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Question 1: Monopole Monopole or omnidirectional sound is the situation where the sound propagated in spherical form.

A monopole is a source which radiates sound equally well in all directions. The simplest example of a monopole source would be a sphere whose radius alternately expands and contracts sinusoidally. The monopole source creates a sound wave by alternately introducing and removing fluid into the surrounding area. Dipole A dipole source consists of two monopole sources of equal strength but opposite phase and separated by a small distance compared with the wavelength of sound. While one source expands the other source contracts. The result is that the fluid (air) near the two sources sloshes back and forth to produce the sound.

Because 8r > 2.3r SPL = 10 log = 10 log I I0 w 20 log R 10 log 4 w0 SPL = 10 log = 10 log I I0 w 20 log R 10 log 4 w0

= SWL 20 log 8r 10 log 4 = SWL 29dB

= SWL 20 log 8r 10 log 4 = SWL 29dB

Question 2: The directivity factor, D or also known as Q factor is defined as the ratio of the intensity (W/m2) at some distance and angle from the source to the intensity at the same distance, if the total power from the source were radiated uniformly in all directions. D= I I0 I = sound intensity measurement at distance r I0 = sound intensity calculated at distance r

Directivity index, d is a quantitative measure of the focusing of acoustic energy by the source. It is defined as "the ratio of the total acoustic power output of the radiator to the acoustic power output of a point source producing the same pressure at the same point on the axis." Location of Source Intersection of two plane or surface, i.e. floor & wall Directivity Factor, D W I0 = As I2P
A 4W =W s = 4 As I 2 p 4W As = = =4 Is As W

Directivity Index, d d2p = 10 log D = 10 log 4 =6

D Question 3:

Sound Pressure Level, SPL for the sound propagation inside the tube I= W A Spherical SPL W 4r 2 = SWL 10 log 4r 2 = SWL 20 log r 11dB = = Hemisphere W 2r 2 = SWL 10 log 2r 2 = SWL 20 log r 2 8dB = (General Equation) Plane W W = A ax = SWL 10 log ax a,x= width & length of plane

Question 4: W 1.25 = 10 log = 120.97 W0 1 10 12 b.SPL = SWL 20 log r 11dB = 120 .97 20 log 20 11dB = 83 .95 dB = 120 .97 20 log 40 11dB = 77 .93 dB a. SWL = 10 log

for 20m for 40m

c. SPL value when it is close to the ground, sound propagated hemispherically SPL20m = SWL 20 log r 8dB = 120.97 26.02 8 = 86.95dB SPL40m = SWL 20 log 40 8 = 120.97 32.04 8 = 80.93 dB

Question 5: 26 x 15

SWL= 100dB SPL at 26m horizontally = 75dB X= 26 2 + 15 2 = 30

15 = 30 a. = tan-1 26 SPL = 75dB & SPLs = SWL-20logr-11dB = 100-20log30-11= 59.46dB DI( )= 75dB-59.46dB= 15.54dB b. siren close to the ground SPL26m = SWL 20 log r 8 + DI ( ) = 100 20 log 26 8 + 15.54 = 48.16dB Question 6: a. The C scale is practically linear over several octaves and is thus suitable for subjective measurements only for very high sound levels. Measurements made on this scale are expressed as dBC. For SPL> 85dB b. If the "A weighting filter" is used, the sound pressure level is given in units of dB(A) or dBA. Sound pressure level on the dBA scale is easy to measure and is therefore widely used. For SPL< 55dB c. Measurement at SPL = 0 dB d. Noise Criterion - NC - were established in U.S. for rating indoor noise, noise from air-conditioning equipment etc. The noise criteria (NC) values are determined from the measurements of the octave-band sound levels in an occupied room when the air-conditioning system is on. The measured values are then compared to standard NC curves. e. Noise Rating Curve is same case with the noise criterion. In Europe it is common to use Noise Rating Curves - NR. f. Sound transmission class (STC) is a single number used to characterize the airborne isolation properties of a partition. The STC is determined from the measured TL of a partition at different frequencies. g. The definition of transmission loss (TL) is the accumulated decrease in acoustic intensity as an acoustic pressure wave propagates outwards from a source. As the acoustic wave propagates outwards from the source the intensity of the signal is reduced with increasing range due to spreading and the attenuation.

Question 8: Ambient noise level is the sound pressure level at a given location, normally specified as a reference level to study a new intrusive sound source. Ambient sound levels are often measured in order to map sound conditions over a spatial regime to understand their variation with locale. Noise Criterion - NC - was established in U.S. for rating indoor noise, noise from airconditioning equipment etc. In Europe it is common to use Noise Rating Curves - NR. In an enclosed room, NC is used to detect the noise level. The value of the NC value must not exceed the specified value to produce a good acoustics room. Thus the noise will in the minimum value. Sound transmission Class (STC) is a single number quantifier used to rate partitions, doors and windows for their effectiveness in blocking sound. The number assigned to a particular partition design as a result of STC testing represents a best fit type of approach to a set of curves which define that sound transmission class. The test is conducted in such a way to make it independent of the test environment, and yields a number for the partition only. The reverberant and size of the room are factored out. In the enclosed room, the STC will help to reduce the echo, the reverberant time and the noise itself. Noise will intrude into the enclosed room through the following ways 1. airborne 2. transmitted by diaphragm action of large surface 3. transmitted through solid structures 4. a combination of all three above. Noise can be controlled by using this method: 1. enclosure 2. barriers 3. mufflers 4. absorptive treatment Question 9: a. The sound transmission loss of a partition or a floor are determined by physical factors such as 1. mass and stiffness 2. the impact and airborne sound transmission characteristics of party walls and floors 3. the level of noise generated in neighboring homes 4. the level of background sound in the occupant's own home 5. the sensitivity of the occupants b. The leakage could affect badly the STC. The openings and edges these are the weak points. An air leak of only a 1mm2 will seriously degrade performance. Door openings and windows are literally acoustic holes in the wall these need special detailing and 5. vibration isolation 6. active noise control 7. masking

attention to even remotely approach the performance of the walls. Doors even double ones have a poor performance. The gaskets and seals in the doors should be double or even triple but even then there is the problem that over time the seals will degrade and leaks will occur. c. The machinery noise producing noise level of 101 dB(A) can be reduced to 42 dB(A) by using the double wall(box within box) enclosure with absorption and vibration isolation. It will reduce up to 48 dBA. If that is not enough, then we can add the layer to three layers of walls. walls

Absorptive materials

Question 10: The crying of the baby is like a noise to our ears but the Sudirman songs is like an informative signal that comfort to the ears. That why it effect us differently.