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1000 Maintenance

Abstract
This section discusses the major maintenance requirements for heat exchangers. This includes repairing and replacing body flanges, body flange gasketing and torquing considerations, bundle replacement and repair, tube leak repairs, shell repairs, and on-line leak repairs. Contents 1010 Replacing Versus Repairing Body Flange Leaks 1011 Causes of Flange Leaks 1012 Criteria for Flange Replacement 1013 Analyzing Existing Flanges 1014 Replacing Body Flanges 1015 Repairing Existing Flanges 1020 Flange Gasketing and Torquing 1021 Choosing the Proper Gasket 1022 Reasons to Torque Bolted Enclosures 1023 Torque Calculations 1024 Developing a Torquing Procedure 1030 Bundle Retubing, Replacement, or Repair 1031 General Considerations for Opening Up an Exchanger 1032 Considerations for Retubing, Repairing, or Replacing the Bundle 1033 Bundle Repair Worksheet 1040 Tube Leak Repairs 1050 Shell Repairs 1060 Online Leak Repairs 1061 Types of Online Repairs 1062 Temporary Online Leak Repair Procedures 1000-15 1000-15 1000-15 1000-11 1000-10 Page 1000-3

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1070 References

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1010 Replacing Versus Repairing Body Flange Leaks


1011 Causes of Flange Leaks
Exchanger flange leaks are a major environmental, safety, and economic concern. Flange leaks are generally caused by one or more of the following:

Wrong Gasket Selection


Gasket is too wide, there is not enough bolting to properly compress the gasket. Gasket is too narrow, causing gasket alignment and seating problems. Gasket seating surface is not compatible with the gasket. It can be either too smooth for gaskets such as composition asbestos, or too rough for gaskets such as solid metal or metal jacketed. Gasket is the wrong material for the application (i.e., stock, temperature, and pressure.)

Poor Flange Design


Flanges do not have enough thickness to withstand the operating and hydrostatic test pressures without leaking. (See Section 530 for more information in this area.) Bolts have been torqued past their maximum stress in trying to stop leaks. Flanges were deformed or rotated in the process of trying to stop leaks. This causes improper gasket seating and is indicated by a gasket that is substantially thinner on the outside diameter than on the inside diameter. Flanges do not mate up well initially.

Figure 1000-1 illustrates the gasket seating problems related to flanges that are not aligned properly or are rotated.

Weather
Rain storms can deform uninsulated flanges and unseat the gasket.

Mechanical Damage
Gasket was damaged during installation. Flange surface was scratched or gouged during maintenance. Poor torquing procedure caused uneven compression of the gasket around its circumference.

Corrosion
Flange is so extensively corroded there is not enough gasket seating surface left.

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Fig. 1000-1 Flange Alignment Problems (1 of 3)

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Fig. 1000-1 Flange Alignment Problems (2 of 3)

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Fig. 1000-1 Flange Alignment Problems (3 of 3)

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Gasket material is not resistant to the process fluid.

Process Upsets
Excessive temperatures or pressure surges can unseat the gasket and stretch the bolts.

1012 Criteria for Flange Replacement


Consider replacing flanges under the following conditions: Flange is near the ASME tmin for the operating conditions. Flange is so badly corroded the repair costs are greater than or equal to the replacement costs. Flange is rotated causing the gasket not to seat properly. The right gasket cannot be used because of flange configuration problems. Flange is a chronic leaker. ASME flange design may not be adequate.

1013 Analyzing Existing Flanges


The reasons for flange leakage and the decision to repair, insulate, or replace the flanges can be determined by visual inspection of the flange, by comparing the existing flange thickness against the ASME and Company recommended thickness, and by relating the onset of leakage to some significant event (i.e., startup, upset, or rain storm).

Inspection
The following inspection techniques can be used to analyze existing flanges: Check for flange rotation. Are the flanges metal-to-metal around any part of the circumference? Inspect the gasket. See Figure 1000-2 for problems that examination of the gasket can point out. Inspect the gasket seating surface for damage or corrosion. Measure the flange thickness to determine if it is at or below ASME tmin. Measure the critical dimensions and compare them with the original exchanger and TEMA tolerances. Figure 1000-3 can be used for this purpose.

The following procedure can be used for analyzing existing flanges: Check the flange thickness versus ASME tmin and Chevron Method tmin using the PCFLANGE program for the existing gasket design. If existing thickness is less than ASME tmin then flange will need to be replaced.

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Fig. 1000-2 Determining the Cause of Leakage by Examining the Gasket Observation Gasket badly corroded Gasket extruded excessively Causes and Possible Remedies Select replacement material with improved corrosion resistance. Select replacement material with better cold flow properties; select replacement material with better load carrying capacity, i.e., more dense. This could also indicate excessive bolt load or insufficient gasket width. Select replacement material with better load carrying capacity; provide means to prevent crushing the gasket by use of a stop ring or re-design of flanges. This could also indicate excessive bolt load or insufficient gasket width. Review gasket dimensions to insure gaskets are proper size. Make certain gaskets are property centered in joint. Select softer gasket material. Select thicker gasket material. Reduce gasket area to allow higher unit seating load. This is indicative of excessive flange rotation or bending. Alter gasket dimensions to move gasket reaction closer to bolts to minimize bending movement. Provide stiffness to flange by means of back-up rings. Select softer gasket material to lower required seating stresses. Reduce gasket area to lower seating stresses. This results from improper bolting-up procedures. Make certain proper sequential bolt-up procedures are followed. Non-uniform thermal stresses may also be a problem. This is indicative of flange bridging between bolts or warped flanges. Provide reinforcing rings for flanges to better distribute bolt load. Select gasket material with lower seating stress. Provide additional bolts if possible to obtain better load distribution. If flanges are warped, re-machine or use softer gasket material.

Gasket grossly crushed

Gasket mechanically damaged due to overhang of raised face or flange bore. No apparent gasket compression achieved.

Gasket substantially thinner on O.D. than on I.D.

Gasket unevenly compressed around circumference

Gasket thickness varies periodically around circumference

Determine if a different gasket will solve the problem. Use Figure 500-15, in Section 540, to choose the optimum gasket. Determine the ASME tmin for the new gasket. If the existing flange is not thick enough to properly compress the gasket consider replacing the flange.

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Fig. 1000-3 Exchanger Flange Tolerances (Courtesy of TEMA)

1014 Replacing Body Flanges


If it is determined that flange replacement is needed, use the following procedure: Choose optimal gasket for the service conditions required. See Section 540 for guidance in this area. Use the PCFLANGE program to determine the new flange thickness. Generally flanges designed to the Chevron method will be thicker than the ASME

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flanges. See Section 530 and Appendix G for more detailed discussions of the design methods. Use integral body flanges if possible. Follow ASME Code procedures for replacing and inspecting the flanges.

1015 Repairing Existing Flanges


If flange leakage is caused by damage to the gasket surface or a partially corroded gasket surface, the flanges can normally be repaired by weld build-up and/or skim cutting. Flanges that are close to ASME tmin should be built up with weld material before skim cutting the surface in order to avoid losing flange thickness. Flanges that are designed in accordance with Appendix G can be skim cut down to tmin as determined by Appendix G without a problem because these flanges are usually much thicker than ASME flanges. However, skim cutting to thicknesses below Appendix G tmin may result in leakage. The type of skim cut depends on the gasket selected. For example, composition asbestos gaskets work best with a 250 RMS surface because the deeper grooves bite into the gasket better. Refer to Section 540 and Figure 500-15 for the surface requirements for various types of gaskets. Surface Designation 250 RMS 125 RMS 63 RMS Appearance Relatively deep grooves Fairly smooth Smooth appearance

It is very important that all repairs be accompanied by a welding procedure if needed and a technical drawing showing the dimensions and tolerances that must be met after the repair is complete.

1020 Flange Gasketing and Torquing


1021 Choosing the Proper Gasket
Choosing the proper gasket is the critical first step in leak-free flange design. The goal for existing and new exchangers is to provide a suitable gasket that can be adequately compressed without overstressing the flange. Refer to Section 540 and Figure 500-15 for guidance on gasket selection.

1022 Reasons to Torque Bolted Enclosures


Torquing procedures accomplish the following: They prevent overtorque and the resulting flange rotation.

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They prevent cocking the flange faces or pinching the gasket due to uneven bolt loading.

1023 Torque Calculations


Figure 1000-4 is a torque calculation procedure. Using this procedure, you can determine the torque required to pass hydrotest and reseat in service if the flange does not deform.

1024 Developing a Torquing Procedure


Refer to Appendix G for flange design and Section 532 for boltup procedures for large flanges. After initial torquing, the exchanger should be retorqued to 100% of Tf (see Figure 1000-4) within 4 hours at ambient temperatures to compensate for any joint relaxation. High temperature applications or applications that have had a history of chronic leakage, should be retorqued at 100% of Tf after 24 hours at operating pressure and temperature. This is to compensate for bolt, flange, or tubesheet relaxation that may occur.

Caution ture.

The allowable bolt/flange stress will decrease with increasing tempera-

1030 Bundle Retubing, Replacement, or Repair


This section lists the major considerations for determining (1) whether to open an exchanger and (2) whether to retube, replace, or repair a tube bundle. It also includes a worksheet for use in making these decisions before a plant turnaround.

1031 General Considerations for Opening Up an Exchanger


It is very expensive to open an exchanger for inspection and repairs. Also, for exchangers that are operating well, opening them unnecessarily may cause future problems. Therefore, it is very important to have an organized procedure for making decisions. This is especially important going into a plant turnaround where a large number of exchangers will need to be investigated. The following list of considerations can be used to help determine when to open an exchanger. Is the exchanger leaking internally or externally? Does the unit need recertification? This is usually a concern only for steam generators, which require periodic state inspection and certification.

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Fig. 1000-4 Torque Calculation Procedure (1 of 2) A. Nomenclature Ab bo b D Dr G = = = = = = Cross sectional root area of one bolt (in2) (see Figure G-4, Appendix G) Gasket seating width (N/2) (inches) (see Figure G-3, Appendix G) Effective gasket seating width (inches) (see Figure G-3, Appendix G): b = b o if bo 0.25"; b = (bo)/2 if bo 0.25" Nominal diameter of bolt or stud (inches) Bolt diameter at root of threads (inches) Diameter at location of gasket load reaction (inches): G = (O.D. + I.D.)/2 if bo 0.25 G = O.D. - 2b, if bo > 0.25 Pd Ph Lp m n N S T y W1 W2
Note

= = = = = = = = = = =

Design pressure for your application (psig) Hydrotest pressure for your application (psig) Total length of pass partition gaskets (in.) (Lp = G for one pass partition) Gasket factor (Refer to Figure G-2, Appendix G or ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 2, Table 2-5.1) Number of bolts Contact width of the gasket (inches) (see Figure G-3, Appendix G). Bolt stress (psi) Torque (ft-lbs) Gasket seating stress (psi) (Refer to Figure G-2, Appendix G or ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1,Appendix 2, Table 2-5.1) Bolt load to pass hydrotest, lbf Bolt load for operating conditions, lbf

These calculations can be performed using the PCFLANGE program. (See Appendix H)

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Fig. 1000-4 Torque Calculation Procedure (2 of 2) B. Calculating a Torque Value: Find bo Find b (see Nomenclature) Calculate G (see Nomenclature) Find Lp Find m Find y Calculate W1 and W2: W1 = 0.785 G2Ph + 2b(3.14 G + Lp) m Ph W2 = 0.785 G2P
d + b(3.14 G + Lp) y

bo b G Lp m y

= (in) = (in) = (in) = (in) = (in) = (psi)

W1 W2 W S

= (lb) = (lb) = (lb) = (psi)

W = Larger of W1 or W2 Calculate bolt stress, S = W/(Ab n) Calculate Torque T = 0.013 S(Dr)3 Round to nearest multiple of 25 for final torque
Note These calculations can be performed using the PCFLANGE program. (See Appendix H)

= (ft-lb)

Tf

= (ft-lb)

Is the exchanger performance satisfactory? In other words, does the U-value or DP indicate fouling or internal damage.

Based on this bundles history and the history of similar bundles in similar services, will the bundle last until the next turnaround? Accurate inspection records are important in making this decision.

Can exchanger be cleaned on the run? Isolating an exchanger and cleaning it with the surrounding equipment operating entails significant safety and operating problems. This is usually done only if the exchanger and piping were designed to allow for online cleaning.

Can the unit be chemically cleaned? Light uniform fouling may be chemically cleanable. Locally plugged exchangers cannot be chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning is expensive and all of the environmental and safety implications should be considered first. Section 700 of the Corrosion Prevention Manual, Book 1, discusses chemical cleaning in more detail.

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1032 Considerations for Retubing, Repairing, or Replacing the Bundle


Assuming the bundle is leaking or, based on past experience, that it will not last until the next turnaround, then some repairs will need to be made. The following areas need to be considered before deciding on the extent of repairs. Is bundle nearing its historical life? If a bundle is leaking and it is not approaching its historical life, then a failure analysis should be performed to determine if design changes are required. The best way to determine the cause of failure is to pull the leaking tubes and inspect them. Can tubesheet be reused? Normally, a tubesheet can only be used two or three times before it can no longer have a tube rolled into it. If a tubesheet cannot be reused, then a new bundle will be necessary. Can leaking tubes be plugged or replaced? Individual leaking tubes can be the sign of a much larger problem. Simply plugging or replacing leaking tubes may be setting yourself up for another failure before the next shutdown. The leaking tube should be pulled and inspected to determine the cause of failure. The position of the failed tube relative to baffles and nozzles should be determined and recorded. This can help identify the cause of the failure. If it is not obvious that repairing or replacing the tube will ensure a sound bundle, then the bundle should be retubed or replaced. Sometimes, all of the leaks may be in one part of the bundle. In this case, a design change (i.e., replacing tubes with solid rods, changing inlet configuration, etc.) may eliminate the problem. If a new bundle is required, should it be redesigned? Simple design changes may substantially improve a bundles operation and service life. If a bundle needs to be retubed or replaced, the incremental cost for making these design changes may not be very high. However, the cause of the bundle deterioration should always be identified and process changes considered along with design changes. Some examples of bundle configuration changes that may improve the long term heat transfer or bundle life are listed below. (Discuss these changes and improvements with a CRTC heat transfer specialist or the CRTC Process Design or Process Consultation groups.) Change inlet impingement design to eliminate tube vibration wear. Plug tubes to increase tube velocity. (This improves heat transfer if fouling is significant.)

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Change shell side pass configuration and baffling to improve heat transfer and decrease fouling. Use different materials that will increase the bundle reliability and life. (As a general rule, even in corrosive services such as sea water, a bundle should last at least two operating runs. Contact the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit for help in this area.) Change from floating head to U-tube design. (See Sections 450 and 520.)

1033 Bundle Repair Worksheet


Figure 1000-11 is a worksheet that can be used prior to taking an exchanger out of service to make a sound decision as to the extent of repairs required. Note Figure 1000-11 is an 11 17 foldout at the end of this section.

1040 Tube Leak Repairs


Roll leaks should be repaired by rerolling (never by driving a drift pin or pin wrench in the tube.) Caution shall be taken not to overexpand the tubes. See Section 520 for guidelines on rolling tubes. Defective tubes should be plugged off. The inside surface of the tubes should be thoroughly cleaned before installing plugs. The tube ends that are worn or badly impinged should be removed, and a new tube should be installed or a short tube stub should be installed before plugging with a tapered plug.

1050 Shell Repairs


Thin areas of shells can be weld repaired. All weld repairs must be ground smooth for bundle access. If extensive weld repairs are required, cutting out the corroded area and installing a butt-welded patch may be necessary. In either case, whether making weld repairs or replacing part of the shell, precautions must be taken to prevent out-of-roundness. If repairs are required, it must be remembered that exchanger shells are pressure vessels and fall within the scope of the ASME Code. Refer to the Pressure Vessel Manual for more information on ASME Code repair procedures.

1060 Online Leak Repairs


There are times when repairs must be made to an exchanger while it is in operation. Normally, this is only when the exchanger cannot be taken out of service without risk to personnel or equipment or without major expense. These repairs are usually external leak repairs and should only be undertaken with the utmost caution with the appropriate operating, engineering, and maintenance review.

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1061 Types of Online Repairs


Online repairs that can be made include: 1. Retorquing flanges This usually involves tightening all of the bolts. Follow appropriate torquing procedures to prevent worsening the problem. Belleville Spring Washers have sometimes been used to solve leakage problems caused by differential thermal expansion. It is usually necessary to replace the bolts one at a time when doing this. Appendix H discusses the use of Belleville Washers in more detail. Note that torquing the bolts over their code allowable stress may stop a leak temporarily. However, this may cause permanent deformation of the flange such that, (1) the flange may leak on the next thermal cycle, and (2) the flange may need major repairs or replacement on the next shutdown. 2. 3. Tapping the flange and pumping in sealant between the flange faces at high pressure. Installing a ring around two flanges and pumping in sealant at high pressure.

Repairs 2 and 3 are only temporary fixes and can be very expensive. Permanent repairs must be made during the next turnaround. The work required to remove the leak sealing compound in order to repair the exchanger can also be time consuming and costly. The next section discusses these temporary repairs in more detail.

1062 Temporary Online Leak Repair Procedures


Figure 1000-5 can be used by operations, engineering and maintenance to determine the types of repairs needed, and also used as a checklist to verify all proper precautions have been taken and all necessary reviews and approvals made. This form was developed at the Richmond Refinery.

Leak Sealing Contractors


Normally, special leak sealing contractors provide personnel who are trained and qualified with regard to the equipment, material, and techniques commonly used for online leak sealing. Sealing compounds must be resistant to the leaking material and suitable for operating pressure and temperature. Clamps, boxes, and other enclosures used for leak sealing are normally fabricated and installed by the leak sealing contractor.

Safety Considerations
The contractor must understand all local safety regulations applicable to the work. The contractor must understand the nature of the leakage and why it is occurring in order to use a safe procedure.

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Fig. 1000-5 Example of a Leak Sealing Checklist (1 of 2)

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Fig. 1000-5 Example of a Leak Sealing Checklist (2 of 2)

All safety precautions and protective clothing required should be listed on the Leak Sealing Checklist (Figure 1000-5) and reviewed with the contractor. A plant Safety Operator must be present during the execution of leak sealing work on plant equipment. Sealant injections should not be made into any pressure relief valve or bursting disc if the sealant could obstruct their free and full discharge requirements. If a clamp or enclosure was installed prior to 1984, the sealant compound may contain asbestos. Normal asbestos procedures should be used when removing these enclosures. Refer to Insulation and Refractory Manual, Section 500.

Special Design Considerations


Stud bolts, packing studs, valve stems, etc., that have been exposed to leaking steam or boiler feedwater above 140F are subject to caustic embrittlement. It

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is sometimes recommended to replace studs with Teflon coated blue bolts to resist caustic cracking. B-7 studs are also subject to sulfide cracking (H2S sour water) at temperatures below 200F. Stainless steel bolts are subject to chloride cracking at temperatures above 150F and caustic cracking above 140F. Consider using B7M bolts in these situations. Consult CRTC Technical Standards Teams Materials Division for more information if necessary. Extra caution should be exercised if excessive external pressure can be applied by sealant injection on cylindrical or spherical shapes. Collapsing pressures of thin-walled cylindrical members, based on an empty line, can be calculated by formulas in the Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. All calculations should be approved by the appropriate engineering supervisor.

Repair Procedures
Figures 1000-6 through 1000-9 give the general work procedures to follow depending on the specific situation. These procedures can be adapted to a specific job and attached to the work order. Figure 1000-6 Procedure for Flange Joints with Less than 3/8" Gap Using Drill and Tap Method Figure 1000-7 Procedures for Sealing Flange Leaks with Use of Injection Ring Adaptor Figure 1000-8 Procedures for Sealing Flange Leaks on Pressures below 350 psi with Lug Adaptors Figure 1000-9 Procedures for Sealing Flange Joints with Gap Width in Excess of 3/8" Figure 1000-10 Methods for Sealing Flange Leaks

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Fig. 1000-6 Procedure for Flange Joints with Less than 3/8" Gap Using Drill and Tap Method 1. When possible, change out studs one at a time with the use of boiler clamps. 2. Drill 3/16-inch diameter holes between studs approximately 4 inches apart from outer circumferential flange surface at an angle to break through into gap area at bolt circle. (Outside stress area of flange.) On full surface gaskets and metal to metal joints, drilling is done into stud clearance areas. 3. Drill out hole to 5/16-inch diameter by 1/2-inch deep. 4. Tap out holes to 3/8-inch NC thread. 5. Install shut-off adaptors in tapped holes. 6. Insert tight fitting wire into gap around flange. 7. Lightly peen lock edge of flanges over wire with a bull nose peening chisel approximately 1/8-inch over gap size. 8. Starting 180 degrees from leak blow area, inject thermosetting compound around flange in both directions until gap area and stud clearance areas are full with final injection on shut-off adaptor directly over leak area. 9. After appropriate cure time depending on the temperature for steam, water, and air services under 600 psi, shut-off adaptors are removed and set screw plugs installed. 10. On pressures above 600 psi and on chemical services, shut-off adaptors are left in place. Fig. 1000-7 Procedures for Sealing Flange Leaks with Use of Injection Ring Adaptor(1) 1. Change out studs one at a time along with installing ring adaptor under the nut of each stud. One ring adaptor on thin, narrow gap flanges Two ring adaptors (each end of stud) on thicker, wider gap flanges 2. Insert tight-fitting wire in gap and peen lock edge of flange over wire to retain it. 3. Install shutoff adaptors into injection ring adaptors. 4. Starting on adaptors farthest away from leak, inject all adaptors with thermosetting compound closing after each injection, working around flange in both directions until flange is full and leak is stopped. 5. On steam, water, and air service with pressure below 600 psi: After proper curing time, shutoff adaptors are removed from ring adaptors and set screw plugs are installed. 6. On pressures above 600 psi and chemical service, shutoff adaptors remain in place.
(1) Refer to Figure 1000-10, Type II

Fig. 1000-8 Procedure for Sealing Flange Leaks on Pressures Below 350 psi with Lug Adaptors 1. Change out studs one at a time with the use of boiler clamps. 2. Install injection adaptor on stud nearest leak area for exhaust port and one adaptor 180 degrees from leak area. 3. Insert tight-fitting wire in gap and peen lock edges of flange over wire to retain it. 4. Start injection of thermosetting compound through adaptor furthest away from the leak. 5. After stud is full, remove adaptor and retighten stud and move to adjacent studs working around flange in both directions until all studs are injected. 6. After injection of last stud, leave injection gun on adaptor until proper curing time allows the removal of the last adaptor.

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Fig. 1000-9 Procedures for Sealing Flange Joints with Gap Width in Excess of 3/8(1) 1. Contractor will engineer and fabricate flange clamp. 2. When possible change out stud one at a time. 3. Install shutoff adaptors in flange clamp. 4. Install clamp in gap of flange. 5. Peen lock both flanges to clamp joints. 6. Inject thermosetting compound through shutoff adaptors starting at the point farthest away from leak working around the flange in both directions until flange joint is completely full and leak is stopped. 7. On steam, water, and air services with pressures below 600 psi: After proper compound curing time shutoff adaptors are removed and set screw plugs installed. 8. On pressures over 600 psi and chemical service, shutoff adaptors are left in place. 9. Depending on flange dimensions, temperature, and special circumstances, ring adaptor or drill and tap techniques may be used in conjunction with this procedure.
(1) Refer to Figure 1000-10, Type I

1070 References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Appendix G, Heat Exchanger Body Flange Calculations. Appendix H, PCFlange Program Users Guide. ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1. Latest ed.. Appendix S and 2. ANSI B16.5, Latest ed. Steel Pipe, Flanges and Flanged Fittings. TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association), Latest ed. Lamons Gasket Handbook, Latest ed.

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Fig. 1000-10 Methods for Sealing Flange Leaks

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Fig. 1000-11 Bundle Repair Worksheet

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