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Insan Akademika

P-ISSN: 2301-4458
E-ISSN: 2301-8038

Vol. 01, No. 02
Oct 2012

Multicriteria Decision Making for Waiter Selection in Bisou Boulangerie et

Ruby Febrianty Soekarta

School of Businness and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Key Words Abstract

Must and Wants criteria;
Spencer and Spencer

Jessica Soekarta is the owner of new bakery which experience business expansion.
She has new job position for her bakery, which is waiter. Currently, she only
select based on CV and her intuition. Her selection method does not have
measurable scale, which triggering problem for qualified waiter candidates.
Hiring the best candidate is important for her because waiter playing crucial role
in holding the bakery image in the eye of customer. Quality service of the waiter
reflects excellence of the bakery because waiter do contact directly with customer,
which influence customer perception of the bakery. The purpose of this research is
answer the bakery owner problem by combining Must and Wants Criteria and
AHP theory to create accurate and specific selection tools with Spencer and
Spencer theory as the basis of waiter selection tools. The new waiter selection
process use qualitative method. It is not only producing which candidate is the
best, but also generating ranking. From nine candidates, six were eliminated
using the Must Criteria and three candidates were processed through Wants
Criteria. From the Wants Criteria, these are three candidates who accepted based
on the preferences: Titin Suprihatin, Dani, and Julian Restian.

2012 Insan Akademika All Rights Reserved

1. Introduction

In business expansion, people are one of the key resources that need to be maintained in order to form a
sustainable business. Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie is one example of business expansion. On 28 February
2012, the home industry business turns into a new form of business which is bakery. The new born bakery
needs the right waiter to serve its customer.

Waiter is playing a crucial role for this bakery because they are directly connected with the customer.
Therefore, they will be the representative of the bakery. If they play the role well, the perception of the
customer about the bakery will be positive. For that reason, select the right candidate for waiter with a
proper method become important for this bakery. An ideal selection method can eliminate future employees
based on their knowledge, skills, attitude and other characteristic to meet the job specification. This method
can separate which candidate is required by the company and which candidate is not required by the
company using methodical approach to the problem in order to finding the best person for the job. The
common selection process usually have screening of application forms, employee testing, interview
selection, and the final stage is the selection decision.

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Vol 01, No. 02, Oct 2012, pp. 285-292

286 Insan Akademika Publications

Currently, Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie does not have any measurable method for the waiter selection
process. They accepting the applicant based on the application forms and interview. The problem is the
owner does not have selection tools that can be used to measure the comparison between one candidate and
another candidate objectively. Another problem that might be arising is if the applicant number is enormous.
Bisou have to select the candidates carefully in order to find the right people for the job. Selecting the wrong
candidates is costly because there are costs that need to be sacrifice for the employee such as firing and
hiring cost. To prevent unnecessary cost such as hiring and firing cost, a proper method in selection process
need to be designed properly. This research paper will help Bisou to design a proper method to select the
candidate using qualitative method with combination theories from decision making and human resources
theories as the foundation.

The research objectives section has aim to determining the goal of research. The purpose of this paper is to
help the bakery owner to design a proper tool of waiters selection based on human resource and decision
making theory. The tool can be used by the bakery owner to improve the quality of selection in Bisou
Boulangerie et Patisserie. The selection tool also design based on the owner perspective in order to fit the
necessity of bakery with the potential candidates.

Fig. 1: Fundamental and Means Objective

The fundamental objective is to make a proper selection method of Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie.
According to the bakery owner, a proper selection tool means an objective selection method. It compares the
candidates using a measureable scale and can be modified along with the company growth. It is also
important to maximize the resource allocation of a company by maximizing the human resource efficiently.
To achieve the efficiency of human resource, selecting the right candidates for company will reduce hiring
and firing costs which will lead to less employees turnover.

2. Methodology

Qualitative research method by using direct approach is conducted for this research paper. There are two
methods of direct interview, which are hidden issue questioning and grounded theory. Hidden issue
questioning has purpose for making benchmark for initial criteria suggestion foe the bakery owner. There are
two sections on the hidden issue questioning method. The first section is intended for the person who involve
in the selection process, which has aim to view restaurant perspective of waiter selection process. The second
section is intended for best waiter of the month in form of questionnaire, which has aim to find the position
of restaurant competency in Spencer and Spencer model through the best waiter as the representative of the
restaurant. To establish the interview questions, the researcher uses a generic competency model from
Spencer and Spencer, which is Helping and Human Service Workers. After the questionnaire constructed,
pilot test is conducted to verify the comprehension of the questionnaire content. The test is conducted by
taking three people with the similar background such as working as waitress and age between 20-30 years as
sample to fulfill the questionnaire and mark the words or sentences that they do not understand. The aim of
pilot test is discovering their understanding to the questionnaire. Result from pilot test creates minor changes
in terms of words and sentences, but not changing the meaning as a whole.

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Grounded theory has aim to develop the concept of waiter selection methods by constructing structured
approach based on the previous findings on hidden issue questioning. The researcher connected the previous
findings from hidden issue questioning and secondary data to conducting depth interview with the bakery
owner. The grounded theory method will produce selection tools in form of Must and Wants Criteria and
AHP hierarchy.

2.1 Hidden Issue Questioning

Interviewing a good quality service is an important step to construct benchmark for the bakery owner. The
target restaurant that will be interviewed as a comparison basis is Sushi Tei and Herb & Spice. Sushi Tei is
selected because according to the bakery owner, this franchise restaurant has reputation for its service quality
and the system has been standardize, therefore if Sushi Tei want to open a new branch store they only need
to implement the system. Besides, successful franchises businesses already have a good system to be
implemented. The aim of interviewing this restaurant is to find out the standardized system for the waiter
selection process. Meanwhile, Herb n Spice is selected because it is a new established restaurant but they
already have a good quality of waiter. Even it is open for a few months, the waiters know their role as a
waiter. The aim of interviewing Herb & Spice is to find out what are the systems they implemented to the
waiter in a short time period and their selection system. The person that is targeted to be the interviewee is
the person who in charge with the waitress in the selection process to get the Must Criteria and brief
selection process and best waiter of the month in Herb & Spice and Sushi Tei as representative of their
restaurant to fulfill the questionnaire in order to describe what are the competencies that they needed to have
to become a good waiter and at what level. The interview process is using guided interview techniques.

2.2 Grounded Theory

After conducting some interviews, the researcher will structured the criteria based on the result from primary
and secondary data. From the previous data, the researcher will divide the criteria into two kinds of criteria
based on Must and Wants Criteria. The Must Criteria are gathered from interviewing the person who in
charge with the selection process, while the Wants Criteria is gathered from generic competency models.

The Wants Criteria, which are taken from Spencer and Spencer competencies dictionary, are constructed into
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as the initial construction. AHP model application is the task of assigning
weight to various criteria and the construction of pairwise comparison matrices. It starts as the top level of
the hierarchy, and proceeds to the other level until the lowest level of the tree is reached (Ramdhani and
Santosa, 2012).

It has six clusters and the sub-criteria will be taken from the fourteen competencies that needed for helping
and human service workers. The level for each competency will be defined from hidden issue questioning by
taking an examination from the similarities and the differences level for each competencies, for the selection
tools benchmark. The questionnaire will be cross checked by depth interview with supervisor or manager.

The criteria that have been arranged will be confirmed to the owner in order to get approval for the selection
tools. The owner will decide whether the suggested selection tools needs to be added or deducted, then
determines the suggestion of desired level of generic competency model of helping human and service
workers based on the questionnaire. After the confirmation, the researcher will collect the feedback for the
initial criteria, thus adjust and finalize the criteria according to the owner preferences. This initial criteria
construction analyzes which level is suitable for each competence, based on the result from the questionnaire
that had been filled in by the best waiter of the month from Herb & Spice and Sushi Tei. Questionnaire result
indicates some similarities and differences on the Spencer and Spencer Competencies.

The similarities happen because of the competencies that needed to accomplish similar job description are
alike, while the differences occur because each company has different requirement competences. The basis
level of each competence suggestion in initial criteria construction will be based on the similarities. They
occur because waiters in Sushi Tei and Herb & Spice have similar job description in general, which is to
International Journal of Basic and Applied Science,
Vol 01, No. 02, Oct 2012, pp. 285-292

288 Insan Akademika Publications

serve the customer. For that reason, the similarities will become the basis level for selection tools for the
bakery owner as explained under. The differences will be used as basis range of suggestion level for each
competence. The differences occur because each restaurant has their own standard and requirements on its
waiter competencies.

Fig.2: Final Employee Selection Hierarchy

From those collectible data, all the criteria will be structured into an objective selection tools. The criteria
will be distinguished into two sections; first is a Must Criteria that must be fulfilled by the candidates, second
is a Wants Criteria that should be fulfilled by the candidates. If the candidate cannot fulfill the Must Criteria,
Must Criteria
Minimum Education:
High School Degree
Age between 20-
30 years
Full Time
Wants Criteria
Achievement and
iniatiative (INT)
Helping and
human service
costumer service
orientation (CSO)
Impact and
impact and
influence (IMP)
developing others
directiveness and
use of positional
power (DIR)
teamwork and
thinking (AT)
thinking (CT)
expertise (EXP)
flexibility (FLX)
commitment (OC)
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Vol 01, No. 02, Oct 2012, pp. 285-292 289

they will be eliminated from the candidate list. Wants Criteria is the criteria that can be used by the bakery as
measurement tools to accept and compare the candidate.

After the initial suggestion employee selection is approved by the owner, another criteria, which is full time
job criteria, is added to the Must Criteria. This means, the owner only considers a candidate who is able to
work as a full timer, not a part timer, at Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie. The final employee selection
hierarchy can be seen on Fig.2.

After the hierarchy constructed, preference analysis will be conducted in order to get the owner preferences
toward the criteria. Preference analysis is done by calculating priorities (weight) between the criteria using
pair wise comparison scale from 1 to 9 among the criteria in the same hierarchical level. Pair wise
comparison is comparing one criterion with one other criterion in the same level of hierarchy as a pair until
all of the criteria are compared. Consistency index also conducted in this research on order to clarify the
preferences consistency. After this step done, the selection tools can be implemented for Bisou Boulangerie
et Patisserie.

3. Scoring Method

Scoring method is required to enhance the waiter selection tools. The level of each competency will be
assumed as the point. The lowest level will get 1 point; the next one will get 2 points, and so on. To calculate
the score, the candidates point will be divided by the owners desired point to get the percentage. If the
candidates point is higher than the owners desired point, the result will remain 100 %, considering some
other aspects. The closer candidates percentage with the owners, the bigger chance they will get the job
The calculation method of Wants Criteria will be used equations as follow:

Spencer and Spencer (1993):

Pcrccntogc Fit =
Cunddutc 1otuI Compctcncc Scoc
0wnc cscd 1otuI Compctcncc Scoc
1uu% ...(1)

Scorc =
Cunddutc Scoc
0wnc cscd Scoc
1uu% ...(2)

Competence score is the sum of sub-competencies in every competence.

AHP (Saaty, 1990):
The calculation of AHP is following the AHP hierarchy as in Fig.3. AHP Hierarchy. First, multiply the
competence score with the competence priority. Then add the weighted score in the same cluster.
There will be six score for every cluster. Multiply the score with the priority for each cluster. To get
the final score, add the weighted score for every cluster.

AEP pcrccntogc it =
Cunddutcis Scoc
0wnc cscd Scoc
1uu% ...(3)

4. Implementation and Results

After the selection tools are constructed, researcher can input the data of the waiters candidate and process it
according to the adjusted selection tools. After scanning the candidates based on Must Criteria, the
unselected candidates will be erased from the list. Afterward, the candidate will be compared one to another
by scoring the Wants Criteria. This tool illustrates the first selection in the Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie
using the data from the bakery owner. The data is obtained on January 28
, 2012. The age of the candidate
will be calculated until January 28
, 2012.

International Journal of Basic and Applied Science,
Vol 01, No. 02, Oct 2012, pp. 285-292

290 Insan Akademika Publications

Fig.3: AHP Hierarchy

Soekarta International Journal of Basic and Applied Science,
Vol 01, No. 02, Oct 2012, pp. 285-292 291

There are nine candidates who apply for the job vacancy, which are: Hidni Manzilina, Resti Masyita Nadhar,
Megatania, Larasati Yunisa Adhipa Dyajat, Berillia Desyani Budiman, Fadzli Makmur, Titin Suprihatin,
Julian Restian, and Dani. From the Must Criteria, six candidates were eliminated, which are: Hidni
Manzilina, Resti Masyita Nadhar, Megatania, Larasati Yunisa Adhipa Dyajat, Berillia Desyani Budiman, and
Fadzli Makmur, because they cannot fulfill the Must Criteria. Meanwhile, Titin Suprihatin, Julian Restian,
and Dani will be compared using the Wants Criteria. The implementation of this tool in AHP hierarchy can
be seen on Fig.3.

The result of the Wants Criteria Calculation can be seen as in Table 1.

Table 1. Wants Criteria Calculation

Cluster Priority
Owner desired
Achievement and action 0.029 200 175.00 83.33 116.67
Helping and human service 0.161 200 186.67 111.67 131.11
Impact and influence 0.063 200 150.00 110.00 90.00
Managerial 0.116 248.2 223.02 183.07 176.85
Cognitive 0.248 188.6 188.60 135.70 135.70
Personal effectiveness 0.383 63 65.73 45.42 43.37
Total score 150.293 142.40 99.61 100.94

The percentage fit for AHP calculation:
1. Titin Suprihatin = 95%
2. Julian Restian = 66%
3. Dani = 67%

5. Findings

From the job fit calculation, the bakery owner can decide which candidate is more preferable for the bakery.
There are differences of percentage in job fit between AHP calculation method and Spencer and Spencer
calculation method. The candidate that fit most with the owner desired is Titin Suprihatin with percentage fit
above 90% of the owner desired according to Spencer and Specer and AHP calculation. According to
Spencer and Spencer calculation Julian Restian get the second place with 63.76% and Dani in the third place
with 62.65% fit, meanwhile according to the AHP calculation, Julian Restian get third place with 66% and
Dani get second place with 67%. The differences occur because the AHP calculation is considering
preferences in each competence and cluster, meanwhile the Spencer and Spencer calculation do not
considering that factor.

6. Conclusion

An expansion from a home food industry into a bakery industry creates a new job description which is a
waiter. Thus, the bakery owner has a problem in creating a proper waiter selection method. This research
paper has a purpose to help the bakery owner in creating an objective waiter selection method, that supported
by three main theory implementations which are Must and Wants Criteria, Spencer and Spencer Competence
at Work, and AHP.

International Journal of Basic and Applied Science,
Vol 01, No. 02, Oct 2012, pp. 285-292

292 Insan Akademika Publications

The Must and Wants criteria are used to distinguish between the qualified and unqualified candidates.
Spencer and Spencer Competence are used as a measurement tool to define the Wants Criteria through every
level in the each competence and basis construction of the AHP criteria and sub-criteria. AHP is used to
compare which criteria are more and less important, with the score throughout the questionnaire.

From research outcome, the overall recruitment process in Sushi Tei, Herb & Spice, Bisou Boulangerie et
Patisserie have two ways, which are advertisement and employee referral. The employee referral for
recruitment process is more preferable than the advertisement recruitment because the former employee
already know what type of person that being looked by the owner.

This selection tools does not only produce which candidate is qualified or not qualified, but also generate
ranking which candidate is the best through Wants Criteria. The implementation of AHP in this selection tool
creates added value, which is preference of the bakery owner into each criteria and sub-criteria. The
preference affects the calculation of Wants Criteria.

The implementation of waiter selection tool in Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie facilitate the owner to
determine the best candidate based on the level of preference. From nine candidates, six were eliminated
using the Must Criteria. From the Wants Criteria, this tool generates three candidates with priority as follow:
1. Titin Suprihatin
2. Dani
3. Julian Restian


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