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Critical submergence for horizontal intakes in open channel flows

Z Ahmad, Associate Professor K V Rao, Former Post Graduate Student M K Mittal, Emeritus Fellow Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee 247667 Uttarakhand India

Abstract
An analytical and experimental study regarding critical submergence for a 90 horizontal intake in an open channel flow, is presented in this paper. Based on the potential flow and critical spherical sink surface theories, an analytical equation for the critical submergence for this type of intake is derived using two different locations of intake from the channel bed - one with clearance from the bottom equal to zero and the other having half the intake diameter. Experiments were performed in a concrete flume 10m in length, 0.37m wide, and 0.6m deep, using intake pipes with diameters equal to 4.25mm, 6.25mm and 10.16mm for collecting data for critical submergence under a wide range of flow conditions. Analysis of this data reveals that the critical submergence depends on the Froude number, ratio of intake velocity and channel velocity, Reynolds number, and Weber number. However, the effect of the Froude number and the ratio of intake velocity and channel velocity is more pronounced in comparison to the other parameters. Based on the statistical analysis, predictors for critical submergence for bottom clearance equal to zero, and half of the diameter, are proposed and validated with the unused data. The proposed predictors produce satisfactory results. However, the analytical equation does not produce satisfactory results due to large boundary effects. It also does not take into account the effect of viscosity, surface tension, and circulation, in its derivation. The predictors available in the literature when examined using these data were found to overestimate the value of critical submergence.

Introduction
Water is drawn from water bodies like rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, through intakes for

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its different uses, e.g. irrigation, domestic and industrial supply, and power generation. Intakes are more economical, easier to operate, and draw less sediment, when they are located near the water surface. However, if the water depth above an intake is insufficient, strong vortices are formed which may lead to air entrainment. Vortices have been observed frequently at many installations such as the Hirfanli Dam in Turkey, the Harspranget Dam in Sweden, and the Kariba Dam in Zambia. Such vortices not only cause appreciable loss in the efficiency of hydraulic machinery, and corrosion in the water conducting system, but also produce vibrations and noise. Denny [3] has reported that a vortex entraining one percent (by volume) of air can cause as much as a 15 percent reduction in the efficiency of a centrifugal pump. Air entraining is more severe in tropical climates where the water demand is high and the reservoir level is low. Thus, a sufficient cover of water is required at the intake, to avoid the formation of these vortices. Several empirical relationships and charts are available in literature (Gordon [5], Reddy & Pickford [17], Swaroop [18], Prosser [16], Jain [9], Jain et al [10], Gulliver et al [6], Odgaard [14], Knauss [12], Gulliver & Arndt [7], ASCE [1], IS 9761 [8], Jiming et al [11], Yildirim & Kocabas [19, 20, 21, 22], and Yildrim [23]) for the prediction of critical submergence for intakes. These relationships relate the critical submergence as a function of the Froude number, Reynolds number, the vertical height of intake, Weber number, circulation, and other additional parameters. Recently, Durai et al [4] reported that the Froude number is the predominant parameter which affects critical submergence. For the same Froude number, the values of critical submergence for flat and bell mouth vertical intakes are different. Circulation in flows increases the critical submergence for both flat and bell mouth vertical intake. Durai et al [4] also proposed the predictors for the critical submergence for both flat and bell mouth vertical intakes. Yildrim & Kocabas [19, 20, 21, 22] have shown that critical submergence can be predicted by means of potential flow solution for intakes in open channel flow, still water reservoir, and for rectangular intakes. In most projects, a series of intakes are provided along the river, like the Sakarya River Valley Irrigation Project in Turkey, in which a forward flow along the river occurs near the intakes. Critical submergence in such a case would obviously be different on account of forward flow in the channel. Yildrim & Kocabas [19] undertook such a study for the vertical intake using potential theory and dimensional analysis. The present study, however, deals with the determination of critical submergence for a lateral (90) horizontal intake from an open channel flow.

Analytical solution
An analytical equation for the critical submergence can be obtained by considering the flow as potential flow, with pipe intake as point sink, and superposition of point sink and uniform flow (Yildirim & Kocabas [19]). The Rankine half-body of revolution
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divides the flow into two regions, i.e. the flow area entering, and not entering, the intake. Unless the upper boundary of the Rankine half-body of revolution reaches the free surface, the surface water just above the centre of the intake cannot enter the intake. At critical condition, water surface level above the intake almost matches the upper surface of the Rankine half-body of revolution, which is also called the Critical Spherical Sink Surface (CSSS). Thus, the vertical distance between any point on the upper portion of the Rankine half-body of revolution and the intake level may be taken as approximately equal to the critical submergence.

Figure 1. Critical spherical sink surface for a horizontal intake

Assuming the radius of CSSS, r is less than the channel width. The surface area of CSSS Ac is equal to the surface area of sector OAB, plus the surface area of sector OBC, as shown in Figure 1. Surface area of sector OAB = Surface area of sector OBC = (1) (2)

Here, c = bottom clearance, and di = diameter of intake pipe.

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Thus: (3)

Assuming critical radial velocity Us entering the CSSS, the intake discharge is:

(4) Yildirim & Kocabas [19] showed that the critical submergence for an intake, in a forward flow for a vertical intake, is equal to the radius of an imaginary spherical sink surface, where the radial velocity Us is equal to half of the velocity of the forward flow, i.e. . Thus: (5) Also, the intake discharge: (6) Here Ui = velocity in the intake pipe. From Equations 3, 5 and 6, one obtains: This can be solved for critical submergence Sc as (7)

(8) Equation 8 can be used for the calculation of critical submergence for c = 0 and c = di / 2. A close examination of Equation 8 reveals that the critical submergence increases with an increase in intake velocity and intake diameter. However, it decreases with an increase in velocity in the channel. Thus, the water cover required for avoiding the air entrainment in a lateral intake from a channel flow is less than that required if the intake is from a stagnant pool of water. Furthermore, critical submergence increases with a decrease of bottom clearance, due to an increase of blockage from the bottom boundary.

Dimensional analysis
Functional relationship for the critical submergence can also be obtained by dimensional
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analysis of variables affecting it. Various pertinent variables influencing the criticality at a horizontal intake pipe are di, Ui, U, c, width of the channel b, circulation , mass density , dynamic viscosity , surface tension , and acceleration due to gravity g. The functional relationship for the critical submergence Sc can be written as: Using , di, and Vi as repeating variables, the dimensional analysis of variables of Equation 9 yields: (10) where F = intake Froude number, R = intake Reynolds number, and W = Weber number. The effect of the width of the channel may be neglected for critical submergence Sc < b. Previous studies reveal that the critical submergence mainly depends on the Froude number (Gordon [5], Reddy & Pickford [17], Prosser [16], and Gulliver et al [6]). Dagget & Keulgan [2] reported that the Weber number, W, in the range 615 to 9000, has no effect on the critical submergence. Based on the experimental study, Jain et al [10] concluded that there is no influence of surface tension on the critical submergence when W > 120. Odgaard [14] has shown that in the case of air entraining vortices in a still water body, for W > 720 and Reynolds number, R, greater than 1.1 x 105, the effects of surface tension and viscosity can be neglected. Padmanabhan & Hecker [15] proposed that for W > 600 and R > 7.7 x 104, the effects of surface tension and viscosity could be neglected. Based on the experimental results for a bell mouth vertical pipe intake, Jain [9], and Jain et al [10], concluded that the critical submergence increases with circulation. The data collected in the present study have been analysed for obtaining the relationship for Sc / di. (9)

Experimental work

Experiments were performed in the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering, at the Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee, India, in a concrete flume 10m in length, 0.37m wide and 0.6m deep (Figure 2). Flow straighteners and wave suppressors were provided at the entrance of the flume to align the flow, and to prevent the surface disturbances, respectively. A tailgate was provided at the end, and a tank at the inlet of the flume. Water was supplied from an overhead tank through a supply pipe, which was fitted with a valve for the regulation of discharge. A sluice gate was provided in the tank to regulate the water level in the flume. Experiments were performed with three horizontally oriented intake pipes of diameter di = 4.25mm, 6.25mm, and 10.16mm, provided with bottom clearance c = 0 and di / 2.
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The intake was placed on a horizontal plane, in a lateral direction, at a distance of 5m from the inlet of the flume, and connected to a pump which discharges water from the intake into the sump. Discharge through the intake was measured via an ultrasonic flow meter, while the remaining discharge in the downstream of the flume was measured by a weir. A pitot tube was used to measure the velocity, while depth of flow was measured using a pointer gauge of accuracy 0.01mm.

Figure 2. Experimental setup

Water was allowed to flow into the flume, and the pump was started to draw the water from the intake. Flow near the intake was observed for air entrainment. The water surface level in the flume near the intake was varied using the sluice gate of the inlet tank, until the critical submergence condition was obtained. Once the air entrainment started, intake discharge Qi, flow velocity in the flume U, and the depth of flow D, were measured. Figure 3 shows the formation of a typical air entraining vortex at the intake. For each intake pipe the experiment was conducted for six different intake discharges, Qi, and for each intake discharge the velocity of flow in the flume was varied nine times, which gave 54 runs for each intake pipe. A total of 324 runs were conducted for the three intakes for c = 0 and di / 2.

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Figure 3. Formation of air entraining vortex

Analytical Equation 8, for the critical submergence with bottom clearance c = 0 and di / 2, is validated with the data collected in the present study. The calculated values of Sc are compared with those observed. Figure 4 shows the variation of calculated Sc with those observed for c = 0, and Figure 5 for c = di / 2. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show that the observed values of Sc do not match the values obtained using an analytical solution. This could be due to (a) effects of bed and side wall boundaries, which are more dominant in the case of lateral horizontal intake than vertical intake, in which complete Rankin half-body is formed, (b) neglecting viscosity, surface tension, and circulation in deriving the analytical equation, and (c) assuming intake as a point sink. Thus, the analytical equation based on potential theory may not provide the solution for the critical submergence for horizontal intakes in view of the reasons mentioned above.

Validation of analytical equation for critical submergence

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Figure 4. Validation of analytical equation for critical submergence

Figure 5. Variation of Sc / di with (a) F; (b) Ui / di; (c) R; and (d) W for c = 0
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Functional relationship, i.e. Equation 10 for the critical submergence, is used along with the data collected in the present study, to propose a predictor for Sc for c = 0 and di / 2. Analysis of data showed that except for F, Ui / U, R, and W, other dimensionless parameters listed in Equation 10 do not affect the values of Sc / di. Variation of Sc / di with F, Ui / U, R, and W, for c = 0, is shown in Figure 5, which depicts that Sc / di increases with an increase in F, Ui / U, R, and W. However, there is strong correlation between Sc / di and Ui / U. Similarly, variation of Sc / di with F, Ui / U, R, and W, is also observed for c = di / 2. From the total data collected in the present study, 90 percent is used to propose the predictors, and the remaining 10 percent for their validation. Dominancy of F, Ui / U, R, and W, on Sc / di, is also studied by calculating the partial correlation coefficients. The partial correlation coefficients for Sc / di with F, R, W, and Ui / U, are 0.715, 0.713, 0.678 and 0.949, respectively. Such high values of correlation coefficient reflect that all parameters affect the critical submergence. Thus, the functional relationship may be written as: (11) Using 90 percent of the collected data, the values of constants a1, a2, a3, a4, and a5, are obtained using least square technique. These values are a1 = 0.042, a2 = -0.49, a3 = 0, a4 = 0.31, and a5 = 0.90, with R2 = 0.93. Neglecting R and W, the relationship for Sc / di with F and Ui / U is: (12) with R2 = 0.92, which is close to R2 of Equation 11 and, therefore, Equation 12 is proposed as a predictor for Sc / di. With slight adjustment of the parameters, Equation 12 may be written as:

Proposed predictors for the critical submergence

(a) Predictor for Sc / di for c = 0

(13)

Equation 13 reveals that critical submergence increases with Froude number, but decreases with increases of velocity in the channel.

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Partial correlation coefficients for Sc / di, with F, R, W, and Ui / U, are 0.873, 0.865, 0.879, and 0.967, respectively. Thus, for the functional relationships of Equation 11, the values of different parameters a1 = 0.068, a2 = -0.211, a3 = 1.0, a4 = 0, and a5 = 0.206, are obtained using the least square technique. After neglecting R and W, the relationship for Sc / di with F and Ui / U is: (14) The multiple correlation coefficient of the above equation is 0.935, which is comparable to R2 = 0.936, obtained after including R and W. Therefore, Equation 14 is proposed for the estimation of critical submergence for c = di / 2. However, Equation 14 may be simplified as:

(b) Predictor for Sc / di for c = di / 2

(15)

Equation 15 also reveals that critical submergence increases with Froude number, but decreases with increases of velocity in the channel.

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Figure 6. Validation of proposed predictors for (a) c = 0, and (b) c = di / 2

The proposed relationships for Sc / di, i.e. Equation 13 for c = 0, and Equation 15, are validated with the unused data, which is about 10 percent of the total data. The variation of predicted Sc / di, and observed ones for c = 0 and c = di / 2, are shown in Figure 6a and Figure 6b, respectively. It is clear from these figures that the proposed predictors produce satisfactory prediction of Sc / di. For c = 0 predictions are within a 20 percent error of those observed, and for c = di / 2 within 15 percent error of those observed. The adequacy of predictors proposed by Swaroop [18], i.e. Sc / di = 1.5+F, and Reddy & Pickford [17], i.e. Sc / di = 1+F, has also been checked with the data collected in the present study. The values of Sc / di predicted by these two predictors are much greater than the observed ones, as shown in Figure 7. This is due to the fact that these predictors do not consider the approach velocity, and relate the critical submergence only with the Froude number of the intake.

(c) Validation of proposed predictors

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Figure 7. Validation of Reddy & Pickford [17] and Swaroop [18] equations for (a) c = 0, and (b) c = di / 2

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Table 1. Range of data collected in the present study

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Table 2a. Details of data collected in the present study for c = 0


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Table 2a (cont). Details of data collected in the present study for c = 0


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Table 2b. Details of data collected in the present study for c = di / 2


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Table 2b (cont). Details of data collected in the present study for c = di / 2


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Conclusions
The critical submergence for the horizontal intake in an open channel flow is studied in this paper. Based on the analytical considerations, and the analysis of experimental data collected in the present study, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. Analytical equation derived on the basis of potential flow and CSSS theories for the critical submergence, for bottom clearance equal to zero, and di / 2, do not produce satisfactory results. This could be due to large boundary effects and neglecting viscosity, surface tension, and circulation affects, in the derivation of analytical equation. 2. Analysis of data reveals that Sc / di increases with an increase in F, Ui / U, R, and W, for both c = 0 and di / 2. However, the effect of F and Ui / U on Sc / di dominates the other parameters. 3. The proposed relationships for Sc / di, for c = 0 and di / 2, produce satisfactory prediction of Sc / di. For c = 0 prediction is within 20 percent error of the observed values, and for c = di / 2 they are within 15 percent. 4. A check on the adequacy of predictors proposed by both Swaroop [18] and Reddy & Pickford [17], using data collected in the present study, shows that the predicted values of Sc are much greater than the observed values. [1] ASCE, Guidelines for design of intakes for hydroelectric plants, by the Committee on Hydropower Intakes of the Energy Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1995. [2] Daggett, L L & Keulgan, G H, Similitude conditions in free-surface vortex formations, Journal of Hydraulics Division, Proc ASCE, Vol 100, No HY11, pp1565-1581, 1974.

References

[3] Denny, D F, An experiment study of air-entraining vortices at pump sumps, Proc Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol 170, No 2, pp106-116, 1956.

[5] Gordon, J L, Vortices at intake structures, International Water Power & Dam Construction, No 4, pp137-138, 1970.

[4] Durai, E S R, Ahmad, Z & Mittal, M K, Critical submergence at vertical pipe intakes, Dam Engineering, Vol XVIII, Issue 1, pp17-33, June 2007.

[6] Gulliver, J S, Rindels, A J & Lindblom, K C, Designing intakes to avoid free-surface vortices, International Water Power & Dam Construction, Vol 38, No 9, 1986.
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[8] Indian Standard Code IS 9761, Hydropower intakes - criteria for hydraulic design, 1995.

[7] Gulliver, J S & Arndt, R E A, Hydropower Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill Inc, New York, NY, US, 1991.

[9] Jain, A K, Vortex formation at vertical pipe intakes, Thesis presented to the University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 1977. [10] Jain, A K, Ranga Raju, K G & Garde, R J, Vortex formation at vertical pipe intakes, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 120, No 3, pp1429-1445, 1978. [11] Jiming, M, Yuanbo, L & Jitang, H, Minimum submergence before doubleentrance pressure intakes, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 126, No 8, pp628-631, 2000. [12] Knauss, J, Swirling flow problems at intakes, Hydraulic Structures Design Manual, 1AA, Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1987.

[16] Prosser, M J, The hydraulic design of pump sumps and intakes, British Hydromechanics Research Association/Construction Industry Research & Information Association, 1977. [17] Reddy, Y R & Pickford, J A, Vortices at intakes in conventional sump, International Water Power & Dam Construction, Vol 24, No 3, 1972.

[15] Padmanabhan, M & Hecker, G E, Scale effects in pump sump models, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 110, No 11, pp1540-1556, 1984.

[14] Odgaard, A J, Free surface air core vortex, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 112, No 7, 1986.

[13] Kocabas, F & Yildrim, N, Effect of circulation on critical submergence for an intake, Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol 40, No 6, pp741-752, 2002.

[18] Swaroop, R, Vortex formation at intakes, ME dissertation, Civil Engineering Department, University of Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee), Roorkee, India, 1973. [19] Yildrim, N & Kocabas, F, Critical submergence for intakes in open channel flow,
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Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 121, No 12, pp900-905, 1995. [20] Yildrim, N & Kocabas, F, Critical submergence for intakes in still water reservoir, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 124, No 1, pp103-104, 1998. [21] Yildrim, N, Kocabas, F & Gulcan, S C, Flow boundary effects on critical submergence of an intake pipe, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol 126, No 4, pp288-297, 2000. [22] Yildrim, N & Kocabas, F, Prediction of critical submergence for an intake pipe, Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol 124, No 3, 2002.

[23] Yildrim, N, Critical submergence for a rectangular intake, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol 130, No 10, pp1195-1210, 2004. Ac b c di D F g Qi r R Sc U Ui Us W

Notations
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = surface area of CSSS width of the channel bottom clearance intake pipe diameter depth of flow in the channel Froude number acceleration due to gravity intake discharge radius of CSSS Reynolds number critical submergence velocity of cross flow velocity in the intake pipe radial velocity Weber number circulation mass density of liquid used surface tension dynamic viscosity

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