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Structural Design 266 Steel Design

Topic 2 Compression Members (1)


Nominal Section Capacity
Kerri Bland

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

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References: OneSteel, Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products, Third Edition Standards Australia, AS4100-1998 : Steel Structures

Compression Members (1)

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Steel Structures Code (AS 4100): Philosophy


Calculate Limit State Actions Anticipate all failure mechanisms Calculate failure load of each possible failure mechanism Design capacity = * lowest failure load Design capacity ultimate actions
Compression Members (1) 3

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Steel Structures Code (AS 4100): Philosophy


Failure Load
A function of yield stress or ultimate tensile stress Yield and ultimate tensile stress for different types of sections and steels given in <Table 2.1> of AS4100 Yield and ultimate tensile stress for standard sections are given in Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual
Note that yield and ultimate stresses for different plate thicknesses comply with AS4100

Capacity Factor
Different capacity factors for different types of actions, members and components given in <Table 3.4> of AS4100
Compression Members (1) 4

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

AS4100-1998: Steel Structures Code Design of Compression members


Section 6: Members subject to Axial Compression

Compression Members (1)

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Serviceability limit state


Actions of this magnitude can occur more than once during the life of the structure Steel remains elastic Elastic deformation PL
axial loads: (shortening)

AE

Appropriate deflection limits limited by structural form

Compression Members (1)

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Strength (ultimate) limit state


Expect structure to just support this load Three possible failure mechanisms Squashing
Yielding of steel in the member Plastic deformation All steel is at yield stress (fy)

Crunching
Local plate buckling Squat sections (large plane area compared to length) but with thin plates that buckle

Buckling
Global member buckling Slender member whole member buckles
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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:
Squashing Crunching Buckling

Compression Members
Compression failure due to squashing or tension failure due to gross yielding of section (depends on fy) Tension failure due to fracture through holes (depends on fu)

Strength (ultimate) limit state


Three Failure Mechanisms (compression):

Compression failure due to buckling of plate elements (depends on fy and section geometry) or member buckling (depends on member slenderness) Compression Members (1)

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:
Squash load

Compression Members
= An f y
An=?

Can only be achieved if plates are thick enough so that they dont buckle

Compression Members (1)

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

An defined in <6.2.1> An = net area = gross area cross section of unfilled holes
(holes with bolts are considered to be filled holes)

Where unfilled holes reduce the section by less than 100{1-[fy/(0.85fu)]}% (ie: reduced by less than 20-30%) use An=Ag
(most of the time)

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:
Squash load

Compression Members
= An f y
= k f An fy

Can only be achieved if plates are thick enough so that they dont buckle

Nominal Section Capacity (Ns)

Crunching load limited by local buckling of <6.2.1> plate elements kf : form factor; based on effective area kf takes plate element slenderness into account
If plates are thick (ie: wont buckle before full yielding occurs) then kf =1 If plates are just too thin to allow full yielding to occur then kf is just less than 1 If plates are very thin then kf is much less than 1

kf : <6.2.2>

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Calculating kf :

Consider each individual plate in the section separately


Plates with both ends stiffened (ie: web) buckle less readily than those with only one end stiffened (ie: flange outstand) Plate with stiffened edges Buckling is easier for plates with high

b t

b/ ratio t

Plate with only one edge stiffened

Thus slenderness for any given plate

b e t

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members
Calculate plate b fy element slenderness : e = t 250 for each plate element <6.2.3> (for a flat plate element) Calculate effective width for each plate element:

Calculating kf :

For each plate:

t1 b2 t2 b1

where ey =

ey be = b e

yield slenderness limit obtained from <T6.2.4>

Very important to check <6.2.4>

Yield slenderness limit is the slenderness at which full yielding of the plate element without buckling just occurs. If the slenderness is any higher (ie: more slender) the plate will buckle before yielding occurs.
Compression Members (1) 13

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members
Note how flat plates with both longitudinal edges supported have a higher yield slenderness limit, ie: they can reach a higher stress (higher load for the same area) before buckling will occur as they have more support, thus less tendency to buckle
Table taken from AS4100 1998 Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Calculating kf : Ae kf = <6.2.2> Ag
be.flange outstand tweb be.web Where: Ag = gross area of the section Ae = effective area

= (be t )

= 2(2be.flangeoutstan d + t web ).t flange + be.web .t web


tflange
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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:
Ae As k f = Ag

Compression Members
Ns = kf An fy
and usually An = Ag , then k f .An = Ae

Nominal Section Capacity:

Ns is determined by Ae.fy To rephrase: if a section has slender plate elements, such that they buckle before they yield, in order to calculate the section capacity (the amount of compression force it can take before failure) it would be logical to use the full cross sectional area and multiply it by its plate buckling stress (a bit tricky to find). However, in order to simplify calculations, the code uses the yield stress (easy to find) and a reduced area (effective area), such that: section capacity = Ag.plate buckling stress = Ae.yield stress = kf Anfy (as before)
(Note: plate buckling stress = kf.yield stress)

The relationship between the buckling stress and the yield stress is a function of the slenderness of the plates (cross sectional geometry), and that is used in the determination of the effective plate widths and thus kf
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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.


1.

Determine form factor kf:

Table and image taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel) Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.
1.

Design of:
WEB

Compression Members

Determine form factor kf Find effective width of plate elements

Web slenderness:

b fy e = t 250 572 320 = 10.6 250 = 61


=602

=14.8 .6 10 = =572

=228

Web yield slenderness limit: Effective web width:

ey = 45
ey be = b b e 45 = 422 mm = 572 61

(<b)

Table 16 and image taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Table 6.2.4 from AS4100-1998 Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel) Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section.
1.

Design of:

Compression Members
=108.7

Determine form factor kf Find effective width of plate elements


b e = t fy 250
=602 =14.8 .6 10 = =572

FLANGE OUTSTAND
Flange outstand slenderness:

Flange outstand yield slenderness limit: Effective flange outstand width:

=228

ey

= 16

ey be = b e

b 16 = 108.7 = 216.4 mm > b 8 be = b = 108.7

Slenderness of element less than yield slenderness limit, therefore flange wont buckle before yielding, so effective width equals actual width (dont need to reduce area to take buckling into Members (1) Compression account)

Table 16 and image taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Table 6.2.4 from AS4100-1998 Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning. 19

108.7 300 = =8 14.8 250

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members
=108.7
Image and Table 15 taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section. 1. Determine form factor kf
Find effective width of plate elements Web effective width = 422 mm Flange effective width = 228 mm Find effective area of section
=14.8 .6 10 = =572

Ae = (2 * 228 )* 14.8 + 422 * 10.6 = 11220 mm 2

=602

=228

Find form factor kf

kf =

Ae 11220 = Ag 13000

k f = 0.863

Compression Members (1)

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Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:
k f = 0.863

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section. 1. Determine form factor kf

Compression Members
Table 16 taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning.

Note: As kf is based upon section geometry and geometry for standard sections is known, kf has been calculated for all standard sections and is given in the manuals Therefore, it is not necessary to calculate kf for standard sections. This example was a demonstration only. kf in manual (0.888) is not exactly the same as what was calculated (0.863). Manual used a different method (more accurate but more comlex) to calculate kf. The kf calculated here is fairly close and slightly conservative so is acceptable for use. However, would not normally calculate kf for Compression Members (1) 21 standard sections.

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:
k f = 0.863
2.

Example Determine the nominal section capacity of a 610 UB 101 section. 1. Determine form factor kf

Compression Members

Calculate Nominal Section Capacity

Ns = k f An fy = 0.863 * 13000 * 300 = 3366 kN

Tables 15 & 16 taken from Onesteel Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products Manual Refer to slide 2 for copyright warning. Compression Members (1) 22

Structural Design 266 (Steel)

Design of:

Compression Members

Strength (ultimate) limit state


Squashing = Anfy
Yielding of steel in the member Plastic deformation All steel is at yield stress (fy)

Crunching = kf Anfy
Local plate buckling Squat sections (large plane area compared to length) but with thin plates that buckle

Ns (nominal section capacity) = kf Anfy

<6.2.1>

Encompasses squashing and crunching failure mechanisms. Section will fail by crunching unless the local plates are stocky enough to not buckle, in which case kf = 1 and Ns = squash load
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