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Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
National Institute of Justice

Institute of

expanding knowledge
scientific discovery

Annual Report
to Congress

problems of crime

building partners
promise of tomorrow

letter of transmittal

To the President, the Attorney General, and the Congress:

I have the honor to transmit the National Institute of Justice's annual

report on research, development, and evaluation for fiscal year 2000,
pursuant to the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (as amended)
and the 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act.

Respectfully submitted,

Sarah V. Hart
National Institute of Justice
Washington, DC
National Institute
of Justice

Annual Report
to Congress

August 2001
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street NW.
Washington, DC 20531

John D. Ashcroft
Attorney General

Deborah J. Daniels
Assistant Attorney General

Sarah V. Hart
Director, National Institute of Justice

Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice

World Wide Web Site World Wide Web Site

The National Institute of Justice is a component of the Office of Justice

Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Bureau of Justice
Statistics, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and Office for
Victims of Crime.

NCJ 189105
Highlights of the Year ................................................................................1
Science and Technology
Social Science-Based Research and Evaluation
Development and Communications
The Balance of This Report

Rethinking Justice ........................................................................................5

Criminal Justice 2000: A Look Ahead
Probing Police Use of Force
Rethinking the Orientation of Policing
Indian Country

Creating the Tools ......................................................................................8

Prevention Is Key
Making Communication Work Across Agencies
Minimizing Deadly Force
Responding to Critical Incidents
Toward Better Investigations
Making Prisons and Jails Secure
Building Capabilities

Understanding the Nexus ........................................................................16

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

Breaking the Cycle of Crime ....................................................................20

Evaluating Drug Courts
Special Approach to Breaking the Drug-Crime Cycle
Domestic Violence: Victim Safety, Offender Accountability

Expanding the Horizons............................................................................24

The Impact of Technology
Validity of Scientific Evidence in Court
Globalization of Crime
Fostering Public Trust

Sharing Information ..................................................................................28

A National Clearinghouse
NIJ Publications
Research in Progress

Appendix A: Organization and Financial Data ........................................32

Appendix B: Awards Made in Fiscal Year 2000 ........................................35
Appendix C: Materials Published in Fiscal Year 2000 ..............................44
The Institute’s mandate
National Institute of Justice remains the same today as
in 1968—to marry science to
criminal justice problem solving
and policy development.

Specifically, the Omnibus Crime

Control and Safe Streets Act of
1968 directs NIJ to:

• Conduct research about the

nature and impact of crime
and juvenile offending.

• Develop new technologies to

reduce crime and improve
criminal justice operations.

• Evaluate the effectiveness of

criminal justice programs
and identify promising new

• Test innovative concepts and

The National Institute of model programs in the field.
Justice was created by
• Assist policymakers, program
Congress through the partners, and justice agen-
Omnibus Crime Control cies.

and Safe Streets Act of • Disseminate knowledge to

many audiences.
1968, as amended. When
This report summarizes the
it was created 32 years
National Institute of Justice’s
ago, NIJ scientists began operations, achievements, and
a journey to inform policy overall role in 2000. It reports
on key research, evaluation,
and practice through
and technology activities that
research and development achieve the Institute’s strategic
about crime and justice. objectives and describes out-
reach and dissemination

Three appendixes provide

information on financial
resources, list the awards the
Institute made in fiscal year
2000, and list the materials
published in fiscal year 2000.
Inauguration, NIJ worked
Highlights of the Year with the U.S. Secret Service
to implement interoperability
Building knowledge. Shaping on the Future of DNA technology to ensure seamless
policy. Improving justice. Saving Evidence—established by NIJ communication with D.C.-area
lives. Such is the legacy from in 1998—produced a guide law enforcement during
more than 30 years of criminal on collecting DNA evidence Inaugural activities.
justice research at the National at crime scenes. NIJ printed • Mapping crime. NIJ contin-
Institute of Justice. NIJ’s history enough copies to send to every ues to spearhead the innova-
(see Timeline starting on page 2) sworn law enforcement officer tive use of crime mapping by
is marked by successes borne of in the Nation in 2000. developing and disseminating
sustained research, innovative geographic information sys-
• Improving communica-
approaches, and effective commu- tems (GIS) technology so law
tions. Police—and other pub-
nications. The NIJ activities in enforcement and other com-
lic safety agencies—often face
2000 sampled below—and dis- munity partners can analyze
incidents that cut across juris-
cussed in more detail later in this crime patterns and solve prob-
dictional boundaries, where
report—build upon that legacy. lems to make their communi-
incompatible communication
These projects underscore NIJ’s ties safer places to live. In
technologies can hinder an
commitment to excellence in 2000, NIJ’s Crime Mapping
effective response. NIJ is lead-
its three areas of operations: Research Center received the
ing efforts to improve the inter-
(1) science and technology prestigious Hammer Award for
operability of law enforcement
research and development, effective and innovative gov-
communications. During plan-
(2) social science-based research ernment programs.
ning for the Presidential
and evaluation, and (3) develop-
ment and communications.

Science and Technology

NIJ’s activities in this area include
research and development involv-
ing a wide range of technologies
and tools to improve public safety
and justice. Highlights of 2000
include the following:

• Investigative and forensic

sciences. NIJ continued its
work to improve how forensic
evidence is gathered and used
to solve crimes. NIJ’s crime lab
improvement program, for
example, enhances the capabil-
ities of the labs, increases their
access to specialized forensic
services, and establishes a
network for the allocation
of scarce resources to critical
investigations. In 2000, NIJ
pursued research to enhance
DNA testing by reducing the
cost and amount of time
required for DNA analysis.
The National Commission

Annual Report 2000

Social Science-Based to tailor drug prevention and ment of more than 100,000
Research and Evaluation intervention policies according- new officers, that jurisdictions
ly. In 2000, ADAM began using with higher crime rates receiv-
As with technology research and
an enhanced data collection ed a larger share of funding,
development, social science
instrument that provides infor- and that the program acceler-
research and evaluation activities
mation about drug markets ated transitions to locally
spanned a wide range of substan-
and the extent of arrestees’ defined versions of community
tive topics. Highlights of 2000
involvement in domestic vio- policing.
include the following:
lence, firearms acquisition and
• Generating knowledge
use, gangs, and gambling.
• Tailoring research to meet that informs policy and
local needs. Two of NIJ’s • Assessing program impact practice. In 2000, NIJ pub-
most important community- and effectiveness. Results of lished the findings from two
centered projects—the the NIJ-sponsored national projects that filled long-
Strategic Approaches to evaluation of the first 4 years standing gaps in our knowl-
Community Safety Initiative of the Community Oriented edge about violence against
(SACSI) and Community Policing Services (COPS) pro- women.2 The first study
Mapping, Planning, and gram were published in 2000.1 showed that violence is more
Analysis for Safety Strategies The evaluation found that the widespread and injurious to
(COMPASS)—bring together program funded the deploy- women’s—and men’s—health
local leaders and researchers to
target a local crime problem, 1 Roth, Jeffrey A., and Joseph F. Ryan et al., National Evaluation of the COPS Program:
obtain relevant data, and Title I of the 1994 Crime Act, Research Report, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
design a strategic intervention Justice, National Institute of Justice, August 2000 (NCJ 183643). Available at http://www. See also Roth, Jeffrey A., and Joseph F. Ryan,
based on the information col- The COPS Program After 4 Years—National Evaluation, Research in Brief, Washington, D.C.:
lected. The number of SACSI U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, August 2000 (NCJ 183644).
cities doubled in 2000—from 5 Available at
to 10, and COMPASS added a 2 Tjaden, Patricia, and Nancy Thoennes, Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and
second pilot site in 2000. The Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National Violence Against
Women Survey, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring November 2000 (NCJ 183781). Available at
(ADAM) program meets local 183781.htm. (The study was supported jointly by NIJ and the Centers for Disease Control
needs by tracking trends in the and Prevention.) See also Fisher, Bonnie S., Francis T. Cullen, and Michael G. Turner,
The Sexual Victimization of College Women, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice,
prevalence and types of drug National Institute of Justice, December 2000 (NCJ 182369). Available at http://www.ojp.
use among booked arrestees. (This study was supported jointly by NIJ and
ADAM enables communities OJP’s Bureau of Justice Statistics.)

By highlighting some of the signifi- Administration of Justice. The resources and so much effort with
cant events and accomplishments of Commission concluded that of all so little knowledge of what it is
the National Institute of Justice in the needs of the criminal justice sys- doing” and that there is virtually
past years, this timeline seeks to tem, “the greatest need is the need “no subject connected with crime or
place the agency’s 2000 activities in to know.” With reference to the jus- justice into which further research is
the context of the Institute’s histori- tice system, the Commission noted unnecessary.” When research cannot
cal role, which was foreshadowed in that there is probably “no subject of supply final answers, “it can provide
1967 by the President’s Commission comparable concern to which the data crucial to making informed
on Law Enforcement and Nation is devoting so many policy judgments.”

1968 Congress passes the Omnibus Crime Control and

1969 With 35 employees and a budget of $2.5 million,
Safe Streets Act, which creates NIJ (then called the NIJ begins operations. Awards during the first year
National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal encompass several key areas: law enforcement
Justice) to support a Federal criminal justice communications systems, crime prevention and
research effort to help State and local governments rehabilitation, technology, and management and
improve police, courts, and corrections. organization of the criminal justice system.

Highlights of the Year

About the National Institute of Justice
NIJ is the research and development of practitioners; (3) understanding NIJ’s Structure
agency of the U.S. Department of the nexus between social conditions
Justice. It is the only Federal agency and crime; (4) breaking the cycle The NIJ Director is appointed by
dedicated solely to researching crime of crime by testing research-based the President and confirmed by the
control and justice issues. NIJ pro- interventions; and (5) expanding Senate. The NIJ Director establishes
vides independent, objective, non- horizons through interdisciplinary the Institute’s objectives, guided by
partisan, evidence-based knowledge and international perspectives. the priorities of the Office of Justice
and tools to meet the challenges of Programs, the U.S. Department of
The Institute is involved in the Justice, and the needs of the field.
crime and justice, particularly at the
following program areas: crime NIJ actively solicits the views of crimi-
State and local levels. NIJ’s principal
control and prevention, drugs and nal justice and other professionals
authorities are derived from the
crime, justice systems and offender and researchers to inform its search
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe
behavior, violence and victimization, for the knowledge and tools to
Streets Act of 1968, as amended.
communications and information guide policy and practice.
technologies, critical incident
NIJ’s Mission response, investigative and forensic NIJ has three operating units. The
sciences (including DNA), less-than- Office of Research and Evaluation
In partnership with others, NIJ’s manages social science research
mission is to prevent and reduce lethal technologies, officer protec-
tion, education and training tech- and evaluation and crime mapping
crime, improve law enforcement research. The Office of Science and
and the administration of justice, nologies, testing and standards,
technology assistance to law enforce- Technology manages technology
and promote public safety. By apply- research and development, stan-
ing the disciplines of the social and ment and corrections agencies, field
testing of promising programs, and dards development, and technology
physical sciences, NIJ: assistance to State and local law
international crime control. NIJ
• Researches the nature and impact communicates its findings through enforcement and corrections agen-
of crime and delinquency. conferences and print and electronic cies. The Office of Development and
media. Communications manages field tests
• Develops applied technologies, of model programs, international
standards, and tools for criminal NIJ supports the development of research, and knowledge dissemina-
justice practitioners. new knowledge to provide the tion programs. NIJ is a component
• Evaluates existing programs and basis for criminal justice policy- of the Office of Justice Programs,
responses to crime. makers and practitioners to make which also includes the Bureau of
evidence-based decisions. Such a Justice Assistance, the Bureau of
• Tests innovative concepts and research-to-practice orientation is Justice Statistics, the Office of
program models in the field. exemplified by NIJ’s key role in devel- Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
oping soft body armor, which has Prevention, and the Office for
• Assists policymakers, program
saved the lives of thousands of police Victims of Crime.
partners, and justice agencies.
officers, and by the agency’s support
• Disseminates knowledge to many of research in several jurisdictions on 1 Research findings indicated that
audiences. the effects of police response time, police response time was unrelated
which led to policy changes estimat- to the probability of making an arrest
NIJ’s Strategic Direction ed to have saved departments mil- or locating a witness; the important
lions of dollars annually. The research factor in that regard was the time it
and Program Areas on response time was one of a series took a person to report a crime. In
many police agencies, those findings
NIJ is committed to five challenges of NIJ-funded studies that challenged led to changes in call-response policies
as part of its strategic plan: traditional assumptions and meth- and to efforts to educate the public to
(1) rethinking justice and the ods, tested research recommenda- report crimes more quickly.
processes that create just communi- tions, and according to many, influ-
ties; (2) creating the tools and enced dramatic changes in police
technologies that meet the needs practices.1

1970 NIJ evaluates methadone

1971 NIJ establishes the Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory under the auspices of
maintenance as a means the National Bureau of Standards to begin filling a long-standing need for scientifi-
of dealing with drug abuse cally based standards for criminal justice equipment. (NIJ continues the program
and related crime. today with the National Institute of Standards and Testing at the U.S.
Department of Commerce.)

Annual Report 2000

than previously thought. In • Reducing officer stress. Programs that distributes
the second study, 3 percent of Having successfully funded the millions of copies of publica-
the college women surveyed collection of state-of-practice tions via mail and the Internet
reported being a victim of information on stress reduction and responds to thousands of
rape or attempted rape during among law enforcement and queries from the general pub-
the academic year, and 13 per- corrections officers and their lic, policymakers, practitioners,
cent reported being stalked. families, NIJ set the stage for and researchers.
Understanding the scope of field testing of stress reduction
such problems helps generate programs in 2000. NIJ’s 2000 The Balance of
effective prevention and inter- publication on stress reduction This Report
vention efforts. programs for correctional offi- The next five chapters discuss
cers3 complements a highly NIJ projects and other activities in
Development and regarded publication geared greater detail and in the context
Communications toward the law enforcement of NIJ’s five strategic challenges,
NIJ’s development and communi- community. which constitute another way of
cations efforts maintain the organizing NIJ’s accomplishments.
• Guiding global policy. NIJ
agency’s research-to-practice Presented first are accomplish-
provided policy guidance on
momentum. Activities include ments pertaining to the challenge
issues of crime and justice to
field testing and demonstrating of rethinking justice and the
the U.S. mission to the United
researched-based strategies in processes that create just commu-
Nations and to the U.N. crime
real-world contexts and dissemi- nities, followed by the other four
prevention program. In 2000,
nating research findings to the challenge areas: creating the tools
NIJ’s International Center con-
criminal justice community and and technologies that meet the
tinued reporting to the United
others nationwide and interna- needs of practitioners, under-
Nations on the status of orga-
tionally through publications standing the nexus between crime
nized crime across the globe
(both print and electronic), Web and its social context, breaking
and participated in the Tenth
sites, and conferences. Highlights the cycle of crime by testing
U.N. Congress on the Pre-
of 2000 include the following: researched-based interventions,
vention of Crime and the
and expanding horizons through
Treatment of Offenders as
• Breaking the Cycle. interdisciplinary and international
members of the U.S. dele-
Cosponsored by the Office perspectives.
of National Drug Control
Policy, NIJ’s Breaking the Cycle • Disseminating information. The final chapter discusses
is testing the hypothesis that NIJ launched initiatives in 2000 NIJ’s information-sharing efforts.
drug-involved offenders will to improve operations of the Appendixes present fiscal year
recidivate less if they are drug- National Criminal Justice Refer- 2000 financial data, a table of
free. Early results from field ence Service, a criminal justice organization, and lists of grant
testing and evaluation under- information clearinghouse sup- awards and publications.
way in four jurisdictions in ported by the Office of Justice
2000 indicate that the pro-
gram, which includes early
intervention, treatment, 3 Finn, Peter, Addressing Correctional Officer Stress: Programs and Strategies, Issues
sanctions, and incentives, and Practices, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of
can reduce offender drug Justice, December 2000 (NCJ 183474). Available at
use and crime. pubs-sum/183474.htm.

1972 (1) NIJ begins to fund development of soft body armor for police, an initiative destined to save thousands
of officers from serious injury and death in subsequent years. (2) NIJ-funded research on “defensible space”
links the physical design of buildings to neighborhoods’ vulnerability and leads to models of crime preven-
tion through urban design. (3) NIJ launches the National Criminal Justice Reference Service to collect and
disseminate criminal justice-related information.

Highlights of the Year

force from multiple perspectives
Rethinking Justice and providing an overview of the
state of research knowledge in this
Taking a fresh look at traditional influenced current policy and area, including findings of recent
criminal justice approaches, exam- practice, and probing how future use-of-force research in several
ining new or modified responses policies and practices can be built jurisdictions. Highlights include
to emerging or recurring issues of upon the current state of knowl- the following:
crime and justice, probing more edge. (For more details about • Research consistently demon-
deeply into factors influencing the the volumes, see “Sharing strates that a small percentage
direction the justice system will Information,” page 28.) of police-public interactions
take in the years ahead—all are involve use of force—about
facets of NIJ’s strategic challenge of Criminal Justice 2000 culminated in 1 percent of people reporting
rethinking justice and the processes NIJ’s 2000 Research and Evaluation contacts with the police,
that create just communities. Conference in Washington, D.C., according to one survey.
cosponsored by the other OJP
Highlighted below are NIJ offices. Attended by more than • In the context of the subset
activities that illustrate how the 800 criminal justice practitioners, of police-public contacts involv-
Institute addressed the challenge policymakers, and researchers, ing adult custody arrests, NIJ-
in 2000: the Criminal Justice 2000 among others, the Conference sponsored research in six
initiative, research on police use reviewed the state of the justice jurisdictions found that in 98
of force and problem-oriented system by documenting current percent of 7,512 arrests, police
policing, and projects helping to operations and examining them did not use a weapon. When
redefine the Federal role in Indian from the perspectives of victims, weapons were used, the most
Country and examining officer offenders, jurors, and witnesses. frequent one was a chemical
turnover problems in remote It stimulated thinking on whether agent (in 1.2 percent of the
Alaska Native villages. recent innovations hold promise arrests). Firearms were used in
for systemwide improvement. 0.2 percent of arrests. Use of
Criminal Justice 2000: force in 15.8 percent of the
Probing Police arrests involved a weaponless
A Look Ahead tactic, primarily grabbing.
A multiyear program that culmi- Use of Force
nated in 2000, Criminal Justice NIJ has supported research on the Research has not yet adequately
2000 fostered a national dialog recurring issue of police use of estimated how frequently excessive
on the justice system, with the force, often in collaboration with force is used by police, which can
goal of understanding both con- OJP’s Bureau of Justice Statistics. involve both low and high levels of
rethinking justice

ceptually and empirically where it Past reports dealt with such topics force. But a fuller understanding of
is now and what directions it will as pepper spray, pursuit manage- all use-of-force incidents can help
take in the 21st century. The effort ment, positional asphyxia, use of put excessive force in perspective,
focused on the principal agencies force by and against police, and as noted in the study of 7,512
of the justice system in the execu- control of police use of excessive adult custody arrests: “...most
tive and judicial branches, the force. Such research seeks to pro- arrests involve no force, excessive
processes of justice, and the par- vide the perspective, insight, and or otherwise. When force is used,
ticipants in the justice process. factual data needed by police and it typically involves less severe
others to address and rethink use- forms of tactics and weapons
Among its achievements, Criminal of-force issues constructively. use. …Arrests that involve no force,
Justice 2000 produced four major however, cannot involve excessive
research volumes reviewing key Such research continued in fiscal force, and arrests that involve low
questions facing criminal justice, year 2000 with issuance of a publi- levels of force are less likely to
examining how research has cation examining police use of involve excessive force.”

1974 (1) Findings are published from the NIJ-funded Kansas City (Missouri) Preventive Patrol Experiment,
which tested the then-common assumption that by driving more or less randomly in a given area,
officers in patrol cars prevented crime, made the public feel more secure, and increased the chances
of arresting suspects. Study results indicated that preventive patrol did not necessarily prevent crime
or reassure the public. Subsequently, many police departments issued officers specific proactive assign-
ments rather than directing them to randomly cruise the streets. (2) NIJ funded testing of night vision
devices, eventually leading to their widespread use by law enforcement agencies.

Annual Report 2000

In 2000, NIJ’s ongoing research in emeritus at the University of counting the number of sites
this area included measuring use Wisconsin Law School. NIJ support defaced, analyzing patterns of van-
of force relative to suspect resis- helped him initiate work on his dalism, and noting the prevalence
tance and examining use of force seminal book Problem-Oriented of different types of graffiti. They
by police when they encounter Policing.4 He urged police to distinguished graffiti reports from
persons with impaired judgment. rethink traditional approaches to all other vandalism reports. After
crime and to consider expanding developing a better understanding
them to include adoption of prob- of the motivations of graffiti van-
For more information lem-oriented policing. dals, police were able to design a
• See Use of Force by Police: Over- multifaceted response plan.
view of National and Local Data, Professor Goldstein’s work was so
Research Report, Washington, groundbreaking and energized Rather than assuming sole respon-
D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, police agencies to such an extent sibility for addressing the graffiti
National Institute of Justice that the Police Executive Research problem, officers got the support
and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Forum established the Herman of school personnel, juvenile pro-
October 1999 (NCJ 176330). Goldstein Award for Excellence in bation officials, professional coun-
Available at http://www.ojp. Problem-Oriented Policing. In selors, juvenile court staff, youth 2000, NIJ cosponsored—with PERF services representatives, and com-
176330.htm. and the Office of Community munity volunteers. The officers
• Contact Robert Kaminski, Oriented Police Services—a publi- studied reports on effective
202–616–9135, cation providing summaries of responses to graffiti elsewhere problem-solving projects of the and incorporated what they
1999 award winner and six final- learned into their local response.
• See “Minimizing Deadly Force” ists. The projects were selected
on page 10. from among 76 submissions from San Diego’s approach was both
Australia, Canada, the United creative and collaborative, and
Kingdom, and the United States. while it was difficult to determine
Rethinking the precisely what impact each part of
Orientation of Policing The situation addressed by the the response strategy had on crime
There are two basic and contrast- 2000 award winner (San Diego, in the neighborhood, the overall
ing approaches to policing: California, Police Department) effect was dramatically positive.
(1) reacting and responding to calls involved responding to citizen
for assistance or service as if each requests to “do something” about
For more information
were an isolated episode unrelated excessive graffiti in their densely
to other incidents, and (2) search- populated, ethnically diverse, • See Excellence in Problem-
ing for and addressing underlying mixed residential and commercial Oriented Policing: The 2000
causes of or conditions shared by neighborhood.5 Graffiti reduction Herman Goldstein Award Winners,
a particular group of incidents and is not normally a high priority for Washington, D.C.: Police
thereby reducing or eliminating the police, but the San Diego officers Executive Research Forum,
chances of their recurrence. The agreed to take on the problem National Institute of Justice, and
latter approach—problem-oriented and correct it. Office of Community Oriented
policing—is one that many police Policing Services, November
agencies have added to their reper- They went to great lengths to doc- 2000 (NCJ 185279). Available at
toire of crime-fighting strategies. ument the dimensions of the prob-
NIJ has supported its development lem by surveying the community, nij/pubs-sum/185279.htm.
and refinement for many years.
4 Goldstein, Herman, Problem-Oriented Policing, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1990.
That style of policing was first 5 The finalists were Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department; Vancouver, British Columbia, Police
articulated and later elaborated Department; Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Police Department; and Joliet, Illinois,
on by Herman Goldstein, professor Police Department, and a second entry from the San Diego, California, Police Department.

1975 (1) NIJ-sponsored research on sentencing disparities begins.

1976 Findings of an NIJ-funded study
(2) An NIJ-funded study reveals the difficulties victims face in indicate that police response time is
the criminal justice system; recommended reforms lead to the unrelated to the probability of mak-
creation of victim assistance programs nationwide. ing an arrest or locating a witness,
challenging traditional assumptions
and leading to changes in many
6 police departments.

Rethinking Justice
Indian Country was the evaluation
of the Comprehensive Indian
Resources for Community Law
Enforcement (CIRCLE) project,
involving three tribal sites. The
project is a multiagency, multiyear
rethinking process designed to empower
justice Native American communities to
fight crime, enhance public safety,
reduce victimization, and combat
substance abuse. With active par-
ticipation from the project’s three
sites, the evaluation seeks to:

Indian Country rest on a foundation characterized • Study the development of the

by workable, nation-specific polic- three site tribes’ specific CIR-
Well documented are the histori-
ing institutions and approaches CLE project strategies.
cally strong feelings of distrust
informed by traditional customs.
toward the U.S. Government by • Track implementation of the
Researchers note that community
Indian Country tribes and their tribal strategies.
policing provides a framework
unique government-to-government
that tribes might use to design • Develop insights into the
relationship to the United States.
and implement new, Native influence of tribal culture and
While most Americans are enjoy-
approaches to policing— government on the strategies
ing decreasing crime rates, self-
approaches that should improve developed by each of the
reported data from crime victims
the quality of policing in Indian tribes.
indicate that the 1.4 million
Country and do so within the
American Indians living in the • Monitor progress and out-
context of tribal nation building.
United States are victims of violent comes of the strategies.
crime at more than twice the rate
If, for example, reservation police • Describe partnerships both
of all U.S. residents.6
adopted community policing and, within the tribes and between
consistent with that policing style, tribal and nontribal agencies
Against this backdrop, tribal elders
were to facilitate the settling of (especially Federal ones).
and researchers have identified a
disputes, conflicts, and problems
crisis in law enforcement on reser- • Lay the groundwork for a
not usually regarded as legitimate
vations. High turnover and poor longer term evaluation.
crime problems and used credible
employee morale result in a lack
tribal approaches as remedies,
of well-qualified and experienced For more information
they would become more effec-
officers in Indian Country. Inade-
tive problem-solvers, more • See NIJ Journal, January 2001
quate budgets and fiscal misman-
respected by tribal citizens, and issue (JR 000246). Includes
agement are serious obstacles to
better able to prevent problems three articles on the challenges
effective delivery of important
that might otherwise escalate, of administering justice in
police services and programs.
according to the researchers. Indian Country. Available at
NIJ-sponsored research suggests
Ongoing in 2000, another NIJ- journals/jr000246.htm.
that specific measures addressing
supported effort focusing on
the foregoing problems should • Contact Winnie Reed,
6 Greenfield, Lawrence A., and Steven Smith, American Indians and Crime, Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, February 1999 (NCJ

1977 (1) NIJ-sponsored research on criminal investigation concludes that the probability of an arrest is largely
determined by the information that patrol officers obtain in their preliminary investigations at crime scenes.
If specific types of information are not collected at the time, the research indicates that the chances of solving
a case are low, despite the intensity of a follow-up investigation. These findings led to the identification of
“solvability factors,” which became guides for prioritizing follow-up investigations. (2) NIJ initiates the crime
laboratory proficiency testing program to measure the analytical accuracy of evidence analysis nationwide.

Annual Report 2000

and identification system is being
Creating the Tools developed to detect marijuana,
cocaine, heroin, and methamphet-
Public safety requires the best amine (in the environment, not on
Prevention Is Key
investigative and detection devices, individuals).
Crime control technologies are
the safest and most effective
generally understood to refer to
weapons, and the most effective For more information
weapons and other equipment
systems for monitoring and con-
and investigative devices. But tech- • Visit the Safe Schools Initiative,
trolling prisoners. Over the years,
nology also can be used for pre- Technology Portfolio Web page
NIJ has produced a number of
vention—arguably the most at
innovations in technology, includ-
important component of public nij/sciencetech/ssi.htm.
ing the development of soft body
safety. NIJ has focused on the
armor and improvements in foren- • Contact Ray Downs,
development of protective equip-
sic DNA testing. NIJ has continued 202–307–0646,
ment for officers, devices that
to focus on the development of
detect criminal activity, systems
protective equipment for officers;
that track and locate offenders and
devices that detect criminal
officers on the street and prisoners Mapping out crime. Crime
activity, contraband, and concealed
and officers in correctional facili- is geographically distributed in
weapons; and systems that track
ties, and contraband and con- ways that reflect human activity.
and locate offenders and officers.
cealed weapons detection. More Understanding where crime is
recently, NIJ has been applying concentrated and tracking changes
NIJ develops and tests new tools
some of these approaches to the over time can improve prevention
in partnership with numerous
issue of school safety. and control strategies. Geographic
agencies, including the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention; information systems (GIS) make
Keeping schools safe. In 1999, spatial analysis a more powerful
the Defense Advanced Research
in response to a congressional tool that allows analysts to corre-
Projects Agency; the Federal Avia-
mandate, NIJ began an initiative in late such factors as neighborhood
tion Administration; the Federal
partnership with the U.S. Depart- characteristics with crime data.
Bureau of Investigation; the Federal
ment of Education (DoEd) to
Emergency Management Agency;
help ensure the safety of students, NIJ’s Crime Mapping Research
the National Institute of Standards
teachers, and staff. A number of Center (CMRC), established in
and Technology, U.S. Department
DoEd projects are in progress that 1997, serves State and local law
of Commerce; the Oak Ridge
transfer technology from other set- enforcement and corrections
National Laboratory; Sandia Nat-
tings into the schools, modify law practitioners by developing and
ional Laboratory; and the U.S.
enforcement tools, or develop
creating the tools

Air Force Research Laboratory. disseminating GIS technology

crime prevention technologies suit- for the spatial analysis of crime.
able for schools. These include CMRC also evaluates current prac-
NIJ coordinates its efforts with the
devices to detect concealed tices, develops agency mapping
Office of Justice Program’s Office
weapons and contraband and capabilities, makes instructional
for State and Local Domestic
video surveillance equipment. materials available, offers a proto-
Preparedness Support, the Nat-
ional Domestic Preparedness typical geocoded data archive,
In 2000, NIJ took steps to establish and sponsors fellowships for
Office, and the InterAgency Board
a School Security Technology researchers. In 2000, CMRC
for Equipment Standardization and
Center at Sandia National released a new spatial statistics
Interoperability. It also participates
Laboratory as an information program and prepared a guide-
in the White House’s Weapons of
resource for security technologies. book for releasing data to the
Mass Destruction Preparedness
A nontoxic, aerosol drug detection general public. Privacy in the

1978 (1) NIJ examines new techniques for

1980 (1) NIJ funds an experiment in Minneapolis to explore options
detecting and identifying explosives. for police responses to domestic violence calls. Published in 1984,
(2) Under an NIJ grant, more than 300 findings indicated that arrest of, and a night in jail for, a suspect
forensic laboratory specialists are taught appeared to significantly cut the risk of repeat violence against
how to analyze types of evidence pos- the same victim, a finding that motivated many police depart-
ing the greatest difficulties for forensic ments to require an arrest in domestic violence situations. (2) NIJ
8 examination. publishes findings of research exploring why career criminals so
often “beat the system.” Such research lays the groundwork for
Creating the Tools the emergence of career criminal prosecution programs.
Information Age: A Guide for
Sharing Crime Maps and Spatial
Data is the product of a round- creating
table held in 1999 that explored the tools
privacy concerns related to crime
mapping. CMRC also developed
a self-paced distance learning tool
(the “Crime Map Tutorial”) and
hosted its annual conference
where researchers, practitioners,
and analysts shared new applica-
tions and techniques.

The Crime Mapping and Analysis

Program (CMAP) at the National
Law Enforcement and Corrections
Technology Center–Rocky Moun-
tain Region provides technical
assistance and training to State
cameras and videos, including public safety agencies communi-
and local agencies in the areas of
enhanced image recognition, cate with one another.
crime mapping, crime and intelli-
development of special lenses,
gence analysis, and geographic
and improved image processing; The Advanced Generation of
information systems.
acoustic sensors that calculate Interoperability for Law Enforce-
gunfire location; and biometrics, ment (AGILE) program addresses
For more information which measure physical character- public safety interoperability issues
istics or behavioral traits to with three main program thrusts:
• Visit the Crime Mapping
improve law enforcement’s ability research, development, testing
Research Center Web page
to identify people on a wanted and evaluation; standards; and
list, locate missing persons, and outreach. The AGILE Web site,
control access to equipment or which debuted in 2000, is intend-
• Visit the Crime Mapping facilities. ed to widely disseminate informa-
and Analysis Program at tion about the program. Making Communication
Work Across Agencies At the request of the National
Public Safety Telecommunications
Enhancing surveillance and On a day-to-day basis, public
Council, NIJ has begun work on
detection. Monitoring and safety agencies send mug shots,
a precoordination database that
surveillance are essential to pre- videos, and fingerprints electroni-
will allow for a rapid and efficient
venting and detecting crime cally to their communications
transition of a new radio spectrum
and to achieving security in centers, but when it comes to
that will be released to public
corrections facilities. NIJ is spon- mounting a coordinated response
safety in the near future.
soring development of an array among several agencies, commu-
of sophisticated devices, based nications may literally break down.
NIJ is also developing a multiband
on varied technologies. These This interoperability issue is thorny
antenna system for law enforce-
include thermal imaging, which and complex. A number of NIJ
ment vehicles, a prototype of an
measures heat emanating from activities are under way to instill
open software radio architecture,
structures; closed-circuit television fundamental changes in how

1981 Results of the NIJ-sponsored Newark, New Jersey, Foot

1983 Findings of NIJ-supported research on pretrial release are
Patrol Experiment are released. This and subsequent published and suggest that an objective method exists to
experiments, including those focusing on problem- identify which defendants are most likely to appear for
oriented policing, tested whether various forms of foot trial. Courts begin implementing formal pretrial release
patrol, door-to-door contact, and other positive contacts guidelines modeled after the original research.
between police and the community could reduce fear 9
of crime and improve neighborhood life. Such research
foreshadowed the development of community policing.
Annual Report 2000
a rule-based security system to Minimizing Deadly Force assess the effectiveness and safety
allow rapidly configurable rule sets of these devices. Additionally,
Police and correctional officers
to secure State and local law ongoing research is reviewing
need devices that enable them
enforcement IT systems, and spa- situations in which pepper spray
to subdue violent, armed, or
tial knowledge mining tools to was used by law enforcement per-
uncooperative suspects without
conduct crime analysis through sonnel during a confrontation.
resorting to deadly force. For
space and time.
more than a decade, NIJ has been
sponsoring the development and For more information
The ACU-1000 allows direct radio
testing of less-than-lethal devices.
communications among agencies • Visit NIJ’s Less-Than-Lethal
The research portfolio currently
using disparate radio systems. Technology Development
consists of 17 projects focusing
Laboratory testing of the ACU- Portfolio Web page at
on blunt impact projectiles, pep-
1000 communications switch
per spray, capture nets, and
was completed in 2000, and nij/sciencetech/lessthan.htm.
vehicle immobilizing devices.
the switch was installed at the
• Contact Joseph Cecconi,
Alexandria, Virginia, Police
Disabling tools under develop- 202–305–7959,
Department as part of an
ment in 2000 include a flashlight-
Operational Test Bed. Lessons
shaped disorienting device that
learned will be made available • See “Probing Police Use of
will not impair eyesight and
to public safety agencies as they Force” on page 5.
“active light barriers” that use
become available. The Johns
scattered light particles as a
Hopkins University’s Applied
control mechanism. Responding to
Physics Laboratory is conducting
an evaluation of the effectiveness Critical Incidents
Because high-speed vehicular
of the ACU-1000 at the Alexandria NIJ’s Critical Incident Response
pursuits are of such great con-
Police Department, plus 21 other Technology Initiative seeks to
cern, NIJ established the Pursuit
locations around the country that provide public safety agencies
Management Task Force (PMTF) in
received similar systems from the with better tools to deal with
1996 to assess the role of technol-
Office of State and Local Domestic major threats to lives and proper-
ogy and the state of police prac-
Preparedness Support. ty, such as terrorist acts involving
tices in managing vehicular pur-
suits. The findings of PMTF serve, chemical, biological, radiological,
“InfoTech,” an integrated and nuclear devices. In recogniz-
in large part, as the basis for NIJ
statewide information system, ing that responder needs for
projects addressing this issue. In
enables law enforcement agencies all critical incidents—from
2000, projects included develop-
located in the same region to terrorist attacks to major accidents
ment of a national pursuit man-
share information while using or natural disasters—are similar,
agement database, field testing
their existing systems. In 2000, NIJ is focusing on developing
of electrostatic discharge devices
InfoTech linked regional informa- “convertible technologies” that
that immobilize vehicles, and
tion systems in San Diego County, can be used by other public
evaluation of “run-flat” and “self-
California; added more agencies safety agencies as well as law
sealing” tires to see if they with-
in Florida; and integrated systems enforcement.
stand various deflators.
in Oregon.
NIJ has been developing a data- Under the critical incident initiative
base of information about blunt in 2000, NIJ installed and demon-
For more information
impact projectiles that solicits strated a chemical attack warning
• Visit the AGILE Web site at and response system for subways
input from agencies nationwide and initiated research into method-
that use these types of devices.
The information will be used to ology for determining the security

1985 NIJ-sponsored research on probation in California finds that

1986 NIJ begins support for the
routine probation provides insufficient punishment for offenders development of DNA technology
and inadequate protection for the community. This finding helps applicable to criminal justice.
spur interest in intermediate sanctions (e.g., boot camps, house
arrest, intensive supervision, and electronic monitoring).

Creating the Tools

Ensuring Quality Products: Standards Development
As objective documentation of • Walk-through metal detectors Other work under way in 2000
acceptable performance levels, for concealed weapons and includes development of:
equipment standards serve as a contraband.
• Standards for facial recognition
reference tool for procurement
• Personal body armor. systems and equipment to deal
officials. Developing and dissemi-
with incidents involving chemi-
nating standards has been an Of special note in 2000 was revi-
cal and biological weapons.
enduring focus for NIJ. sion of the NIJ standard for body
armor. Originally released in 1987, • Standard bullets and casings for
Standards are developed for a
the standard has gained world- use in a national ballistics test-
wide range of equipment, tools,
wide acceptance. It was updated ing system.
and systems, including handcuffs,
to accommodate the threat pre-
riot helmets, firearms, communica- • A multihit test procedure to
sented by new combinations of
tions equipment, protective gloves, evaluate body armor’s ability to
ammunition and weapons.
and batteries. In 2000, standards stop multiple shots.
Recognizing that the most com-
were released for:
mon threat to correctional officers • Testing protocols to verify oper-
• Kits for preliminary identifica- comes from sharp-edged weapons, ation and output of automated
tion of drug abuse. NIJ collaborated in developing a tools used in computer foren-
standard for stab-resistant body sics investigations.
• Hand-held metal detectors
armor. Testing to these standards
for concealed weapons and
began in late 2000.

status of U.S. chemical facilities and research into devices to locate vic- lessons learned, and dissemination
the chemical transportation infra- tims trapped in debris caused by of counterterrorism information.
structure against terrorist and crim- an explosive device; and investi- The work of the institutes will be
inal activities. gated better means to detect con- coordinated with that of other
cealed weapons. Federal agencies focusing on
In addition, NIJ completed a study similar issues.
to determine the chemical and Congressional funding was provid-
biological agents that terrorists are ed to create two counterterrorism
For more information
most likely to use, which will be institutes. The Institute for Security
published in 2001, and published Technology Studies (ISTS), at • See Guide for the Selection of
Guide for the Selection of Chemical Dartmouth College, is focusing on Chemical Agent and Toxic
Agent and Toxic Industrial Material cyber attacks and is developing Industrial Material Detection
Detection Equipment for Emergency technologies in detection, reac- Equipment for Emergency First
First Responders. tion, and prevention of network Responders, Washington, D.C.:
attacks and other related cyber U.S. Department of Justice,
For bombings, NIJ developed a intrusions. ISTS is also developing National Institute of Justice,
technology to safely neutralize the innovative ways to build State June 2000 (NCJ 184449).
type of explosive device used on and local cybercrime task forces Available at http://www.ojp.
the Murrah Federal Building and to respond to investigative
the World Trade Center; demon- needs. The second institute, the 184449.htm.
strated and assessed real-time, Oklahoma City National Memorial
Institute for the Prevention of • Contact Pete Nacci,
computer-based, x-ray bomb diag-
Terrorism, will focus on research 202–305–4626,
nostic equipment, involving 27
and development, outreach and
States, Puerto Rico, and the
District of Columbia; continued education, needs identification,

1987 NIJ initiates the analysis of drug use by booked

1988 NIJ designates white-collar crime as a priority research
arrestees through its Drug Use Forecasting program area. Subsequently, the Institute funds major studies on
(later renamed the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring savings and loan fraud, insurance and securities fraud,
program). money laundering, computer crime, telemarketing fraud,
environmental crime, and public corruption.

Annual Report 2000

Toward Better
Investigations creating
Evidence recovered from crime the tools
scenes must be properly identified,
collected, preserved, and analyzed
to be admissible in court. First
responders, evidence technicians,
forensic scientists, and the crime
laboratories they use all may be
involved in investigating crimes.

Crime lab improvement. NIJ’s

Crime Laboratory Improvement
Program (CLIP) aims to improve
the analytic and technological
resources of public crime labs,
increase their access to specialized
forensic services and strengthen
cross-jurisdictional learning, and
establish a network for the alloca- In addition, NIJ continues to found that the typical agency has
tion of scarce forensic capabilities administer the work of the limited understanding of cyber-
to critical investigations.7 In 2000, National Commission on the crime and a lack of training and
CLIP invested $15 million in lab Future of DNA Evidence. (See infrastructure (especially computer
improvement in several jurisdic- “What Will Be the Future of forensics laboratories).
tions nationwide and hosted a Forensic DNA Evidence?”)
CLIP summit that brought togeth- Assistance comes primarily
er leaders from the field to identify Cybercrime. By one estimate, through NIJ’s National Law
areas of need and strategies for cybercrime increased fivefold in a Enforcement and Corrections
addressing those needs. recent 3-year period. The monetary Technology Center (NLECTC)–
toll is staggering: According to the Northeast and the newly estab-
Forensic DNA. Congress funded FBI, cybercrime costs about $10 lished National Law Enforcement
NIJ to conduct a 5-year research billion per year. Most State and CyberScience Laboratory
and development program to local law enforcement agencies do Northeast in Rome, New York.
advance DNA analysis and make not have special units dedicated to
it even more valuable and widely combating this type of crime. NIJ also undertook several other
used. The R&D work includes cybercrime-related initiatives in
developing technology to make To aid them, NIJ established its 2000, including:
DNA analysis portable, fast, and cybercrime program in 1998 and
economical and finding ways to began collaborating with Federal, • An assessment of state-of-the-
reduce the backlog of hundreds State, and local agencies and aca- art computer forensic software
of thousands of offender samples demic, industrial, and professional tools.
awaiting analysis. Reducing the organizations to provide technical • Continuing development of the
backlog could go a long way assistance. NIJ’s first effort, com- National Software Reference
toward bringing hundreds of pletion of a needs assessment, Library, a collection of files that
unsolved crimes to resolution
and offenders to justice. 7 This program was formerly the DNA Laboratory Improvement Program.

1990 (1) NIJ initiates several efforts to improve DNA testing. (2) NIJ and the
1991 NIJ provides technical assistance to
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation join to establish the expand private sector involvement
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, which in prison industries programs.
begins examining the social development of 7,000 individuals from
birth to age 24 and gauging influences on delinquency and crime.

Creating the Tools

will be available to support law
enforcement agencies’ use of
What Will Be the Future of Forensic DNA Evidence?
the FBI’s Automated Computer
Examination System.
NIJ established the National • Conference on DNA and
• Continuing verification testing Commission on the Future of DNA the Criminal Justice System,
of subject computer forensic Evidence in 1998, with the mission cosponsored by Harvard’s
and utility applications software of making recommendations that Kennedy School of
to ensure that they perform as will maximize the value of forensic Government.
claimed by their makers. DNA evidence in the criminal jus-
For more information about
tice system.
the Commission, visit the Web
For more information Notable achievements of the site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.
Commission in 2000 were: gov/nij/dna. Transcripts of the
• See “Criminal Justice Discovers Commission meetings, including
Information Technology,” by • Examination of and a report
the four sessions held in 2000,
Maureen Brown, in Criminal on the impact of near-term
are among the materials on
Justice 2000, Volume 1, The technical advances on DNA
the site.
Nature of Crime: Continuity and
Change, Washington, D.C.: • Release of What Every Law 1 The Future of Forensic DNA Testing:
U.S. Department of Justice, Enforcement Officer Should Know Predictions of the Research and
About DNA on an interactive Development Working Group,
National Institute of Justice, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
July 2000:246 (NCJ 182408), CD-ROM in two modules: of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
available at http://www.ojp. beginning and advanced. November 2000 (NCJ 183697).
Available at http://www.ojp.usdoj. • National Law Enforcement gov/nij/pubs-sum/183697.htm.
justice2000/vol1_2000.html; Summit on DNA Technology.
Center for Strategic and
International Studies, Cyber-
crime, Cyberterrorism, Cyber-
warfare: Avoiding an Electronic
Making Prisons and • Drug detection and drug
Jails Secure screening. Identifying, devel-
Waterloo, Washington, D.C.: oping, demonstrating, and
CSIS, 1998. NIJ provides assistance to the
assessing drug detection and
corrections field through NLECTC
• See State and Local Law noninvasive drug-screening
and the corrections technology
Enforcement Needs to Combat technologies applicable to
program. The program identifies,
Electronic Crime, Research corrections. Developing alter-
develops, and demonstrates tech-
in Brief, Washington, D.C.: native technology to effectively
nology for prisons, jails, and com-
U.S. Department of Justice, replace urinalysis as the
munity corrections that is afford-
National Institute of Justice, method for drug screening
able, reliable, and easy to install,
August 2000 (NCJ 183451). in corrections.
use, and maintain. Recent major
Available at http://www. • Tracking and monitoring
focus areas are: systems. Developing technol-
183451.htm. ogy to monitor the status and
• Biometrics. Developing auto-
• Contact John Hoyt, mated methods to identify and location of staff and inmate
202–616–1471, or Amon authenticate a person based on populations within a correc-
Young, 202–514–4338, physiological or behavioral tional facility, remotely monitor characteristics. human vital signs, and evaluate

1994 NIJ creates a system of regional technology centers

1995 NIJ initiates major research and evaluation efforts in
(the National Law Enforcement and Corrections community policing, violence against women,
Technology Centers) to respond to the need for sentencing and corrections, and drug courts—
technology information and assistance. program areas included in the 1994 Crime Act.


Annual Report 2000

Mock Prison Riot

NIJ supports the annual Mock many different scenarios. Examples vision equipment, emergency
Prison Riot, held each year at the of technologies include biometric response tools, distraction devices,
former West Virginia Penitentiary access controls, fingerprint identifi- jail management software, and
in Moundsville, West Virginia. Now cation, less-than-lethal devices, devices to detect concealed
in its fifth year, the event is a one- stab/slash resistant body armor, weapons. The 5-day event gives
of-a-kind technology showcase. In puncture resistant gloves, facial practitioners a unique opportunity
the last 2 years, attendance has recognition software, and various to test out various technologies
grown to more than 1,000 people distraction devices. as well as interact with developers
representing more than 15 States on what is needed in correctional
In addition, workshops focus on
and several foreign countries. settings.
technology use and implementa-
Numerous new and emerging tion in a correctional facility. Topics
technologies are demonstrated in include use of pepperballs, night

the effectiveness of electronic Many of the interactive, computer- allows individualization of training,
monitoring technology in based learning tools being devel- from basic marksmanship to
domestic violence cases. oped with NIJ support will be shoot/no-shoot scenarios—is
available on CD-ROM’s. Currently being evaluated by NIJ.
• Institution security.
under development or review are
Developing a vulnerability
learning modules in areas ranging NIJ is helping bomb technicians
assessment for facilities, and
from blood evidence collection to learn how to disable explosive
developing systems to detect
computer crime. To help direct devices. At Operation America,
nonmetallic weapons and con-
practitioners to the materials and presented by NLECTC–Rocky
traband in body cavities and
courses they need, NIJ is develop- Mountain and Sandia National
weapons concealed under
ing a Web-based index—the Law Laboratory, bomb technicians
Enforcement and Corrections learn theory and new techniques
Other NIJ projects involving Training Resources—of the training through classroom sessions,
concealed weapons detection, curriculums available nationwide. observe demonstrations of dis-
biometrics, and school safety abling devices, and participate
have applicability for the correc- With simulation technology, offi- in other exercises. At the 2000
tions technology program. cers can practice their responses session held in San Diego, 25
to situations they may face in real bomb technicians participated.
Building Capabilities life. They can “team” train in NIJ plans to hold the event at least
hostage-rescue, school shooting, biannually.
Crime trends and techniques
and drug-raid house situations
are continually changing, and
by means of the Weapons Team Computerized crime mapping is
so, too, is technology. The con-
Engagement Trainer (WTET). a relatively new tool that requires
stant need to update and adjust
Developed for military purposes special training if practitioners
can tax limited resources. Hence
but more widely applicable, pro- are to make the best use of it.
NIJ’s development of simulation
totype WTET’s have been installed The Crime Mapping Assistance
and other learning tools seeks
in Los Angeles, California, and Program, operated by NLECTC,
to make technological capability
Orlando, Florida, for evaluation. offers technology assistance and
affordable for State and local
PRISimTM—a tractor-trailer mount- training to State and local agen-
ed system that can be driven to cies in crime and intelligence
small and rural agencies and that analysis and GIS.

1996 (1) NIJ awards funds to enhance State and local DNA laboratory processing capabilities, publishes a report
documenting case studies in which DNA evidence presented after trial led to the release of inmates con-
victed of violent felonies, and sponsors a national conference on the future of DNA. (2) In partnership with
the Office of National Drug Control Policy, NIJ launches Breaking the Cycle, a program to determine the
impact of early identification, treatment, drug testing, judicial oversight, and sanctions on reducing drug
14 use by offenders. (3) NIJ issues the first annual report to Congress on stalking and domestic violence in
response to a congressional mandate.
Creating the Tools
Serving Practitioners Directly: NLECTC

The National Law Enforcement and cases involving child abuse, sexu- vests, 27 protective gloves, and
Corrections Technology Center al abuse, murder, arson, and 28 brake pads for patrol vehicles
(NLECTC) system was established prison riots. One example is the to validate their compliance with
by NIJ in 1994 to provide technolo- assistance provided to the minimum performance stan-
gy assistance and information to District Attorney in Sullivan dards for law enforcement and
State and local practitioners. The County, New York, helping to corrections applications.
system consists of the national prove that a child was intention-
• Helped agencies in Bloomington-
center as well as facilities located ally tortured before being
Normal, Illinois, to establish a
throughout the country that spe- killed—an aggravating factor
Virtual Private Network for
cialize in one or more areas of under New York State’s first-
school safety to ensure timely,
research and development. degree murder statute. The
effective, and secure information
Center scanned through hun-
Examples of assistance that sharing. NLECTC researched,
dreds of autopsy photographs of
NLECTC provides include informa- designed, and installed an e-
the victim’s injuries and methodi-
tion and referral services; crime mail- based, protected system
cally removed the wounds and
mapping instruction; and technol- for information sharing among
manipulated the photographs to
ogy assistance for the analysis and police, schools, and the courts.
look like natural skin, and then
enhancement of audio, video, and
placed the injuries back into the • Worked with the Sheriffs’
photographic evidence. The sys-
photographs to illustrate the Association of Texas to review
tem also conducts research and
order in which they were inflicted. statewide communications inter-
development in such areas as con-
operability problems and devel-
cealed weapons detection, sensors, • Assisted in the transfer of more
op technology solutions.
audio and image processing, com- than $256 million worth of
munications security, computer equipment to State and local
forensics, communications interop- law enforcement and corrections
erability, bomb remediation, the agencies through the Federal For more information
nature of fire and explosions, and surplus property program.
vehicle-stopping technologies. The Equipment transferred included • Visit JUSTNET, the Web site
NLECTC system also facilitates the vehicles, aircraft, weapons, pro- of NLECTC, at http://www.
acquisition of surplus government tective gear, and clothing., or call
property and its distribution to law 1–800–248–2742.
• Hosted CFX 2000,
enforcement and corrections agen-
a digital forensic
cies; develops strategies and tech-
experiment involv-
nologies aimed at border control;
ing 28 law enforce-
develops minimum performance
ment agencies
standards for equipment and tech-
that practiced
nology; and works with industry,
solving simulat-
manufacturers, and laboratories to
ed computer-
facilitate the commercialization of
related crimes
technologies for law enforcement
using various
and corrections.
tools. Participants
The Centers responded to 5,544 included Federal,
requests for technology assistance State, and local law
in 2000, up from 4,300 the previ- enforcement investiga-
ous year. Some highlights of 2000 tors, examiners, and
activities include: prosecutors.
• Provided unique forensic analysis • Tested more than
of audiotapes, videotapes, and 340 ballistic and
computer media in hundreds of stab-resistant

1997 (1) NIJ establishes the Crime Mapping

1998 (1) At the request of the Attorney General, NIJ forms the National
Research Center and the International Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence, leading to a series of
Center. (2) In response to a congressional recommendations on the use of DNA in the criminal justice system.
mandate, NIJ publishes Preventing Crime: (2) NIJ’s Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program expands and
What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising. improves the Drug Use Forecasting program, analyzing arrestee
drug use across the country.

Annual Report 2000

offices, probation and parole
Understanding the Nexus offices, and community partners,
among others.
NIJ research has refined our The SACSI model brings together
understanding of the relationship community groups and agencies During 2000, the new sites began
between crime and other social to address a major crime problem, to assemble their agency partner-
problems. An understanding of adds a research partner to help ship groups. Research partners
crime and its causes must take define the scope of a targeted were funded for two sites (Atlanta
into account a community’s social, crime problem and to design and St. Louis), and research was
economic, and cultural context. interventions based on research begun to describe the nature
It follows that the best solutions and information, and adjusts and characteristics of their local
to crime and disorder come not strategies based on an ongoing firearms violence problems in
from law enforcement alone, analysis of the success of the detail.
but from a combination of a interventions.
community’s social, legal, and SACSI partners developed a com-
governmental resources in an SACSI is an outgrowth of Boston’s prehensive training curriculum in
ongoing effort to reduce crime, highly successful Gun Project, 2000, based on the experiences of
ameliorate its deleterious effects, which was funded by NIJ. That the first five SACSI sites. The train-
and address its root causes. project dramatically reduced ing was pilot-tested, refined, and
Community policing is based youth homicides in Boston. Key finalized for use in training both
on this precept, and a host of components of the Boston Gun the second five sites and non-
locally-based collaborative models Project included a strong empha- SACSI jurisdictions interested in
for crime reduction and preven- sis on partnerships, knowledge- conducting their own multiagency
tion further our understanding driven decision making, and strategic programs targeting crime
of the nexus between crime ongoing strategic assessment. problems in their cities.
and other social problems.
During 2000, the original five The SACSI national assessment
In 2000, NIJ continued to pilot sites continued implementation team, located at the University
and evaluate these innovative activities targeting their respective of Illinois at Chicago and funded
models, improved the analytical problems, with research team separately by NIJ, continued its
tools necessary to make these members beginning the local assessment of—and technical
efforts successful, and sponsored impact evaluation phase of the assistance activities for—the
research to refine the knowledge project. (See “SACSI Sites.”) original five sites and produced
of the nexus between crime and In addition, five new sites were an interim report on the SACSI
other social problems that under- selected. These new sites will process. The team will continue

pins these community efforts. be conducting comprehensive, its evaluation and will also play a
multiagency, problem-solving more active technical assistance
role for the second five sites.
SACSI efforts to reduce firearms vio-
lence. All five programs will be
The Strategic Approaches to Com- In 2000, four Justice agencies,
coordinated through the U.S.
the nexus

munity Safety Initiative (SACSI) including the Bureau of Justice

Attorney’s Office in their respec-
is testing the assumption that Assistance, the Office of
tive districts, with research part-
crime problems can be reduced Community Oriented Policing
ners playing a major role as well.
by a multiagency, collaborative Services, the Criminal Division,
Other players include local police
approach to problem solving that and the Executive Office for
departments, prosecutors, ATF
is data-driven and evidence-based.

1999 (1) In collaboration with other agencies, NIJ works with policymakers, judges, and
2000 “Read on” . . .
correctional officials to address challenges posed by the reentry of large numbers
of prisoners into communities. More than 500,000 inmates were expected to be
released from State prisons in 1999, about 200,000 more inmates than were in
State prisons in 1979. (2) NIJ prepares guidelines on crime scene investigation,
death investigation, and eyewitness evidence using expert panels to identify
consensus best practices.
Understanding the Nexus
the nexus

United States Attorneys, joined NIJ

in funding, supervising, and coor-
dinating the SACSI program. The First Five Sites (Initiated in 1998)

Indianapolis Gun violence and homicide

For more information (especially drug related)
• See “Using Knowledge and Memphis Sexual assault
Teamwork to Reduce Crime,” New Haven Gun-related crime and community fear
NIJ Journal, October 1999 Portland Youth gun violence and the role of
(J R 000241). Available at alcohol in youth violence Winston-Salem Youth violence
The Second Five Sites (Initiated in 2000)
• Contact Erin Dalton,
Albuquerque Gun violence
202–514–5752, Atlanta Gun violence
Detroit Gun violence
Rochester Gun violence
COMPASS St. Louis Gun violence
COMPASS (Community Mapping,
Planning, and Analysis for Safety
Strategies), launched in 1999, the Comprehensive Communities The COMPASS model has four
is a data-driven approach for Programs; the Locally Initiated components:
enhancing community safety Research Partnership grants,
• A collaborative policy group
through collaborative, proactive which demonstrate the value of
spanning city agencies and
problem solving. COMPASS builds teaming research partners with
community interests to guide
on crime reduction efforts such as practitioners to enhance public
the initiative and develop
Operation Weed and Seed, which safety; and the New York City
public safety strategies.
coordinates resources to revitalize Police Department’s CompStat
neighborhoods; Pulling America’s initiative, which uses data to • A comprehensive data infra-
Communities Together (PACT) and solve problems. structure consisting of crime


Annual Report 2000

incident, public safety, demo- Project on Human By combining a study of neigh-
graphic, social, environmental Development in Chicago borhoods with a longitudinal
and school data collected from study of individuals, the Project
a variety of sources.
Neighborhoods is able to explore the complex
The Project on Human Develop- influences of community, family,
• Strategic analysis of both ment in Chicago Neighborhoods and individual factors on human
spatial and temporal data to is a major interdisciplinary study development. Why does one com-
identify and target public safety aimed at understanding the caus- munity have a high rate of crime,
problems and guide the devel- es and pathways of juvenile delin- violence, and substance abuse,
opment of interventions. quency, adult crime, substance while a similar community nearby
• A research partner to support abuse, and violence and exploring is relatively safe? How do neigh-
the development of the data their relationships to neighbor- borhood factors affect the devel-
infrastructure; analyze the data hood contexts. It is directed by opment of children? What factors
to identify public safety prob- the Harvard School of Public enable some individuals to live
lems; aid in the development Health, and in addition to successful, productive lives, even
of research-based interventions; NIJ funding, receives funding in high-risk neighborhoods? Why
and provide ongoing feedback support from the John D. and does one young person experi-
and document the outcomes Catherine T. MacArthur Founda- ment only briefly with delinquen-
and impacts of interventions. tion, the National Institute of cy, while another goes on to a
Mental Health, the U.S. Depart- “criminal career”?
In 2000, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, ment of Education, and the
was added as a second pilot Administration for Children, The year 2000 marks the seventh
city for COMPASS. (Seattle was Youth and Families. anniversary of the Project. By the
the first pilot site.) Milwaukee end of 1999, data on the social
was selected because of its The Project’s two main compo- organization of neighborhoods in
track record of collaborative nents are a study of Chicago’s Chicago had been collected and
problem solving and its expertise neighborhoods and a longitudinal analyzed, and the neighborhood
in using geographic information study of children, adolescents, segment was being redesigned for
systems and other analysis tools and young adults. The study of a second study. A major challenge
to inform policy and practice. Chicago neighborhoods includes in 2000 was expanding the capac-
The Milwaukee COMPASS initia- both surveys of residents and ity of the Chicago staff so that a
tive is being managed by the observations of neighborhood third wave of longitudinal data
Office of the Mayor. conditions. The goal is to learn could be collected. In addition,
about the dynamic changes that a new study component—the cost
COMPASS is implemented in take place in these neighbor- and quality of child care—was
partnership with the Bureau of hoods’ social, economic, political, added. With the completion of
Justice Statistics, the Office of cultural, and organizational struc- the second wave of longitudinal
Community Oriented Policing tures over the study’s 8 years. data collection in 1999, a major
Services, the Office of Juvenile The longitudinal study of individu- focus of 2000 was to begin the
Justice and Delinquency als follows approximately 7,000 longitudinal analyses and to com-
Prevention, the Bureau of Justice randomly selected children, bine the neighborhood with the
Assistance, and the Executive adolescents, and young adults, individual-level data to fully utilize
Office for Weed and Seed. who were sampled from 80 neigh- the multilevel design.
borhoods varying in ethnicity and
socioeconomic status. The study
For more information examines the changing circum- For more information

• Visit the COMPASS Web page stances of the study participants’ • Visit the Project on Human
at lives, as well as the personal char- Development in Chicago
nij/compass/welcome.html. acteristics that may lead them Neighborhoods Web page
either toward or away from a at
• Contact Erin Dalton, variety of antisocial behaviors,
202–514–5752, juvenile delinquency, and adult • Contact Akiva Liberman, crime. 202–514–4919,


Understanding the Nexus

the nexus

ADAM dependency, and drug market outside their own neighborhoods

activity of arrestees in their com- to purchase drugs. A significant
NIJ’s Arrestee Drug Abuse
munities. ADAM seeks to help percentage of adult male arrestees
Monitoring (ADAM) program pro-
local law enforcement and treat- reported the need for drug treat-
vides a picture of drug use among
ment policymakers and practition- ment for alcohol and illegal drug
booked arrestees at 35 sites across
ers use ADAM data to address use, and a high number of
the U.S. It complements other
problems of drugs and crime in arrestees had no medical insur-
national drug-use measurement
their communities. ance at the time of arrest to
systems such as Drug Abuse
support treatment.
Warning Network, Monitoring
Preliminary analysis of 2000
the Future, and the National
data finds continued high levels Jurisdictions can use these findings
Household Survey. ADAM con-
of drug use by arrestees, as mea- to shape drug enforcement and
ducts quarterly surveys and
sured by voluntary urinalysis. treatment strategies. And with its
tests of arrestees for drug use
Marijuana was the drug most revised survey instrument, ADAM
at 35 sites nationwide. In 2000,
frequently detected in most of can better track future trends.
ADAM introduced a new scientific
the reporting sites. Cocaine use
sampling strategy and a new
continued at high levels among
data collection instrument. For more information
adult arrestees.
• Visit the ADAM Web page at
For the first time, local research
The ADAM survey information
teams interviewed local arrestees
about drug purchasing patterns
using scientifically-based samples. • See 1999 Annual Report on
and drug treatment needs has
These samples give researchers a Drug Use Among Adult and
important implications for com-
more sound scientific basis for Juvenile Arrestees, Research
munity responses. Preliminary
reporting findings. Report, Washington, D.C.: U.S.
2000 data show that in most
Department of Justice, National
of the reporting sites, more than
The revised ADAM survey instru- Institute of Justice, July 2000
half of crack cocaine purchases by
ment collects data quarterly and (NCJ 181426). Available at
arrestees are made outdoors, and
provides local researchers with
in 80 percent of the ADAM sites,
information about drug treatment, pubs-sum/181426.htm.
most adult male arrestees went
drug and alcohol abuse and


Annual Report 2000

1994 Crime Act, which authorized
Breaking the Cycle of Crime grants to establish drug courts
nationwide. Through funds from
Criminal justice professionals are stance abuse treatment, defen- OJP’s Drug Court Program Office,
often the first to refer in frustra- dants are more likely to change which was delegated responsibility
tion to “revolving door” justice— their behavior. Drug courts seek to to make the grants, NIJ in 2000
shorthand for the repetitive cycle exercise that power to help break was evaluating several drug
of arrest, prosecution, conviction, the drug-crime nexus. courts to:
incarceration, release, and re-
arrest. NIJ encourages researchers Established in 1989, the first drug • Assess the depth of the
and practitioners to experiment court was followed by many oth- promise and impact of drug
with pragmatic approaches ers. The initial impetus for their courts.
designed to break the cycle of spread was the marked rise in • Determine how court proce-
crime. Such experimentation drug prosecutions and the result- dures and treatment services
attempts to sever the linkages ing impact on courts, prisons, and might be modified to enhance
between crime and social condi- jails—and because of a revolving- their effectiveness in breaking
tions that previous research has door phenomenon that cycled the drug-crime cycle.
identified as connected to criminal drug offenders in and out of the
activity, such as the connection justice system. Without treatment, • Understand the characteristics
between drug abuse and subse- chronic users continue to use associated with better drug
quent criminal behavior. drugs and engage in criminal court performance, including
activity, and when arrested, they participant completion of drug
After identifying a connection, or too frequently continue their court programs, reduction in
nexus, between a type of crime addiction upon release. The cycle drug use, and a decrease in
and certain social conditions, NIJ of dependency can be broken subsequent criminal behavior.
designs, implements, and evalu- with a treatment-based court-
ates projects to test whether a monitored program. Underscoring the importance of
particular research-based interven- the evaluations is adoption of the
tion can break the nexus and Drug courts try to establish a drug court approach in a variety
reduce the frequency or severity treatment-oriented environment of other areas, including mental
of the targeted offense. Such is that program participants8 can health, domestic violence (as
the nature of NIJ’s strategic chal- understand—one that presents detailed later), DUI sentencing,
lenge of breaking the cycle of clear choices and consequences. and offender reentry. A better
crime. Depending on the choices made, understanding of the drug court
the consequences may result in model will inform policymakers
breaking the cycle

Illustrative of NIJ’s efforts to meet rewards or in escalating sanctions. who seek to replicate it in treating
the challenge are three projects The approach is characterized a range of criminal behaviors
highlighted below. Two relate to by strong judicial oversight, drug and associated illnesses.
drug offenders; the third focuses testing, long-term treatment,
on batterers. court appearances, and counsel- Among NIJ-sponsored drug court
ing. Participants who successfully evaluations ongoing in 2000 are
Evaluating Drug Courts complete a drug court program a national evaluation of 6 juvenile
may be rewarded by dismissed drug courts; a national evaluation
Research has long established
charges, shortened sentences, of 14 adult drug courts; and eval-
of crime

the link between drug use and

or reduced penalties. uations of drug courts in Kansas
crime—drug-involved offenders
City, Missouri; Las Vegas, Nevada;
have high crime rates, with the
Congress acknowledged the Pensacola, Florida; and Portland,
frequency and severity of criminal
promise of drug courts in the Oregon. Among the initial find-
behavior increasing as drug use
rises and decreasing as drug use
falls. More recent research find-
ings suggest that when the coer- 8 Eligibility criteria for program participation vary. For example, arrestees who have a histo-
cive power of the criminal justice ry of violent crime, drug trafficking, or three or more nondrug felony convictions may be
ineligible to participate.
system is used to reinforce sub-


Breaking the Cycle of Crime

ings on the impact of drug court • Participants often suffered from The Breaking the Cycle initiative
on recidivism in those four cities co-occurring disorders—such as includes:
are the following: mental illness—and perceived
the drug court experience as • Collaboration among justice
• Kansas City. The proportion a unique opportunity. and treatment system agencies.
of targeted drug court partici-
• Participants viewed the drug • Early intervention.
pants rearrested on any new
court judge as the most impor-
felony offenses decreased from • Individualized treatment and
tant element of the treatment
50 percent to 35 percent since supervision plans.
experience that differentiated
program startup.
it from other experiences in • Sanctions for those offenders
• Las Vegas. Drug court gradu- court or treatment. who do not comply and incen-
ates were rearrested less fre- tives for those who do.
• Participants were highly moti-
quently (46 percent) than non-
vated by the incentives and • Judicial oversight of offender
graduates (76 percent) over
sanctions employed by the compliance.
the 3-year study period. The
court and especially wanted
differences were largest when All arrestees are tested and
to avoid jail.
rearrest for drug offenses was assessed before their initial
examined. court appearance. Those identi-
Special Approach to fied as drug users are placed in
• Pensacola. The proportion of Breaking the Drug- the program.10 The court sets
the targeted drug court partici-
pants rearrested on new felony
Crime Cycle each drug user’s release or deten-
Justice system practitioners and tion status and includes substance
charges declined from 40 per-
treatment providers in four juris- abuse intervention as part of its
cent to 12 percent since incep-
dictions continued to experiment order.
tion of the program.
with an NIJ-designed special
• Portland. In a 3-year period, approach to change the way they Drug users securing pretrial
drug court graduates were “do business” with drug-using release or sentenced to local com-
rearrested less frequently (35 adults and juveniles in 2000.9 munity supervision are assigned to
percent) than were nongradu- The four jurisdictions are testing a case manager, who, along with
ates (61 percent). Differences an approach whose design is a substance abuse provider, cre-
were largest for drug rearrests. based on prior research—in ates an individualized supervision
contrast to replicating a project plan of continuous drug testing,
The evaluations in Las Vegas and already under way. substance abuse treatment, and
Portland also found that when other court-ordered conditions.
contrasted with the performance Known as Breaking the Cycle, The offender’s compliance with
of comparison group drug defen- a joint project of NIJ and the these plans is monitored and
dants, drug court participants Office of National Drug Control reported at each subsequent
generally had lower rates of Policy, the initiative incorporates court appearance. Case managers
re-arrest in the 1-, 2-, and 3-year elements of other successful and the court apply immediate
followup periods, particularly for drug intervention efforts into and graduated rewards for posi-
drug offenses. Focus groups of a system designed to fundamen- tive behavior and appropriate
drug court participants at each tally restructure the way courts, and timely sanctions for non-
of the two sites confirmed several corrections, and service providers compliance.
important assumptions about work with drug users.
the drug court approach:

9 The four jurisdictions are Birmingham, Alabama (field test was completed in 2000, the
• Participants were generally
program continues with local funding); Eugene, Oregon (juveniles); Jacksonville, Florida;
seriously involved in substance and Tacoma, Washington.
abuse, often with long histories 10 The program targets all felony offenders who use drugs. Generally, drug courts and
of such abuse and failure in other diversion and supervision programs focus on a narrower group who satisfy program
treatment. criteria, such as nonviolent offenders with serious addictions.


Annual Report 2000

Detained drug users receive deten- way in three jurisdictions, the programs, and graduated sanc-
tion-based substance abuse treat- initiative, whose primary goal is tions to influence offender
ment and education. If eventually victim safety and well-being, behavior.
released to community supervi- reflects the following principles:11
sion, these individuals are assigned As noted earlier, an accumulation
to a case manager and subject to • Strong judicial commitment to of research findings on domestic
a community-based treatment and positively affect victim safety violence has spurred development
supervision plan. and offender accountability. and implementation of interven-
tions to break the cycle of such
If successful in the test sites, the • Availability of victim services violence. Compared to other crimi-
program should reduce drug use and advocacy in coordination nal justice topics, there is a limited
among the subject population, with all segments of the crimi- body of scientific evidence on the
reduce recidivism and delinquency nal justice system and the nature, causes, and incidence of
in this population, improve social community. violence against women. However,
functioning, improve drug users’ with current research efforts, this
• Grassroots community and
physical and mental health, and body of knowledge is growing
justice system partnerships,
promote more effective use of jus- impressively.
which must be strengthened or
tice and treatment resources.
developed to promote stronger
NIJ continues to seek a deeper
programs, supervision, and
In 2000, preliminary evaluation understanding of various facets
sanctions for batterers.
findings applicable to the of domestic violence through its
Birmingham site indicate that • A strong, data-driven research extensive portfolio of research and
recidivism rates for program- component (NIJ’s primary pro- evaluation in this area, such as the
supervised offenders 1 year after ject responsibility) to measure National Violence Against Women
program participation was 23 per- the impact—that is, determin- Survey, which is sponsored jointly
cent, compared to 42 percent ing what works to reduce or by NIJ and the Centers for Disease
for a comparison group. Twenty stop domestic violence, Control and Prevention. Published
percent of program participants enhance victim safety and by NIJ in 2000, the survey’s results
reported continued drug use after well-being, and hold batterers include such key findings as the
1 year, compared to 41 percent accountable. following:
for the comparison group.
• Violence against women is
Domestic violence victims are
endemic, with such violence
For more information to receive assistance from victim
inflicted primarily by intimate
advocates as soon as possible, an
• Visit the Breaking partners (a current or former
individualized safety plan, needed
the Cycle Web page at husband, cohabiting partner,
services (such as shelters and pro-
http://www.ojp.usdoj. boyfriend, or date), and should
tection orders), notification of
gov/nij/brekprog.htm. be classified as a major public
court proceedings, orientation
health and criminal justice
• Contact Elizabeth Griffith, on the criminal justice system,
202–616–2008, and an opportunity to provide input in case decisions. • Sixty-four percent of the sur-
veyed women who reported
Police are expected to follow a being raped, physically assault-
Domestic Violence: pro-arrest policy, arresting the pri- ed, and/or stalked since age
Victim Safety, Offender mary aggressor or issuing a war- 18 were victimized by intimate
Accountability rant. Offender accountability and partners, which leads to the
oversight are achieved through conclusion that violence against
One response to the growing
intensive court-based supervision, women is primarily intimate
evidence on the prevalence,
referral to appropriate intervention partner violence.
nature, and significance of
domestic violence is the multiyear
Judicial Oversight Demonstration, 11 The three jurisdictions are Boston (Dorchester district), Massachusetts; Milwaukee,
a project of OJP’s Violence Against Wisconsin; and Washtenaw County (Ann Arbor), Michigan.
Women Office and NIJ. Under


Breaking the Cycle of Crime

Project, are evolving in the
area of domestic violence and
breaking the victimization.
cycle of crime
For more information

• See Full Report of the Prevalence,

Incidence, and Consequences
of Violence Against Women:
Findings From the National
Violence Against Women Survey,
by Pat Tjaden and Nancy
Thoennes, Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Department of Justice,
National Institute of Justice,
November 2000 (NCJ 183781).
Available at http://www.ojp.

• See The Sexual Victimization

of College Women, by B. Fisher,
F. Cullen, and M. Turner,
• Of the surveyed women, 51.6 another survey, the National Washington, D.C.: U.S.
percent reported being physi- Crime Victimization Survey, Department of Justice, National
cally assaulted at some time in whose questions were not Institute of Justice, December
their lives; 17.6 percent, raped; worded as explicitly. 2000 (NCJ 182369). Available
and 8.1 percent, stalked. at
• In about 90 percent of the nij/pubs-sum/182369.htm.
• Victimization as a minor was rapes and attempted rapes,
associated with a greater likeli- the victim knew the offender— • See Extent, Nature, and
hood of subsequent most often a boyfriend, ex- Consequences of Intimate
victimization. boyfriend, classmate, friend, Partner Violence: Findings From
acquaintance, or co-worker. the National Violence Against
In 2000, NIJ also published a Women Survey, by Pat Tjaden
survey-based report on the sexual • For sexual victimization other and Nancy Thoennes, Research
victimization of college women than rape, the incident rate Report, Washington, D.C.: U.S.
during an academic year (about per 1,000 female students Department of Justice, National
7 months). The key findings ranged from 9.5 (threat of Institute of Justice, July 2000
of the National College Women rape) to 66.4 (attempted (NCJ 181867). Available at
Sexual Victimization study sexual contact without force).
included: pubs-sum/181867.htm.
• Approximately 13 percent
of surveyed female students • Visit NIJ’s Violence Against
• Nearly 3 percent of the
were stalked. Women and Family Violence
surveyed women experienced
Research and Evaluation
either a completed rape (1.7
The study notes that the challenge Program Web page at
percent) or an attempted
now is to use the survey’s infor-
rape (1.1 percent).
mation to develop programs nij/vawprog/welcome.html.
• The survey’s percentages for and policies aimed at reducing
completed rape and attempted female students’ risk of victimiza-
rape were 11 and 6 times tion. Data-driven programs and
greater, respectively, than policies, such as those embedded
the percentages recorded by in the Judicial Demonstration


Annual Report 2000

An important part of NIJ's science
Expanding the Horizons and technology mission is a com-
mitment to gaining public input
and making it available to the
field. Through its Citizen Accept-
expanding ance Panel, NIJ convenes focus
the horizons groups to explore public opinion
and reaction to the development,
use, and possible misuse of new
technologies. In 2000, topics for
the Panel included less-than-lethal
weapons, closed-circuit cameras in
public places, and detecting gun-
shots and concealed weapons.

For more information

• See The Evolution and Develop-
ment of Police Technology: A
Technical Report Prepared for the
National Committee on Criminal
Justice Technology, Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice,
National Institute of Justice,
Seaskate, Inc., July 1, 1998.
Available at http://www.nlectc.
• See “Technocorrections”: The
Promises, the Uncertain Threats,
The nature of crime and justice is one of the most challenging polic- Research in Brief—Sentencing
changing—science is finding new ing issues in history. and Corrections: Issues for the
ways to prove innocence and guilt, 21st Century, by Tony Fabelo,
the Internet is globalizing the The Impact of Technology Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart-
expanding the horizons

opportunities for crime, technolo- ment of Justice, National

When the criminal justice system
gy is introducing new devices to Institute of Justice and Correc-
uses technology, it should promote
prevent crime, and specialized tions Program Office, May 2000
public safety and make operations
courts are trying innovative ways (NCJ 181411). Available at
more efficient and effective. But
to reduce recidivism.
even when used for socially
acceptable goals, technology
Three decades ago one could • See Privacy in the Information
can fall prey to misuse.
only imagine body armor and Age: Guidelines for Sharing Crime
wireless communications. Three Maps and Spatial Data, by Julie
Sophisticated new technologies
decades from now, tools and tech- Wartel and Tom McEwen,
can help us catch criminals and
niques for gathering evidence and Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart-
prevent crime, but they also intro-
detecting crime will be vastly more ment of Justice, National
duce new kinds of problems—
sophisticated. And so will the tools Institute of Justice, July 2001
privacy, acceptance, ethics. For
and techniques used by criminals. (NCJ 188739). Available at
example, will citizens accept
The horizon upon which we have
devices that allow police to surrep-
based much of our knowledge is pubs-sum/188739.htm.
titiously peer into their personal
expanding outward. Cybercrime,
belongings to unerringly detect
for example, is shaping up to be
concealed weapons?


Expanding the Horizons

For more information
• See National Conference on Science and
the horizons the Law Proceedings, Research Forum,
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
Justice, National Institute of Justice,
July 2000 (NCJ 179630). Available at
• See What Every Law Enforcement Officer
Should Know about DNA Evidence,
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
September 1999 (BC 000614). Available
Validity of Scientific and local law enforcement agen- at
cies’ ability to collect scientific nij/pubs-sum/000614.htm.
Evidence in Court
evidence effectively. During 2000, • See Eyewitness Evidence: A Guide for
The rules for using science in Law Enforcement, Research Report,
NIJ published several additional
the courtroom are evolving. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
guides for law enforcement. They
What is the scientific validity of of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
include guides for crime scene
certain kinds of evidence? How October 1999 (NCJ 178240). Available
investigations, explosion and
should scientific and technological at
bomb scene investigations, and
techniques—especially new pubs-sum/178240.htm.
fire and arson scene evidence.
ones—be explained to juries • See Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A
The NIJ guide to eyewitness
and courts? How should science Guide for Public Safety Personnel, Research
evidence presents findings from
strengthen the foundation for Report, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart-
research over the past 20 years.
legal decisions? What do investi- ment of Justice, National Institute of
The booklet provides guidance Justice, June 2000 (NCJ 181584). Available
gators need to know to ensure
on how to elicit information from at
that evidence holds up in court?
witnesses, heighten the accuracy pubs-sum/181584.htm.
Three fairly recent court cases of eyewitness evidence, and
• See A Guide for Explosion and Bombing
have addressed the issues sur- improve the criminal justice Scene Investigation, Research Report,
rounding the admissibility of system’s ability to evaluate Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
expert witness testimony in court the strength and accuracy of of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
cases. Daubert v. Merrell Dow eyewitness evidence. June 2000 (NCJ 181869). Available
Pharmaceuticals, Inc. [509 U.S. at
Other recent NIJ efforts have pubs-sum/181869.htm.
579 (1993)] required judges to
determine if expert scientific testi- included guides for investigators • See Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide
mony is based on sound science to follow when collecting evi- for Law Enforcement, Research Report,
before allowing it into evidence. dence, developing paint databases Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
In General Electric Co. v. Joiner [118 for crimes involving cars, and con- of Justice, National Institute of Justice,
firming the validity of entomologi- January 2000 (NCJ 178280). Available
S.Ct. 512 (1997)], the court ruled
cal evidence in determining time at
that trial judges can specify the
kind of scientific testimony that of death. NIJ research is expand-
juries can hear. And Kumho Tire v. ing scientific understanding of the • See “Insects as Investigative Tools,”
stages and succession of insects NIJ Journal, January 2000:42 (“At a
Carmichael Co. [119 S.Ct. 1167
and their anthropod relatives on Glance”) (JR 000242). Available at
(1999)] expanded the scope of the
Daubert decision, requiring that a human cadaver, which can be
any expert, scientific or otherwise, analyzed to determine the post-
be scrutinized before testifying. mortem interval (time since
death) and other facts surround-
NIJ is exploring the ramifications ing the death, such as location,
of these court rulings and prepar- placement or movement of the
ing guides to strengthen State body, and manner of death.


Annual Report 2000

the horizons

Globalization of Crime comparative crime and justice ports American interests in the
issues. Through a number of former Soviet Union. And because
Criminal justice professionals
venues, they disseminate the the United States has an interest
today are increasingly being asked
knowledge gained throughout in helping Ukraine reduce crime,
to deal with offenses and offend-
the national and international improve law enforcement, and
ers whose origins and connections
criminal justice communities. thereby achieve political, econom-
lie outside the United States: traf-
ic, and social stability.
ficked prostitutes from Southeast
One of the Center’s major activi-
Asia and the former Soviet Union,
ties in 2000 involved a $1.1 mil- Other key events of the Inter-
migrant workers being smuggled
lion partnership with researchers national Center include launch of
into the United States, an array of
in Ukraine. The project supports the International Center’s Web site
credit card and banking frauds,
American and Ukrainian research- and sponsorship of and participa-
automobiles stolen for shipment
ers who are collaborating on joint tion in several joint workshops
overseas—the list goes on.
studies of organized crime, drug with the United Nations Crime
trafficking, and human trafficking Congress.
Just as many aspects of our lives
in Ukraine. The project is also
have become part of a global
assessing law enforcement
village—transportation, communi-
training delivered to Ukrainians For more information
cations, economic affairs—so, too,
by Americans and is building
has crime taken on a global dimen- • Visit NIJ’s International Center
Internet connectivity among
sion. The same political and eco- at
American and Ukrainian
nomic changes and technological nij/international.
researchers and practitioners.
advances that support easy inter-
national travel, communication, • See “Meeting the Challenge of
Why Ukraine? Because the U.S. Transnational Crime,” by James
and business transactions also facil-
State Department has designated O. Finckenauer in NIJ Journal,
itate a criminal’s ability to commit
Ukraine as a high-priority nation July 2000 (JR 000244).
crimes that transcend borders.
for U.S. assistance—it is in fact, Available at http://www.ojp.
the third largest recipient of U.S.
NIJ’s International Center stimu-
foreign aid. Because Ukraine is an jr000244.htm.
lates and facilitates research and
emerging democracy that sup-
evaluation on transnational and


Expanding the Horizons

Fostering Public Trust theme repeatedly came to the procedures were unfair. Tom
forefront: the public’s cynicism Tyler’s evidence suggests that
Despite declining crime rates
about the system. Two additional it may matter less whether you
and greater diversity and profes-
topics also were identified: receive a speeding ticket than
sionalism in the criminal justice
(1) trends in sentencing and whether the police officer address-
fields, public confidence in the
corrections, and (2) the impact es you politely or rudely during a
criminal justice system remains
of technology. All three topics traffic stop. Tyler concludes that
low. Over the last several years
were subsequently discussed at conducting business fairly and
when the Gallup Organization
roundtable sessions where the showing respect affect the level
polls Americans about their
give and take was honest and of trust citizens have in both the
confidence in institutions, the
frank. The roundtable discussion legal system and in government.
criminal justice system has consis-
has helped NIJ identify challenges
tently ranked low. In June 2000,
for the next decade.
criminal justice ranked lower
than newspapers, big business, For more information
Several sources have found that
and organized labor (see http:// • See “Effective Police
the public’s perception of the sys- Management Affects Citizen
tem is colored by the way police
indconfidence.asp). Perceptions,” by Robert C.
treat citizens.12
Davis and Pedro Mateu-
This lack of trust and confidence in Gelabert, NIJ Research in
A body of work about community
the system, despite a decrease in Progress Seminar video (NCJ
policing is showing that process
crime, may be the most troubling 181106); and NIJ Journal, July
makes a difference to communi-
issue on the horizon for criminal 2000:24 (“At A Glance”)
ties. Although many factors out-
justice. In late 1999 through 2000, (JR 000244). Available at
side police control can affect
NIJ explored these pressing issues.
crime, process remains subject
In partnership with the U.S. nij/journals/jr000244.htm.
to police control.
Department of Justice’s Office
of Policy Development (OPD),
In one study, arrestees who
NIJ invited critical thinkers to
believed the police treated them
identify the key issues facing
with respect and fairness were less
criminal justice in the near future.
likely to recidivate than offenders
In the discussions, that same
who perceived that the arresting

12 See, for example, Tyler, T., Why People Obey the Law, New Haven, CT: Yale University
Press, 1990; Tyler, T., “Trust and Democratic Governance,” in Trust and Governance,
eds. V. Braithwaite and M. Levi, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998; Sherman,
L., H. Strang, G. Barnes, et al., Experiments in Restorative Policing: A Progress Report
on the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments, Law Program, Research School of
Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra (,
June 7, 2001.


Annual Report 2000

themes addressed in the volumes
Sharing Information shaped the structure of the 2000
Annual Conference on Criminal
NIJ employs a range of strategies cials. In addition, all NIJ publica- Justice Research and Evaluation.
for disseminating information to tions are available from the NIJ
audiences who can use the infor- Web site. A complete list of docu- The Criminal Justice 2000 volumes
mation to improve criminal jus- ments published by NIJ in 2000 is are available online at http://
tice. A robust publications effort included in Appendix C, page 45.
is supplemented by the use of A few of the documents published sum/cj2000.htm.
electronic dissemination through in 2000 are highlighted below.
the Internet, and a range of con- Guides for law enforcement.
ferences and meetings enhance Criminal Justice 2000 Among the most requested publi-
communications within the volumes. To usher in the new cations in 2000 were a series of
criminal justice field. millennium, the National Institute guides produced for law enforce-
of Justice commissioned more ment and public safety personnel
that serve as handbooks for rec-
A National Clearinghouse than 60 criminal justice profes-
sionals to reflect on criminal jus- ommended practices and cover
Part of NIJ’s congressional man- a range of law enforcement
tice research accomplishments
date is to disseminate information. tasks—death investigation, eyewit-
and analyze current and emerging
For 28 years, the National ness evidence, crime scene investi-
trends in crime and criminal jus-
Criminal Justice Reference Service gation, explosion and bomb scene
tice practices in the United States.
(NCJRS) has served as NIJ’s nation- investigation, and fire and arson
The result is the four-volume series
al clearinghouse for criminal scene investigation.13 The guides
Criminal Justice 2000, which
justice information. were developed by technical
examines how research has influ-
enced today’s policies and prac- working groups convened by NIJ
The NCJRS collection of criminal and were comprised of experts
tices and how future policies and
justice-related materials grew in each field of study. Use of the
practices can build on the current
to more than 166,000 items in guides will help ensure that these
state of knowledge. The themes
2000. Each item is cataloged in important law enforcement func-
developed for these volumes were
the NCJRS Abstracts Database, tions are performed effectively.
purposefully broad in scope to
which is fully searchable online.
provide contributors the freedom
Many of these items, including A related publication, What Every
to explore issues across criminal
all NIJ documents published since Law Enforcement Officer Should
justice disciplines. Topics include
the mid-1990’s, are available Know About DNA Evidence,
criminology, drugs and crime,
online from the NCJRS Web site (
juvenile justice, immigration and
sharing information

crime, domestic violence, commu- pubs-sum/000614.htm), was pub-

nity justice, mental illness and the lished by NIJ in cooperation with
During fiscal year 2000, NCJRS the National Commission on the
criminal justice system, communi-
mailed out more than 7.6 million Future of DNA Evidence. Copies
ty policing, sentencing reform,
publications and hosted 17.4 of this important document on
information technology, fear of
million visits to its Web site. In the fundamentals of DNA evi-
crime, and court performance.
September 2000, NCJRS inaugu- dence and its proper collection
The volumes are designed to stim-
rated its online ordering system. were delivered to every law
ulate thought and discussion
In the first month of operation, enforcement agency in the United
among policymakers, practition-
220 orders were processed online. States in 2000 for distribution to
ers, and scientists and to result
in future research endeavors. The their sworn officers.
NIJ Publications
NIJ continues to publish the
results of its research, develop- 13 The guides include Death Investigation: A Guide for the Scene Investigator (http://www.ojp.
ment, and evaluation efforts and; Eyewitness Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement
to distribute these publications (; Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide
for Law Enforcement (; A Guide for
to targeted lists of criminal justice
Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation (
professionals, researchers, and 181869.htm); Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Guide for Public Safety Personnel
State and local government offi- (


Sharing Information
2000 Research in Progress Videotapes
Laura Dugan, Ph.D., Georgia State Linda Teplin, Director, Psycho- University: Adolescent Violence:
University; Daniel Nagin, Ph.D., Legal Studies Program, North- Victims, Witnesses, and Offenders.
Carnegie Mellon University; and western University Medical School: NCJ 182372
Richard Rosenfeld, Ph.D., Mental Health of Youthful Offenders.
Finn-Aage Esbensen, Professor,
University of Missouri–St. Louis: NCJ 182371
Department of Criminal Justice,
The Declining Rate of Intimate
Richard J. Estes, Ph.D., Professor University of Nebraska at Omaha:
Partner Homicide. NCJ 180212
and Chair, School of Social Work, The National Evaluation of the Gang
Robert C. Davis, Senior Research University of Pennsylvania; and Resistance Education and Training
Associate, and Pedro Mateu- Neil Weiner, Ph.D., Senior (G.R.E.A.T.) Program.
Gelabert, Research Associate, Vera Investigator, Center for Youth NCJ 185668
Institute of Justice: Police Policy Studies, University of
Mary Ann Dutton, Professor,
Management, Citizen Complaints, Pennsylvania: Commercial Sexual
Department of Psychiatry,
and Attitudes Toward the Police. Exploitation of Children in the United
Georgetown University: An
NCJ 181106 States, Canada, and Mexico.
Ecological Model of Battered
NCJ 183475
Faye Taxman, Associate Research Women’s Experience Over Time.
Professor, University of Maryland: Mercer Sullivan, Ph.D., Senior NCJ 186182
Controlling Drug-Involved Offenders Research Fellow, Vera Institute
Call NCJRS at 800–851–3420 to
With Sanctions and Treatment. of Justice, and Associate Professor,
order these videotapes.
NCJ 181900 School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers

Research in Progress volume,14 and videotapes of the Drug Use Among Mexican
lectures are available from the Immigrants,” March 15, 2000.
NIJ’s Research in Progress series
brings top scholars to NIJ to National Criminal Justice • Lawrence W. Sherman, Fels
discuss their ongoing criminal jus- Reference Service. Center of Government,
tice research projects. The lectures University of Pennsylvania,
are followed by questions and dis- Presentations in fiscal year 2000 “Reducing Gun Violence: What
cussion with the audience. The included: Works, What Doesn’t, What’s
sessions are available on videotape • Franklin Zimring, Earl Warren Promising,” April 5, 2000.
as a learning tool for criminal Legal Institute, University of • Heather B. Weiss, Harvard
justice professionals. California at Berkeley, “The Family Research Project,
New Politics of Criminal Justice: “Reinventing Evaluation to
Conferences Of ‘Three Strikes,’ Truth-in- Build High-Performance Child
Sentencing, and Megan’s and Family Interventions,”
In a world where instantaneous
Laws,” December 8, 1999. May 3, 2000.
global communication is routine,
still the most effective communi- • Richard B. Freeman, National
See “Key NIJ Conferences During
cation can occur when people Bureau of Economic Research,
FY 2000” for descriptions of other
meet face-to-face. NIJ sponsors a Harvard University, and Centre
conferences and meetings spon-
range of meetings, conferences, for Economic Performance,
sored by NIJ during 2000.
and working groups to stimulate London School of Economics,
communication with and among “Does the Booming Economy
Help Explain the Fall in Crime?”
those in the criminal justice field.
February 23, 2000. NIJ administers a full roster of fel-
Perspectives on Crime and lowship programs to encourage
• William A. Vega, Robert Wood
Justice. This lecture series was further inquiry into important
Johnson Medical School,
begun by NIJ as a means for poli- criminal justice issues.
University of Medicine and
cymakers and researchers to hear Dentistry of New Jersey, “A
top scholars in the criminal justice NIJ’s Visiting Fellowship Program
Profile of Crime, Violence, and
field discuss prominent issues of supports research and develop-
the day. The lectures are held in
Washington, D.C. The papers pre- 14 Perspectives on Crime and Justice: 1999–2000 Lecture Series (http://www.ojp.usdoj.
sented are compiled in a yearly gov/nij/pubs-sum/184245.htm).


Annual Report 2000

Key NIJ Conferences During FY 2000

(Due to space limitations, only • Fifth Annual Conference tijurisdictional cases, and juve-
some key conferences and events on the Future of DNA nile criminal justice. Of major
held during fiscal year 2000 are Evidence: Implications for interest was how GIS sheds
listed here.) the Criminal Justice light on the “broken windows”
System, May 8–9, 2000, New theory.
• Annual Conference on
York, New York.
Research and Evaluation, • Technology Fair on
“Change: Past, Present, This conference highlighted Capitol Hill, May 24–25,
Future,” July 16–19, 2000, important advances in the tech- 2000, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C. nologies, methods, and prac-
Conducted for members of
tices of forensic sciences.
NIJ’s premier conference high- Congress and their staffs, the
lighted current research in the • Technologies for Public Technology Fair showcased the
field from the perspective of Safety in Critical Incident latest developments in law
both researchers and practi- Response, June 7–10, 2000, enforcement and corrections
tioners. Denver, Colorado. technology, including less-than-
This conference brought lethal approaches, DNA testing,
• National Conference on
together representatives of law and counterterrorism.
Science and the Law,
“Emerging Trends: Scientific enforcement agencies, fire • Fourth Annual Technology
Evidence in the Courtroom,” departments, emergency med- Institute: Law Enforcement,
October 11–14, 2000, San ical services, and other first July 23–28, 2000, Washington, D.C.
Diego, California. responders to see and hear
This institute brought together
about the latest tools and tech-
The goals of the conference 26 midlevel law enforcement
nologies available for incident
were to improve understanding managers from across the
response and management.
among scientists, attorneys, country to learn about and dis-
and judges and to develop • Third National Workshop cuss with their peers technolo-
questions for future research on Sentencing and gy initiatives and other issues
on the role of science and sci- Corrections, June 1–2, 2000, affecting the entire law
entists in the criminal justice Hilton Head, South Carolina. enforcement community. The
system. Delegations from each State, sessions included a tour of the
including the governor's chief technologies used at FBI
• Fourth Annual ADAM
of staff, State legislators, cor- Headquarters and a demonstra-
Conference, May 2–4, 2000,
rectional administrators, State tion of AGILE (Advanced
Phoenix, Arizona.
Supreme Court justices, and Generation of Interoperability
The conference featured pre- for Law Enforcement) at the
the State Byrne director, were
sentations on ADAM trend Alexandria, Virginia, Police
invited. More than 400 partici-
data, the new ADAM interview Department.
pants discussed strategic plan-
instrument, and probability-
ning and fiscal decisions, seri- • Fourth Annual Technology
based sampling plans and
ous juvenile offenders, prisoner Institute: Corrections,
encouraged participants to
reentry, special populations, October 29–November 3, 2000,
share ideas, exchange solutions
and sentencing reform. Washington, D.C.
to mutual problems, and
strengthen networks. • Fourth Annual This weeklong institute
International Crime brought together 24 correc-
• Fourth Annual Mock
Mapping Conference, tions professionals from 17
Prison Riot, May 14–17, 2000,
“Wheredunit? Investigating the States to discuss corrections
Moundsville, West Virginia.
Role of Place in Crime and technology. The goals of the
This event, which takes place Criminality,” December 9–12, meeting were to educate par-
each year at a former maxi- 2000, San Diego, California. ticipants about applicable tech-
mum security penitentiary, nologies, provide networking
With a focus on the increasing
showcased both existing and opportunities, and inform NIJ
role of geographic information
emerging technologies for cor- of practitioners’ technology
systems (GIS) in investigations,
rections and demonstrated concerns.
this conference looked at the
their application in a realistic
use of GIS in school safety, mul-


Sharing Information
NIJ Fellowships Awarded or Active in 2000

W.E.B. DuBois Fellowship Vuriy Voronin Jarret S. Lovell

“A Study of Scope, Character, Rutgers University
Becky Tatum
and Impact of the Phenomenon “Media Power and Information
Georgia State University
of Transnational Crime” Control: A Study of Police
“The Role of Social Support on
(International Visiting Fellowship) Organizations and Media Relations”
Adolescent Crime: Identifying Race,
Class, and Gender Variations” Janine Wedel Jeff Maahs
“Institutional Change, Criminal University of Cincinnati
Visiting Fellowships
Organizations, and the Rocky “Maternal Risk Factors, Early Life
David Bayley Road to ‘Transition’ in Russia Events, and Deviant Outcomes:
“Frontiers of Policing” and Eastern Europe” Assessing Pathways From Birth
(International Visiting Fellowship) Through Adolescence”
James Cameron
“A Spatial Analysis of Rural Graduate Research Fellowships Stephanie M. Myers
Crime in Appalachia” State University of New York
Edward Allen
(Crime Mapping Visiting at Albany
State University of New York
Fellowship) “Policing Juveniles: The Impact
at Albany
of Officer and Situational
Roger L. Conner “Policing by Injunction: Problem-
Characteristics on the Use of
“Community Safety Law” Oriented Characteristics of Civil
Authority and Provision of Support”
Gang Abatement”
Robert J. Delprino Amie Schuck
“Consolidating and Expanding Sarah Dugan Goodrum
State University of New York
the Development and Under- University of Texas at Austin
“Understanding the Role of
standing of CLEFS” “Homicide Bereavement and
Communities in the Long-Term
(Corrections and Law Enforcement the Criminal Justice System”
Criminal Consequences of
Family Support Program Visiting Childhood Maltreatment”
Caterina Gouvis
American University
Thomas Wadsworth
Gloria Laycock “Routine Activities of Youth: The
University of Washington
“Social Research: Getting It Right Importance of Place and Time in
“Neighborhoods, Jobs, and
for Practitioners and Policy” Understanding Victimization In
Criminal Behavior”
and Around Schools”

ment on high-priority topics that research support to outstanding knowledge regarding the conflu-
enhance the capabilities of the doctoral students undertaking ence of crime, justice, and culture
criminal justice system to combat independent research on issues in various societal contexts.
crime, violence, and substance in crime and justice. The Program DuBois Fellows are asked to focus
abuse. The Program offers expands the pool of research tal- on these policy-relevant topics in
criminal justice professionals and ent by attracting doctoral students a manner that truly reflects their
researchers an opportunity to who have innovative ideas to con- saliency as an integral part of the
undertake independent research tribute to pressing justice prob- American past, present, and
on topics of mutual interest while lems. The National Institute of increasingly, its future. The DuBois
in residence at NIJ for 6 to 18 Justice supports diversity in both Fellowship complements NIJ’s
months. Visiting Fellowship approach and perspective by other fellowships by providing
Program awards also are periodi- encouraging students from every talented researchers early in their
cally made to Fellows on behalf of academic discipline to apply. careers with an opportunity to
NIJ’s Crime Mapping Research elevate independently-generated
Center, International Center, and NIJ’s research portfolio includes a research projects to the level of
Corrections and Law Enforcement body of work that explores diverse national discussion. NIJ awarded
and Family Support program. perspectives addressing criminal its first W.E.B. DuBois Fellowship
justice research questions. The in 2000. (See “NIJ Fellowships
NIJ’s Graduate Research Fellowship W.E.B. DuBois Fellowship Program Awarded or Active in 2000.”)
Program provides dissertation seeks to advance the field of

Annual Report 2000

Appendixes communicates findings
and technological innova-
tions through multiple meth-
ods. Priority is given to the
needs of State and local offi-
cials and criminal justice
practitioners. The new
International Center focuses
on crime and justice issues
that transcend national
boundaries and have impact
on State and local criminal
justice systems.

• The Office of Research and

Evaluation develops, con-
ducts, directs, and supervises
comprehensive research and
evaluation activities. The
range of research and evalua-
tion cuts across a wide array
of distinct topics within the
Institute’s charter. Three pro-
grams operate as distinct
centers of activity: the
Arrestee Drug Abuse
Monitoring (ADAM) pro-
Appendix A gram; the Crime Mapping
Research Center; and the
Organization and Financial Data Data Resources Program,
which ensures the preserva-
tion and availability of
NIJ’s internal organization, research and evaluation data
shown in exhibit 1, “Organi- collected through NIJ-funded
zation of NIJ,” reflects the research.
discrete missions of each
component of the Institute: • The Office of Science and
Technology directs and
• The Office of the Director supervises technology
sets the Institute’s agenda, research, development, and
develops strategic plans and demonstrations to provide
policies, initiates collabora- law enforcement and correc-
tion with other government tions agencies access to the
and private agencies, and best technologies available. It
oversees the Institute’s also provides technology
budget and management assistance so that these
activities. agencies can enhance their
capabilities to improve effi-
• The Office of Development ciency and effectiveness.
and Communications devel- Technology assistance is pro-
ops and tests research-based vided through the network
programs, brings promising of the regional National Law
new practices to the atten- Enforcement and Corrections
tion of the field, and Technology Centers.
Exhibit 1: Organization of NIJ

As of July 1, 2001

National Institute of Justice

Office of the Director
Acting Director, Julie E. Samuels

Office of Development Office of Research Office of Science

and Communications and Evaluation and Technology
Acting Director, Director, Sally T. Hillsman Director, David G. Boyd
Cheryl Crawford Watson
Deputy Director
Acting Deputy Thomas E. Feucht Research and Technology
Director Development Division
Edwin Zedlewski Crime Control and Prevention Director, Trent DePersia
The International Center Director, Robert Langworthy
Director, James Finckenauer Technology Assistance Division
Director, Marc Caplan
Drugs and Crime Division
Development Division Director, Henry Brownstein
Director, A. Elizabeth Griffith Technology Support Division
Director, Sharla Rausch
Justice Systems Division
Communications Division Director, Christopher Innes
Director, Gerald P. Soucy Investigative Forensic Science
Violence and Victimization Division Director, Lisa Forman
Acting Director, Bernard Auchter
DNA Commission
Executive Director, Chris Asplen

Joint Program Steering Group

Justice Chair, Peter Nacci

Exhibit 2: Trends in NIJ’s Research and Development Portfolio, FY 1994–2000

Number of 281
Awards Made 358 1994 1995 1996 1997
306 1998 1999 2000

Number of
Active Awards 796

Value of $145
Active Awards $236
(in millions)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Annual Report 2000

Exhibit 3: Sources of NIJ Funds, in Millions, FY 1994–2000


Base Separate Appropriations Reimbursement $171.7






1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Exhibit 4: Allocation of NIJ Funds as a Percentage of Total Expenditures,* FY 2000

Crime Act Grants

Includes all awards made under the 1994 Crime Act.
See also exhibit 3.
Research, Evaluation, Research and
Research, Evaluation, and Development and Development Evaluation
Includes all research, evaluation, science and technology, 39% 5% Program Support
development, and visiting fellows projects.

Dissemination 12%
Crime Act Dissemination
Includes clearinghouse, publications, and national Grants
and international exchange of information. 34% 10%
*Total expenditure of $172 million includes NIJ’s base
appropriation plus funds transferred from other agencies. Law Enforcement and
Corrections Technology
Support Programs


Appendix B:
Awards Made in Fiscal Year 2000
(includes first-time awards and supplements to previous awards)

Community Justice
Community, Mapping, Community Prosecution: Seattle COMPASS Research
Planning, and Analysis Rethinking Organizational Partner
for Safety Strategy Strategies and Criminal Northwest Crime and Social
Seattle, City of Justice Performance Measures Research, Inc.
Nancy McPherson Barbara Boland Joe Kabel
$625,000 00–IJ–CX–K001 $69,797 95–IJ–CX–0112 $275,000 00–IJ–CX–0016

Applying Problem-Solving Impact of Educational Suicide and Native
Approaches to Reentry Experience on Incarceration American Jail Detainees
Hudson Institute Rates University of Kansas Center
Edmund McGarrell University of Maryland– for Research, Inc.
$59,463 00–CE–VX–0002 College Park Margaret E. Severson
Gary LaFree $180,763 99–IJ–CX–0016
Community Supervision: $114,904 00–IJ–CX–0025
Determining High-Risk and Technology in Corrections
Low-Risk Offenders Reparative Versus Traditional American Correctional Association
George Washington University Probation: A Tri-State Analysis John Greene
James Austin University of New Hampshire $100,000 96–LB–VX–K004
$100,000 00–IJ–CX–0029 Jack Humphrey
$192,564 00–IJ–CX–0033 Trends in Substance
Corrections Field Test Abuse and Treatment
Design: An Evaluation Research on Incarcerated Needs Among Inmates
Abt Associates Inc. Women Center on Addiction and
David Hayeslip University of South Carolina Substance Abuse at Columbia
$499,678 00–FS–VX–K003 Lois Wright University
$359,183 00–WT–VX–0010 Steven Belenko
Evidence-Based Enhancement $34,885 00–IJ–CX–0019
of the Detection, Prevention, Sentencing-Related Changes
and Treatment of Mental in Correctional Health Women’s Recidivism and
Illness in the Correction University of Texas Health Science Community Reintegration
Systems Center at San Antonio University of Illinois
Julian Ford Jacques Baillargeon Patricia O’Brien
$750,000 00–IJ–CX–0044 $140,924 00–CE–VX–0001 $298,756 00–IJ–CX–0038

Assessing the Efficacy of Child Abuse and Neglect Cook County Target Abuser
Treatment Modalities Used Cases: A Review of Call: An Evaluation of a
by Drug Courts Specialized Courts Specialized Domestic
University of Southern Maine Urban Institute Violence Court
Donald Anspach Adele Harrell University of Iowa
$250,000 00–DC–VX–0008 $33,430 97–IJ–CX–0013 Carolyn Copps Hartley
$379,665 00–WT–VX–0003


Annual Report 2000

Interdisciplinary Conference Red Hook Community Court: Understanding Court
on the Jury in the 21st A Baseline Assessment Culture and Improving
Century Columbia University Court Performance
Brooklyn Law School Jeffrey Fagan National Center for State Courts
Lawrence Solan $374,981 00–MU–MU–0006 Victor E. Flango
$30,000 00–LT–BX–K003 $285,896 00–IJ–CX–0030
Study of the Determinants
National Evaluation of of Case Growth in U.S.
Juvenile Drug Courts Federal Court
Urban Institute University of Mississippi
Jeffrey Butts William F. Shughart II
$700,000 00–DC–VX–K003 $250,000 00–IJ–CX–0042

Crime Prevention
Crime Prevention, Program on Human Strategic Approaches
General Development in Chicago to Community Safety
Harvard College
Initiative (SACSI)
Accessing Technology,
Methods, and Information Felton J. Earls Community Safety Initiative
for Committing and $2,200,000 93–IJ–CX–K005 Evaluation Component
Combating Electronic University of Illinois–Chicago
Crime Telemarketing Fraud:
Dennis P. Rosenbaum
Utica College of Syracuse An Exploratory Study
$443,233 99–IJ–CX–K013
University University of Tennessee–Knoxville
Gary R. Gordon Neal Shover Evaluation of Winston-
$191,548 00–LT–BX–K002 $92,279 00–IJ–CX–0028 Salem’s SACSI
Winston–Salem State University
A Descriptive and Predictive Understanding the Effects
Lynn K. Harvey
Model of Organized Crime of Employment and Labor
$88,189 00–IJ–CX–0048
Virginia Commonwealth University Markets on Crime
Jay S. Albanese University of Washington Memphis Strategic Team
$72,419 00–IJ–CX–0009 Robert D. Crutchfield Against Rape and Sexual
$206,550 00–IJ–CX–0026 Assault
Maternal Risk Factors, University of Memphis
Early Life Events, and Understanding the Role of
Christopher Jones
Deviant Outcomes Communities in the Long-
$50,000 00–JN–FX–0002
University of Cincinnati Term Criminal Consequences
Jeff Maahs of Childhood Maltreatment Strategic Approaches to
$15,000 00–IJ–CX–0010 Research Foundation of the State Community Safety Initiative
University of New York–Albany University of Missouri–St. Louis
Amie M. Schuck Scott H. Decker
$15,000 00–IJ–CX–0031 $230,000 00–IJ–CX–K008

Drugs and Crime

Drugs and Crime, General Improving Statistical Models Residential Substance Abuse
for Estimating Drug Users Treatment (RSAT) Program
Estimate of the Incidence University of California–Los Angeles
of Drug-Facilitated Sexual M. Douglas Anglin Two-Year Outcome of South
Assault $127,629 00–IJ–CX–0017 Carolina’s RSAT Prisoners
University of Illinois Program
Adam Negrusz Is Job Accessibility Relevant
to Crime Patterns? University of South Carolina
$150,596 00–RB–CX–K003 Mitchell J. Miller
University of Northern Illinois
Fahui Wang $99,171 00–RT–VX–K001
Illicit Substance Detection
Gordon Research Conferences $34,996 00–IJ–CX–0023
Carlyle B. Storm
Neighborhoods, Jobs, and
$20,000 97–LB–VX–0007 Criminal Involvement
University of Washington
Robert D. Crutchfield
$15,000 00–IJ–CX–0022

Information Dissemination and General Support
Annual Review of Journal of Research in Pickett Fellowship in
Justice Research Crime and Justice Criminal Justice Policy
Castine Research Corporation John Jay College–Research and Management
Michael Tonry Foundation of the City University Harvard College
$199,113 92–IJ–CX–K044 of New York Susan Michaelson
Todd Clear $49,900 92–IJ–CX–0012
Committee on Law and $112,951 00–IJ–CX–0036
Justice Core Support Technology Conference
National Academy of Sciences Media Power and Support
Faith Mitchell Information Control Center for Technology
$245,000 98–IJ–CX–0030 Rutgers State University of Commercialization, Inc.
New Jersey Jim Scutt
Crime and Justice Atlas: George L. Kelling $569,816 99–LT–VX–K021
Centennial Edition $15,000 00–IJ–CX–0046
Justice Research and Statistics
Joan C. Weiss
$147,091 00–IJ–CX–0005

International Crime
Costs of Illegal Immigrants Estimating the Flow of Illegal Preventing Organized
for Border Counties Drugs Through Ukraine Crime in Ukraine
US/Mexico Border County Abt Associates Inc. University of Pittsburgh
Coalition Terence Dunworth Phil Williams
Tanis J. Salant $55,490 00–IJ–CX–0008 $43,759 00–IJ–CX–0006
$300,000 00–IJ–CX–0020
The Internet Studio: Building Trafficking in Women
Creating a Database on the Infrastructure for the From Ukraine
Transnational Crime World Justice Information University of Rhode Island
Robin W. Burnham Network Donna M. Hughes
$67,500 00–IJ–CX–0024 Rule of Law Foundation $55,221 00–IJ–CX–0007
Sergey Chapkey
$154,000 98–IJ–CX–K004

Law Enforcement
Policing, General Evaluation of the Local Law Social Research: Getting
Enforcement Block Grant It Right for Practitioners
Action Research to Assess Program and Policymakers
and Aid Partnership Cosmos Corporation Gloria Laycock
Initiatives Robert Yin $39,633 99–IJ–CX–0050
University of Maryland– $549,977 97–LB–VX–0013
College Park Transferring Responsibility
Faye S. Taxman Measuring the Effectiveness for Child Welfare to a
$150,000 00–IJ–CX–0045 of the Police Corps Model Law Enforcement Agency:
Cosmos Corporation An Evaluation
Designing, Implementing, Antony Pate University of Pennsylvania
and Evaluating Compre- $198,435 00–IJ–CX–0027 Richard Gelles
hensive Models of Police $297,208 00–IJ–CX–0002
Performance Measurement Police Restructuring in
Systems the District of Columbia:
Police Executive Research Forum An Evaluation
Lorie Fridell Urban Institute
$349,897 00–IJ–CX–K003 Jeffrey Roth
$420,000 98–IJ–CX–K007


Annual Report 2000

Community Policing Patterns of Community Families, Officers, and
Policing Corrections Understanding
Assessing Community George Mason University Stress
Policing in the District Stephen D. Mastrofski Connecticut Department
of Columbia $313,339 00–IJ–CX–0021 of Corrections
Northwestern University Michael McGarthy
Wesley G. Skogan Problem-Oriented Policing $99,990 00–FS–VX–0001
$138,835 00–IJ–CX–0001 and Crime Prevention: Why
Are Interventions Effective? Law Enforcement Field
Community-Oriented Anthony A. Braga Test Design: An Evaluation
Policing: Assessing the $40,000 99–IJ–CX–0023 Abt Associates Inc.
Effects David Hayeslip
National Academy of Sciences $499,990 00–FS–VX–K004
Carol Petrie Corrections and Law
$1,300,000 00–IJ–CX–0014 Enforcement Family Support Stress Training for Probation
Officers and Their Families
Evaluation of Comprehensive Behavioral Science Video Harris County Community
Indian Resources for the Resources for Native Supervision and Corrections
Community and Law American, Rural, and Department
Enforcement Agencies Other Underserved Police Bennett Lachner
Harvard College Departments $42,255 00–FS–VX–K002
Joseph P. Kalt Fraternal Order of Police–Old
$270,000 00–MU–MU–0015 Pueblo Lodge #51 Training for Officers
Larry A. Morris and Spouses
Monitoring Community $121,778 00–LS–VX–0004 Lubbock Police Department
Policing in Chicago Ken A. Walker
Northwestern University Comprehensive Wellness $99,887 99–FS–VX–0005
Wesley G. Skogan Program
$199,862 00–IJ–CX–0037 Cuyahoga County Juvenile Court
Matt Movak
$50,000 00–FS–VX–K001

Crime and School: Place, National Assessment of Safe Schools, Law Enforce-
Opportunity, and Routine School Resource Officer ment, and Corrections
Activities Programs Research Support
American University Abt Associates Inc. George Mason University
James P. Lynch Terence Dunworth Stephen D. Mastrofski
$14,989 00–IJ–CX–0012 $699,975 00–IJ–CX–K002 $49,969 00–RD–CX–K003

Development of a Speech- Safe School Technologies Testing a Drug Detection

to-Forms Translator for MATCOM and Identification System
School Police and Safety William Walsh in Secondary Schools Using
Personnel $249,753 99–LT–VX–K015 Nontoxic Aerosol Technology
Language Systems, Inc. Mistral Security, Inc.
Christine Montgomery Eyal Banai
$149,999 99–LT–VX–K025 $298,965 00–RD–CX–K004

Getting to Death: Fairness Public Perceptions of
and Efficiency in Death Appropriate Prison
Penalty Cases Sentences
Columbia University Vanderbilt University
Jeff Fagan Mark A. Cohen
$259,467 00–IJ–CX–0035 $251,811 99–CE–VX–0001


Technology Development
Officer Protection and Crime Laboratory Continuation and Expansion
Crime Prevention Service Quality of “Fast Track” Forensic
National Forensic Science Indexing of Crime Scene
Technologies Technology Center Profiles
William J. Tilstone Albuquerque, City of
Development of an
$414,651 00–RC–CX–K001 John F. Krebsbach
$244,811 98–DN–VX–0009
National Center for
Smith & Wesson
Forensic Science Enhancing DNA Identification
Kevin G. Foley
University of Central Florida Capabilities for Reduction
$300,000 00–RD–CX–K001
Carrie Whitcomb of Violent Crime
$1,100,000 98–IJ–CX–K003 West Virginia University
Development of Safe
Clifton P. Bishop
Gun Technology
New Technology in Solving $998,801 00–DN–VX–K001
FN Manufacturing, Inc.
Crime in the 21st Century
Jean-Louis Vanderstracten
University of New Haven–School Expanding DNA Analysis
$300,000 00–MU–MU–K005
of Public Safety Capabilities: STR Implemen-
Albert Harper tation in Texas
Law Enforcement Technology
$26,000 00–LT–BX–0001 Bexar, County of
Lonnie D. Ginsberg
Eastern Kentucky University
Service Quality in $187,700 98–DN–VX–0024
Tom Thurman
Crime Laboratories
$177,464 99–DT–CX–K001
National Forensic Science Expanding DNA Typing
Technology Center in Georgia
Police Special Weapons
William J. Tilstone Georgia Bureau of Investigation
and Tactic Team: A
$1,899,822 00–RC–CX–K001 George Herrin, Jr.
Multimethod Study
$267,500 98–DN–VX–0022
University of Missouri–St. Louis
David Klinger DNA 5-Year Plan
Florida Statewide
$98,248 00–IJ–CX–0003
Chip-Based Genetic Detector Coordinated Forensic
for Rapid Identification DNA Laboratory Program
SECURES Urban Gunshot
of Individuals Florida Department of Law
Detection System
Nanogen, Inc. Enforcement
Demonstration at
Ron Sosnowski Dale Heideman
Austin, Texas
$514,848 97–LB–VX–0004 $1,000,000 98–DN–VX–0034
Planning Systems Incorporated
Glynn Lewis
Development of New Forensic DNA Program
$770,000 00–IJ–CX–K004
Analytical Buffer Systems for Connecticut:
for the Separation and PCR Technologies
Southwest Border
Analysis of PCR-Amplified Connecticut Department of
States Anti-Drug
DNA by Capillary Public Safety
Information System
Ohio University Elaine M. Pagliaro
Criminal Information Sharing
Thea Arocho $150,000 98–DN–VX–0017
Glen Gillum $113,923 99–IJ–CX–K014
Homogenous Fluorescent
$9,000,000 97–LB–VX–K009
Microdevice for Automated, PCR Assays for Forensically
Ultra-High-Speed, and Informative Sites Over the
Portable DNA Forensics Entire mtDNA Genome
Investigative and Whitehead Institute for American Registry of Pathology
Forensic Sciences Biomedical Research Thomas J. Parsons
Daniel J. Ehrlich $219,470 00–IJ–CX–K010
Forensics, General $2,486,876 98–LB–VX–K022
Increasing STR Typing
Assessing Error in PMI DNA Laboratory Capabilities in the Oregon
Prediction Using a Forensic State Police Forensic DNA
Improvement Program Laboratory
Entomological Computer
Model Oregon Department of
Automated STR Analysis State Police
University of Florida–Gainesville
for DNA Databases Cecilia H. Von Beroldingen
Rusty Okoniewski
Cybergenetics Co. $341,695 97–DN–VX–0013
$156,170 00–RB–CX–0002
Mark W. Perlin
$183,700 00–IJ–CX–K005


Annual Report 2000

Microplate Assay for STR Analysis of Convicted STR Analysis of Convicted
the Quantification of Offender DNA Sample Offender DNA Samples
Human DNA Backlog (Utah) (Kansas)
Vermont Department of Utah Department of Public Kansas Bureau of Investigation
Public Safety Safety–Criminalistics Laboratory Sidney Schueler
Eric Buel Pilar Shortsleeve $369,900 00–RC–CX–0015
$67,129 00–IJ–CX–K012 $150,000 00–RC–CX–0013
STR Analysis of Convicted
Ohio Statewide STR Analysis of Convicted Offender DNA Samples
Consortium DNA Grant Offender DNA Samples (Massachusetts)
Ohio Attorney General–Bureau (Alaska) Massachusetts State Police
of Criminal Identification Alaska Department of Carl M. Selavka
Investigation Public Safety $351,000 00–RC–CX–0017
Roger Kahn Chris W. Beheim
$372,700 97–DN–VX–0009 $80,650 00–RC–CX–0012 STR Analysis of Convicted
Offender DNA Samples
Production of DNA Evidence STR Analysis of Convicted (Michigan)
CD-ROM Courseware Offender DNA Samples Michigan State Police–Forensic
Advanced Systems Technology (Albuquerque) Science Division
Frantzie Couch Albuquerque, City of Richard Lowthian
$199,998 00–LT–BX–K006 John Krebsbach $717,900 00–RC–CX–0019
$477,000 00–RC–CX–0011
South Carolina Crime STR Analysis of Convicted
Laboratory Improvement STR Analysis of Convicted Offender DNA Samples
Program Offender DNA Samples (Minnesota)
South Carolina Law Enforcement (Arizona) Minnesota Bureau of Criminal
Division Arizona Department of Apprehension
Earl Wells Public Safety Terry L. Laber
$1,200,000 00–RC–CX–0023 Todd Griffith $200,000 00–RC–CX–0001
$201,250 00–RC–CX–0014
Sperm Cell Selection STR Analysis of Convicted
System for Forensic DNA STR Analysis of Convicted Offender DNA Samples
of the Male Component Offender DNA Samples (New Jersey)
University of Virginia (Arkansas) New Jersey Department of
John C. Herr Arkansas State Crime Laboratory Law and Public Safety
$305,532 00–IJ–CX–K013 Kenneth Michau Harry Corey
$55,500 00–RC–CX–0021 $168,650 00–RC–CX–0010
Spermatozoa Capture
During the Differential STR Analysis of Convicted STR Analysis of Convicted
Extraction Process for Offender DNA Samples Offender DNA Samples
STR Typing of Sexual (California) (New York)
Assault Evidence California Department of New York State Division of
University of North Texas Health Justice–Bureau of Criminal Criminal Justice Services
Science Center Identification and Information John Hicks
Arthur J. Eisenberg Jan Bashinski $1,447,400 00–RC–CX–0002
$272,870 00–IJ–CX–K009 $1,500,000 00–RC–CX–0007
STR Analysis of Convicted
STR Conversion and STR Analysis of Convicted Offender DNA Samples
Expansion of CODIS Offender DNA Samples (North Carolina)
Database (Florida) North Carolina Department
Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Florida Department of of Justice
Apprehension Law Enforcement Mark Nelson
Patricia C. Wojtowicz William Coffman $700,000 00–RC–CX–0009
$140,000 00–RC–CX–0003 $400,000 00–RC–CX–0008
STR Analysis of Convicted
CODIS Backlog Reduction STR Analysis of Convicted Offender DNA Samples (Ohio)
Offender DNA Samples Ohio Attorney General Bureau of
State of Oklahoma (Illinois) Criminal Identification and
DNA Offender Database Illinois State Police Investigation
Oklahoma State Bureau of Susan Johns Cynthia Shannon
Investigation $481,650 00–RC–CX–0020 $1,330,700 00–RC–CX–0016
Mary Long
$250,000 00–RC–CX–0022


STR Analysis of Convicted Collaborative Working Law Enforcement Data
Offender DNA Samples Group on Interoperability/ Mining Analytical Tools
(Pennsylvania) Spectrum Developed in Support
Pennsylvania State Police– Public Technology, Inc. of the Washington/
Bureau of Forensic Services Janet Quist Baltimore HITDA
Harry Fox III $44,252 00–LT–BX–K007 University of Maryland–
$653,100 00–RC–CX–0004 College Park
Computer-Assisted System Thomas H. Carr
STR Analysis of Convicted for Reassembly $1,424,966 99–LT–VX–K010
Offender DNA Samples (Texas) Minnesota Bureau of Criminal
Texas Department of Public Safety Apprehension Miniaturized, Advanced
J. Ronald Urbanovsky Laura Nelson Voice-Response Translator
$1,745,550 00–RC–CX–0006 $16,400 00–RB–CX–0001 for Preprogrammed Law
Enforcement Phrases
STR Analysis of Convicted Distributed COPLINK Integrated Wave Technologies, Inc.
Offender DNA Samples Database and Concept John Hall
(Virginia) Space Development $24,987 98–LB–VX–K023
Virginia Department of Tucson, City of
Criminal Justice Services Jennifer Schroeder Real-Time Computer
Deanne F. Dabbs $350,000 00–RB–CX–K001 Surveillance for Crime
$1,800,000 00–RC–CX–0018 Detection
Establish and Publish University of Maryland–
STR Analysis of Convicted a Suite of Very Narrow College Park
Offender DNA Samples Band Voice and Data Barbara O’Malley
(Washington) Standards $229,641 99–LT–VX–K019
Washington State Patrol Association of Public Safety
Lynn McIntyre Communications Officials Software Radio Infrastructure
$1,343,100 00–RC–CX–0005 International, Inc. for Interoperability
Craig M. Jorgensen Vanu, Inc.
$124,600 97–LB–VX–K002 Andrew Beard
Less-Than-Lethal $169,973 00–MU–CX–0016
Incapacitation Field Test of Portable Hand-
Held Digital Fingerprint and Software Radio
Biomechanical Assessment Photo Device (Remote Data Interoperation Device
of Nonlethal Weapons Terminal 1) Vanu, Inc.
Wayne State University Hennepin County (Minnesota) Andrew Beard
Sheila Bowen Sheriff’s Office $149,998 99–LT–VX–K009
$369,983 98–LB–VX–K017 Richard Esensten
$1,500,000 00–IJ–CX–K007 Spatial Knowledge
Less-Than-Lethal Ballistic Mining and Information
Weapon Field Test of Portable Hand- Sharing
Law Enforcement Technologies, Inc. Held Fingerprint and Photo University of Virginia
Greg MacAleese Device (Remote Data D.E. Brown
$108,310 00–LT–BX–K004 Terminal 2) $118,000 00–RB–CX–K004
Hennepin County (Minnesota)
Ring Airfoil Projectile System Sheriff’s Office Support for Technology
for Less-Than-Lethal Richard Esensten Fair on Border Technology
Application $1,500,000 00–IJ–CX–K011 Center for Technology
Guilford Engineering Associates, Inc. Commercialization, Inc.
David Findlay Incident Command Jim Scutt
$294,750 97–IJ–CX–K019 Technology Systems $609,808 99–LT–VX–K021
for Public Safety
Center for Technology Technology Information
Commercialization, Inc. Exchange on High-Speed
Communication and Jim Scutt Pursuits for State and
Information Technologies $299,331 00–MU–MU–K019 Local Law Enforcement
International Association of
Automating Local Police Law Enforcement Data Chiefs of Police
Functions Mining Analytical Tool John Firman
New York State Division of University of Maryland– $50,000 99–LT–VX–K004
Criminal Justice Services College Park
James F. Shea Thomas H. Carr
$140,969 97–IJ–CX–K009 $25,000 00–LT–BX–K005


Annual Report 2000

Washington Area Critical Incident Response/ Surplus Property Program
Communications Counterterrorism Ultimate Enterprises Limited
Interoperability Michael Simpson
Technologies $298,986 96–LB–VX–K002
Johns Hopkins University–
Containment Devices for
Applied Physics Laboratory
Small Terrorist Bombs
Darcy Brudin Technology Assistance,
JAYCOR Defense Sciences Group
$300,000 00–MU–MU–K007 National Law Enforcement
Frank Robbins
$67,726 97–DT–CX–K001 and Corrections Technology
Training and Simulation Centers (NLECTC)
Counterterrorism Technology
Technologies Assessment Governance and Technology
Johns Hopkins University– Delivery Processes for NLECTC
JUST TALK: Developing a Applied Physics Laboratory Pymatuning Group, Inc.
Prototype Training Program Darcy Brudin Ruth M. Davis
Using Natural Language $146,163 00–LT–BX–K001 $378,426 98–LB–VX–0001
Processing and Virtual
Reality Technology Institute for Security NLECTC Supplement
Research Triangle Institute Technology Studies Aspen Systems Corporation
Dave Obringer Dartmouth College Richard S. Rosenthal
$248,314 00–RD–CX–K002 John F. Kavanagh $2,738,308 96–MU–MU–K011
$14,550,000 00–DT–CX–K001
Law Enforcement Information NLECTC–Rocky Mountain
Systems and Strategy Memorial Institute for the Region
Demonstration on Prevention of Terrorism University of Denver–
Project: CRIMES Oklahoma City National Memorial Colorado Seminary
Sam Houston State University Institute for the Prevention of Robert Epper
Larry T. Hoover Terrorism $2,467,166 96–MU–MU–K012
$200,000 00–RD–CX–K005 Lisa Moreno-Hix
$14,550,000 00–DT–CX–K002 NLECTC–Southeast Center
Law Enforcement Technology South Carolina Research Authority
Dissemination and Training Portable Through-the-Wall Gary Mastrandrea
Eastern Kentucky University Surveillance System $2,010,433 97–MU–MU–K020
Tom Thurman Raytheon Company–Sensors and
$450,000 99–LT–VX–K002 Electronics Systems Segment NLECTC–West
Joseph Marroquin Aerospace Corporation
National Assessment of $270,118 98–DT–CX–K004 Donald Peterson
Technology and Training $1,732,000 00–MU–MU–K004
for Law Enforcement
Eastern Kentucky University Program Assessment, Policy, Operation of the Office of
Pam Collins
$291,172 99–LT–VX–K022
and Coordination Law Enforcement Technology
Law Enforcement Technology, Wheeling Jesuit University
Rural Law Enforcement Carole Coleman
Technology Transfer, Less-
Technology Support (RULETS) $2,800,000 98–IJ–CX–K002
Than-Lethal Technology, and
Eastern Kentucky University
Policy Assessment
Pam Collins
$1,208,828 00–MU–MU–K008
E.A. Burkhalter
$558,893 96–MU–MU–K016
Technology Outreach Program
$276,264 96–LB–VX–K006
Primedia Workplace Learning
Chris Elliston
$124,980 00–MU–MU–K020

Victimization and Victim Services

Homicide, Bereavement, Victim Needs and Assistance:
and the Criminal Justice Development of a National
System Study
University of Texas–Austin Victim Services, Inc.
Sarah Dugan Goodrum Ellen Brickman
$13,450 00–IJ–CX–0011 $556,345 98–VF–GX–0011


Violence, General Effects of Drug and Alcohol Longitudinal Study of
Use on Intimate Partner Battered Women in the
Black-White Homicide Violence System: The Victims’ and
Differentials: Analysis by Race University of New Mexico– Decision Makers’ Perceptions
Ohio State University Research Health Sciences Center University of Colorado–Boulder
Foundation Lorraine H. Malcoe Joanne Belknap
Ruth D. Peterson $184,440 00–WT–VX–0004 $181,987 98–WT–VX–0024
$35,000 00–IJ–CX–0015
Enhanced Advocacy and National Evaluation of the
Tribal Strategies Against Interventions: Evaluation Domestic Violence Victims’
Violence Initiative: of the EVOLVE Program for Civil Legal Assistance
An Evaluation Male DV Offenders Program
Orbis Associates University of Connecticut Institute for Law and Justice, Inc.
Richard Nichols Eleanor Lyon Edward Connors
$40,586 97–DD–BX–0031 $347,009 00–WE–VX–0014 $800,154 00–WL–VX–0002

Evaluation of a Multisite National Evaluation of Grants

Violence Against Women Demonstration of to Combat Violent Crimes
Collaborations to Address Against Women
and Family Violence Domestic Violence and Institute for Law and Justice, Inc.
Child Maltreatment Cheron DuPree
Antecedents Among
Caliber Associates $849,833 00–WA–VX–0001
Black Women
Janet Griffith
University of Central Florida
$599,809 00–MU–MU–0014 National Sexual Violence
Jana L. Jasinski
Prevention Conference
$50,198 00–WT–VX–0002
History of Intimate Texas Association Against
Partner Violence Sexual Assault
Arrest Policies for Domestic
University of Washington Annette Burrhus-Clay
Violence: An Evaluation
Victoria L. Holt $49,989 00–WT–VX–0006
Iowa Law Enforcement Academy
$280,460 00–WT–VX–0016
Roxann M. Ryan
Nature and Correlates
$71,076 00–WE–VX–K001
Impact Evaluation of STOP of Domestic Violence
Grant Programs for Reducing Among Female Arrestees
Arrest Policies Program
Violence Against Women in San Diego
Under VAWA: A National
University of Arizona San Diego Association of
Eileen M. Luna Government
Institute for Law and Justice, Inc.
$73,792 98–WT–VX–K010 Susan Pennell
Thomas McEwen
$46,048 00–WT–VX–0001
$505,924 98–WE–VX–0012
Increasing Victim Safety
and System Accountability Police-Social Service
Community Partnership
Texas Women’s University Intervention to Prevent
Models Addressing Violence
Judith McFarlane Domestic Violence:
Against Migrant and Seasonal
$212,384 00–WT–VX–0020 An Evaluation
Farmworker Women
Vera Institute of Justice, Inc.
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Intervention to Improve Robert C. Davis
Rachel Rodriguez
Documentation of Domestic $34,802 00–WT–VX–0007
$236,136 00–WT–VX–0005
Violence in Medical Records
Northeastern University Research and Evaluation on
Comparison of Partner
V. Pualani Enos Violence Against Women
Violence in Latino
$220,817 00–WT–VX–0014 University of Alaska–Anchorage
Randy Mangen
California State University–
Investigating Intimate $233,555 00–WT–VX–0013
San Marcos
Partner Violence Using
Fernando Soriano
NIBRS Data Research and Evaluation on
$556,841 00–WT–VX–0017
State University of New Violence Against Women
York–Albany Wayne State University
Criminal Justice Intervention
Colin Loftin Barbara LeRoy
in Domestic Violence
$34,996 00–IJ–CX–0013 $49,888 00–WT–VX–0018
University of Massachusetts–
Lowell Research Foundation
Gerald T. Hotaling
$50,000 00–WT–VX–0019


Annual Report 2000

Research and Evaluation on STOP Formula Grant Firearms
Violence Against Women: Program: National
Battering, Work, and Welfare Evaluation Ballistics Matching Using
University of Pittsburgh Urban Institute 3D Images of Bullets and
Lisa D. Brush Martha Burt Cartridge Cases
$234,905 00–WT–VX–0009 $478,992 95–WT–NX–0005 Intelligent Automation, Inc.
Benjamin Bachrach
Richmond/Police Synthesis of the Research and $50,000 97–LB–VX–0008
Foundation Domestic Evaluation From the Violence
Violence Partnership Against Women Act Improving Research and
Police Foundation Indiana University–Bloomington Data on Firearms
Rosann Greenspan David A. Ford National Academy of Sciences
$59,886 98–WT–VX–0001 $149,284 00–WT–VX–0008 Carol Petrie
$150,000 00–IJ–CX–0034
Rural Domestic Violence
and Child Victimization:
A National Evaluation
Cosmos Corporation
Mary Ann Dunton
$349,996 98–WR–VX–K002

Evaluation of G.R.E.A.T. Governors’ Criminal and Role of Social Support
University of Nebraska–Omaha Juvenile Justice Policy on Adolescent Crime
Finn Esbensen National Governors’ Association Georgia State University Research
$216,990 94–IJ–CX–0058 Center for Best Practices Foundation
Evelyn Ganzglass Becky L. Tatum
Policing by Injunction: $70,000 00–IJ–CX–0049 $45,343 00–IJ–CX–0032
Civil Gang Abatement
State University of New York– Policing Juveniles Youth Curfew in Prince
Albany State University of New York– Georges County, Maryland:
Edward Allen Albany An Evaluation
$15,000 00–IJ–CX–0018 Stephanie M. Myers Urban Institute
$15,000 00–IJ–CX–0039 Caterina Gouvis
$49,916 99–IJ–CX–0008

Appendix C:
Materials Published in Fiscal Year 2000

Most NIJ materials are free and can from the NCJRS Web site at NIJ publishes several types of
be obtained in several ways: publications, including:
• Download documents from • Order Research Previews via fax- • Research in Action: Overviews
the World Wide Web site at on-demand by calling 800– of specific topics and programs 851–3420. in research and practice.
• Call or write to the National • For many science and technolo- • Research in Brief: Summaries
Criminal Justice Reference gy publications, call the National of recent NIJ research, develop-
Service (NCJRS) at 800– Law Enforcement and Correc- ment, and evaluation findings.
851–3420 (outside the United tions Technology Center • Research Reports:
States, call 301–519–5500), P.O. (NLECTC) at 800–248–2742, Comprehensive reports on
Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849– or download documents from NIJ-sponsored research and
6000, or download documents the NLECTC Web site at development projects.


• Research in Progress articles based on NI research • Program Focus: Highlights
Videotapes: Sixty-minute results and initiatives. of specific innovative State and
lectures with a question-and- • Research Reviews: Presents local criminal justice programs.
answer segment presented by short summaries of final reports • Research Forum: Reports
well-known scholars and accom- from NIJ research grants and based on NIJ-sponsored confer-
panied by a Research Preview listings of completed research ences and lecture series.
summarizing the salient points projects.
of the discussion. (Publications may be cross-
• Issues and Practices: Reports referenced in more than one
• NIJ Journal: Published quart- presenting program options and
erly, featuring policy-relevant category.)
issues for criminal justice man-
agers and administrators.

ADAM Annual Reports

1999 Annual Report on Drug Use Drugs in the Heartland:
Among Adult and Juvenile Arrestees, Methamphetamine Use in Rural
July 2000, NCJ 181426. Nebraska, Herz, D.C., Research
in Brief, April 2000, 14 pages,
NCJ 180986.

But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisons Research at the Beginning “Technocorrections”: The Promises,
Prisoner Reentry, Travis, J., Research of the 21st Century, Tonry, M., the Uncertain Threats, Fabelo, T.,
in Brief, May 2000, 10 pages, and J. Petersilia, September 2000, Research in Brief, May 2000, 8
NCJ 181413. 13 pages, NCJ 184478 (online pages, NCJ 181411.
Correcting Corrections: Missouri’s When Prisoners Return to the
Parallel Universe, Schriro, D., The Rebirth of Rehabilitation: Community: Political, Economic,
Research in Brief, May 2000, Promise and Perils of Drug Courts, and Social Consequences, Petersilia,
7 pages, NCJ 185983. Gebelein, R.S., Research in Brief, J., Research in Brief, November
May 2000, 8 pages, NCJ 181412. 2000, 7 pages, NCJ 184253.

Courts and Sentencing

But They All Come Back: Rethinking Efficiency, Timeliness, and Quality: The Rebirth of Rehabilitation: Promise
Prisoner Reentry, Travis, J., Research A New Perspective From Nine State and Perils of Drug Courts, Gebelein,
in Brief, May 2000, 26 pages, Criminal Trial Courts, Ostrom, B.J., R.S., Research in Brief, May 2000,
NCJ 181413. and R.A. Hanson, Research in Brief, 20 pages, NCJ 181412.
June 2000, 20 pages, NCJ 181942.
Correcting Corrections: Missouri’s Research on Women and Girls in
Parallel Universe, Schriro, D., Evaluation of the D.C. Superior Court the Justice System, Richie, B.E., K.
Research in Brief, May 2000, Drug Intervention Programs, Harrell, Tsenin, and C.S. Widom, Research
19 pages, NCJ 181414. A., S. Cavanaugh, and J. Roman, Forum, September 2000, 37 pages,
Research in Brief, April 2000, 18 NCJ 180973.
pages, NCJ 178941.

Crime Prevention
Elder Justice: Medical Forensic Issues January 2000, 49 pages, NCJ Strategic Approaches to Community
Concerning Abuse and Neglect 179981. Safety Initiative (SACSI): Enhancing
(Draft Report), December 2000 the Analytic Capacity of a Local
(online publication). Public Involvement: Community Problem-Solving Effort, Groff, E.,
Policing in Chicago, Skogan, W.G., December 2000 (online publica-
Protective Intelligence and Threat S.M. Hartnett, J. DuBois, J.T. tion).
Assessment Investigations: A Comey, K. Twedt-Ball, and J.E.
Guide for State and Local Law Gudell, Research Report,
Enforcement Officials, Fein, R.A., September 2000, 25 pages,
and B. Vossekuil, Research Report, NCJ 179557.


Annual Report 2000

Drugs and Crime
1999 Annual Report on Drug Use Abuse (NIJ Standard–0604.01), July Methamphetamine Interagency Task
Among Adult and Juvenile Arrestees, 2000, 24 pages, NCJ 183258. Force: Final Report, Methampheta-
Research Report, July 2000, 103 mine Interagency Task Force,
pages, NCJ 181426. Drugs in the Heartland: Metham- January 2000, 35 pages.
phetamine Use in Rural Nebraska,
Color Test Reagents/Kits for Herz, D.C., Research in Brief,
Preliminary Identification of Drugs of April 2000, 14 pages, NCJ 180986.

Law Enforcement
Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Guide for the Selection of Chemical Greenspan with E.E. Hamilton,
Armor (NIJ Standard–0101.04), Agent and Toxic Industrial Material H. Williams, and K.A. Bryant,
September 2000, 65 pages, Detection Equipment for Emergency Research in Brief, June 2000,
NCJ 183651. First Responders, June 2000, 522 21 pages, NCJ 181312.
pages, NCJ 184449 and 184450.
The COPS Program After 4 Year— Problem Solving in Practice:
National Evaluation, Roth, J.A., and Guide to Test Methods, Performance Implementing Community Policing
J.F. Ryan, Research in Brief, August Requirements, and Installation in Chicago, Skogan, W.G., S.M.
2000, 24 pages, NCJ 183644. Practices for Electronic Sirens Used Hartnett, J. DuBois, J.T. Comey,
on Law Enforcement Vehicles (NIJ M. Kaiser, and J.H. Lovig, Research
Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide Guide 601–00), August 2000, Report, April 2000, 40 pages, NCJ
for Law Enforcement, Technical 31 pages, NCJ 181622. 179556.
Working Group on Crime Scene
Investigation, Research Report, Mapping Crime: Principle and Public Involvement: Community
January 2000, 60 pages, Practice, Harries, K., Research Policing in Chicago, Skogan, W.G.,
NCJ 178280. Report, December 1999, 204 S.M. Hartnett, J. DuBois, J.T.
pages, NCJ 178919. Comey, K. Twedt-Ball, and J.E.
Excellence in Problem-Oriented Gudell, Research Report,
Policing: The 1999 Herman The Measurement of Police Integrity, September 2000, 25 pages,
Goldstein Award Winners, National Klockars, C.B., S.K. Ivkovich, W.E. NCJ 179557.
Institute of Justice, Office of Harver, and M.R. Haberfeld,
Community Oriented Policing Research in Brief, June 2000, Random Gunfire Problems and
Services, and Police Executive 17 pages, NCJ 181465. Gunshot Detection Systems,
Research Forum, August 2000, Mazerolle, L.G., C. Watkins,
77 pages, NCJ 182731. National Evaluation of the COPS D. Rogan, and J. Frank, Research
Program: Ten Case Studies, August in Brief, December 1999, 8 pages,
Excellence in Problem-Oriented 2000 (online publication). NCJ 179274.
Policing: The 2000 Herman
Goldstein Award Winners (Draft), National Evaluation of the COPS Stab Resistance of Personal Body
National Institute of Justice, Office Program, Title I of the 1994 Crime Armor (NIJ Standard–0115.00),
of Community Oriented Policing Act, Roth, J.A., J.F. Ryan, S.J. September 2000, 45 pages,
Services, and Police Executive Gaffigan, C.S. Koper, M.H. Moore, NCJ 183652.
Research Forum, December 2000, J.A. Roehl, C.C. Johnson, G.E.
33 pages. Moore, R.M. White, M.E. Buerger, State and Local Law Enforcement
E.A. Langston, and D. Thacher, Needs to Combat Electronic Crime,
Fire and Arson Scene Evidence: A Research Report, August 2000, Stambaugh, H., D. Beaupre, D.J.
Guide for Public Safety Personnel, 292 pages, NCJ 183643. Icove, R. Baker, W. Cassaday, and
Research Report, June 2000, W.P. Williams, Research in Brief,
78 pages, NCJ 181584. National Evaluation of the August 2000, 12 pages, NCJ
Youth Firearms Violence Initiative, 183451.
A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Dunworth, T., Research in Brief,
Scene Investigation, Research November 2000, 22 pages, Strategic Approaches to Community
Report, June 2000, 43 pages, NCJ 184482. Safety Initiative (SACSI): Enhancing
NCJ 181869. the Analytic Capacity of a Local
Police Attitudes Toward Abuse of Problem-Solving Effort, Groff, E.,
Authority: Findings From a National December 2000.
Study, Weisburd, D., and R.


Color Test Reagents/Kits for (NIJ Guide 601–00), August 2000, NIST Random Profile Roughness
Preliminary Identification of Drugs of 31 pages, NCJ 181622. Specimens and Standard Bullets
Abuse (NIJ Standard–0604.01), July (NIJ Report 601–00), July 2000,
2000, 24 pages, NCJ 183258. Hand-Held Metal Detectors for 23 pages, NCJ 183256.
Use in Concealed Weapon and
The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Contraband Detection (NIJ TechBeat, Winter 2000, Spring
Predictions of the Research and Standard–0602.01), September 2000, Summer 2000, Fall 2000.
Development Working Group, Issues 2000, 67 pages, NCJ 183470.
and Practices, November 2000, Video Surveillance Equipment
93 pages, NCJ 183697. National Conference on Science Selection and Application Guide
and the Law Proceedings, National (NIJ Guide 201–99), Atkinson, D.J.,
Guide for the Selection of Drug Institute of Justice, Research V.J. Pietrasiewicz, and K.E. Junker,
Detectors for Law Enforcement Forum, July 2000, 257 pages, February 2000, 71 pages, NCJ
Applications (NIJ Guide 601–00), NCJ 179630. 179545.
August 2000, 64 pages, NCJ
183260. NIJ Fifth Annual National Conference Walk-Through Metal Detectors for
on the Future of DNA: Implications Use in Concealed Weapon and
Guide to Test Methods, Performance for the Criminal Justice System, Contraband Detection (NIJ
Requirements, and Installation Meeting Transcript, May 8–9, Standard–0601.01), September
Practices for Electronic Sirens Used 2000 (Online publication). 2000, 67 pages, NCJ 183471.
on Law Enforcement Vehicles

Extent, Nature, and Consequences November 2000, 74 pages, Wisconsin, Zevitz, R.G., and M.A.
of Intimate Partner Violence, Tjaden, NCJ 183781. Farkas, Research in Brief,
P., and N. Thoennes, Research December 2000, 11 pages,
Report, July 2000, 62 pages, Research on Women and Girls in the NCJ 179992.
NCJ 181867. Justice System, Richie, B.E., K.
Tsenin, and C.S. Widom, Research The Sexual Victimization of College
Full Report of the Prevalence, Forum, September 2000, 42 Women, Fisher, B.S., F.T. Cullen,
Incidence, and Consequences of pages, NCJ 180973. and M.G. Turner, Research Report,
Violence Against Women, Tjaden, P., December 2000, 47 pages,
and N. Thoennes, Research Report, Sex Offender Community Notifica- NCJ 182369.
tion: Assessing the Impact in

Building Knowledge About Crime Report, July 2000, 381 pages, NIJ Awards in Fiscal Year 1999,
and Justice: The 2000 Research NCJ 182409. Research in Brief, April 2000,
Prospectus of the National Institute 41 pages, NCJ 179016.
of Justice, November 1999, 14 Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 3,
pages, NCJ 178903. Policies, Processes, and Decisions NIJ Research Portfolio 2000, June
of the Criminal Justice System, 2000, 76 pages, NCJ 179017.
Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 1, Research Report, July 2000, 566
The Nature of Crime: Continuity and pages, NCJ 182410. Perspectives on Crime and Justice:
Change, Research Report, July 1998–1999 Lecture Series, Kleiman,
2000, 536 pages, NCJ 182408. Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 4, M.A.R., F. Earls, S. Bok, and J.B.
Measurement and Analysis of Crime Jacobs, Research Forum, Novem-
Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 2, and Justice, Research Report, July ber 1999, 73 pages, NCJ 178244.
Boundary Changes in Criminal 2000, 608 pages, NCJ 182411.
Justice Organizations, Research

NIJ Journal
January 2000, Cover Story: by Charles Wellford and James October 2000, Cover Story:
“Childhood Victimization: Early Cronin, 52 pages, JR 000243. “Getting to Know Neighbor-
Adversity, Later Psychopathology,” hoods,” by G. Thomas Kingsley
by Cathy Spatz Widom, 52 pages, July 2000, Cover Story: “Meeting and Kathryn L.S. Pettit, 40 pages,
JR 000242. the Challenge of Transnational JR 000245.
Crime,” by James O. Finckenauer,
April 2000, Cover Story: “Clearing 32 pages, JR 000244.
Up Homicide Clearance Rates,”

Annual Report 2000

Solicitations for Research and Evaluation
Call for Concept Papers to Reduce Forensic Friction Ridge (Fingerprint) School Safety Research and
Recidivism Through Court Involve- Examination Validation Studies, Evaluation, June 2000, 8 pages,
ment, September 1999, 15 pages, March 2000, 7 pages, SL 000386. SL 000428.
SL 000389.
FY 2000 Corrections and Law Solicitation for CODIS STR Analysis
Communications Interoperability Enforcement Family Support: of States’ Collected Convicted
and Information Sharing Tech- Solicitation for Research, Evaluation, Offender DNA Samples, March
nologies (AGILE R&D), May 2000, Development, and Demonstration 2000, SL 000413.
10 pages, SL–000423. Projects, April 2000, 24 pages,
SL 000409. Solicitation for Forensic DNA
COMPASS Pilot Site Call for Research & Development, FY 2000,
Proposals, April 2000, online only. A National Assessment of School April 2000, 8 pages, SL 000425.
Resource Officer Programs, Decem-
Corrections and Law Enforcement ber 1999, 10 pages, SL 000394. Solicitation for a Research Partner
Family Support: Corrections Field for the Seattle COMPASS Initiative,
Test Design Solicitation, March National Evaluation of the Domestic December 1999, online only.
2000, 9 pages, SL 000414. Violence Victims’ Civil Legal
Assistance Program, April 2000, Strategic Approaches to Community
Corrections and Law Enforcement 8 pages, SL 000424. Safety Initiative Solicitation for a
Family Support: Law Enforcement Research Partner for the District of
Field-Test Design Solicitation, March National Evaluation of Grants to New Mexico, September 2000,
2000, 9 pages, SL 000415. Combat Violent Crimes Against 11 pages.
Women on Campuses, May 2000,
Data Resources Program Funding 11 pages, SL000422. Strategic Approaches to Community
for the Analysis of Existing Data, Safety Initiative: Solicitation for a
February 1999, 6 pages, NIJ Science and Technology Research Partner for the Eastern
SL 000320. Solicitation, September 2000, District of Michigan, August 2000,
10 pages, SL 000440. online only.
Drug Court Research and Evalua-
tion: National Evaluation of Juvenile Office of Research and Evaluation Strategic Approaches to Community
Drug Courts and Research on Adult 2000 Solicitation for Investigator- Safety Initiative: Solicitation for a
and Juvenile Drug Courts, March Initiated Research, September Research Partner for the Western
2000, 12 pages, SL 000399. 1999, 16 pages, SL 000385. District of New York, August 2000,
online only.
Evaluation of the Comprehensive Request for Applications for Reentry
Indian Resources for Community and Partnerships Process Evaluation, The W.E.B. DuBois Fellowship
Law Enforcement (CIRCLE) Project, April 2000, online only. Program, November 1999,
April 2000, 7 pages, SL 000417. 6 pages, SL 000391.
Research on Community Pro-
Evaluation of a Multisite secution, May 2000, 7 pages,
Demonstration of Collaborations SL 000426.
to Address Domestic Violence and
Child Maltreatment, March 2000, Research and Evaluation on Violence
20 pages, SL 000405. Against Women FY 2000, February
2000, 9 pages, SL 000398.

NIJ Annual Report

1998 Annual Report to Congress, 1999 Annual Report to Congress,
December 1999, 81 pages, July 2000, 42 pages, NCJ 182949.
NCJ 177617.

Catalogs of Publications
NCJRS Catalog #49, November/ NCJRS Catalog #51, March/April NCJRS Catalog #54, September/
December 1999, 24 pages, 2000, 24 pages, BC 000275. October 2000, 20 pages,
BC 000273. BC 000278.
NCJRS Catalog #52, May/June
NCJRS Catalog #50, January/ 2000, 24 pages, BC 000276. Seventh Edition 1987–1998, The
February 2000, 24 pages, NIJ Publications Catalog, December
BC 000274. NCJRS Catalog #53, July/August 1999, 100 pages, NCJ 179082.
2000, 24 pages, BC 000277.


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Phone: 800–851–3420
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