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Chapter 9 Guided Reading Notes The Rise of Mass Politics The Expanding Electorate No economic equality, but transformation

n of American politics to extend the right to vote to new groups. State reforms generally peaceful but some instability Election laws favored planters and politicians from older counties, limited influence of newly settled western areas Everywhere women could not vote Originally electors chosen by legislature The Legitimization of Party Higher levels of voter participation due to expanded electorate but also strengthening of party organization and loyalty 1820s/1830s saw permanent, institutionalized parties become desirable part of political process. Began at state level in NY w/ Martin Van Burens factional Bucktails. Partys preservation thru favors, rewards, patronage leaders goals Parties would check/balance one other, politicians forced 2 rep. will of the ppl By late 1820s new idea of party spreading beyond NY, Jacksons 1828 election seemed to legitimize new system. By 1830s national 2-party system: anti-Jackson forces called Whigs, his followers called Democrats President of the Common Man Democratic party embraced no uniform ideological position, committed to offer equal protection and benefits by assaulting eastern aristocracy to extend opportunity to rising classes of the W + S, preserve white-male democracy thru subjugation of African Americans and Indians Jacksons first targets entrenched officeholders of fed govt, wanted to simplify official duties to make office more accessible. Removed nearly 1/5 of office-holders removed b/c misuse of govt funds or corruption Jacksons supporters embraced spoils system, making right of elected officials to appt followers to office established feature of American politics Supporters worked to transform presidential nomination system- 1832 national party convention held to replace congressional caucus, considered democratic triumph b/c power from ppl and not aristocratic caucus Spoils system and convention limited power of entrenched elites (permanent officeholders, caucus elite), but neither really transferred true power to the people Our Federal Union Calhoun and Nullification Late 1820s many in SC came to see tariff of abominations as responsible for stagnation of state economy (really due to exhausted farmland unable to compete with new western lands). Some considered remedy thru secession Vice President Calhoun offered alternative in theory of nullification- idea like Madison and Jeffersons KY + VA Resolutions of 1798-1799. Argued fed govt created by states, therefore states final arbiter (not Congress or courts) of constitutionality. Convention could be held to null and void law within state

The Rise of Van Buren Appointed Sec of State 1829 by Jackson, also member of presidents of unofficial circle of allies in Kitchen Cabinet. After supporting Peggy Eaton in affair over acceptance into cabinet wife social circle gained favor w/ President By 1831 Jackson had chosen Van Buren to succeed him in WH, Calhouns presidential dream ended The Webster-Hayne Debate January 1830 proposal to temporarily stop western land sales led SC Sen. Robert Hayne to claim slowing down W growth means for east to retain political and economic power. Hinted at uniting S + W against tyranny Nationalist and Whig Sen. Daniel Webster attacked Hayne + Calhoun for challenging integrity of the Union. Debate ensued over issue of states rights vs national power Jackson announced at Democratic Party banquet Our Federal Union-It must be preserved, lines drawn between Jackson and Calhoun The Nullification Crisis 1832 tariff bill in Congress gave SC no relief from tariff of abominations, state convention held- voted for nullification of tariffs of 1828 & 1832, duties collection w/in state. Calhoun resigned VP became Sen., Hayne now Gov Jackson insisted nullification treason, strengthened federal forts in SC. 1833 Pres. proposed bill to authorize use of military to see acts of Congress obeyed No states supported SC, state itself was divided. SC state convention met and repealed its nullification of the tariffs, but also nullified the force act (symbolic of null. legitimacy) The Removal of the Indians White Attitudes Toward the Tribes In 18th century many whites considered Indians noble savages who had inherent dignity, by 19th century more hostile attitude especially among whites in W and territories, simply savages White westerners wanted removal b/c feared continued contact + expanding white settlements would lead to endless violence, & Indian lands valuable Only fed govt had power to deal w/ Indians after Sup. Court decisions. Indians created new large political entities to deal w/ whites The Black Hawk War In Old Northwest Black Hawk War 1831-1832 to expel last of Indians there Conflict notable for violence of white military efforts, attacked even when Chief Black Hawk was surrendering and killed Indians fleeing battle The Five Civilized Tribes 1830s govt worried about remaining Five Civilized Tribes in South- successful agricultural society, Constitution forming Cherokee Nation 1827 Congress passed Removal Act 1830 to finance def negotiations w/ tribes in order to relocate them West, pressure from state govts to move as well

1835 treaty signed with minority tribe in Cherokee nation ceding all land to GA, but majority of Cherokees refused to recognize its legitimacy. Jackson sent army under General Winfield Scott to drive them westward to reservation Trials of Tears Forced trek to Indian Territory began winter 1838. Thousands died before destination, dubbed Trail of Tears Cherokees not alone: btwn 1830-1838 nearly all Five Civilized Tribes expelled from Southern states & relocated to Indian Territory created by Congress in Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. Undesirable land far from whites Only Seminoles in Florida resisted relocation. Under pressure had agreed to cede land and move to Ind. Territory, many members of tribe moved But 1835 minority led by chief Osceola staged uprising. Jackson sent army, conducted campaign of systematic extermination but successful guerilla warfare forced govt to abandon war in 1842

Jackson and the Bank War Biddles Institution Bank of United States in 1830s had HQ in Philadelphia, branches in 19 cities, by law only place govt could deposit its funds Conducted private business issuing credit, bank notes used throughout country, restrained less well-managed state banks. Pres Nicholas Biddle had made bank sound + prosperous. Regardless, Jackson wanted to destroy it Opposition came from soft-money faction who wanted more currency in circulation. Made up of state banks, resisted Bank of USs efforts to restrain free issue of notes from state banks Hard money faction wanted gold and silver to back currency, suspicious of expansion and speculation. Jackson supported hard-money The Monster Destroyed Jackson determined to destroy monster Bank quickly. To weaken it removed govt deposits (two Tres. Secretaries fired b/c feared financial destabilization, third Roget Taney complied) When administration transferred funds from Bank to pet banks, Biddle called in loans and raised interest rates Financial conditions worsened winter 1833/1834, two sides blamed it on each other. Biddle forced to grant credit in abundance on reasonable terms, tactics ended change of recharter. The Taney Court Jackson moved against economic nationalism support of Supreme Court, after Marshall died 1835 named Roger Taney chief justice Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge (1837) company chartered by state for toll bridge monopoly and company applying to legislature to pay for toll-free bridge. Taney ruled that govts goal to promote general happiness took precedence over right of contract and property, therefore state had right to amend contract o advance well-being of community Ideal that key to democracy expansion of economic opportunity that could not occur if corporations maintained monopolies and choked off competition from newer companies The Changing Face of American Politics Democrats and Whigs

Democrats in 1830s envisioned expanding economic and political opportunity for white males, limited govt but one that removed obstacles to opportunity, defense of Union, Whigs favored expanding power of fed Whigs supported by merchants and manufactures of NE, wealthy Southern planters, western commercialists Whigs led by Great Triumvirate of Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun. 1836 election Dems united behind Jacksons choice of Van Buren for candidate, but Whigs could not agree on single candidate. Clay, White, and William Henry Harrison ran for regional interests, defeated by Van Buren Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 Van Buren elected on economic boom that reached height 1836- canals and railroads being built, easy credit, land business booming, govt revenues from sales + 1833 tariff created surpluses that allowed reduction of natl debt Congress passed 1836 distribution act to return surplus to states, used to fund highways, railroads, canals, created economic boom Withdrawal of fed funds strained state pet banks, forced to call in loans. Jackson issued specie circular that required payment for public land sales be in gold or silver or currency backed by them b/c feared rampant speculation Circular produced financial panic during Van Burens presidency banks and business failed, food riots- largest depression in American history to that point The Frustration of the Whigs Harrison died of pneumonia 1 month after inauguration, new President Tyler was a former Democrat who refused to let Clay and Webster control policy Pres supported bills abolishing independent treasury system and raising tariff rate, but refused Clays attempt to recharter Bank and vetoed internal improvement bills sponsored by Whigs. Whigs kicked Tyler out of party, entire cabinet resigned. Tyler and some conservative southern Whigs who supported slavery and states rights prepared to join the Democratic Party Whig Diplomacy Canada uprising caused tension leading to burning of an American steamship carrying arms and the subsequent arrest of a British citizen for burning 1837. Tension over Canada-Maine boundary led to small Aroostook War 1838 Tyler administration established first diplomatic relations with China, Americans received same privileges as British such as extraterritoriality and port use Whigs lost White House in 1844 elections