?) for 1st Sem Final but may have m.c. questions) The principles of bacterial transformation, including how plasmids are engineered and taken up by cells. Factors that affect transformation efficiency. The function of restriction enzymes and their role in genetic engineering. How gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments. How to use a standard curve to determine the size of unknown DNA fragments.

Lab 7 Genetics of Organisms What is meant by degrees of freedom, critical value, the null hypothesis, and how to do chi-square analysis of data. How to use data to determine the mode of transmission and genetic make-up of the parent. How to use a Punnett square to verify your conclusions

Lab 8 Population Genetics and Evolution The Hardy-Weinberg equation and be able to use it to determine the frequency of alleles in a population. Conditions for maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium How genetic drift, selection and heterozygote advantage affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.