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AIM -

A FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

INTRODUCTIONA full wave rectifier is a device which is used to rectify all the alternating cu rrent co m p o nents in a n al ternat ing s u p pl y and m ake it p u rel y a d irec t current. The two alternating halves of an alternation current are rectified in a full wave rectifier which is an advantage over a half wave rectifier. Most electronic devices cannot withstand very high voltage or alternating current du e to its in te nse h igh p o wer. The u s e o f bat ter ies in al l dev ices is no t practical as their replacement and durability is a huge problem as the device has to be dismantled each time for such a replacement. So these rectifiers are used in most of the electronic devices like TVs, Radios, Chargers, Lightings etc. There are several stages in a rectifier. Based on their rectification they are classified into two. The single staged & multi staged. In the multi staged rectifiers, more than two diodes are used and these are used in the above-mentioned devices. The singled staged rectifier has only 2diodes, the one we are to discuss in this project. The multi diode rectifier has o nl y 2 dio des , the o n e we ar e to dis cuss in th is p ro ject. Th e m u l ti d io de rectifiers has an efficiency ~ 94.6% while that of the single is only 81.2%

Theory involved:The input transformer steps down the A.C mains from 230V (nominal) to 6 V b et w een t h e c ent er t a p a nd eith er of t h e t w o en d s of t h e s ec ond a r y winding. The transformer has a capability of delivering a current of 500 mA.T h e 6 V A . C appearing across the secondary is the R M S v a l u e o f t h e waveform and peak value would be 8.4volts the diodes rectify the A.C waveform appearing across the secondary with the help of alternate forward and reverse biasing. The capacitor further filters 99% of the resident components and this is let to pass through the resistance and emerges out as+ve and ve. The bulb connected verifies the output as it works on Direct Current and if used on an Alternating Current, the fluctuation will burn out the bulb

Materials required in the constructionConnecting wires, a plug, single lead wire 2m , 3 nut bolts, circuit board, a transformer, resistor, P N junction diodes, insulation tape, soldering wax, soldering lead .

Details of the materials used


: Connecting wires and a plug- A normal insulated copper wire able to withstand 230 250 v is required.

Single lead wire- Thin wire with one single strand of copper well Insulated and able to conduct a current of 1 ampere or a D.Ccurrent efficiently. : A circuit board- A normal board of mica facilitated with clips to simplify the connection : Nuts ad bolt- In order to fix the board & transformer firmly. Size 2 3 cm : Soldering wax & lead- The wires are to be soldered firmly to make the connection tight so for this a thin lead wire is required to affix the connections and wax to make the lead to hold on when soldered. : A bulb- To test the output voltage whether Direct or not

6 - 0 - 6 t r a n s f o r m e r - Tr a ns f or m er is a d evic e us e d to c h a ng e t h e vol t a g e of a n a l t er na ting current. The transformer which converts low voltage to high voltage is called a step up transformer whereas the one which converts high voltage t o l o w v o l t a g e i s c a l l e d a s t e p down transformer. It consists of a
:

laminated core consisting of two coils, a primary & a secondary coil Step up the number of turns in the secondary is greater than that of the primary and the reverse in a step down transformer. Here we use a stepdown transformer which steps down 230V to 6V between the secondary terminals and the center tap. : A Resistor- A resistor is electronic components whose resistance value tells us about the opposition it offers to the flow of electric current. Resistance is measured in ohms. : P-N junction Diodes- W h en on e s id e of a s em ic o nd uc tor cr y s ta l ( G er m a niu m or s il ic on) is d o p e d w i t h a c c e p t o r i m p u r i t y a t o m s and the other side with donor i m p u r i t y atoms a P-N junction is formed. I t i s a l s o c a l l e d crystal diode. When diffusion of the two regions occurs a r es u l t a nt p ot ent ia l b a rr ier is cr ea ted b et w een t h e t w o s id es d u e t o migration of electrons and holes. When the diode is connected with P side to positive terminal of a battery& N side to ve terminal it is said to be forward biased & reverse biased when reversed. In forward biasing the applied positive potential

repels th e h ol es a nd t u r ns a c u r r ent is m a d e t o f l ow over com ing t h e int e r na l potential Barrier. While in reverse biasing the ve electrons attract the holes and widen the Barrier and then only the repulsion between the inner el ec t r ons oc c u r a nd c u r r ent fl ow s . S o t h eor et ic a l l y no c u r r ent f l ow s through due to the widening of the Potential barrier but practically a very small current does flows through

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
In full wave rectifier both the both half-cycles of the input are utilized with the help of two or four diode working alternately. For full-wave rectification, use of the transformer is essential (through it is optional for half-wave rectification). Single-Phase Centre-Tap Full-wave rectifier The full-wave rectifier circuit using two diodes and a centre-tapped transformer shown in Figure 1-1. The centre-tap is usually taken as the ground or zero voltage reference point.

Working-When input ac supply is switched on, the ends


M and N of the transformer secondary become +ve and -ve alternately. During the positive half-cycle of the ac input, terminal M is +ve, G is at zero potential and N is at ve potential. Hence, being forward-biased, diode D1 conducts (but not D2 which is reversed-biased) and current flows along MD1CABG. As a result, positive halfcycle of the voltage appears across RL. During the negative half-cycle, when the terminal N becomes +ve, then D2 conducts (but not D1) and current flows along ND2CABG. So, we find that the current keeps on flowing through RL in the same direction (i.e. from A to B) in both half-cycles of ac input. It means that both half-cycles of the input ac supply are utilized as shown in figure 1-2. Also, the frequency of the rectified output voltage is twice the supply frequency. Of course,

this rectified output consists of a dc component and many ac components of diminishing amplitudes

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Physics text book for class XII of N.C.E.R.T.

Laboratory manual of Physics for class XII.

Comprehensive Physics.

This is to certify that, student of CLASSXII/B ; ENROLMENT NO : ...of, has done

the project work on FULL WAVE RECTIFIER under my supervision and guidance with my full satisfaction in the stipulated time period. All through the period I found her very sincere.

Mr. . (H.O.D) DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS.

It is my duty to record my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my respected teacher Mr. for his valuable guidance, interest and constant encouragement that has helped me to complete the project successfully.

I am also grateful to our laboratory in charge Mr. materials. who provided me the required apparatus and