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Harvard Referencing Style

1. Citations in the text: All material taken from another writers work should be acknowledged, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised.

When citing an author this must be included twice 1/ In the body of the text And 2/ in the bibliography

1/ What is contained in the body of the text of the RAP

For a Single author: If the authors name is James Robert Jones, you would use the surname Jones and the date to cite in the text. E.g. There is some evidence (Jones, 1992) that these figures are incorrect. If the authors name is part of the statement, put only the year in brackets: E.g. Jones (1992) has provided evidence that these figures are incorrect. If an author has published more documents in the same year, distinguish between them by adding lowercase letters: E.g. In recent studies by Smith (1999a, 1999b, 1999c) For two authors: E.g. It is claimed that government in the information age will work better and cost less (Bellamy and Taylor 1998, p.41). Note: if you are giving a direct quotation then you need to include the page number. For Three or more authors:

If there are more than two authors, cite only the first followed by et al. (which means and others): E.g. adoptive parents were coping better with the physical demands of parenthood and found family life more enjoyable (Levy et al. 1991). Note: up to three author names can be given in your reference list/bibliography.

Multiple sources referred to: If more than one citation is referred to within a sentence, list them all in the following form, by date and then alphabetically: E.g. There are indications that childhood poverty is a strong predictor of later morbidity (Wybourn and Hudson, 2002; Acheson, 1998; Lewis 1998). If you wish to cite a work described in another work: When an author quotes or cites another author and you wish to cite the original author you should first try to trace the original item. However, if this is not possible, you must acknowledge both sources in the text, but only include the item you actually read in your reference list. E.g. If Jones discusses the work of Smith you could use: Smith (2005) as cited by Jones (2008) or Smiths 2005 study (cited in Jones 2008, p.156) shows that Then cite Jones in full in your reference list. Paraphrasing To paraphrase means to write someone elses words in your own. This is an alternative way to refer to someone elses work without quoting them directly. The larger examples above are all paraphrased. It is important to paraphrase much more than to quote, because it shows that in translating the original information into your own words, you have understood it. However, you must be sure not to change the meaning of the original writing. A paraphrased sentence or piece of information still requires referencing, though only the author and the year (not a page number as for a quotations). E.g. by improving your posture you can improve how you communicate feelings of power and confidence (McCarthy and Hatcher, 1996) Harvard method of quoting in the text: You should use quotation marks and acknowledge the authors name, year of publication and page number of the quote in brackets. You should use quotations sparingly.

Short quotations (up to 2 lines) can be included in the body of the text: E.g. Wybourn (1999:19) states that being an undergraduate can be a pain. Longer quotations should be indented in a separate paragraph: E.g. Smaje (1995:17) when commenting on transcultural care states that: Whereas multiculturalism tends to emphasise the existence of different cultural traditions in contemporary Britain and promotes tolerance and understanding, anti-racism places a more political emphasis on the forces that structure and determine access to power in society If part of the quotation is omitted then this can be indicated using three dots (ellipsis): E.g. Smaje (1995:17) states the existence of different cultural traditions in contemporary Britain and promotes tolerance and understanding

2. What is contained in the Reference/Bibliography of the RAP

Book (one author):

1. In-text: (Hazinski, 1992) 2. Reference list: Hazinski, M.F. (1992) Nursing care of the critically ill child. 2nd ed. St Louis: Mosby.

Book (two authors):

1. In-text: (Coad and Dunstall, 2005) 2. Reference list: Coad, J. and Dunstall, M. (2005). Anatomy and physiology for midwives.2nd ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.

Book (three or more authors):

1. In-text: (Carson, Montgomery and Montgomery, 1989) 2. Reference list: Carson, D., Montgomery, J. and Montgomery, E. (1989) Nursing and the law. London: Macmillan.

More than two authors (Three or more):

1. In-text: (Thelan et al, 1994) 2. Reference list: Thelan, L.A. et al (1994) Critical care nursing: diagnosis and management. 2nd ed. St Louis: Mosby. Note: an acceptable variation is to list all authors, regardless of how many there are.

Book (corporate author): 1. In-text: (Department of Health, 1999) 2. Reference list: Department of Health (1999) Code of practice: Mental Health Act 1983. London: Department of Health.

Journal article (electronic): 1. In-text: (Walters, 1998) 2. Reference list: Walters, R. (1998) Promoting the health of older people: making it happen. Internet Journal of Health Promotion [online]. Available at:

<http://www.ijhporg/articles/1998/1/index.htm> [Accessed 8 December 2000]. Please note that for journals that are also available in print, it is acceptable to use the journal articles format as described above.

Journal article: 1. In-text: (Corner, 1991) 2. Reference list: Corner, J. (1991) In search of more complex answers to research questions. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 16(6) 718-727.

Website: 1. In-text: (University of York, 2001) 2. Reference list: University of York Library (2001) Health information sources [online]. York: University of York. Available at:

http://www.york.ac.uk/services/library/subjects/hlthint.htm [Accessed 11 October 2001].

An article in a newspaper:

1. In text: Brown (2002) 2. Reference list: BROWN, P. (2002) New foot and mouth outbreak suspected. Guardian, 27th Feb, p.1 If no author name is given then the publisher should be used instead. 1. In text: Guardian (2003) 2. Reference list: Guardian (2003) Public health in decline, Guardian, 24 October 2003, p.11

Market research reports 1. MINTEL (2008) Coffee: Mintel marketing report. January 2008. London: Mintel International. Or 2. KEY NOTE (2007) Confectionery: Key Note market report. 25th ed. Hampton: Key Note.