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1 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

ISSN: 2249-8389

Lokyata
Journal of Positive Philosophy
Philosophy, Education and Human Rights
Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012) Chief-Editor: Desh Raj Sirswal

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)


Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 http://positivephilosophy.webs.com

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)


Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is an online bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) . The name Lokyata can be traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and Lokyata. Lokyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in general and mans life in particular. The Centre publishes two issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal contains full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books and other relevant academic information. Each issue contains about 100 Pages. Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra) Chief- Editor: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh (India) Associate Editors: Dr. Sandhya Gupta Language Editors: Ms. Vipinjeet Kaur Ms. Poonama Verma Mr. Raj Kumar

Editorial Advisory Board Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong) Dr. Anamika Girdhar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra) Dr.Ranjan Kumar Behera (Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland) Fr. V. John Peter (St. Josephs Philosophical College, Nilgiris, T.N.) Dr. Aayam Gupta (Lautoka, Fiji) Dr. Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi) Dr. Vaishali Dev (Mahamakut Buddhist University, Thailand) Dr. Merina Islam (Cachar College, Silchar, Assam) Dr. Narinder Singh (GHSC-10, Chandigarh) Dr. Vijay Pal Bhatnagar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)

Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the individual
authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief-Editor.

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In this issue..
Sheeja.O.K. : An Enquiry into Swami Vivekanandas Philosophy of Education in the light of Modern Education System (4-10) T.V.Krishnan: Philosophical Divergence: A Leap towards Humanity (Special reference to Indian Social Order) (11-16) V.Prabhu & Tanuja Kalita: A Response to Peter Singers Position on Euthanasia(17-21) Irshad Ahmad & Umesh Chandra: Islamic Concept of Education: Aims and Objectives (22-29) Krishna Paswan: Non-violence and Love: A Gandhian Appraisal (30-34) Sheena Krishnan Ulamparambath: The Role of Philosophy behind the Growth of Hero Worship in Medieval Kerala (35-44) Pankoj Kanti Sarkar: Anthropocentrism (45-49) Enviornmental Crisis: Necessity of Non-

B.Y. Krishnamurthy: Educating Philosophy and Peace through Cinematic Songs by Hunsur Krishna Murthy in Kannada Cinema: A Study (50-54) Empirical Paper: Vijay Anand: Pilgrimage Tourism Management and its Issues and Challenges with special reference to Nagapattinam District (55-76) BOOK-REVIEW Merina Islam (77-78) NEW PUBLICATIONS (79-80) PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA (81-85) CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE (86)

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.04-10

AN ENQUIRY INTO SWAMI VIVEKANANDAS PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION IN THE LIGHT OF MODERN EDUCATION SYSTEM Sheeja O.K.

Abstract This paper makes an enquiry about some great observations made by Swami Vivekananda in his philosophy of education and his views on the role of teachers in Education. The paper also seeks the relevance of his ideas in the current education scenario. Swami Vivekananda presented a philosophy of education for man-making. He was one among contemporary Indian thinkers who revolted against the imposition of British system of education in India. In his view, the system of education imposed by British government was not suited for Indian culture. The complete system of education implies a balance and harmony between the properly developed body, mind and soul. The power of concentration is the only key to the treasure house of knowledge. Swami Vivekanandas conception of education as a way of manmaking is an elegant model for the modern era. Even though it is not a complete solution for all our problems, but we can bring some changes in the education scenario by absorbing some of these views from the great thinker and apply them in our life as an honour to the precious saint.

INTRODUCTION Recently, education is considered mainly for attaining certain certificates and thus to yield a job. In order to get a job certificates are necessary and therefore each and every person is interested to do more and more courses for getting certificates. A job is inevitable for livelihood. But, today, a job is not just meant for better living, but it is a symbol of prestige and money is the measure of all things. Here comes the relevance of the valuable words of our great thinkers about education. This paper makes an enquiry about some great observations made by Swami Vivekananda in his philosophy of education and his views on the role of teachers in Education. The paper also seeks the relevance of his ideas in the current education scenario. The society today is so fast and busy that each and every member wants to be curious and faster. Otherwise ones chance might have been stolen by other people. In this faster world, no one has enough time to study and teach moral values. Thinkers like Gandhi, Vivekananda and others upheld the importance of values in human life. But nobody teachers as well as students bothers about such values and other things. Everyone preaches about some such entities, but no one puts into practice such values. Education, now, considered as a way to obtaining position, job and fame. There is no education which proposes to produce a human being in the true sense. For a good job, certificate is needed, and today, certificate is available
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through proper and improper channels. For a job, a certificate, and even for education, money is the fundamental criterion in the modern society. Swami Vivekananda presented a philosophy of education for man-making. He was one among contemporary Indian thinkers who revolted against the imposition of British system of education in India. In his view, the system of education imposed by British government was not suited for Indian culture.

PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION: VIVEKANANDA Swami Vivekananda advocates education for self-development. We do not follow mere book learning; education should be aimed to form ones character. It should increase the strength of mind, should expand the intellect. Education would help one to stand on his own feet. According to Indian philosophical tradition, education is the realisation of the knowledge inherent in man. True knowledge does not come from outside, it is discovered with the individual, in the self which is the source of all knowledge. On the contrary, western educationists aim at mans adjustment with the environment. The external world is simply the suggestion, the occasion, which sets you to study your own mind. 1 The function of education is the uncovering of the knowledge hidden in our own mind. A persons education is not judged by the number of books he has read, but by the thickness of the cover of ignorance of his mind.2 Education is an unending, untiring and thrilling adventure and more than mere theories and information according to Swami Vivekananda. Education is practical and vibrant, dynamic and altruistic. The education of selflessness that builds the strong foundation of humanism is the essence of Vivekananda`s educational philosophy. The secret of all good education lies in the spirit of self sacrifice. The education of the spirit of self-control is the armour against all failures and this will help one to win over all constraints internal or external. According to Swamiji, education becomes really meaningful and worthwhile when it changes each I to an ardent we in order to be truly social. His according of education is meant for the welfare of human kind. It is a means of bringing vibrant changes in the society. This makes a union between the mental and material universe. For this, introspection is the first vital tool to pursue is right earnest. The education of sacrifice coupled with that of character is the surest guideline to education par excellence. Such education makes us prepared for fullness of human life. Vivekananda has given topmost priority to innovations in teaching where creativity and critical consciousness eliminate all possibilities of artificialities in learning. Freedom to thought and expression is the key to vibrant education. Lifeless education at any level ceases the very essence of potentiality and possibility of making an adventure into life and work. Vivekananda suggests a kind of education which enables us to have perfect control over the mind in order to exercise purity along with that of moral and ethical values leading to religion of the right kind. 3 He upholds the spirit of service in education. He cares for dynamic and living education rooted to the head as well as to the heart. He introduces the conception of education as suited to the wellbeing of everyone. The education of patience is much more difficult. Unless patience is not learnt and exercised in all experience in every walk of life, education loses one of its fundamental objectives and becomes meaningless and useless. H upholds education for the wellbeing of humanity.
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Swamiji has put forwarded some characteristics of education. We can explain them as follows: Svadharma According to his view, no one has to copy others. True improvement is self-inspired. There should be no external pressure of any type on the person from his childhood. Education should be modified to suit the individual child. Each child should be given opportunities to develop according to his own inner nature. Freedom is the first requirement for self-development. The child should be given freedom to grow according to his own nature. The teacher should not exert any type of pressure on the child. The child should be helped in solving his problems himself. Education ultimately aims at realisation. Character Formation According to Vivekananda, the character for any man is but the aggregate of his tendencies, the sum total of the bent of his mind. As pleasure and pain pass before his soul, they leave upon it different picture and the result of these combined improvement is what is called a mans character.3 The aim of education is character building. This depends upon the ideals cherished by the individual. The educator should present high ideals before the educands. Without the personal life of the teacher there would be no education. In ancient Indian system of education the teachers used to present high ideals before the pupils, who in their turn imitated those ideals according to their capacities. Struggle is the best teacher in character building. Character formation requires hard work. Besides, character formation needs traits such as purity, thirst for knowledge, perseverance, faith, humility and submission, etc. These qualities may be developed by the teachers example and the pupils effort. The true teacher is he who can immediately comedown to the level of the student, and transfer his soul to the students soul and see through and understand through his mind. 4 He advocates Gurukul system of education. There was hardly any economic relationship between the teacher and taught, which is the curse of the present system of education. In his view, it is not the teacher or the guardian may reform the habits of a person but only he himself. Our own self in us is our best guide in the struggle that is life. Means of Education The best means of education is love, according to Swamiji. Education should be based upon love. Love is the best inspiration in character building. The teachers aim should be neither money making nor attainment of fame but only bestowing human love. The teacher should also teach the educand to concentrate his attention, only then can the problems be solved. The greater the attention, the more is the effort effective. Vivekananda has placed much emphasis upon focusing of attention. In addition to concentration the other means of education are discussion and contemplation. Discussion should be carried out in an informal atmosphere. Contemplation should be practiced in a calm and quiet atmosphere with the mind fully alive. In the view of Vivekananda, the teacher occupies a very high place in educational process.
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Types of Education Vivekananda developed a curriculum that leads to all round development of the educand. He tried to synthesise modern and ancient knowledge. To achieve the development of every aspect of childs personality, he laid emphasis upon the scientific education on the one side and the teaching of Vedanta on the other. He opined to teach in the mother tongue, there should be a common language which is necessary to keep the country united. He also says that every Indian should know Sanskrit. It is necessary to get the awareness of our cultural heritage. Vivekananda holds that self-realisation or character building is impossible in the absence of physical education. Also he emphasised that religious education as a vital part of a sound curriculum. Only by a synthesis of religion and science that man may reap the advantage of both. Religion should not be the whole of curriculum but only a part of it. Religion is not mere ritualism. It is a progress towards high ideals in the face of extreme difficulties. He upholds service and devotion in religious education. He did not suggest any particular religion. He advised to adopt religious practices according to the needs of the time. According to him, India needs a religion which should be harmonious with science and teach patriotism, service and sacrifice. In his view, self-confidence is the real religion. It includes world brotherhood and love of humanity, because a person having self-confidence sees his self everywhere. For him, ethics and religion are one and the same. In his view knowledge is truth, ignorance is untruth. Thus truth increases power, courage and energy. It is light giving and necessary for the individual as well as collective welfare. Vivekananda worshiped spiritual power. He favoured education for different sections of society. In the education of women Vivekananda laid particular stress on chastity and fearlessness. According to him, women may develop high character, courage and confidence. He said, Look upon every man, woman and everyone as God. 5 His views of education have been supported by modern western educationists. Today, education is defined as the process of all round development of the child. Such a development can take place only from within, while the external environment provides occasion for such development. Modern psychologists point out that in every individual there are certain dormant powers which have to be developed through education. Vivekananda presented a positive system of education. He wrote education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man.6 He synthesised spiritual and material values in his philosophy of education. He pleaded for universal, compulsory and free education. For him, Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot here, undigested, all your life. We must have life-building, man-making, character making assimilation of ideas. 7 In his own words, To me, the very essence of education is concentration of mind, not the collecting of facts. To control the mind, to place it just where we want it, requires special training. It cannot be done in any other way.8 Conditions of Teachers Teaching has become a job and education a pursuit after training. Such a system is incapable of leading the youth towards humanistic actions or concerns. The teachers role is not to indoctrinate or to dominate the students but to guide them to engage themselves in value clarifications in the light of the knowledge they acquire from several sources. The true teacher is one can throw his whole force into the tendency of the taught. Without real
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sympathy we can never teach well. 8 Vivekananda has identified some qualities that a teacher should possess.9 We can summarise his suggestions as follows: Purity: Purity in thought, speech and act. Sinlessness: Must be perfectly pure of mind and soul, and then comes the value of his words. Motive: Must not teach with any ulterior selfish motive for money, name or fame.

CURRENT SCENARIO OF EDUCATION Currently, perhaps we cannot see any area other than education as corrupted and immoral. Corruption can be seen each corner of the human society and education field is not an exemption. Today no other business is profitable than education. To provide good education to a child, parents have to spend lakhs and lakhs of money. For primary and secondary education money is needed in the form of donations. After that for higher studies, and for getting professional degrees they must have paid lakhs and lakhs of money. After receiving a higher degree the candidate wants to pay lakhs of money in the form of bribe to get into a job. Merits and qualifications are measuring on the basis of the weight of the bunch of money. Those who believe in merit and high marks will not get any placement through proper channel; the person, who has more money, will be the fittest. A teacher can make much change in the society through his students. A teacher in true sense can influence his pupils behaviour. As our forefathers observed years ago, a teacher should be a role model to his pupils as well as to the society. A teacher must be a morally and spiritually fit person. It is not possible for a person to become a saint in true sense in the contemporary world. But one can keep some morality in his personal and professional life. Even the members of teaching field are not bothered about their character. Daily the media report many crimes and among them there are cases against the teachers too. The person who has to provide security for their students, harass them mentally and physically. Some teachers are greedy and insincere to the work. They need money only; but are reluctant to do their duty properly. They need their salary on first day of the month, but cant work the whole month sincerely. Today many persons get into the teaching job only because of the attractive salary, and not having much interest in teaching profession. Education has become job-oriented and thus money-oriented. Above all, today there is no education which proposes to produce a human being in the true sense. The humanist thinkers, like Vivekananda, advocated a reorientation of the educational process towards human beings and human concerns rather than towards economy and work. In this context, Swami Vivekanandas account of education seems as applicable to the modern education system and thus to bring some modifications in the realm. SOME ASSESSMENTS As everybody knows, the education starts from the home, the basic teaching of moral values should be taught from the home itself.

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The teacher has a crucial role to play in developing the right outlook, helpful to children and adolescent in their self-fulfilment. They must rise above narrow ideas and ideals, and above caste, community etc. The techniques of our forefathers are not only meant for academic education, but are intended for applying through the life. So, we should give much importance to the great teachings in our daily life. While modernising our country we have not to lose mornings of our rich cultural heritage and its contribution in regenerating our society. There are so many seminars, conferences and workshops conducting by individuals and institutions on the thinking of great personalities. What is the result of such proceedings? Any changes in the society or even to any individual? Probably, no is the right answer, perhaps in some cases the answer is the opposite. Today, there are much more channel for learning; but morality of individual is decreasing to lower and lower levels. It is because of the lack of the right knowledge gifted by our forefathers. Swami Vivekananda has introduced the idea of Mass Education-10 education for all. But today the education is not reached to all. Those who have enough money will get the so-called good education Our education system should be modified according to the vision of our great thinkers like, Swami Vivekananda, Gandhi, etc. in order to build up an ideal society.

CONCLUSION The development of the mind and body must go hands in hands with a corresponding awakening of the soul in order to save education from being reduced to a mere cop sided affair. Only a complete development can give a whole man. The present education is a cop sided affair because it consists of mainly the training of the mind. The training of the soul as well as the heart is necessary. It can lead to a refinement of emotions and impulses. The complete system of education implies a balance and harmony between the properly developed body, mind and soul. The power of concentration is the only key to the treasure house of knowledge. All knowledge that the world has ever received comes from the mind. Within man is all knowledge, and it requires only an awakening, and that much is the work of the teacher. The physical body is to be sustained by proper material food, the mind to be developed through the assimilation of the right types of ideas, and the soul, to be nourished by earnest prayer and meditation. Education is not about obtaining degrees only but it must give a scope to stand on ones own feet. The existing world is undergoing a terrible change. In every field of life people have become so suffocated that they find no way out. Deteriorated value system has created mistrust among individuals. Trust and faith are losing their validity. Frustration is getting aggravated among the unemployed youths all over the world at a maximum rate. As a result they have been captured and brainwashed by different antisocial organizations. Individual has lost faith on his own blood relations as well as with his neighbours and others.

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Swami Vivekanandas conception of education as a way of man-making is an elegant model for the modern era. Even though it is not a complete solution for all our problems, but we can bring some changes in the education scenario by absorbing some of these views from the great thinker and apply them in our life as an honour to the precious saint.

Notes: 1. Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (1973). Advaita Ashrama, Calcutta, Mayavati Memorial Edition, Vol. IV, 490. 2. Ibid. Vol. II, 422. 3. Ibid. Vol. II, 16-17. 4. Ibid. Vol. II, 469. 5. Ibid. Vol. IV, 54-55. 6. Ibid. Vol. VIII, 99-101. 7. Ibid. Vol. II, 411-412. 8. Ibid. Vol. VI, 99. 9. Ibid. Vol. III, 301-302. 10. Ibid. Vol. VI, 38-39. 11. Ibid. Vol. III, 48-51. 12. Ibid. Vol. III, 309.

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.11-16

PHILOSOPHICAL DIVERGENCE: A LEAP TOWARDS HUMANITY (SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIAN SOCIAL ORDER) T.V.Krishnan Abstract The social relation within society shapes accordance the dominant class philosophy. In primitive stage of mankind, it is based on the natural rights gradually the place of natural law replaced by the philosophy of institutionalised religions. Religions and dominate the classes generate the social sphere accordance their interests, which uphold their upper hands in the social attributes such as economics, education and technology and secure their dominance and subjugated the others. The dominants groups intellectuals and their texts succeeded to centralise the power into their class members. In every prevailing social sphere, these dominant groups philosophy defines the value and rightness of an act and depicts the appropriate characteristics of actions in society, by centralisation of power the dominate class or religions became the authority and illustrate the do and do not. Through the dominance, they cleverly disarm the individual thoughts and actions, in Indian society through the concept of purity and impurity the so-called Hindu religious philosophy implemented the domination of upper castes in others. Where the power centralised into the hands of Brahmins, the intellectual class of Hindu society, who emphasise the importance of this irrational philosophy and implement it as a social order to all by these, they bracketed and destroyed the multiplicity of culture and remained the masters of all other's thoughts. Even after the Indian independence and accepting the Universal Declarations of Human Rights into the Indian social sphere their still lacking equal rights in public sphere. The emerging ideals of postmodern philosophy and ethics offered an alternative mode of a sphere to renovate the harmonically one to relational and understating on the basis of humanity creates an ideal platform for social progressive, which comprehend the society as a whole. Keywords: philosophy, dominance, institutionalism, education, intellectuals Introduction In civilization, each society possesses a unique social sphere, which constituted per the philosophy of their own, which engaged in acts to correct the abuse of practice irrationality about the nature and provide guidance for humanity to structure the socio sphere to fulfil an ideal life. These thoughts relied on the concept of natural rights of humans, Aristotle writes the natural is that which has the same validity everywhere and does not depend upon acceptance.1 In each
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society intellectual or philosophers play the key role in the formation and strengthen the social structure, through constrained the knowledge of nature and humanity the philosophers acquire a position in society and formulate social structure accordions their norms. The philosophers constitute the rights and duties of people and provide a so called rational order accentuate with certain norms and regulations which functioned as a custodian of daily life where he/she obliged to it and constitute his or her life accordance with the rules of philosophy. The polices of society depicts the dominate philosophy which always endorses the dominate groups interests, consequently the educational system of society also generated accordance the dominant group interest and articulates the texts and teachings for sustain their influence on the social order. Large number of earlier thoughts constructed on natural rights and considered it as divine gift of god and stipulated the socio-political, economic and morals the dominant sector of life accordance these prevailing philosophical codes. Domination through philosophy The newly emerged religious philosophy constructs a paradigm in humanity which endorses the supremacy of the metaphysical notions of heaven, sin and hell; it also constitutes the realm of life embodied with dogmas, prayers, and ideal of bribery for spiritual liberation. The governing class joint hand together with these institutionalised religions and exploit it and succeed to thrive on the society, these new Socio-religious philosophy pulls down the natural rights into the bottom and succeeded to dominie the mass. The progress of institutionalisation of the social order generates instability in sharing the rights among the people. This division and gradation of rights limited the natural rights of others especially the women and children. Gradually the others and women who braked out from the popular sphere lost their equal sauts in social public sphere and they treated as bare commodities of market. The Hindu philosophy upholds an parasitical conception where the dominate classes engaged in unproductive acts such interpreting the religious texts and articulates methods for insuring places in heaven and attain the illusionistic life gods. Like all other institutionalised religions such Christianity and Islam in India the Hindu religion dominate the social sphere and structured it accordance the upper caste interest. These philosophies generated and flourished under the ontological and theological aspects religions, which considers as conveyed by the god. The Hindu ideology succeeded to segregate the people into castes. As creators of the whole system the Brahmin intellectuals placed themselves into the superior positions of society, and victorious to generate order of hierarchy depicts in Vedas and constituted a hyperreal socio philosophy which denotes the higher castes Hindu social interests. In Indian social order traditional intellectuals considers the happiness of the dominant ones and bracketed the effort and pain of other and formed the moral code which sustained the pleasure of those dominate ones. Theses hedonistic philosophy eliminates the equality of women which they enjoyed in the earlier times. The new norms reshuffle the manners and status of women and placed her in the backyards of house. The Hindu texts such Manusmriti categories women and other as means for attain material pleasure In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.2 They also treated other as uncivilised and push back to the outs skirts of public sphere.
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The Hindu philosophy constitutes a hegemonic life order which categorise the social duties to hierarchal order where the precious and wealthy means preserved for the Brahmins and other groups. In this realm ones duty or profession in a society determines through his birth not by his ability or significance, and social philosophy doesnt provide any chances to change his /her work and statues in whole life. The social status and jobs people graded in to four castes which illustrates as; Brahmans were the priests, law givers, scholars, and literati; Kshattriyas the rulers and warriors; Vaishyas the traders, peasants, and artisans; Sudras the servile manual workers; and Chandalas, later called Panchamas, members of the population who lived outside the villages and had been conquered, or not yet conquered, by the invading Aryans.3 The Hindu ideology and apparatus keep vigilant to insure the results which benefit the dominant group interest. Brahmins the intellectuals of Hindu social code considered themselves as the custodians of moral code and insist other to practice it in daily life. Necessity of humanistic philosophy The humanism founded on humanity which signifies mankinds basic attributes such as understanding, benevolence, and mercy, the American Humanist Association describes it as; Humanism is a way of living, thinking, and acting that allows every individual to actualize his or her highest aspirations and successfully achieves a happy and fulfilling life. Humanists take responsibility for their own morals and their own lives, and for the lives of their communities and the world in which we live.4 Mean time the Indian dominant philosophy of Hinduism remain in static in Vedas other rituals texts which sprouts the alternative or parallel think of humanity these attitude of dominate class eradicates the natural rights of the mass. These dominate philosophy killed the spirits of humanity, which replicates the interests and rights of human rather than god or logocentric philosophy of stras. Their intolerance against the others deteriorate the humanistic philosophy of Buddha and Jaina which adhere an man centred philosophy in Asian hemisphere, these bracketing out of humanity from the philosophical sphere eradicates the rights of man and insisted him to remained under the chain of Varnashrama dharma the irrational notions of Hindu philosophy, which denied the basic rights such food, property, and clothes to the mass and slaughtered the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity from the social sphere and make use of the common peoples as slaves to secure the luxury; They were required to work for the state with no compensation being paid, to cultivate the fields of the land lords to pay taxes for their hunts, animals and birds to offer presents to the caste Hindus and to keep away from the temples, public streets and high caste localities.5 Even the so-called social reforms of India remained in peripheral level and they failed endorse the philosophy of humanity as such in the European renaissance which demolished religious dominance in social sphere and succeed to rooted rational philosophy which dashed out the metaphysical notions mean time the Indian society remained the stimulus of religious ideals and moulded an hyper real world with peripheral attributes of humanity. The European renaissance and notion of human rights influences the peoples and intellectuals in lagers sense and lead generate atmosphere to rejuvenate the original sprite in the social order. Human rights are considered as the essence of mankind which inherent in human beings regardless of factors, such as ethnicity, nationality and sex which insure the worth full life to each and every individual in the globe. It is a derivative philosophical idea of natural rights some philosophers recognize no difference between the two and regard both as labels for the same thing, while others choose to keep the term separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with
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natural rights. James Nickel defines human rights as basic moral guarantees that people in all countries and cultures allegedly contain. Calling these guarantees rights suggests that they attach to particular individuals who can invoke them, that they are of high priority, and that compliance with them is mandatory rather than discretionary.6 Under the high influence of Hindu philosophy the social order structured accordance the stras and the majority remained uneducated and apolitical in Indian sphere and generated an unbalanced and wicked life order for Indian masses. Education system apparatus of philosophy The changes in philosophical sphere articulate diverse of knowledge and intellectuals and the education system turns an apparatus for dominance class to propagate their ideals. Where the prevailing knowledge and educationalists turn to religious apparatus to mould the people accordance the interest of power centred monolithic regime. The Varnashrama dharma of Hinduism creates an anti-social attitude in Indian social sphere which confine the overall growth of the society and dragged the people restricted sphere which intent to protect the caste interests. The compartmentalisation of peoples kills the possibilities of social interactions and creates pseudo consciousness among the castes. The traditional Hindu educational system teaches the Vedas, for them all knowledge resisted in it and by closing the door against the possibilities of the common sphere the education system remained in static without any evolutions. These denial of inquiries and observations killed the sprite of humanistic knowledge and it turn into tyrannical position. The Hindu social order systematized with the traditional educational system of inclusion and exclusion, which does not encourage or helped the depressed to attain the knowledge. For Hindus the education is a privilege for the higher caste men, where the knowledge is attainable to three higher castes in which the right to teaching is the privilege for Brahmins, in Hindus the right of knowledge contains with upanaya wearing the sacred thread and Hindu texts denied the practicing of upanaya to shudras and otters. By denying upanaya to mass Manu monopolized the power of knowledge and educational techniques in caste Hindus. Manu stipulates the brutal punishments for the violators, by implementing these laws he intent to create an illiterate mass of personnel to serve the higher castes. If the Shudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the Veda, then his ears should be filled with (molten) lead and lac; if he utters the Veda, then his tongue should be cut off; if he has mastered the Veda his body should be cut to pieces.7 By executing the Varnashrama dharma Indian traditional intellectuals class of Brahmins excludes the majority from the educational circle this determined exultation from the knowledge of humanity deprived the social growth of the outcaste people who remained in outskirts of the popular culture of Indian society. The rigged execution dharma in Indian social sphere kills the opportunities of outcastes to utilise the British educational system the benefits of westerns techniques. These newly emerged Indian public sphere enjoyed by the upper caste and new breed of colonial educated middle class and education became the mean to reach the public sphere. So the Dalits/out castes remain position of pre-colonial society with their traditional techniques and knowledge of production their absence in public sphere generate norms favour to the upper and middle castes. Social reformer Jotirao Phule point out that; they did not want the shudras to ever realise how they had been tricked. So they strictly prohibited education of the shudras and made

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strict rules about this in their books like Manusamhita. Keeping the shudras illiterate also enables them to male whatever changes in their books they wanted to suit their interest.8 Despite those dominant apparatuses and socio-political upper hands the Dalits and other marginalised peoples succeeds to generate a threshold of resistance and revolts against dominant philosophy. They make use of the social order and founds up a new kind of intellectuals stand apart from both traditional and organic ones who emerged within the so-called degraded social communities with the aims to reform the social structure and enlightenment the mass their thoughts and acts not embryo from any traditional educational system but it derived from their rational thoughts and experiences. They trained the depressed or marginalised to attain the new spheres of opportunities and life of popular culture. Large number of theses intellectuals arises from the Indian marginalised castes aims to uplift their brothers from dark slumbers of the Hindu caste system. There arise movements all over India to reform or deconstruct Hinduism with humanistic approach. Individuals like Jotirao Phule, Ayyankali, Narayana guru E.V Ramaswami, and Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar are fight against social discriminations and succeed to relinquish the root of Brahmanical ideology. Conclusion Like all other philosophies the Hindu philosophy also articulates the importance of knowledge, they descried it a means for eradicating the ignorance and provide libations form the material pain mean time by denying the education they ruled out the knowledge for the mass. Even the realm of independent India also formed accordance these metaphysical realm where they ruled out the norms which blocked their progress meantime thy keep instituting the practice of such norms which deteriorate the progress of mass through continuing the acts such untouchablity and social discriminations and continues to control the properties in their hand. Even the Indian constitution articulates untouchability as crime Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of Untouchability shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law the Indian society also adheres the spirit of The Universal Declarations of Human Rights into the social sphere which enclosed the spirit of freedom and equality of the human with the ideal of brotherhood. But in Indian hemisphere we still lacking equal rights in educational sphere where the equality of humanity birched by caste segregations and restricted educational rights to mass and the education system also intended to generates an segregations among the Indian students by articulating knowledge into different schemes where the fruitful education became an commodity to the higher classes who enjoying places in the higher sections governmental jobs or people who have attain the mass wealth these segregation of educational sector creates deadlocks for the common or outcaste students to achieve the higher jobs or higher studies. This attitude of policymakers demonstrates shows the influence dominance philosophy which compartmentalized the people for exploiting, by creating grades in educational sphere through neoliberal educational polices and money based education vindicating Loytrads concerns on allotment of knowledge in social sphere, where it is accumulates in the few enormous groups for secure the power kills the equal distribution of knowledge. All these acts in Indian hemisphere indicates for the necessity of diverged philosophies in social sphere which articulates norms on the basis of humanity power by setup an opening for deconstruct the monolithic philosophy into humanity.

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References: 1. Suri , Ratnapala, Jurisprudence. Cambridge :Cambridge University Press,p.125 2. Ilaiah, Kancha(2000) God as Political Philosopher. Calcutta: Samaya,p.84 3. Gough, Kathleen (2008)Rural Society in Southeast India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.19 4. Vaughn, Lewis, Dacey, Austin (2003). The Case for Humanism: An Introduction. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group,p.7 5. Rajyyan, K.(1982). History of Tamil Nadu 1565-1982. Raj Publication Madurai, p.275 6. Motilal, S. (2006).Human Rights Gender and Environment. Allied Publishers Limited,P.38 7. Moon,Vasant(1989). Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, Vol.3. Eduction Department, Government of Maharashtra, Bombay. 8. Deshpande.G.P.(2002).Selected Writings of Jotirao Phule. Left World Books, New Delhi, p.73

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.17-21

A RESPONSE TO PETER SINGERS POSITION ON EUTHANASIA V.Prabhu & Tanuja Kalita

Abstract Euthanasia is a controversial issue in applied ethics. There are proponents and opponents for euthanasia. Even amongst the proponents, there are differences as to what types of euthanasia can be justified. Euthanasia can be of three different types namely, voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. Voluntary euthanasia is that, where the patient has the capacity to choose between life and death and makes an informed decision to die and involuntary euthanasia is that, where the patient makes a decision not to die. The other is non-voluntary, where the patient does not have the capacity to understand the choice between continued existence and non-existence and therefore lack the ability to consent to death. (Singer, 1993) While involuntary euthanasia is rejected by proponents of euthanasia, there are differences with respect to voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia. In this paper, we try to explore this issue with reference to Peter Singers position. Singer accepts both voluntary and non voluntary euthanasia and claims that voluntary euthanasia is easy to justify than non-voluntary. We counter his claim maintaining that a nonvoluntary euthanasia perhaps is easily justified than a voluntary one. Key Words: Singer, pain, euthanasia, voluntary, non-voluntary.

Euthanasia is one of the much discussed issues in ethics. Euthanasia is mercy killing. The intentional killing by act or by omission of a dependent human being for removing his or her suffering is called as euthanasia. The word euthanasia is a Greek word and it literally means good death. Helga Kuhse in her article Euthanasia writes that there are two features of the acts of euthanasia: 1. Euthanasia involves the deliberate taking of a persons life. 2. That life is taken for the sake of that person who is suffering from an incurable or terminal disease.1 Singer maintains that euthanasia can be justified as it helps one to annihilate ones pain. In this case, the annihilation of oneself is the process of getting away from ones pain and Singer justifies such an act to be an ethical one. For removing the intense suffering of a person Peter Singer justifies euthanasia particularly voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. According to Peter Singer euthanasia can be justified in two grounds voluntary, where the patient has the capacity to choose between life and death and makes an informed decision to die and the other is nonvoluntary, where the patient do not have the capacity to understand the choice between continued existence and non-existence and therefore lack the ability to consent to death.2 Singer argues against the different philosophical position that argues against killing. The argument against euthanasia often comes from deontological ethics, rights based theory and even to a certain extent from the classical utilitarian tradition. Singer enumerates four different
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arguments against euthanasia and gives counter argument for these four positions. Singer mentions, 1. The classical utilitarian claim that since self-conscious beings are capable of fearing their own death ,killing them has worse effects on others. 2. The preference utilitarian calculation that counts the thwarting of the of the victims desire to go on living as an important reason against killing. 3. A theory of rights according to which to have a right one must have the ability to desire that to which one has a right, so that to have a right to life one must be able to desire ones own continued existence. 4. Respect for the autonomous decisions of rational agents.3 Though these reasons are justified for the wrongness of killing of person but, according to Singer these very same reasons can be taken as grounds for the justification of voluntary euthanasia. For the first point Singer says that there is no reason of fear about that kind of killing. He remarks, That people are killed under these conditions would have no tendency to spread fear or insecurity, since we have no cause to be fearful of being killed with our own genuine consent. If we do not wish to be killed, we simply do not consent.4 For the argument from prference utilitarianism to substantiate voluntary euthanasia, Singer says, just as preference utilitarianism must count a desire to go on living as a reason against killing, so it must count a desire to die as a reason for killing.5 To counter the argument from the rights perspective, Singer says, to say that I have a right to life is not to say that it would be wrong for my doctor to end my life, if she does so at my request.In making this request I waive my right to life.6 Similarly to justify euthanasia from the autonomy of moral persons, Singer argues, The principle of respect for autonomy tells us to allow rational agents to live their own lives according to their own autonomous decisions,free from coercion or interference; but if rational agents should autonomously choose to die,then respect for autonomy will lead us to assist them to do as they choose.7 If we see the above arguments, often the arguments are oriented towards voluntary euthanasia. Singer gives these arguments to substantiate his position of voluntary euthanasia, which he mentions is far easier to substantiate than the non- voluntary euthanasia. As Singer belongs to the preference utilitarian tradition, the central point in his argument is the preference of the person. Preference utilitarianism maintains that moral worthiness of the action depends on the preference of the persons. And according to Singer, persons alone have the capacity to have preferences. As a matter of fact, this is one of the reasons why Singer feels it is easy to vouch for voluntary euthanasia as against non-vluntary euthanasia because in case of non-voluntary euthanasia, according to Singer, the person ceases to be a person and he/she doesnt have the capacity to make a preference either for or against euthanasia. Thus, Singers argument for voluntary euthanasia has as its central pillar the consent of the person to annihilate her life to avoid the pain she endures. For Singer, it doesnt matter if that voluntary euthanasia is an active one, where the patient is killed, or a passive one, where the patient is let to die. Though we may not be discussing the issue of active and passive euthanasia in this paper, as it is beyond the scope of this, here, we shall try to see if Singers position of voluntary euthanasia is easier than the non-voluntary one. In this respect, we like to bring an important piece of information. In our legal system, as of now, non-voluntary euthasia is
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accepted and not the voluntary euthanasia.8 The court mentioned that voluntary euthanasia is akin to suicide and as per our legal system it is illegal to commit or help one to commit suicide. 9 The Supreme Court also mentioned that the issue of suicide needs to be looked into as it may be anachronistic.10 The one main reason as why Singer considers voluntary euthanasia is easier than non-voluntary euthanasia is that in voluntary euthansia, there is the preference of the persons, whereas in nonvoluntary euthansia it is not there. So, the preference of the person is the deciding factor for Singer. But, one important issue which we need to consider is whether the preference of the person who is not feeling well is really a preference? Maybe, even within Singers standard of preference, sometimes it may not be the case. Singers idea of preference is charecterized by a rational decision.11 According to Singer, an ethical decision is one that goes by the preferences of the individuals and preferences are one that has a rational element in it. Singer believes that an action in the domain of ethics can become an ethical action if such an action is properly justified. Singer regards reason playing an important role in ethical decision. The notion of living according to ethical standard is tied up with the notion of defending the way one is living, of giving a reason for it, of justifying it.On the other hand, people cannot put forward any justification for what they do, we may reject their claim to be living according to ethical standards, even if what they do is in accordance with conventional moral principles.12 This suggests that, Singer believes in exercising reason as the principle that makes an action ethical or not. That is, a preference marked with reason can be the one that can be considered ethical according to Singers position. Let us see, if in voluntary euthanasia such types of preferences, marked with reason, do happen. Singer, in fact, maintains that a patient takes the informed decision after careful exercising of ones reason and then consents for death in the case of voluntary euthanasia. Singer says, Voluntary euthanasia occurs only when, to the best of medical knowledge, a person is suffering from an incurable and painful or extremely distressing condition. In these circumstances one cannot say that to choose to die quickly is obviously irrational. The strength of the case for voluntary euthanasia lies in this combination of respect for the preferences, or autonomy, of those who decide for euthanasia; and the clear rational basis of the decision itself.13 This description of the careful exercising of ones reason in making a preference for voluntary euthanasia goes in line with Singers conception of what constitutes an ethical decision. But, how far it is true? However, the bigger question is how can one be sure that the decision taken by that person is really a rational decision? Can it be possible for a mentally and physically distressed person to take a rational decision on euthanasia particularly in voluntary euthanasia? For his or her severe illness a person may wish to die. Singer foresees some of the objections to his claims. He remarks thus, Some opponents of the legalization of voluntary euthanasia might concede that all this follows, if we have a genuinely free and rational decision to die: but they add, we can never be sure that a request to be killed is the result of a free and rational decision. Will not the sick and elderly be pressured by their relatives to end their lives quickly? Will it not be possible to commit outright murder by pretending that a person has requested euthanasia? And even if there is no pressure of falsification, can anyone who is ill,
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suffering pain, and very probably in a drugged and confused state of mind, make a rational decision about whether to live or die?14 Singer counter argues to this position by reposing an enormous faith on Doctors and psychiatrists to take care of the above mentioned issues. Singer mentions that these are not direct arguments against voluntary euthanasia, but, nevertheless, they are serious issues that arise in the implementation of voluntary euthanasia. Singer takes the help of Netherlands guidelines to ensure that the prefernce for volunatry euthanasia are in fact genuine. According to the guidelines, the prefernce of the person has to be verified by two independent doctors, the patient should be severely suffering from irreversible condition causing physical or mental suffering and there is no reasonable alternative for cure.15 There are serious issues in taking this position of Singer. How far the doctors can able to predict the irreversibility of the disease? Or as per Netherlands guidelines, two doctors are sufficient enough to assess the patients condition. How far these two doctors can be correct in assessing the irreversible conditions of the patient? How far they can be right in saying that there is no medicine for certain diseases to cure in the near future? Singer takes the competency of the doctor issue and says that,even if that is the case, according to a utiliatarian standpoint, we can still go for advocating voluntary euthanasia. He says, Against a very small number of unneccessary deaths that might occur if euthanasia is legalized, we must place the very large amount of pain and distress that will be suffered if euthanasia is not legalized, by patients who really are terminally ill.16 Thus, we can see the challenges for Singers position come from varied backgrounds from the care ethics, even from the utilitarian standpoints, and on the basis of the nature of the rationality of the decisions made by the patients. Though, such challenges are there, Singer faces some of them as even though they are serious issues, but they are to do with technicalities of the issues. And he even remarks that most of the arguments cannot be the case against voluntary euthanasia. Are they really merely technical issues against euthanasia? If Singers or people like Singers argument are sound, then, there should not be much of a problem in accepting it. But, the case is not that easy, particularly when we deal with human life. Regarding the voluntariness of the decision taken by the patient, how far they are genuinely voluntary? If the prefernce of the person for voluntary euthanasia is to be seconded by Doctors and psychiatrists, how far that is going to be a true preference of the person? Or given the case that two people are suffering from the same persistent disease and one voluntarily wishes to die and the doctor also seconds it, does it mean that the other is also indirectly compelled to make that decision? In that case, how far it is going to be a voluntary decision? Or is it the case that the first one do not have the capacity to bear the pain or resist his depression? What is the status of the person who prefers to die, but doctors are not authorizing it? In that case, whether the persons preferences have any meaning? Similarly, the questions which Singer himself raised as the possible voices of the opponents regarding the chances for it to misuse is in fact a serious issue to be bothered about. We can very well see that there is every chance for it to be misused. There is every chance that person can be coerced to take a voluntary decision.

Given that voluntary euthanasia has the preference of the persons, but, for sure, the preference of the person at that situation can hardly be equated with preferences of the person in other ordinary
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situations. While in the non-voluntary euthanasia, even though there is not the preference of the person as such, still, there will be a decision to go for euthanasia. In this respect, a person who acts as a guardian/ parent/ the best friend takes the decision on behalf of the patient. Here, the guardian may be comparatively in a better position to take the rational decision than the person who takes a voluntary decision in the voluntary euthanasia case. Moreover, the mere fact that a person ceases to be a person in the non-voluntary euthanasia case suggests that non-voluntary case is a far more serious case than a voluntary euthanasia case. The mere fact that a patient can think, (to whatever extent it can be) understand the pros and cons of an issue and makes a preference as in the voluntary euthanasia maybe comparatively a better patient than a patient who is totally at permanent vegetative state. Though Singer may say that voluntary euthanasia has the preference of the person, we argued that the preference of the person is subjected to many a limitation in the case of euthanasia. Hence, on the above grounds, we claim against Singer position, that perhaps, a non-voluntary euthanasia is easily justified than a voluntary euthanasia. Notes: 1. Helga Kuhse, Euthanasia. In A Companion to Ethics, edited by Peter Singer (United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing ltd, 1991), 294. 2. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 201 3. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 194. 4. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 194. 5. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 195 6. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 195 7. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 195 8. Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 115 Of 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2011 Supreme Courts Judgment on Aruna Shanbaug euthanasia petition-Resources News-IBNLive.mht 9. Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 115 Of 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2011 Supreme Courts Judgment on Aruna Shanbaug euthanasia petition-Resources News-IBNLive.mht 10. Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 115 Of 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2011 Supreme Courts Judgment on Aruna Shanbaug euthanasia petition-Resources News-IBNLive.mht 11. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) 12. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 10 13. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 200 14. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 196 15. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 196 16. Peter Singer, Practical Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 197

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September 2012), pp.22-29

ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF EDUCATION: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Irshad Ahmad & Umesh Chandra Abstract Islam is one of the revealed religions in the world. It has its own philosophy in educating people in different fields as the means of building the kingdom of God (Allah) on earth. Any nation that seeks relevance and competitiveness in the age of globalization must make every effort to give its citizens the best education possible. It is natural that Islam should have a system of education which is different from western system of education. Islamic educational system prepares man to assume the responsibilities of the highest creation of God and His vicegerent. Naturally that education should develop the qualities of high character and should prepare man to occupy the seat of high rank. It should consider all capable of rising to the highest level and piety and character provided their parents and their society provides them right type of education. This concept of man can provide the real basis for aims and objectives of Islamic education. Therefore, the aims of this paper is to explain about Islamic education in terms of its concept, and focus on the aims and objectives of Islamic education with some significant examples from the Muslims scholars as aspired in the Al-Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W). Introduction Islam has, from its inception, placed a high premium on education and has enjoyed a long and rich intellectual tradition. The holy Qurn as revealed to the prophet Muhammad begins with the word iqra meaning Read. The foremost thing that was thus enjoined was reading. In the holy Quran in sra al-Alaq God says, Read! In the name of your lord Who has created (all that exists). He has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the most Generous. Who has taught (the writing) by the pen. He has taught the man which he knew not.1 Islam has laid great stress upon education. True and full understanding of Islam depends essentially on knowledge, without which Gods commands can never be understood in their true sense. As mentioned in the Quran in srat al-Ankabt, As for these similitudes we put forward for mankind; but none will understand them except those who have knowledge (of Allh and His signs).2 In the same sra, it is said, Nay, but they, the clear proofs are preserved in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge and none but the wrongdoers deny our revelations.3 In this last verse Knowledge" ('ilm) means both power of judgment in discerning the value of truth and acquaintance with previous revelations. It implies both literal and spiritual insight. To men so endowed, Allah's revelations and Signs are self-evident. They commend themselves to their hearts, minds, and understandings, which are typified in Arabic by the word sadr, "breast".
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The holy prophet (peace be upon him) too, did his best to instil into the heart of the people the value of knowledge, and search for knowledge was made binding on every Muslim man and woman.4 The prophet said, To listen to the instructions of science and learning for an hour is more meritorious than standing in prayers for whole night.5 He impressed upon his disciples the necessity of seeking knowledge even if one had to travel to distant lands like China. They were encouraged to give up their hearths and homes and seek knowledge in far-off places. Nor only the greatness of knowledge was impressed on the people, but the prestige and dignity of the scholars were enhanced. He who leaves his home in search of knowledge, walks in the path of God and he who travels in search of knowledge, to him God showers the way to paradise.6 In this way the words of the Prophet gave a new impulse to awake the energies of the believers. Even within his lifetime, was formed the nucleus of an educational institution, which in later years grew into universities at Baghdad and Salerno, at Cairo and Cordova.7 The Arabic language has three terms for education, representing the various dimensions of the educational process as perceived by Islam. a) Tarbiyah, from the root raba (to increase, to grow, to rear), implies a state of spiritual and ethical nurturing in accordance with the will of God. b) Ta'db, from the root aduba (to be cultured, refined, well-mannered), suggests a person's development of sound social behavior. What is meant by sound requires a deeper understanding of the Islamic conception of the human being. c) Ta'lm, from the root 'alima (to know, to be aware, to perceive, to learn), which is used to denote knowledge being sought or imparted through instruction and teaching. The word tarbiyah refers to education, but encompasses more than just sitting in a classroom and learning from books. The meaning of education in the Islamic context includes every aspect of absorbing information, including learning by doing and also by observing others. Ibn Manzur a famous 14th- century lexicographer, offers several terms as synonyms for tarbiyah, including increase, formation, nourishment, care, guarding, and grow/let grow. The word tadib, which Al-Attas refers to as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a person that installs the quality of goodness that is sought after,8 is also part of preparing a child for adulthood- a process refered to more recently in Western cultures as education.9 The Prophet Muhammad said, O Lord! Thou hast made good my creation; therefore make good my character.10 According to this hadith, the term education refers not only to intellectual growth but is broadened to include moral development. The Prophet Muhammad summarized his educational vision and mission when he said, I have been sent only for the purpose of perfecting good morals.11The holy Quran also connects teaching with purifying ones soul. Allah says: It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them( from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom - although they had been, before, in manifest error (Quran,62:2) Thus, all these three words tarbiyah, talim, and tadib, refer to different aspects of the process of education. They are interrelated in their concern for humans, society, and the environment, which, in turn, are all related to God represent the scope of education in Islam, both formal and informal.

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In two popular Arabic dictionaries, Lisan al- Arab (2000) and Al-qamus al-muhit (2000), these three terms basically mean increasing, growing, reforming, cultivating, or purifying ones knowledge so that one is a well-balanced person, inculcated with taddab. Thus, these concepts can be applied to intellectual knowledge, personal conduct, and spiritual growth. Islamic education trains the sensibility of pupils in such a manner that in their attitude to live, their actions, decisions and approach to all kind of knowledge, they are governed by the spiritual and deeply felt ethical values of Islam. They are well trained and mentally so capable that they want to acquire knowledge not only to satisfy an intellectual curiosity or just for worldly benefit, but to develop as rational, righteous being and bring about the spiritual, moral and physical welfare of their families, other people and all mankind. This attitude derives from a deep faith on God. A student who receives Islamic education at all levels grows up peace loving, harmonious, equable and righteous with faith and trust in God's infinite mercy and his invincible justice, and lives in harmony and not conflict with nature. Islam concerns itself with the education of whole man, which is a man in his totality, body, mind and soul. A whole-hearted acceptance of a God gives a moral code. As S.S. Hussain and S.A. Ashraf (1979) clears that the permanence, necessity and significance of such a cod for the natural development of a rational, which spiritual man is experienced and understood by the application of those principles in nature and society, actually they are presented by Islam. It is necessary to instruct individual for complete personality development. But there is a difference between education and instruction. Education helps in complete growth of an individual's personality whereas instruction merely trains an individuals or a group to do some task efficiently. A man can be great general, an efficient carpenter or a first class painter, a lawyer, a mechanic or a pathologist, a renowned doctor, a chemical engineer or a chartered accountant, but still remains a semi-educated ill-mannered, immoral or unrighteous man. Similarly a man be a fine painter, a good poet, or his love of beauty may be highly delicate and sensitive, but he may be, at the same time, be cruel or un-truthful, unsocial individuals. He could be highly selfish and deliberately ignore his duty towards his neighbors or even towards his family. We can see that people who have specialized in certain educational fields are wellinstructed persons but we cannot necessarily regard them as truly educated. On the other hand, a man who knows and performs his duty towards himself, his family, his neighbors and humanity and at the same time has acquired a basic knowledge about how can he earn his livelihood honestly and live a better life, should be called an educated individual. He may not have specialized in a particular field of knowledge but lake of expertise does not prevent him from being recognized as a good man. A decent man is not necessarily a complete individual. No one can be known as a complete man because there is no end to the growth of personality. A wide knowledge of many subjects help in the growth of personality trains that how to adjust knowledge to behaviour and how the knowledge and action are integrated into a vast, total framework of human life. The outlook of an educated man is not static but is modified and mellowed as he applies principles to practice. Further, the importance of education is repeatedly emphasized in the Quran and the traditions of Prophet that related to education. Some of the examples of the proof are as below:
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Importance of education in Al-Quran Read! in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, who created. Created man out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood. Read! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful. He who taught (the use of) the pen. Taught man that which he knew not. (Al-Alaq: 1-5) This verse is the first and foremost indicates about education and the obligation for Man in seeking knowledge. Say: are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition (Az-Zumar : 9) It is He who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom although they had been, before, in manifest error. (Al- Jumah: 2) And when ye are told to rise up, rise up, God will rise up to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge (Al-Mujadilah: 11) Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them, that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil) (At-Taubah: 122) but say, O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge. (Ta Ha: 114) ask of those who possess the message (knowledge).( Al-Nahl: 43)

Importance of education in Sunnah When a man dies, his works also stop except three things: acts of charity, Knowledge by which (all) profit, and righteous children who pray for him (Abu Hurairah, Abu Daud, Tarmizi and Nasaie) Who so walks in path seeking for knowledge therein, God will thereby make easy to him the path of paradise (Abu Hurairah and Muslim) To acquire knowledge is binding upon all Muslims. (Anas bin Malik and Ibn Majah) The worst of man in the sight of God in respect of rank on the day of Resurrection shall be the learned man who profited not by his knowledge. (Abu Hurairah) "People are like mines of silver and gold; the more excellent of them in the days of Ignorance are the more excellent of them in Islam when they attain knowledge. (Muslim, Mishkat). Based on the verses and traditions mentioned above, we may say that education is one of the means through which a particular society transmits or renews its culture and values to the next
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generation. Through true education, it will lead man to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place in front of our Creator. Besides, as a teacher or educator, we should bear in mind and heart not only to be a Mudarris but try to achieve a higher level of educating a person which is Mujtahid or Mujaddid. We have to follow our role-model, the best teacher in Islam, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Proof of Reason The proof of reason for the excellence of knowledge is this. If the word excellence is not understood, it is not possible to know the excellence of other thing. For instance, if one desires to know whether Zaid is a wise man, he should know first the meaning of the word wisdom and then of Zaid or else he will go astray. Excellence is the additional quality of a thing which has got no defect. It is said that a horse is better that an ass. If the quality of carrying loads is taken, both are the same, but horse has got some additional qualities which are not found in an ass- the quality of running fast and physical beauty. An animal is sought for its quality and for its body. Now understand why knowledge is better. As a horse is called better than an ass for its quality of running fast, so you will call knowledge better if it is compared to other qualities, knowledge is good for its own sake and not for its connection with other qualities. Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education: According to Imam Al-Ghazali the ultimate aim of education was the development of character including the promotion of moral and ethical qualities such as obedience, humility, simplicity and the good attitudes such as complete surrender to the will of God, reliance on God, and thankfulness to Him alone. Education should make a child aware of the laws of Islam trough the study of Quran and Hadith. Education should habituate the child to perform prayers regularly, and to observe fast and follow other mandatory laws of Islam. Thus, education should make the child firm in religious beliefs otherwise he will be led astray. He also believed that the aim of education is to cultivate man so that he abides by the teachings of religion, and is hence assured of salvation and happiness in the eternal life hereafter. Other worldly goals such as the pursuit of wealth, social standing or power, and even the love of knowledge are illusory since they relate to the temporary world. The aim of education by Ibn Khaldun is to make Muslims firm believers in God through the study of the Quran and religious sciences. Knowledge of God and faith in Islamic laws will make Muslims know the reality which in turn will lead to good action and possession of good character. Thus the knowledge of Islamic sciences and leading his life according to the tenets of Islam will help him to be a good Muslim and a good member of society. Bidmos indicates that the central aim of Islamic Education is recognition of Allah as the source of all values. After that, he itemises some aims of Islamic Education: To recognise the existence and unity of God (Allah); To recognise the power o Allah to create and provide sustenance for His creatures; To create Allah-consciousness in man; To create a sense of profound gratitude to Allah with reverence, adoration and worship; To develop skills, which are capable of utilizing everything, created by Allah for the benefit of man; To maintain friendly relationship with other creatures of Allah and to show kindness to other sentient beings.
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Ibn Sina sees the aims of education as the overall growth of the individual: physical, mental, and moral; followed by the preparation of this by individual to live in a society through a chosen chose trade according to his aptitudes. So Ibn Sina education does not neglect physical development and everything implied by it; physical exercises, food and drink, sleep and cleanliness. It does not aim exclusively at the intellectual development and the amassing of knowledge; likewise Ibn Sina does not devote his attention to the moral aspect alone, but aims at the formation of a personality in complete body, mind and character. He does not restrict the task of education to creating the complete citizen, but rather sees that education must also prepare him for a profession whereby he can contribute to the social structure, because society in Ibn Sinas view is built entirely on cooperation on the specialization of each individual in a craft or profession and on the mutual exchange of services between its individuals. As for as Ibn Miskawaihs theory is concerned, his theory and objectives of education was based on Aristotelian theory of education which stipulated intellectual, physical, and moral education aiming at producing good human beings from the social point of view and achieving eternal happiness and self realization. Like Plato and Aristotle, he believed that education is related to state craft. He therefore, visualized and education system which could fit the people to perform the duties entrusted to them by the state. Like Aristotle, he presented the view that physical education must precede the spiritual and intellectual education. To Ibn Miskawaih, the goal of life was to combine the human will with the Divine Will. The best preparation of it consisted in making the body an ally rather than an enemy of soul. True education must therefore, minister to the needs of the body no less than the aspirations of the soul. Thus asceticism was entirely unacceptable to him. The need of religious education is however apparent because of his professed aim of combining the human will and the Divine Will. The aim of religious education was not only to shield against irreligion but for building the conscience of the child. According to the plane teachings of Islam the aim of Muslim education is to prepare a student for a purely moral and religious living, calculated to make him a sincere practical man, living not only for the sake of himself, but for humanity, and also for winning spiritual blessings and favours of God in the next life, beginning after death.12 Hence the real basis of education in Islam was religion.13 Islamic education is of course has the highest objective, and more than that can hardly be imagined. The aim of Islamic education is character building. Growth and development of an Islamic personality should be the final goal of any Islamic School. The goal of education is to lead the individual to perfection since the human being was created for this purpose, and the goal of humanitys existence in this world is to attain happiness, which is the highest perfectionthe absolute good.14 One of the goals of education is to combine learning with practical action, for the purpose of knowledge is that it should be applied, and perfection lies in its being transformed into action: Whatever by its nature should be known and practiced, its perfection lies in it actually being practiced.15 The sciences have no meaning unless they can be applied in practical reality, otherwise they are void and useless. The real practical sciences are those which are linked to readiness for action16 and absolute perfection is what the human being achieves through knowledge and action applied together .17 Moreover, if the speculative sciences are learned without having the opportunity to apply them, this wisdom is marred.18
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These aims and objectives of Islamic education distinguish clearly from the modern system of education which is based on Western philosophy of life. It is not denied that both the systems of education want to produce good individuals but the modern system wants to do so in the absence of a set of moral values which is obviously not possible. This approach of Islamic education was endorsed in the First World Conference on Muslim Education held at Mecca in 1977 in the following words: Education should aim at the balanced growth of the total personality of man through the training of Mans spirit, intellect, his rational self, feelings and bodily senses. Education should cater therefore for the growth of Man in all aspects: spiritual, intellectual, imaginative, physical, sscientific, linguistic, both individually and collectively and motivate all aspects towards goodness and the attainment of perfection. The ultimate aim of Muslim education lies in the realization of complete submission to Allah on the level of the individual, the community and humanity at large. Conclusion The purpose of Islamic education is giving meaning to life and enriching it with the light of the Islamic faith as outlined in the Quran and traditions of Prophet. According to Islamic teachings education is vital and essentials for all human beings. It enables man to understand the eternal and the spiritual realities of life and basic realities of Science and Social Science. To be an educated person, man has to actualize and understand the aims and objectives of education. To achieve this, man should have a balanced growth in his personality which comprises of intellect, physical, emotion, spirit and soul. The important aspect which is lacked by the West is the spiritual and soul aspects. This aspect will make human beings aware their creation and existence in this world. We have to preserve what Allah has given us by doing the righteous deeds and forbid the evil. Self purification is very important. The more knowledge we have will make us closer to our Creator not against Him. NOTES: 1. Al-Qurn, Srat, al-Alaq, verses No. 1-5. 2. Al-Qurn, Srat, al-Ankabt, verse No. 43 3. Al-Qurn, Srat, al-Ankabt, verse No. 49. 4. Ibn Mja. Muhammad ibn Yazd al-Qazwn. (1998). al-Sunan, ed. Muhammad Hasn Nassr. Beirut: Dr al- Kutub al-Ilmiyya, vol. 1, p. 136. 5. Al-Kndilw, Muhammad Idrs. (1354). al-Talq al-S_abh_ al Mishkt al-Mas_bh_, Damascus: Maktabat al- Itidl, vol. 1, p. 163. 6. Ibn Mja, al-Sunan, vol. 1, p. 137. 7. Amr Al. (1967). The Spirit of Islam: a history of the evolution and ideals of Islam, with a life of the Prophet, London: Methuen, pp. 361, 362. 8. Al- Attas, S.M. (1979), Aims and objectives of Islamic education. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia King Abdulaziz university , p. 1 9. Illich,I. (1998). In lieu of education. In M.S.Prakash and G.Esteva (Eds), Escaping education: Living as learning within grassroots cultures. New York, NY, Peter Lang. 10. Al- Attas, S.M. (1979), Aims and objectives of Islamic education. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia King Abdulaziz university , p. 1
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11. Al-bukhari, 1999, No. 274, p.126). 12. Zarnj, Burhn al-Islm. (1948). Talm al-Mutallim T_arq al-Taallum, Cairo: Matbaat Mustaf al-Bb al-Halab, p. 9. 13. Ghunayma, Muhammad Abd al-Rahm. (1953). Trkh al-Jmit al-Islmyya al-kubr, Titwn: Dr al-Tiba al-Maghribiyya, pp. 133-136; 14. Al-Farabi. (1983). Tahsil al-saada, edited by Jaafar al-Yasin, Beirut, Dar al-Andalus, p. 61. 15. Al-Farabi. (1987). Al-Tanbih ala sabil al-saada, edited by Jaafar al-Yasin, Beirut, Dar al-manahil, p. 73. 16. Al-Farabi, Al-Burhan, manusc. Maktabat Michkat, Tehran University, No. 140/10, p. 174. 17. Al-Farabi. (1346.H). Al-Daawa al-qalbiya, Hyderabad, India, The Ottoman Encyclopedia, p. 11. 18. Ibid.

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September 2012), pp.30-34

NON-VIOLENCE AND LOVE: A GANDHIAN APPRAISAL Krishna Paswan Abstract Non-violence is the guiding principle and Love is the way of life. These two concepts are closely associated with each other; we cant separate them. The writer tries to establish the relation between Non-violence and Love in his own thinking in the light of Gandhis life and his philosophy. The principle of non-violence is not a new concept. It has been preached from times immemorial. In the history of man we come across many sages like Socrates, Jesus, and Buddha, who preached and practiced non-violence. Gandhi had been inspired by their life and teachings and tries to apply the technique of non-violence to every walk of life. Gandhi understands non-violence as the essential mental behaviour. It means the absence of illwill. This negative conception of harmlessness includes a positive or rather, dynamic notion, namely that of actively resisting wrongness. Resistance implies dissociating oneself from evil activities, it well out the root of structural violence and isolate evil for sheer lack of co-operation. Besides this active sense of non-violence, there is another positive meaning to it: one should serve one's immediate neighbours. Non-violent activity can be intensified by serving a limited group. This positive activity cannot due to human limitations, be extended to all sentient creatures. Non-violence can be universal mainly in the negative sense of non-exploitation but this larger concept has as its nucleus the more limited, if not local, concept of active service. Gandhi's greatness as a leader and thinker lay in his transformation of the individualistic message of non-violence into a successful technique for direct mass action. Violence is a comprehensive category and is manifested both at the personal and the institutional level. Evil thoughts, sentiments of revenge and brutality, verbal pugnacity and even accumulation of unnecessary things represent examples of personal violence. Falsehood, trickery, intrigues, chicanery and deceitfulness are also norms of violence, according to the comprehensive connotation given to the term by Gandhi. Physical punishment, imprisonment, capital punishment and wars represented examples of violence committed by government. Economic exploitation and strangulation of others are also manifestations of violence. Non-violence is hence, necessarily, equally comprehensive and represents, the total neutralization of violence in all forms. Ahis is not mere the negative acts of refraining from doing offence, injury and harm to others but really its represents the ancient law of positive self-sacrifice and constructive suffering. Gandhi interpreted it as signifying utter selflessness and universal love. The ultimate aim of Ahis is even to love the so-called enemies or opponents. It even implies the cultivation of gladness and felicity involved in suffering for others. Ahis is implicitly latent in all human
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beings because all are sharers in the divine spiritual reality and its culmination is the negation of self-subsistent particularity and a realization of the feeling of love and substantive unity with the whole of creation. It is the substitution of arrogance, antagonism and alienation by love. Hence, Gandhi wrote in his Autobiography, "I must reduce m self to zero. Ahis is the farthest limit of humanity." Ahis is thus conceived by Gandhi, is a power of profound social import. Aristotle had said that friendship (philia) is the cohesive bind of communities. Gandhi also pleaded for brotherly ethic and believed that Ahis has, almost an obligatory and compelling power to bring peace and unity to the world. Ahis is the attitude of harmlessness even to the wrongdoer. Gandhi goes a step further and says that it implies positive love even to the wrong-doer. But this does not mean rendering any help to the wrong-doer in the prolongation of his wrong. It was the experience of Gandhi that the situation of all the problems of human relations lives in Ahis. Ahis is more powerful than the his. Ahis led towards love and respect for each other and impairs to treat all human beings as equal. Gandhi considered ahims as world's most active strength. For him, Ahis was the sum total of social virtues. Truthfulness, forbearance, fearlessness-these virtues are closely associates with Ahis. In a society of all humans have good faith for each other than no individual or group will commit any injustice. The society will build on this basis will have peace, balance and uniformity. This is the ideal society of Gandhi. For practicing Ahis, Gandhi provides another helpful suggestion; distinguish between actor and his actions. Hate the sin and not the sinner. Gandhi finds that one's inability to make such distinction "leads to the poison of hatred spread in the world". He knows it is a precept easy to understand, but difficult to practice. Gandhi's regards that "Man and his deed are two distinct things. Whereas a good deed shall call forth approbation and a wicked deed disapprobation, the doer of the deed' whether good or wicked, always deserves respect or pity as the case may be. Gandhi's appealing for the respect and empathy for the doer of the deed, whether good, bad or ugly underlines his compassion which is in many ways similar to the antidote of 'loving kindness' as applied for subduing personal hatred in Buddhism. He takes on the challenge of equability in reaching out to his opponents in India and South Africa. Non-violence practised in thought, speech and action. For one who follows the principle of non-violence, there is no room for enmity in his thinking. This implies that for the full play of violence, only the party need believe in it. The principle to be followed in action is universal. One has to apply the same rules to a wrong-doer as to one's own father or son. We must not forget that Gandhi did was an experiment in the use of non-violence. Gandhi was trying to evolve new methodology. To quote Gandhi, Ahis is the worlds great principles which no power on earth can wipe out. Thousands like myself may die to vindicate the ideal but Ahis will never die. And the gospel of Ahis can be spread only through believers dying for the cause. Let those who believe in non-violence as the only method of achieving real freedom, keep the lamp of non-violence burning bright in the midst of the present impenetrable gloom. The truth of the few will count; the untruth of millions will vanish like chaff before a whiff of wind.1 Mahatma Gandhi was an apostle of non-violence. His concept of non-violence is intimately related with his other notions like, love, truth, God and Satyagraha. All of these notions are closely associated with non-violence. So is very difficult tusk to discuss these notions separately. By the way, I have tries to discuss how the concept of non-violence is related to love and the effective practice of these two concepts.
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Non-violence and Love and their relation Earlier we discussed the positive and negative forms of non-violence. The negative form of nonviolence is represents abstaining from wrong doing. But in the positive form of non-violence, it is purely love and not anything else. Non-violence is a positive force though negative in expression. It is a force of love. One should love all in order to be non-violence. Even though the adversary is violent, a non-violent fighter should respond with love. The words of the Bible love thy enemies is very pertinent in understanding the practice of non-violence. Gandhi has insisted that no one should be considered an enemy in this world. This is closely associated with the Buddhist concept of Maitri (friendship) one of foremost Brahmabihra. Maitri is also considered as you should love not only of your friends, but you unconditionally love of your enemies. Love, the active state of Ahis - requires you resist the wrong-doer by dissociate yourself from him, even though it may offend him or injure him physically. Thus if my son lives a life shame, I may not help him to do so by continuing to support him; on the contrary my love for him requires me to withdraw all support from him although it may mean even his death. And the same love imposes on me the obligation of welcoming him to my bosom when he represents. But I may not by physical force compel my son to become good. In its positive form of Ahis means largest love, the greatest charity. If I am a follower of Ahis I must love of my enemy. I must apply the same rules to the wrong-doer, who is my enemy or stranger to me, as I would to my wrong-doing father or son. The active Ahis necessarily includes Truth and fearlessness. As man cannot deceive the loved one, he does not fear or frighten him or her. Gift of live is the greatest gifts; a man who gives it in reality, disarms all hostility. He has paved the way for an honourable understanding. And non who himself subject to fear can bestow that gift. He must, therefore, be himself fearless. Only he who has experienced such love can know what it is. As the hymn says: Only he Who is smitten with the arrows of love, Knows its power. (Autobiography, 20) This was for Gandhi, an object-lesson in Ahis. When such Ahis becomes all embracing, it transforms everything it touches. There is no limit to its power. It is no non-violence if we merely love those that love us. It is non-violence only when we love those that hate us. I know how difficult it is to follow this grand Law of Love. But are not all great and good things difficult to do? Love of the hater is the most difficult of all. But, by the grace of God, even this most difficult thing becomes easy to accomplish if we want to do it.2 When Gandhi was fighting the British for the Independence of India, he always made a distinction between the British Imperialism and the individual English man. He emphatically said that he was fighting against evil of British imperialism but not the Britishers. He considers every Btitishers his fellow-man and friend. He wanted all the Indians to love the Britishers as fellow human beings in order to be truly non-violent. When Gandhi was wanted to return India, but the people of South Africa gave a condition to Gandhi that is if we face any difficulty within a year you must came. And Gandhi already fall in love of the people of South Africa as Mirabai sang:

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The Lord has bound me With the cotton-thread of love, I am His bondslave, (Autobiography, p.164) That is say, in describing love, Gandhi combines the working definitions love with the positive and the negative elements of ahimsa insofar as integration of the responsibility of self-and communal realisation is necessary for the realisation of truth. Love for the self is as significant as love for the other and for the community as a whole. Gandhis choice of the term Love is interesting because of its intensity. Rather that discusses care or responsibilities, which are open to interpretation of scope and passion. Love denotes a very particular, albeit indefinite, depth and zeal that incorporates near extreme elements of care and responsibility. Nonetheless, its definition is not limited to these elements. As Kierkegaard describes from the Christian tradition, in his Works of Love: There is no word in human language, not one single one, not the most sacred one, about which are able to say: If a person uses this word, it is unconditionally demonstrated that there is love in the person. On the contrary, it is even true that a word from one person can convince us that there is love in him (sic), and the opposite word from another can convince us that there is love in him also. It is true that one and the same word can convince us that love abides in the one who said it and does not in the other, who nevertheless said the same word. (Kierkegaard 1995, p.13) Kierkegaard insists that the emotion of love is best expressed through action, yet he does so without ever providing a steadfast definition of love. Combine the indescribable yet value-laden emotion love with Gandhis idea of God and Truth, and the use of the term love to describe Truth in action becomes apparent. Truth as love underscores the all-embracing nature of Absolute Truth. Further, the first aspect of Gandhis concept of love could be traces in its invisible association with truth. In fact, Gandhi stressed on connecting humility with service. As humility itself is a high moral value and one of the superior characteristics of human beings, it is necessary that in service through humility love for all living beings, and particularly for humanity remains intact. It is also necessary for the reason that sacrifice is inevitable in live; in it priorities remain for others pleasure and prosperity, even readiness to sacrifice ones life for others. Particularly, in context of humility Gandhi has put forth, A life of service must be one of humility. He, who would sacrifice his life for others, has hardly time to reserve for himself a place in the sun. (India of My Dreams, p.63) Gandhis conception of love is the basis of peace. In other words, pathway to peace goes through love. There is a broad concept in its root and without a doubt it could be connected to Gandhis commitment to Ahis. Moreover, those who are familiar with Gandhis idea they well know that he sees Ahis in love. For Gandhi love was both a spiritual and a social power. As a spiritual force love presented the means to experience God, of truth. Loving others or practicing ahimsa, is the highest virtue, treating all beings as oneself. Truth for Gandhi was God that pervaded all beings and unified them through love. To love God is to love the beings through which God is incarnate. When you want to find truth as God the only inevitable means is Love, i.e., non-violence. On a social scale love provides moral principles about how to live: Unfortunately for us, we are strangers to the non-violence of the brave on a mass scale.......I hold that non-violence is not
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merely a personal virtue. It is also a social virtue to be cultivated like the other virtues. Surely society is largely regulated by the expression of it on a larger, national and international scale. 3 Love encourages honest relations between people and urges care for the needy and sick. Gandhi was looking for a more mature love based upon positive appreciation for the divine that exists within each of us. He promoted a spiritual form of love: Man as animal is violent, but as spirit is non-violent. The moment he awakens to the spirit within he cannot remain violent. Either he progresses towards ahimsa or rushes to his doom.4 This mature love enables human beings to transcend bodily need and develop an intimate relationship with God. Hence, love is the ornament of life and simultaneously an unambiguous and practical way to human unity. That is why; Gandhi said in Young India, We shall go from love to love and peace to peace. For, until at least cores from all the corners of the world are covered with that love and peace for which, the whole world is hungering. So love multiply many folds, because love breeds love; and leads human beings towards their true union. References: 1. Contemporary Society: A Gandhian Appraisal, p.166-67, As it is found, Harijan: 19.5.1946. 2. The Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol-vi, The Voice of Truth, Shriman Narayan, Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmadabad, India, 1968. 3. R.P. Misra and K. D. Gangrade (edt), Gandhian Alternative: Non-violence-in-Action, (Vol. 2), Concept Publication Company, New Delhi, 2005, p. 62. 4. Ibid, p.66.

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)


Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.35-44

THE ROLE OF PHILOSOPHY BEHIND THE GROWTH OF HERO WORSHIP IN MEDIEVAL KERALA Sheena Krishnan Ulamparambath

Worshipping heroes (vira) was the general tendency found in the epics,1 mythologies and Puranas. It is learnt that even some of the gods might have had their origin from the cult of heroes. The hero cult was popular in the rural areas of southern region. In reality, the political and social institutions popularized the cult of hero.2 A popular Sanskrit quadruple inscribed on the commemorative hero-stones in the region of Karnataka reads: Jitena labhate Lakshmi mrtenapi suranganam ksana vidvamsant kaya ka cinta marane rane 3

If you win the battle, you gain Laksmi (wealth) If you die in the battle You gain the damsels of the heaven The human body is mortal and so No need of worrying about death in a battle. The ballads depict a mother, who inculcates heroism in her son by giving an ultimate warning: Nerittuvetti marichathenkil Veettekku nallorumanam thanne Veeralipattu vithanathode Arthuvilichu eduppikkendu Elapula nannai kazhippichekkaam Olivalukondu marichathenkil
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Pachcholayilkketti valippikkendu Pulayumkudi njan kulikkayilla4

If you are killed in the battle (duel) like a hero Dead body shall be brought Covered with veerali silk in a palanquin Funeral ceremonies with pomp and splendour If you are killed by the deceit of the enemy Or in an encounter by his sword Dead body shall be carried Covered in green palm leaves.5 This kind of heroism emerged from feudalistic anarchy, while political chaos compelled the individual to master all tactics of a duel or fight. In fact, every one was groomed and moulded to be a fighter and, hence, the entire educational system was shaped to fulfill this social obligation. The rulers of this period appeared to be weak, as they had to depend upon the heroes. On the other hand, the heroes became unquestioned and unchallengeable authority, as they were more adventures and courageous than the rulers. The questions raise here are, How did such society develop? Was there any philosophy behind it? What was the role of philosophy here? Let us have a glance to the then prevailing environment of that particular period. The period between twelfth and seventeenth century was crucial in the history of Kerala. It witnessed several important developments such as the fall of the Chera rulers of Mahodayapuram, rise of petty principalities and establishment of their ascendancy as political entities, rise of landlords (naduvazhis) as independent rulers, large scale establishment of agrarian settlements, development of trade and commerce, rise of trading centers (particularly in the north of Kerala), new ports, rise and growth of guilds, proliferation of castes and sub-castes, spread of social institutions like gymnasium (kalari), duel fight or sham fight in the form of public combat (ankam), deceit or a kind of duel to settle a dispute in the form of private combat (poithu) and family feud (kutippaka), establishment of the socio-religious institution known as devadasi system, the matrilineal system of inheritance (marumakkathayam), large scale construction of temples, disputes between the Brahmins and rulers, the tussle between Brahmins and locals, conflict between landlords (naduvazhis) and tenants (kudiyan), evolution of Malayalam as a separate language and literary medium, growth of Manipravalam literature, progress in art and, above all, the crystallization of a regional idiom which was distinct from the neighbouring cultures of Tulu, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

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The medieval period of Kerala history was often equated with political instability, social insecurity and cultural degeneration due to the political fragmentation and cultural insularity. The feudalism, which started in India in the fourth century A.D. reached its climax in the eleventh and twelfth century A.D.,6 states Sharma. This was applicable in the case of Kerala also. The landed aristocracy and the landed intermediaries swelled because of secular and religious land grants and inclusion of tribal elements in it.7 Whenever they required any service, especially military, the Nairs and Nambiars were supposed to send their military men to them and in lieu, lands were granted to them. In Kerala there was a landlord system known as attipper, by which the landlords (jenmis) could sell their lands to any one.8 This was the prevailing environment of Kerala after the breakup of the Chera Empire and the situation was worse in the northern part. Being far away from the central authority, the northern part was dominated by the feudal lords. Absence of direct control and proper attention resulted in anarchy here. When the landlords started oppressing peasants and common people the situation became worse. The feudal lords acted like independent rulers, and being free from the Chera sovereignty, they were able to bring the entire territory under their sway. In the above circumstances, ordinary people preferred some saviours and a sort of security in order to lead a peaceful life. This desire paved the way for the emergence of certain heroes and heroines, who came forward as their protectors. The common people welcomed them warmly and offered maximum support to them. The ruling authority was not aware of such developments, as it was busy with trade and commerce. The actions and reactions of the common people, the desire of the heroes and heroines to become popular and the respect given by the people to them enabled Kerala, especially northern part, to develop martial traditions. In this context, the hero worship and the practice of erecting hero stones came into being, since their protectors were considered as heroes by the entire society.9 Gymnasiums (kalaris) were widely established especially in northern parts, which produced many heroes and heroines and, hence, the duel fighting became a common phenomena. We find that a new environment was created based on martial art and this was due to the absence of a strong monarchy which came to an end in the year 1122 A.D.10 Othenan, a celebrated hero of the ballads, was bold enough even to quarrel with Lokanar Kavilamma, the deity of the Lokanarkavu temple.

Mumbil nilkkum bhagavatiyo bhagavatiyennu njan vekkayilla ellam nirathinjanellotikkum.11

I will not consider The Bhagvati standing in front of me I will destroy everything.

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The word, ana tadutalum nilkkayilla (he will not be checked by even the elephant) shows his strong determination to have his ways and determination. The martial heritage of the Kerala Christians was as glorious as their heritage in religion and culture. That they were accomplished soldiers was well documented, but not known widely. Some of the decrees of the Synod of Diampier (June 1599 A.D.) were basic documents which throw a flood of light on the martial role of the Kerala Christians. Attesting their martial tradition, Antonio Gouvea states that they went about with swords, shields, and some with guns and lances.12 It is clear from the medieval records that the Christians employed by the kings as soldiers were not distinguishable from Nair soldiers and majority of men in the army of the ruler of Cochin were Christians. Thomas states that the medieval Kerala Christians who, immediately after a Christian child became proficient in the alphabet and basic lessons of traditional teaching, was sent to the physical training centers situated in the village.13 Later the Synod of 1599 insists the Christians not to worship non-Christian gods and goddesses of kalaris (gymnasium) and not to get training in martial arts from Hindu instructors. It indicates that they were familiar with martial arts. The Muslims of Kerala also had their martial tradition. The Mappilas were allowed to carry with them the swords, like Nairs, says Karim.14 The navy of the Zamorins, the rulers of Calicut, the pioneering one, under the command of Kunchali Marakkars, recorded many heroic chapters in the naval history of the Arabian Sea. The Kunchali Marakkars realized the significance of freedom of the Indian Ocean and kept vigilance against its occupation by the enemies.15 Indian seamen led by the Kunchalis found themselves in a deadly grapple with the worlds greatest maritime power of the medieval period, suffered initial reverses, but continued the struggle to a successful conclusion at the end,16 states Nambiar. They fought for a century against the Portuguese to maintain the freedom of navigation in the Arabian Sea.17 Kerala was a great maritime power from the fourth century onwards and this maritime power saw its peak in this very region under the Kunchali Marakkars in the medieval period. After Marakkars, the glory of Indias maritime powers recorded a sharp decline,18 says K.K.N. Kurup. Kunchali Marakkars were powerful naval warriors, who made task of the Portuguese to control the Malabar Coast virtually impossible. The Kunhalis fought fearlessly against the Portuguese and defeated them repeatedly, and have thus left a distinct mark on Indias maritime history. Four generations of Kunchali Marakkars were the hereditary naval chiefs of the Zamorin rulers of Calicut. The first of the Kunchalis was a specialist in the art of hit and run tactics.19 He is believed to be the real founder of guerilla warfare at sea. Yet, at the end, Zamorin, his master who allied with the Portuguese, jointly attacked the Kunchalis fortifications at Kottakkal. However, the brave Kunchalis could not be subdued. The Zamorin and the Portuguese led their forces against the Kunchalis. After having made the Portuguese suffer frequent defeats in battles, he was finally defeated and captured as a prisoner. The valour of Kunhali captured as many as fifty Portuguese Naval ships. In 1571, the Zamorins Navy under the Kunhalis inflicted a resounding defeat on the Portuguese fortification at Chaliyam. This defeat was a turning point in the history of the Portuguese in Kerala. This tremendous defeat could be achieved only because of the valour of the Kunhali Marakkars. Kunhali, the third consolidated the famous Puthupattanam fort near Kottakkal River in Vadakara and dominated the sea off the Malabar Coast during his era. He

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conclusively defeated the Portuguese in two naval battles in 1586 and 1589, pushing them to go in for peace with the Zamorins. Kunhali, the fourth further consolidated the fortifications at Kottakkal by installing the latest cannons. It is at this point of time that the Kunhalis and the Zamorins fell apart. Finally, Zamorins decided to ally with the Portuguese against Kunhalis and jointly attacked the Kunhalis fortifications at Kottakkal in 1598. However, the brave Kunhalis could not be subdued. In 1600 the Zamorins again led their forces against the Kunhalis with the Portuguese fleet helping them from the sea. Unable to retaliate this time Admiral Kunhali decided to surrender. The Zamorin handed over Kunhali to the Portuguese in accordance with the mutual understanding they had. The Portuguese had promised an honourable treatment to their mutual foe. However, upon capturing Kunhali the Portuguese betrayed.20 Unable to retaliate, the admiral Kunchali decided to surrender.21 The Zamorin handed him over to the Portuguese and he was sent to Goa. Later he was executed along with his nephew and forty other prisoners. His body was quartered and exhibited on the beach at Bardes and Panjim. His head was salted and conveyed to Kannur, where it was stuck on a stand to terrorize the local community.22 His martyrdom represents the spirit of bravery and sacrifice. Erection of memorial stones for the dead warriors and religious personages became an important component in the hero worship from the third century A.D. to sixteenth century A.D.23 Memorial stones were erected as a mark of respect and admiration for a hero who died for a noble cause.24 The erection of a hero stone was intended to make the heroism of that person known to the world at large.25 In some parts of south India, hero stones were erected even in the thirteenth century.26 Such examples were rare in Kerala. So far, only one such inscribed hero stone has been discovered from the Kaliyamballi village in the northern part, commemorating the death of a soldier named Martandan about the eleventh century. Though the practice of erecting hero stones was rare in Kerala unlike the other regions like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, the practice of hero and spirit worship was widely prevalent here, especially in the northern part. They propitiated the spirit of the heroes by performing ritual dances called Teyyam and Tira. Now also they perform ritualistic dances as a part of hero and spirit worship.27 This culture extended to Tuluva (Karnataka) also.28 The Tuluva people indulged in spirit worship of heroes as well as evil spirits like kalkuda.29 Another custom prevalent in south India was the self-sacrifice due to intense devotion.30 In this custom, a devotee offers his head and immolates himself. This rite is called midi-tala in Telugu, and talai-bali in Tamil. The temple where the people of religious spirit used to cut off their head to end their lives was known as Champudu Gudi. Marco Polo traced similar custom in Malabar. He noticed that a culprit who is condemned to die, sticks himself twelve daggers into various parts of the body, then places a sharp two-handled knife behind his head, against the nape of his neck, and then pulls it violently forwards, and cuts his neck himself. His relatives are reported to rejoice over this incident. The over powering desire to sacrifice oneself in a fanatic religious devotion, made the devotee spill his own blood on the alter of his deity by cutting open his heart, his belly or any part of his body or to pluck out and offer his eyes, when ever necessary.31

The Virabhadras, a sect of Saivism, are said to have performed heroic deeds such as cutting of their scrotum, stomach and head for the protection of the village from natural calamities. This
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kind of self-sacrifice of the heroes became a remarkable feature in Andhra Pradesh in medieval period. Women also observed self-immolation to offer their lives by cutting their throats. Memorial stones were erected for satis and were found either at the graves of the dead or in the vicinity of the granted land.32 An interesting feature of the hero cult is that it was prevalent only in the rural areas, battlefields, religious centers and temple complexes. The urban settlements and the market places hardly became hero cult centers. It indicates that the hero worship was popular only among the pastoral and peasant communities rather than the mercantile and other social groups. In Kerala, unlike other south Indian regions, the hero stones were scanty due to the political and economic setup, as the society was deeply involved in commercial activities. Instead of erecting hero stones, they developed some ritual arts and dances in order to propitiate the heroes and heroines, who sacrificed their lives. It may be noted here that the socio-economic and politico-religious structure of the medieval feudal complex gave sufficient background to the large-scale prevalence of hero worship in the southern region. Hence, we are constrained to conclude that the martial traditions and hero worship was a prominent feature of the medieval period. Notes: 1. The word vira is a Sanskrit word. See, Williams Monier Monier, 1899, A Sanskrit English Dictionary with Special Reference to Indo- European Languages, Oxford University Press, London, p. 1005. Vira = a man, a brave or eminent man, hero, chief. 2. The practice culminated in the cult of hero worship and heroism became popular in medieval Kerala, as the society and state apparatus patronized hero worship. An institution of private combat (poith) is referred to in the northern ballads, in which a dispute between two villages was settled through a fight between two representative groups of fighters. In such institutions, sacrifice of one party was essential and, hence, the person who sacrificed his life was considered as hero and later he was termed as god. Gangadharan T.K., 2000, Evolution of Kerala History and Culture, Calicut University Central Co-operative Stores, Malappuram, p.193. 3. Kurup K.K.N., Memorial Stones and Hero-Worship, p. 65. 4. Achudananthan K.V., Ed., Vatakkanpattukal, pp. I04,117; Kavilpadu A.B.V., 2004, Nadan Vamozhikal, H&C Publishing House, Thrissur, pp. 49-50. 5. Cited in http://www.palmlandtours.net/kerala/tours/kalari/kalaripayatte/kalari.htm. 6. Sharma R.S., Indian Feudalism, p. 23. 7. Chandrasekhara Reddy R., 1994, Heroes, Cults and Memorials, Andhra Pradesh, 300 A.D. 1600 A.D., New Era Publications, Madras, p. 449. 8. The word attipper has been derived from the word attuka (to give or to donate). See, Warrier M.I., Narayana Bhattatiry E.P and Radhakrishna Warrier K., 2004, MalayalamEnglish Dictionary, D.C. Books, Kottayam, p. 26, attipper = freehold (right), deed of complete sale or gift. Through this system, the landlords (jenmis) were able to sell their lands at any time. From eighteenth century onwards, it came to be known as jenmam. For more details see, Balussery Shreeni, 10 January 2006, Attipper, Mathrubhumi, Maduram Malayalam.
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9. K.N. Kurup says that even in the very dawn of human history heroes were given a respectful place in the society and after their demise, they were generally deified and worshipped by the people. Kurup K.K.N., 1980, Arya-Dravida Ghatakangal Malabarile Natankalayil, Sandhya Publications, Calicut University, p. 37. 10. South Indian Inscriptions, Archaeological Survey of India, 1890-1990, Vol. VIII, No. 221, p. 114; Travancore Archaeological Series, Vol. III, 1912, p. 1412. According to M.G.S. Narayanan, the last Cheraman ruled over Kerala until the year 1122 A.D. See, South Indian Inscriptions, Archaeological Survey of India, 1890-1990, Vol. VIII, No. 221, pp.114-115. 11. Vijayaraghavan T.K., 2000, Vatakkanpattile Nayikanayakanmar, Ed., Raghavan Payyanad, in Vatakkanpattu Pathanangal, Centre for Folklore Studies, University of Calicut, p. 70. 12. Antonio, as quoted in Antony E.P., Martial Heritage of Lathin Catholics, p.117. 13. Ibid. 14. Kareem C.K., 1976, Kerala District Gazetteers, Palghat, Kerala Gazetteers, Trivandrum, p. 103. 15. Krishna Ayyar K.V., 1999, The Zamorins of Calicut, From the Earliest Times Down to A.D. 1806, Publication Division, University of Calicut, Malappuram, p.1. 16. Nambiar O.K., 1963, The Kunjalis, Admirals of Calicut, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, Preface, p. 7. 17. Mathew K.S., 1997, Ship-building and Navigation in the Indian Ocean Region (A.D. 1400-1800), Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, p. 16. 18. Kurup K.K.N., 1997, The Role of Kunchali Marakkars, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, p. 1. 19. Greeshmalatha A.P. and Victor Raja Manackam G., The Race Boats of Kerala and their Tradition: Some Observations, Ed., Mathew K.S. in Ship Building and Navigation in the Indian Ocean Region A.D. 1400 to 1800 A.D., p. 59. It is quite amazing that they were able to hit and damage the huge Portuguese ships only with the help of small boats. For this purpose, it is believed that they used snake boat (chundan vallam or kothumbu vallam or palliyodam). This is believed to be the battle ship, which had special advantages for navel battles. Odivallam (iruttukutti vallam), a fast moving craft was constructed for the purpose of chasing pirates, sea robbers and tax evaders. Odi means to turn to the desired direction at moment. It is termed as iruttukkutti, as it is said that its speed even challenged the darkness. It maintained more speed than even the machine boats. 20. Kurup K.K.N., The Role of Kunhali Marakkars, pp. 4-5. 21. Ibid. 22. Nambiar O.K., op. cit., p. 140.

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23. Chandrashekhara Reddy R., Cults and Memorials, Andhra Pradesh, 300 A.D. to 1600 A.D., p. 31. 24. An inscription dated 1190 A.D. refers to a person called Somayya who died while protecting the womenfolk. His elder brother was said to have erected a hero stone in his memory.http://www.kamat.com/database/books/sociallife/women_status.htm; http://www.kamat.com/database/books/sociallife/leisure.htm. 25. The earliest historical evidences of hero worship in south India are found in Sangam literature. Pattinappalai and Malaipatukatan throw light on erecting hero stones (virakkallu) in memory of the heroes. Hero stones commemorated soldiers who fell in war and these stones were often worshipped as godly. The Sangam poet like Munkutikizhar paid rich tribute to these heroes and hero stones in his poems. http://www.kamat.com/database/books/sociallife/women_status.htm; http://www.kamat.com/database/books/sociallife/leisure.htm. 26. The Bhandipur inscription of 1239 A.D. was considered as a Tamil inscription related to one Katiyan Pillai. It is interpreted that it is a hero stone erected in memory of one Katiyan Pillai, who fought against the highway robbers and was murdered by them. http://www.kamat.com/database/books/sociallife/women_status.htm; http://www.kamat.com/database/books/sociallife/leisure.htm. 27. Kurup K.K.N., Arya-Dravida Ghatakangal Malabarile Natankalayil, p. 45. 28. The Tulu ballads (Tulu Padadanas) deal with the heroes like Koti and Chennayya. Ramachandragauda H.S., Vatakkanpattukalum Karnataka Veerakathagana Parambaryavum, Ed., Raghavan Payyanad, in Vatakkanpattu Pathanangal, pp. 248-256. 29. The spirits of kalkuda spread not only in Tuluva but in northern Kerala also, where he was known as Chathukutty or Kuttychathan. Practically, every Bhoota worshipped by the Tuluvas represents some famous heroes or heroines. Heroes like Koti and Chennayya, described in the heroic songs (Tulu Paddanas) are still propitiated in the Bhoota cult. These worship centers were known as Garadi, which denotes a gymnastic centre (derived from Khaloorika, a Sanskrit term for such an institution). During the medieval period, the Garadis acted as advanced centers of training in physical culture and weaponry like the kalaris of Kerala. Ramachandragauda H.S., op.cit., pp. 248-256. 30. Polo Marco, 2002, The Travels of Marco Polo, Reprint, English Translation, Aldo Ricci, Rupa and Co., New Delhi, pp. 297-298. 31. Chandrashekhara Reddy R., Cults and Memorials, Andhra Pradesh, 300 A.D. to 1600 A.D., pp. 61-78. 32. Recently, a masti-stone was discovered in Pulppalli village of south Wayanad. This indicates the prevalence of the practice of erecting stones in memory of chaste women. Narayanan M.G.S., Perumals of Kerala, Kerala University, Trivandrum, 1972, Appendix, Serial No.81, Index No. B, I.

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References: Primary Source: Achuta Menon C. and Nair S.K., 1955, Ed., Vatakkan Pattukal, University of Madras, Madras. Chelanat Achyutha Menon, 1935, Ed., Vatakkan Pattukal, University of Madras, Madras. Kareem C.K., 1976, Kerala District Gazetteers, Palghat, Kerala Gazetteers, Trivandrum. Polo Marco, 2002, The Travels of Marco Polo, Reprint, English Translation, Aldo Ricci, Rupa and Co., New Delhi. Secondary sources English Chandrasekhara Reddy R., 1994, Heroes, Cults and Memorials, Andhra Pradesh, 300 A.D. 1600 A.D., New Era Publications, Madras. Chandrasekaran A and Govinda Reddy P., 1999, Some Aspects in the History of Tamil Nadu A Study in Socio-Political and Cultural Spheres, Sri Sivasakthi, Chennai. Gangadharan T.K., 2000, Evolution of Kerala History and Culture, Calicut University Central Co-operative Stores, Malappuram. Ibrahimkunju A.P., 2007, Medieval Kerala, International Centre for Kerala Studies, University of Kerala, Trivandrum. John K.J., 1981, Christian Heritage of Kerala, L.M. Pylee Felicitation Committee, Kerala Times Buildings, Cochin. Kurup K.K.N., 1977, Aryan and Dravidian Elements in Malabar Folklore: A Case Study of Rama Villiam Kalakam, Kerala Historical Society, Trivandrum. Kurup K.K.N., 1997, India's Naval Traditions, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi. Kurup K.K.N., 1997, Kunchali Marakkars, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi. Kurup K.K.N., 1996, New Dimensions in South Indian History, Association for Peasant Studies, University of Calicut, Thenjippalam. Kurup K.K.N., 2000, The Cult of Teyyam and Hero Worship in Kerala, Centre for Folklore Studies, University of Calicut, Thenjippalam. Mathew K.S., 1997, Ship-building and Navigation in the Indian Ocean Region (A.D. 14001800), Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. Nambiar O.K., 1963, The Kunjalis, Admirals of Calicut, Asia Publishing House, Bombay. Sreedhara Menon A., 1991, A Survey of Kerala History, S. Viswanathan Printers and Publishers, Madras. Sreedhara Menon A., 1996, Cultural Heritage of Kerala: An Introduction, S. Viswanathan Printers and Publishers, Madras.
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Dictionaries: Apte Vaman Siva Rama, 1990, Sanskrit-Hindi-Kosh, Motilal Banarasidas, Delhi. Warrier M.I., Narayana Bhattatiry E.P and Radhakrishna Warrier K., Malayalam-English Dictionary, 2004, D.C. Books, Kottayam. Williams Monier Monier, 1899, A Sanskrit English Dictionary with Special Reference to IndoEuropean Languages, Oxford University Press, London. Malayalam: Gangadharan T.K., 1993, Kerala Charitram, Central Co-operative Stores, Calicut University, Calicut. Kavilpadu A.B.V., 2007, Nadanpattukal, H &C Publishing House, Thrissur. Kavilpadu A.B.V., 2006, Nadankalakalum Acharangalum, H&C Publishing House, Thrissur. Kavilpadu A.B.V., 2004, Nadan Vamozhikal, H&C Publishing House, Thrissur. Kurup K.K.N., 1995, Adhunika Keralam, Charitra Gaveshana Prabandhangal, State Institute of Languages, Trivandrum. Kurup K.K.N., 1980, Arya-Dravida Ghatakangal Malabarile Natankalayil, Sandhya Publications, Calicut University. Kurup K.K.N., 1998, Mappila Parambaryam, Irshad Publications, Calicut. Raghavan Payyanad, 1998, Kerala Folklore, Folklore Fellows of Malabar Trust, Payyannur. Raghavan Payyanad, University of Calicut. 2000, Vatakkan Pattu Pathanangal, Centre for Folklore Studies,

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)


Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.45-49

ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS: NECESSITY OF NON-ANTHROPOCENTRISM


PANKOJ KANTI SARKAR Abstract The most dangerous propensity of the present human generation is the propensity of enjoying anthropocentrism in every aspect of life that directly or indirectly invites environmental crisis which in turn poses a serious threat to the mankind in general. Anthropocentric attitude of humans degrades environment, devalues nature and made environmental crisis. Nonanthropocentric approach, on the contrary, pleas for a radical change of human attitude towards nature so that nature can be treated not as a mere storehouse of resources, but as the beholder of all biotic and abiotic community. It tries to establish that all non-human living organisms are morally valuable in themselves as each of them possesses intrinsic value irrespective of valuers. To reduce environmental crisis we have to use the method of non-anthropocentrism. Everything would be useless as long as one cannot realize himself, cultivate himself within the parameter of non-anthropocentrism. Environmental ethics is a wing of applied ethics. Environmental ethics consists of the study of normative issues and principles relating to human interactions with the natural environment. It guides individuals, corporate and governments in determining the principles affecting their policies, life styles, and actions across the entire range of environmental issues. Environmental ethics came into existence in response to our feeling that our attitude to nature has actually brought human existence to the brink of destruction. Environmental ethics tells us that like all humans every sentient being deserves equal moral status. It also tells us that all biotic and abiotic community in the world should enjoy equal moral status. Environmental ethics is a kind of ethics which is predominantly concerned with the moral relations between humans and natural world. The ethical principles governing those relations actually determine our duties, obligations and responsibilities with regard to the Earths natural environment and all the animals and plants that inhabited it. The last decades of the Twentieth century witnessed a world-wide environmental crisis. In modern time human beings are alienated from nature, the main cause behind this the development of science and growing of industries and human greed. In the name of development humans are destroying their natural environment. Environmental issues become more serious every day. The major issue is population growth and pollution. For the cause of population growth and industrial development there are much pollution in the world. The number of population growth and industrial development determines the total impact on the environment. There is no question of doubt that in the course of time the relationship between man and nature has been changed beyond imagination. It has been witnessing that in the course of time and with the gradual development of science and technology human attitude towards nature has radically been changed. As a matter of fact the close proximity between man and nature has been
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shattered. There was a cordial relationship of man and nature in ancient period but now as it witnessing in the modern period has been shattered. The non-anthropocentric attitude of man towards nature has been replaced in favour of anthropocentrism which runs with the slogan: Man is the measures of all things. Even in ethics and normative science we witness a dramatic change. In the modern times, mankind totally gets embedded in materialistic ambitions, selfish motives and becomes insensitive towards ecological surroundings. Western thought process has not only evaporated boundaries and sanctity between relations but has also deformed them. Due to this approach animal, birds, trees, vegetation etc., have become only consumables and means to attain selfish motives presented by nature. These feelings are leading into cruel destruction of natural environmental elements and unending race for physical possessions. Due to this vision of extreme materialism, man loses all emotional relations with animals and birds, which now became only objects to demolish or decorate. This vision also leads to negation of family relations, wife, friend, servant, son, etc. and are considered only to fulfill selfish ambition or to satisfy physical and animal instincts. Due to this narrow vision and insensitivity towards relations families, societies and nations are facing problems and everywhere violence and anarchy are prevailing. Our attitude towards nature in modern period is known as anthropocentrism. This theory speaks the centrality of man in nature. In environmental ethics the term describes the attitudes, values and practices, which focus only on human interests or positions rather than the position and interests of other non-human species in the natural world. It places human being at the center of the Universe, and looks upon him as the measurer of all things because only human beings have a soul, rationality and capacity for analyzing and expressing Language. According to this view, man stands apart from nature and is viewed as something to be dominated. Human beings have right to use and control nature according to their own needs and deeds. It holds an independent value exclusively and predominantly for human interests. Only human are the source of all values. All other non-human species exist to sub serves the purpose of humans. So anthropocentrism is concerned only with human interests, excluding the desires, goals and values of non-human species and interprets everything in the world in terms of human values. History learned the lessons at different stages in the past and the future fate would no longer be different. The event of Hiroshima was equally an outburst of extreme egoism, individualism. When Tsunami occurred nobody took the responsibility of this event because it was a natural disaster. But at the same time it is known to all of us that most of the natural calamities today are the outcome of cruel human actions. Series of natural transformations such as global warming, ozone depletion, air, water and soil pollution and many more causes serious threat to mankind in general. Can scientific explanation deny it? Scientific application without ethical value and morality is just like a polluted smoke, an infectious disease that would create an environmental epidemic which would ultimately appear as many Tsunamis in the generation to come. We do need science as well as scientific application, but before this we must be a virtuous being, a global messenger, a Samaritan who can sensitively realize the negative impact of scientific implication. What is needed today is to remind ourselves that nature cannot be destroyed without ultimately mankind being destroyed itself. The problem of environmental degradation and ecological imbalance has put forth the danger in which our human existence is at stake. The scientific and
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technological advancement and western religious beliefs and philosophical ideas are to a great extent responsible for putting us in such a perplexed situation. Non-anthropocentric approach, on the contrary, pleas for a radical change of human attitude towards nature so that nature can be treated not as a mere storehouse of resources, but as the beholder of all biotic and abiotic community. This could be justified in restoring the intrinsic value of natural entities. Non-anthropocentrism brings a message of world harmony where every natural entity maintains a harmonious life with others. It tries to establish that all non-human living organisms are morally valuable in themselves as each of them possesses intrinsic value irrespective of valuers. It annihilates moral hierarchism within biotic communities, restores equal moral status, and restores environmental justice, mutual care, love and sympathy. It equally cultivates individual rationality by means of which one can realize that his own self is no longer different from other and every individual self is essentially merged with the Self. Thus, selfrealization is the most important key to understanding nature. Here one would be a virtuous being who can realize others, feel for others, controls himself from doing mischievous action and confines himself within his basic needs. One can realize that he is a tiny being like many others and he is no longer in a position to dictate nature. He would come to know that his own fortune and own flourishing actually hinges on the contribution of other fellow beings and he cannot survive any more without the survival of others. This realization actually prompts him to care for others, love others, and share with others. Lack of feeling for others is a serious threat of present generation and anthropocentrism in general is responsible for this. So environmental crisis can reduced only with the help of non-anthropocentrism which in turn minimizes the so-called environmental degradation in general. Everything would be useless as long as one cannot realize himself, cultivate himself within the parameter of non-anthropocentrism. According to this position man is not apart from nature but a part of nature. Human species as a product of natural evolution has a considerable affinity with other nonhuman species and has a vulnerable dependence on environmental conditions of existence. In general nature should be understood as a whole and should not be interpreted or viewed from human standpoint only. Natural objects and the earth itself have right to exist within nature. Each of them has their respective potentialities. Some philosophers give arguments in favour of non-anthropocentrism. These are, In The Decent of Man Darwin mentioned that man is a part of nature and one of the products of evolutionary processes. That man is an ecological species but this species has evolved with such unique and unprecedented properties on the animal level that in man the biological evolution has transcended itself.1 Perhaps, Darwin is responsible for the thought that humans are not different from nature, rather one of the products of evolution. Albert Schweitzer in his Reverence for Life mentioned that life itself as such is sacred. Schweitzer opines: We must live accordingly and treat each being as an inherently valuable will-tolive. In my own will-to-live there is yearning for more life and the mysterious exaltation of the will-to-live is called pleasure and terror in the face of annihilation and that injury to the will-to-live is called pain; the same obtains in all the will to live around me: it may express itself to my comprehension or it may remain unvoiced. Ethics thus, consists in the necessity of practicing the same reverence for life toward all will-to-live, as towards my own. It is good to maintain and cherish life; it is evil to destroy and check life.2
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For Paul Taylor, every living individual has a goal, and to have a goal implies that they have a will or desire to attain it. Ones goal is ones good, so all living things are inherently good. 3 Christopher Stone argues in his essay Should trees have standing that we should assign natural objects (rivers, oceans, trees, the atmosphere, animals) legal rights.4 For Arne Naess selfrealization and biotic equality are the two absolute norms for the solution of environmental problems. These two norms naturally lead to the idea that the good of each individual becomes the identification with the good of the whole.5 John Rodman opines, to affirm that natural objects have rights is symbolically to affirm that all natural entities including humans have intrinsic worth, simply by virtue of being what they are. 6 Support of the hands-off-nature approach is provided by George Sessions in his Spinoza perennial philosophy, and deep ecology, where among other things, he describes how Aldo Leopold moved from a position considering humans as stewards or managers of nature to one considering man as plain members of the total biotic community.7 Leopold in his Land Ethics says that A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.8 If we dont cultivate ourselves with the parameter of non-anthropocentrism what response will come from our future? Rabindranath Tagore says about the future of India, Ash dark silence India sitting on skin of deer,-when we finish all our restlessness and take farewell to give our children coat and frock, then India will peacefully wait for our grandsons and the wait does not failed. They will come and say in front of this Pious, Grandfather Give us hymns-which is giving in Bengali, Dao aamaader abhay-mantra, ashok-mantra taba, / Dao aamaader amrita-tantra, dao se jiban naba. / Je jiban chilo taba tapovane, / Je jiban chilo chilo rajasane, /Mukta dipta se mahajiban chitta bhoria laba, /Mrityu-baran, shanka-haran dao je jiban naba. The word of Rabindranath, I was wanted that children were felt that Basundhara foster them within lap like a midwife. They lead their life in brick, wood and stone of city, give freedom them from that life. So far as the above discussion it can be said that the 'environmental crisis' has arisen because of the cumulative number of population and human greed, scientific and industrial development. The 'environmental crisis' is purely outcome from the human actions which have created environmental problems that are characterised by their global reach and long-lasting nature. Therefore, to reduce environmental crisis we have to use the method of non-anthropocentrism. Everything would be useless as long as one cannot realize himself, cultivate himself within the parameter of non-anthropocentrism. Notes: 1. Dobzhanksy, T. Human Nature as a Product of Evolution: The Range of Ethics Harold H. Titus, Morris T. Keeton East-West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1972, p.123. 2. Schweitzer, A. Reverence for Life: Civilization and Ethics trans. A Naish, Blackwell: London 1923. 3. Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature Princeton: NJ Princeton Univ. Press, 1986. 4. Stone, Christopher D. Should Trees have Standing? Towards Legal Rights for Natural Objects Los Altos, William Kaufman, Inc. 1974. 5. Naess, A. The shallow and the deep, long range ecological movement Inquiry 16, Spring 1973. 6. Rodman, J. The liberation of nature Inquiry 20:108 Quoted with emphasis on capitals by George Sessions in Eco-philosophy III, 1997 p.5.
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7. Sessions, G. Spinoza, Perennial Philosophy and Deep Ecology Unpublished Paper 1979 p.15. 8. Leopold, A. A Sand Country Almanac Oxford Univ. Press: NY 1966 p.340. REFERENCES: Attfield, R.(1987). A Theory of Values and Obligation. London, New York and Sydney: Croom Helm. Black, John (1970). Mans Dominion: The Search for Ecological Responsibility. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Blackstone, W T. (ed.) (1974). Philosophy and Environmental Crisis, Athens: University of Georgia Press. Castro, Fidel.(1993) Tomorrow is too Late: Development and the Environmental Crisis in the Third World. Melbourne: Ocean Press. Evernden, N.(1992). The Social Creation of Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Passmore, J. (1980). Mans Responsibility for Nature, 2nd edition, London: Duckworth. Sylvan, Richard and David Bennett (1994). The Greening of Ethics: From Anthropocentrism to Deep-green Theory, Cambridge: White Horse Press; Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press.

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.50-54

EDUCATING PHILOSOPHY AND PEACE THROUGH CINEMATIC SONGS BY HUNSUR KRISHNA MURTHY IN KANNADA CINEMA: A STUDY B.Y. Krishnamurthy Abstract Philosophy means correspond to the diversities of life. This is the etymology meaning of philosophy. The origin of the word is derived from two Greek terms PHILOS and SOPHIA i.e.; love and wisdom. As considered the aesthetics is one of the part in (AESTHETICS: Theory of beauty, relation between truth and beauty etc) classification of philosophy. Cinema as a part of theory of beauty, and a medium of communication which educates, entertain to audiences. That plays a vital role in individuals life passively or actively. Its a mixture of modern aesthetic art blend with Sound and Visuals. Primarily cinema is an entertain medium with songs, music, dance, storyetc. It has maximum capacity to motivate the society. Analytic methodology is used for this study, this paper discuss about Educating philosophy and peace through cinematic songs by Hunsur Krishna Murthy in Kannada cinema. From his lyric writing some of the film songs were identified which educates philosophy and the characterization in songs and the form of character is discussed.. Introduction Its rather difficult to define philosophy in a way that is universally accepted. There are different meanings for philosophy. These meanings correspond to the diversities of life. This is the etymology meaning of philosophy. The origin of the word is derived from two Greek terms PHILOS and SOPHIA PHILOS = Love + SOPHIA = Wisdom

Peace and Power

Philosophy is Peace of Love in Education The ancient geeks believed that a person becomes wise by knowledge and understanding. There is an observation by Plato in his REPUBLIC which reflects the belief that philosophy is that love of knowledge (Education) which makes a man wise and to live wisely was the ideal of human life in those times. He who has a taste for every sort of knowledge and who is curious to learn and is never satisfied may be justly termed a philosopher1 By this one can say that a philosopher is to be interested in all types of knowledge (Education). A physicist is interested in the physical process of the universe, a sociologist in social life. A
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artist in art and likewise persons of different disciplines have their focus of interest .it is quite possible for them to limit their interest in such a way. But when is said to become philosopher are must have interest in all these disciplines it may be wonder whether such multi-dimensional interest is possible to all. But a great score of philosophers of world have provided an answer through their life and works. Philosophy can be conceived of as an activity of criticism, classification and interpretation of life. Philosophy directs life and gets refine an the basis of experiences of life, when person is caught in ambiguous, situations, he thinks about morality, duty, justice, right, goodness, world and its management etc. and reaches his own conclusions. Gandhi as peace lover Gandhiji has titled his biography as MY EXPERMENTS WITH TRUTH once when he was asked to give a message for the world. He said his answer as:my life is my message It is said that philosophy in west was born out of wonder. But philosophy in India emerged as a result of reflection over the experiences and problems of everyday living. Five Classification of Philosophy: a) METAPHYSICS: Nature of time, space, universe, cause and effect relationships, the function and nature of mind etc. b) EPISTEMOLOGY: Method of knowledge, nature and worthiness of knowledge. c) AXIOLOGY: Values, types of values, method of value realization etc. d) LOGIC: analysis of experience etc. e) AESTHETICS: Theory of beauty, relation between truth and beauty etc. Cinema as a Modern Art and Aesthetic : Cinema is as a medium of communication which educates and plays a vital role in individuals life passively or actively. Its a mixture of modern aesthetic art blend with Sound and Visuals. Primarily cinema is an entertain medium with songs, music, dance, storyetc. It has maximum capacity to motivate the society as it is also called as a mirror of the society. Indian films are mixed with musical art which is blend to philosophy (spiritual).ie: Educating through Audio/Video medium. According Hindu religion it is believed that music is taken from Sama Veda. Music is an art which gives solace to everyone. It increase happiness and dismisses sorrows. How nature and art has a close relation, music and soul has same relation which makes mind and body in peace. it is also said music is an universal language of mankind. This is the reason not only expert but also a lay man also can enjoy and appreciate music. Any art, music in particular, will survive and spread only when it reaches people, when it is able to appeal them. Stir their souls and soothe their hearts and mind. When any music is expressive, it automatically becomes impressive. Which gives peace to mind. Thus we can say music as an art is passively educating us in form of entertainment.

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Music in Indian Cinema: Indian cinema entertains millions of audience through cinema and celebrating its 100th year. This industry is a larger producer of movies in the world 800-1000 and regional cinema has its contribution of 10% to 15%. Indian cinema cant be imagined without songs and music. During the days of silent cinema, the cinema hall used to keep an orchestra in front of the screen towards audience by playing background music. Later music was added in between scene music was used as entertain in form of songs. Next it was an integral part of film with song and dance and even dialogues delivery was used in form of songs.1st sound film Alam Ara 1931 had 12 songs in it, Indrasabha contained 70.Directors like Dada Sahib Phalke, Bimal Roy, Sathyajit Ray, Gurudutt, Rajkapoor etc Music directios like Naushad to A.R.Rahman are using music art for peace and Regional films like Bengali, Tamil, Telgu, Kannada..etc also followed the same tradition. Even today we find 10-14 songs and are block busters. Thus music has become a factor in popular films at India, majority of films showcase intimate movements between hero and heroine with a combination of music and lyrics. Music is divided as Indian classical music, Folk music, Western music. Kannada Cinema Industry is celebrating 77 birth year. By remembering the elders who laid the foundation to built the Kannada cinema Industry (Sandalwood) reach its 77th birth year. In the beginning decade Gubbi Veranna's decision,Shankarsinhg's detrimation in new innovations, Nagendrayas social intreats, Panthalus Emotions, Subbia Naydiu's and lakshmi bai's acting Hunusur Krishna Murthyetc .Experiment,Silent, Talkie, Black and White, Eastman color, Mono to Sterophone, 35mm to Cinema scope,3D 4D, animation, graphics, digital technology it has it own story nearly 3000 + movies has been projected in this land. Hunusur Krishnamurthy Hunusur Krishna murthy, one of the beginners who laid the foundation to Kannada film industry and regard as a legend in making Mythological, Bhakthi oriented films. Born at Hunusur to Mr.Rajarao and Smt Padamavathi on Feb, 9th, 1941.later on at young age moved to Bombay and worked with famous personalitys and return back to Karnataka became famous for his dialogue writings, as a poet, Theater artist, Director.etc. Expired on Feb,13th,1989.by contributing his experience by work to society .from silent era to color. But his works keep him alive until cinema is present. Filmography: As a Director: 1950s,1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Shiva Kotta Saubhagya (1985) Shivakanya (1984) Shivakanye (1984) Bhakta Dnyanadeva (1981) Edeyuru Siddhalingeshwara (1981) Kurubara Lakka (1981) Shiva Mahima (1981) Siddhalingeshwara Mahima (1981) Bhakta Siriyala (1980)
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10. Guru Sarvabhowma Shri Raghavendra Karune (1980) 11. Babruvahana (1977) 12. Veer Arjun (1977) 13. Veera Sindhoora Lakshmana (1977) 14. Mantra Shakti (1975) 15. Bhakta Kumbhara (1974) 16. Jaga Mechida Maga (1972) 17. Vishakanya (1971) 18. Addadari (1968) 19. Devara Gedda Manava (1967) 20. Devuni Gelichina Manavudu (1967) 21. Shri Kannika Parameshwari Kathe (1966) 22. Madhuve Madi Nodu (1965) 23. Satya Harishchandra (1965/I) 24. Veera Sankalpa (1964) 25. Ratnamanjari (1962/I) 26. Ratnamanjari (1962/II) 27. Mera Suhaag (1961) 28. Ashasundari (1960) 29. Ramasundari (1960) 30. Shri Krishna Garudi (1958/I) Awards: 1st Puttana Kanagal Awardee Received National and State award. Philosophy is Peace of Love in Knowledge PHILOS = Love is peace + = Peace and Power SOPHIA = Wisdom (Education) is power

Marga

Message through a Findings from Songs: character for songs Concept that Educates audience Social class, Castes, Peace Values, 1.KARMAMARGA Drunker with a Principles FilmSathya evil look, Cruel Preaching of: Buddha, Basavana, Harichandra Dr.Ambedakar, Mr.Gandhi 2.JANAMARGA Modern educated Life up and down, Childhood, Adult, Film-Bangarada youth Old age, Honesty, sorrows,Birth-Death manusha family Spiritual 3.BHAKTHIMARGA Devotional person. Human body is filled with muscular Film-Bhaktha
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Kumbara

and bones, it has ego only till its represents life. but later on it is dumped as non-living thing

Conclusion: Cinema is as a edutainment medium that communicates and plays a vital role in inviduals life passively or actively. Its a mixture of modern aesthetic art blend with sound and visuals. Primarily cinema is an entertain medium with songs, music, dance, storyetc. It has maximum capacity to motivate and educates the society, as it is also called as a mirror of the society. But todays greater part of movies and songs his preaching lack of philosophy and peace education, but it is glorifying and educating more on crime, violence and sex which is not healthy for peaceful society. References: 1. Plato Republic (tr) B.Jowett, Selection 475, in the Dialogues of Plato, Vol II, Clarendon Press (IV Edition) Oxford, 1953, p.335 2. A.S.Seetharamu, (2002),Philosophy and Education. 3. Hunusur Krishna Murthys Films song a)Sathya Harichndra b)Bangarada Manusha c)Bhaktha Kumbara 4. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0471468/

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389) Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.55-76

PILGRIMAGE TOURISM MANAGEMENT AND ITS ISSUES AND CHALLENGES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT S.Vijayanand
ABSTRACT Pilgrimage tourism is that form that is exclusively or strongly motivated for religious reasons. One of the oldest types of tourism and a worldwide phenomenon of religious history, it can be differentiated into various forms. The short-term religious tourism is distinguished by excursions to nearby pilgrimage centers or religious conferences. The long-term describes visits of several days or weeks to national and international pilgrimage sites or conferences. This paper investigates pilgrimage tourism and its issues and challenges and also it analysis the basic infrastructure issues in pilgrimage sites. .Pilgrimage tourists were identified as a key factor in developing pilgrimage tourism. The primary data for this study were collected from pilgrimage tourists which engaged in pilgrimage tourism activities. Pilgrimage tourists were identified as a key factor in developing pilgrimage tourism. This research is mainly based on primary and secondary data. Secondary data required for this study was collected from different sources. This study aims to suggest measures to make pilgrimage tourism economically viable and suggest appropriate and effective promotional strategy for promoting pilgrimage tourism in Velankanni, Nagore, Thirunallar. The analysis part includes anova, chi square, t-test, cross- tabs, Friedman mean rank test. Results were shown and interpretations had written in this article. this article explains the Infrastructural facilities and pilgrimage tourism avenues in Nagapattinam district. Key words: pilgrimage tourism, tourism, issues, challenges, cultural, infrastructures

INTRODUCTION Pilgrim is different from being a tourist. For a tourist travel is an end in itself. For a pilgrim travel is a means to an end. Pilgrims with pilgrimage tourism is one of the fastest growing tourism in the world. Not only has it become an important component of the Indian life style (Cohen1972; MacCannell 1973). But it has had a profound impact on other peoples of the world and the environments in which they live. This course will explore the phenomenon of pilgrimage tourism. Pilgrimage tourism offers tremendous opportunities of generating revenues earning foreign exchange and providing employment. Today all countries of the world are striving to develop pilgrimage tourism in big way. (McKercher & Cros, 2003) Pilgrimage tourism earns over 3.5 trillion worldwide. For India, it is presently the third largest export industry but our share in world tourist inflow is only 0.37 percent. Besides economic, the social and environmental gains of tourism were also significant. (Mitroff & Denton, 1999), It is considered as an ambassador of peace and international brotherhood. McKercher & Cros, 2003) It brings better understanding between different nations and civilizations. Likewise it helps in protecting environment old monuments and cultural. The aim of this study was to determine, what pilgrimage tourism is, how it is different from other forms of tourism and the opportunities, issues and challenges in pilgrimage tourism. http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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This paper investigates pilgrimage tourism and its issues and challenges and its cultural importance and socio economic development through pilgrimage tourism and also it analysis the basic infrastructure issues in pilgrimage sites and it covers emerging challenges in pilgrimage tourism and pilgrimage tourism promotion.

MAJOR HYPOTHESES On the criterion of preferences of destinations selection and fulfillment of religious obligations, no significant of mean differences exit between the pilgrims/ tourists who visit ONCE and MORE THAN ONCE to the pilgrim tourism circuits in Tamil Nadu. No significant differences of experience of sample tourist respondents across the duration of stay on the key destination selection determinants. No significant associations are established between the services across the category of accommodations, key communication network and key amenities and selection of hotel and frequency of visit. There is no association between ,accommodation, transport and restaurant during their stay. There is significant association between, reception upon arrival was very smooth and comfortable in the hotel. There is significant association between, reservation procedure in the hotel does not take much time. There is significant association between staff in the front office was very prompt in settling bills There is no significant association between staff are well-groomed, well-behaved and helpful There is no significant association between the room and food services seem to be expensive There is no significant association between road condition is well-maintained, is this your first visit to Velankanni /Nagore /Thirunallar There is no significant association between road maintenance needs to be undertaken, is this your first visit to Velankanni /Nagore /Thirunallar There is no significant association between Banks and atm counters are located at the convenient places, is this your first visit to Velankanni/ Nagore/ Thirunallar There is no significant association between approach roads are laid to facilitate easy movement around the pilgrimage sites, is this your first visit to Velankanni /Nagore /Thirunallar. There is no significant association between parking space is adequate but needs to be expanded, is this your first visit to Velankanni /Nagore /Thirunallar There is no association between traffic arrangement is made to regulate vehicles very methodically, is this your first visit to Velankanni /Nagore /Thirunallar.

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There is no association between. health services, is this your first visit to Velankanni /Nagore /Thirunallar.

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY To find out the potential and prospects of pilgrim tourism in nagapattinam district To study the problems of pilgrimage tourism in nagapattinam district To find out the problems of basic infrastructure facilities in nagapattinam district To find out solutions and alternatives to overcome the problems

LITERATURE REVIEW Balaji Rathod (1999) "The facilities in pilgrimage tourism center are to understand various facilities like accommodation, transportation, darshan facility, food and drinking water, shopping, behaviour of the local people with the pilgrims. The pilgrims opinions about these facilities were essential. This is also true with pilgrimage phenomena for this a good knowledge of religious back ground, behavioral pattern of pilgrims and the language is necessary. Conclusion had given that facilities and basic infrastructures are essential for pilgrimage tourist".Pauline (1966) "The pilgrimage tourist travelling today, most of the many thousands of pilgrimage tourists go by car, but some ride horse back and quite a surprising number walk the entire way. Their active and enthusiastic participation in the medieval tradition serves to revitalize the sprit of the pilgrimage touring and accessibility and amenities are to give it meaning in the modern world".Sonia sharma (1998) "The determination of the pilgrimage tourism and tourist expectations, hospitality is one of the most important components of pilgrimage tourism industry. In many regions the hospitality industry thrives only due to the presence of pilgrimage tourism. The service providers add facilities and features so as to attract and retain customer base, to determine whether the hospitality industry really looks into the customers satisfaction. In order to determine this to find the religious expectations of pilgrimage tourist from the hospitality and their satisfaction level by finding the extent to which the pilgrimage tourist expectations are met. The difference between male and female level of expectation and satisfaction is also measured in pilgrimage tourism".Shinde (1999) "Religious institutions may provide a good platform to propagate environmental awareness based on religious teachings, play a major role in the efficient waste management, which requires adequate technical, financial and human resource capacities as well as reasonable degree of democracy accountability role of religious institutions and the benefit that is occurred to them from the influx of pilgrims, the need for them to be accepted as enterprises or tourism units can be emphasized. Accordingly most of the pilgrimage measures such as extended liabilities and polluter pays principle applicable to the industry/ business enterprises can be also be applied to religious institutions".

METHODOLOGY The primary data for this study were collected from pilgrimage tourists which engaged in pilgrimage tourism activities. Pilgrimage tourists were identified as a key factor in developing pilgrimage tourism in nagapattinam district. This research is mainly based on primary and secondary data. primary data collected from (500) samples(questionnaire)collected from nagapattinam http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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district(velankanni,nagore,thirunallar. secondary data required for this study was collected from different sources like net, traveling authorities, traveling guides, books, journals thesis, pamplets etc. the analysis part includes anova, chi square, t-test,cross- tabs, Friedman mean rank test. Results were shown and interpretations had written in this article. RESULTS The mean differences on the accommodation services between the two groups of sample tourist respondents are significantly different in case of selection of accommodation and restaurant, whereas the hypothesis is not rejected in case of other elements of accommodation services such as reception upon arrival, reservation procedures, front office staff, personal hygiene and room and food services. The hypothesis titled no mean differences exist between those pilgrims who visit once and more than once while transportation services are taken into consideration is not rejected in case of the components of transport services, such as well-connected by road transport, operation of government/private bus services regularly, reasonable bus fare, improvement of rail connectivity, regular buses from major towns and cities of Tamil Nadu and over congestion of buses. The hypothesis that is two groups of sample tourist respondents do not significantly differ while experiencing the basic Services as one of the preferences for destination selection is rejected in respect of banks and ATM services with .004 and not rejected in case of other core parts of the basic services such as road condition, road maintenance, approach roads, parking space, traffic arrangement and health services. The hypothesis that is entitled as there are no significant mean differences between sample tourist respondents who visit once or more than once when they find the standard of key amenities is not rejected in case of all the key aspects of amenities determining the experience of the pilgrims at the religious sites. The elements which are rejected include purified drinking water facilities, provision of rest shed, toilet and wash rooms, cloak rooms, shopping centres, hygienic and clean, safety & security, police outpost, pleasant place and peaceful place The hypothesis is titled as religious duties as the major driving motivational forces stimulating the religious oriented people to undertake travel, the mean experience of sample respondents is not significantly difference on each element representing the religious obligations. The significance of the test has rejected all the indicators signifying the fulfillment of religious obligations. These elements include hospitable and helpful people, rituals as per the tradition and custom, no obstruction of wearing any modern dress, colourful and eventful festivals, more enjoyment during festivals and delightful local cuisine or food. The hypothesis that is titled as there is no significant differences between the three groups of sample tourist respondents on experiencing the basic infrastructure is rejected with 0.05 per cent degree of significance. The elements which are rejected with .045, .001, ,000, ,012, .000 and .002 include road condition, maintenance, banks and ATM services, approach roads,

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parking areas and traffic management . One element health services are not rejected with the significance level of .663. The hypothesis is stated as there is no significant differences across the sample respondents on the amenities provided to the pilgrims for comfortable and this hypothesis is rejected in case of all the element of selected amenities at the three respective religious sites , excepting cloak room and shopping centre facilities. The hypothesis is stated as there is no significant differences across the sample respondents on the amenities provided to the pilgrims for comfortable and this hypothesis is rejected in case of the element of selected amenities such as purified drinking water, rest shed, toilet and wash rooms and hygienic and clean at the three respective religious sites , excepting cloak room and shopping centre facilities. The hypothesis is titled as significant differences of the three groups of sample respondents do not exist on the criterion of law and order as the key destination selection determinants . The hypothesis is rejected in case of all the related elements representing the law and order situations at the religious sites, whereas the hypothesis is rejected the statement I do not face any difficulty in moving alone or with family members Differences of experiences between the sample respondents are not significant while taking religious obligations as one of the criterion for the destination selection. The hypothesis is rejected with .000, .003, .002, .012 and .004 in case of rituals, no obstruction, festivals and coincidence with festivals, whereas the hypothesis is not rejected in case of hospitable and helpful people with .390 significance level. The experiences on the communication network that were derived by the pilgrims/ tourists while visiting the pilgrim tourism sites are not significantly different. This hypothesis is rejected with .000, .026, .000, .009 and .000 in case of operation of govt. and private bus services, reasonable bus fare, train connection, connectivity of bus services from the major towns of Tamil Nadu and over congestion and is not rejected in case of well-connectivity There are no significant associations between quality of services, reception of upon arrivals, prompt in settling the bills, personal hygiene and experience traffic and types of hotels selected by the sample tourist respondents. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test do reject the hypothesis in case of quality of services, reception, reservation procedures, prompt in settling bills, personal hygiene and expensive tariff and its association with the preferences of selecting types of accommodation. There are no significant associations between road condition, Road Maintenance , Banks and ATM, Approach Roads, Parking , Parking Arrangement, Health Services and frequency of visit. The test results of Pearson Chi-Square test have not rejected the association of frequency of visits with road condition, maintenance, banks and ATM, parking areas, parking arrangements and heath services. The results further explained that pilgrims are obliged to travel to these religious sites irrespective of all this factors. http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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There are no significant associations between drinking water , rest shed , toilet & wash rooms, cloak services, shopping centre , hygienic & clean and frequency of visit . The hypothesis is not rejected since the frequency of visits is independent of the amenities at the religious sites as Pearson Chi-square test results revealed. The test results of the Friedman mean rank revealed that the difference of the mean rank values is validated hypothetically and news paper article has become the highest mean rank factor with the mean rank 3.66. Thus, asymp. Sig. is less than 0.05, the Friedman test results support the differences of rank value of all the six sources of collecting information while making travel plan to these religious sites. The Friedman mean rank results showed that all the elements have influenced the preference for selection of accommodation . However, easy reservation with the mean rank value 3.36 becomes the highest rank that maximum influences the preference for the selection of accommodation. The significance of the results is further validated with the symp. Sig. .000 that is less than 0.05. The Friedman mean rank results revealed that online transfer becomes the most convenient more for payment for travel services as it is supported with mean rank value 2.76 and the order of the rank is significant with Chi-square ( .000.). Besides, all other modes of payment such as third person payment, debit/credit card and cash are also appeared to have become the preferred mode for payment of travel services. The Friedman mean rank results revealed that comfort becomes the most preferred criteria for selection for transport services since the mean rank ( 4.65) for the factor is highest and the order of the rank is significant with Chi-square ( .000.). It is appeared to have indicated that all other factors like regularity, affordability, safety, behaviour of staff, easy payment and quick alternative are some the preferences for the selection of transport services apart from comfort, being the first preference. The Friedman mean rank results revealed that fulfillment of long-cherished desire is identified as the most preferred factor to select these religious sites to visit in the life time The mean rank is 4.48 and the Chi-square test is less than 0.05 ( .000.). Apart from being influenced by the fulfillment of long-cherished desire, other preferences such as rituals and offering, festivals, strong religious belief and faith, enlightenment of life, giving alms to poor and enrichment of knowledge are also some of the preferences that mostly influence the selection of pilgrimage centres.

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TABLE Category of Age Vs Gender


Category of Age Below 25 Count % within Age Groups % within Gender % within Age Groups % within Gender % within Age Groups % Within Gender Gender Male 116 (69.0%) 116 (31.5%) 185 (73.7%) 185 (50.3%) 67 (82.7%) 67 (18.2%) 368 (73.6%) Total Female 52 (31.0%) 52 (39.4%) 66 (26.3%) 66 (50.0%) 14 (17.3%) 14 (10.6%) 132 (26.4%) 168 (100.0%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251 (50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%)

26-50

51 & Above

Total

As many as 368 male tourist respondents were interviewed for the study as against 132 female respondents. Across the three groups of respondents on the basis of age consisted of 168 ( 33.6 %) of below 25 year, 251 (50.2 %) of 26-50 years and 81 ( 16.2 %) . Out of the sample respondents, majority of the respondents 341 (68.2 %) were married, followed by 111 (22.2%) were unmarried and 48 (9.6%) were bachelor and spinster respectively. TABLE Category of Age Vs Marital Status
Category of Age Below 25 Count % Within Age Groups % Within Marital Status % Within Age Groups % Within Marital Status % Within Age Groups % Within Marital Status Marital Status Married 59 (35.1%) 59 (17.3%) 208 (82.9%) 208 (61.0%) 74 (91.4%) 74 (21.7%) 341 (68.2%) Total Unmarried 83 (49.4%) 83 (74.8%) 26 (10.4%) 26 (23.4%) 2(2.5%) 2(1.8%) 111 (22.2%) Bachelor 26 (15.5%) 26 (54.2%) 17 (6.8%) 17 (35.4%) 5 (6.2%) 5 (10.4%) 48 (9.6%) 168 (100.0%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251 (50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%)

26-50

51 & Above

Total

Monthly income of the three categories of respondents clearly reflected that 223 ( 44.6%) had sum of rupees 10,000 as monthly income, followed by 166 (33.2%) with a range between Rs. 10,001 and Rs. 20,000 monthly income and 111 (22.2 %) with a monthly income of Rs.20,001 and above.

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TABLE Category of Age Vs Monthly Income


Category of Age Count Below 25 % Within Age groups % within Monthly Income % within Age Groups % within Monthly Income % within Age groups % within Monthly Income Below 10,000 108 (64.3%) 108 (48.4%) 95 (37.8%) 95 (42.6%) 20 (24.7%) 20 (9.0%) 223 (44.6%) 10,001-20,000 43 (25.6%) 43 (25.9%) 99 (39.4%) 99 (59.6%) 24 (29.6%) 24 (14.5%) 166 (33.2%) Monthly Income 20,001 above 17 (10.1%) 17 (15.3%) 57 (22.7%) 57 (51.4%) 37 (45.7%) 37 (33.3%) 111 (22.2%) and 168 (100.0%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251 (50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%) Total

26-50

51 & Above

Total

TABLE Category of Age Vs Tentative Expenditures


Category Age Below 25 of Count % Within Age Groups % Within Expenditure % Within Age groups % Within Expenditure % within Age groups % Within Expenditure Expenditure Less than 5,000 125 (74.4%) 125 (47.0%) 119 (47.4%) 119 (44.7%) 22 (27.2%) 22 (8.3%) 266 (53.2%) Total 5,001-10,000 28 (16.7%) 28 (19.7%) 86 (34.3%) 86 (60.6%) 28 (34.6%) 28 (19.7%) 142 (28.4%) 10,00115,000 7 (4.2%) 7 (12.3%) 32 (12.7%) 32 (56.1%) 18 (22.2%) 18 (31.6%) 57 (11.4%) 15,001& Above 8 (4.8%) 8 (22.9%) 14 (5.6%) 14 (40.0%) 13 (16.0%) 13 (37.1%) 35 (7.0%)

26-50

51 Above

and

Total

168 (100.0%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251 (50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%)

Across the three categories of sample respondents, majority of them 266 ( 53.2%) made an expenditure of Rs. 5,000 and less during their visit to their respective pilgrim site, that is followed by 142 (28.4%) with an expenditure of Rs.5001-Rs.10,000 and 35 ( 7 %) with an expenditure of Rs.15,001 and above.

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63 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

TABLE Category of Age Vs Accompanying Members

Category Age Below 25

of

Count

26-50

51 & above

% within Age groups % within Accompanying Members % within Age groups % within Accompanying Members % within Age groups % within Accompanying Members

Accompanying Members With family and Alone Friends 51 93 (30.4%) (55.4%) 51 (35.9%) 73 (29.1%) 73 (51.4%) 18 (22.2%) 18 (12.7%) 142 (28.4%) 93 (35.8%) 125 (49.8%) 125 (48.1%) 42 (51.9%) 42 (16.2%) 260 (52.0%)

Total With affinity Groups 24 (14.3%) 24 (24.5%) 53 (21.1%) 53 (54.1%) 21 (25.9%) 21 (21.4%) 98 (19.6%)

168 (100.0%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251 (50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%)

Total

Majority of the respondents 260 (52.0%) visited their respective holy sites with family and friends, that is followed by 142 ( 28.4%) and 98 (19.6%) number of respondents paid their visit with their affinity groups. A little more than forty per cent of the respondents 216 (43.2%) stayed in the lodges and guesthouses as against a little more than one fourth of the respondents 144 (28.8%) preferred to stay in the hotel. On the other hand, one fourth of the respondents 126 (25.2%) sojourned at the paying guest place and an insignificant number of respondents 14 (2.8%) could stay with their friends and relatives during their visit.

TABLE Category of Age Vs Category of Accommodation

Age Count

Category of Accommodation Lodge& Guesthouse 79 (47.0%) 79 (36.6%) 109 (43.4%) 109 Paying Guest 35 (20.8%) 35 (27.8%) 63 (25.1%) 63 Friends and Relatives 3 (1.8%) 3 (21.4%) 9 (3.6%) 9

Total

Below 25

26-50

Hotel % Within Age 51 groups (30.4%) % Within 51 Category of (35.4%) Accommodation % within Age 70 Groups (27.9%) % Within 70(48.6%)

168 (100.0%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251

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64 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Category of Accommodation 51 & % Within Age above Groups % Within Category of Accommodation Total

(50.5%) 23 (28.4%) 23 (16.0%) 144 (28.8%) 28 (34.6%) 28 (13.0%) 216 (43.2%)

(50.0%) 28 (34.6%) 28 (22.2%) 126 (25.2%)

(64.3%) 2 (2.5%) 2 (14.3%) 14 (2.8%)

(50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%)

Across the three groups on the basis of duration of stay, a little less than half of the sample respondents 241 ( 48.2 %) could stay at the religious sites about 1-3 days as compared to other two groups. A little more than one fourth 141 ( 28.2%) and a little less than one fourth of them could stay 1-6 days and one week and more respectively.

TABLE Category of Age Vs Duration of Stay

Category Age Below 25

of Count % Within Age Groups % within Duration of Stay % within Age Groups % within Duration of Stay % within Age Groups % within Duration of Stay

Duration of Stay 1-3 days 92 (54.8%) 92 (38.2%) 118 (47.0%) 118 (49.0%) 31 (38.3%) 31 (12.9%) 241 (48.2%) 1-6 Days 48 (28.6%) 48 (34.0%) 70 (27.9%) 70 (49.6%) 23 (28.4%) 23 (16.3%) 141 (28.2%)

Total One Week & More 28 168 (16.7%) (100.0%) 28 (23.7%) 63 (25.1%) 63 (53.4%) 27 (33.3%) 27 (22.9%) 118 (23.6%) 168 (33.6%) 251 (100.0%) 251 (50.2%) 81 (100.0%) 81 (16.2%) 500 (100.0%)

26-50

51 & Above

Total

A little more than half of the sample respondents 266 ( 53/2 %) visited their respective religious sites once as against 234 ( 46.8%) of them visited more than once. Respondents belonging to the age group between 26 and 50 are 130 or 55.6 per cent and similarly, 59.5 per cent belonging to the age group of 25 and less visited for the first time.

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TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Age


Frequency of Visit Cross Tabulation within Row and Column Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Category of Age Total

Once

Below 25 100 (37.6%) 100 59.5%) 68 (29.1%) 68 (40.5%) 168 (33.6%) (

26-50 121 (45.5%) 121 (48.2%) 130 (55.6%) 130 (51.8%) 251 (50.2%)

51 & Above 45 (16.9%) 51 (56.3%) 35 (15.0%) 35 (43.8%) 80 (16.0%) 266 (100%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 ( 46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

More Than Once

Total

Out of the 73.6% or 368 male sample respondents, 53 .5 per cent or 197 visited for the first time and 52. 3 per cent of the female respondents also visited first time. TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Gender Frequency of Visit Once Cross Tabulation Row and Column within Gender Male 197 (74.1%) 197 (53.5%) 171 (73.1%) 171 (46.5%) 368 (73.6%) Female 69 (25.9%) 69 (52.3%) 63 (26.9%) 63 (47.7%) 132 (26.4%) Total 266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration More Than Once Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Total

Out of 68.2 per cent or 341 sample respondents who are married, half of them visited more than once and once, whereas out of 22.2 per cent of the unmarried sample respondents, 58.6 per cent ( 65) visited once.

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TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Marital Status


Frequency of Visit Cross Tabulation within Row and Column Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration More Than Once Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Total Marital Status Married 168 (63.2%) 168 (49.3%) 173 (73.9%) 173 (50.7%) 341 (68.2%)

Once

Total

Unmarried 65 (24.4%) 65 (58.6%) 46 (19.7%) 46 (41.4%) 111 (22.2%)

Bachelor 33 (12.4%) 33 (68.8%) 15 (6.4%) 15 (31.3%) 48 (9.6%)

266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

As many as 341 ( 68.2 per cent) were the Hindu devotees, followed by 111( 22.2 %) were the Christians and the remaining 48 ( 9.6 %) were Muslims. Out of 341( 68.2 %) Hindu pilgrims visited Velankanni 195 (57.2%) are first time visitors. Similarly, it is reported that the number of first time pilgrims has outstripped the number of repeat visits in case of pilgrims belonging to other two religions. TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Religion
Frequency of Visit Once Within Religion Within Duration More Once Than Within Religion Within Duration Total Cross within Column Tabulation Row and Religion Hindu 195 (73.3%) 195 (57.2%) 146 (62.4%) 146 (42.8%) 341 (68.2%) Christian 51 (19.2%) 51 (45.9%) 60 (25.6%) 60 (54.1%) 111 (22.2%) Islam 20 (7.5%) 20 (41.7%) 28 (12.0%) 28 (58.3%) 48 (9.6%) Total

266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

Majority of the sample respondents 223 ( 44.6 %) with having income Rs.10,000 and less could visit their religious sites. Out which, more than half of them ( 129 ( 57.8%) had the income of Rs. 10,0000 and less.

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67 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Monthly Income


Frequency Visit Once of Cross Tabulation within Row and Column Total Monthly income Below 10,000 129 (48.5%) 129 (57.8%) 94 (40.2%) 94 (42.2%) 223 (44.6%) 10,00120,000 74 (27.8%) 74 (44.6%) 92 (39.3%) 92 (55.4%) 166 (33.2%) 20,001 and Above 63 (23.7%) 63 (56.8%) 48 (20.5%) 48 (43.2%) 111 (22.2%)

Within Frequency Within Income More Once Than Within Frequency Within Income Total

266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

Out of 266 ( 53.2 %) of the sample tourist respondents who visited once and more than once , 151 ( 56.8%) of them could spend Rs. 5000 or less. Similarly, a little more than half 266 ( 53.2 %) of the first time visitors who spent from Rs.5000 or less to Rs. 15,001 or more during their sojourn.

TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Tentative Expenditure


Frequency of Visit Once % Within Duration % Within Expenditures % Within Duration % Within Expenditures Cross Tabulation within Row and Column Total Tentative Expenditure Less than 5,000 5,001-10,000 151 70 (56.8%) (26.3%) 151 70 (56.8%) (49.3%) 115 72 (49.1%) (30.8%) 72 115 (43.2%) (50.7%) 266 142 (53.2%) (28.4%)

More Than Once

Total

10,00115,000 25 (9.4%) 25 (43.9%) 32 (13.7%) 32 (56.1%) 57 (11.4%)

15,001& above 20 (7.5%) 20 (57.1%) 15 (6.4%) 15 (42.9%) 35 (7.0%)

266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

A little half of the respondents extended their halt about 1-3 days and the remaining was shared by 141 (28.2%) respondents with a 1-6 days duration and 118 (23.6%) with one week and more duration at the religious sites.

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TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Duration of Stay


Frequency Visit Once of Cross Tabulation within Row and Column Duration of Stay One Week & More 55 (20.7%) 55 (46.6%) 63 (26.9%) 63 (53.4%) 118 (23.6%) 266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%) Total

Within Frequency

1-3 days 132 (49.6%) 132 (54.8%) 109 (46.6%) 109 (45.2%) 241 (48.2%)

1-6 days 79 (29.7%) 79 (56.0%) 62 (26.5%) 62 (44.0%) 141 (28.2%)

Within Duration

More Once

Than

Within Frequency Within Duration

Total

TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Expensive Tariff

Frequency of Visit

Cross Tabulation within Row and Column

Expensive Tariff

Total

Once Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration

Room Tariff 101 (38.0%) 101 (61.2%) 64 (27.4%) 64 (38.8%) 165 (33.0%)

Transport Tariff 87 (32.7%) 87 (55.4%) 70 (29.9%) 70 (44.6%) 157 (31.4%)

Food Tariff 57 (21.4%) 57 (41.3%) 81 (34.6%) 81 (58.7%) 138 (27.6%)

Souvenir 21 (7.9%) 21 (52.5%) 19 (8.1%) 19 (47.5%) 40 (8.0%) 266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

More Than Once

Total

As much as 33 per cent (165) found room tariff expensive as compared to 31.4 per cent ( 157) as transport tariff and 27.6 per cent (138) as food tariff.

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69 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Primary Motivation

Frequency of Visit

Cross Tabulation within Row and Column

Primary Motivation

Total

Once Temples Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration 93 (35.0%) 93 (59.6%) 63 (26.9%) 63 (40.4%) 156 (31.2%) Mosque 44 (16.5%) 44 (50.6%) 43 (18.4%) 43 (49.4%) 87 (17.4%) Churches 44 (16.5%) 44 (42.7%) 59 (25.2%) 59 (57.3%) 103 (20.6%) Monume nts 13 (4.9%) 13 (50.0%) 13 (5.6%) 13 (50.0%) 26 (5.2%) Beaches 58 (21.8%) 58 (55.8%) 46 (19.7%) 46 (44.2%) 104 (20.8%)

Heritage Building s 14 (5.3%) 14 (58.3%) 10 (4.3%) 10 (41.7%) 24 (4.8%) 266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 23 (46.8%) 500 ( 100.0%)

More Than Once

Total

Across six major motivational factors that generally drive the tourists to visit the pilgrim sites, 31.2 per cent (156) visited for temple, followed by 20.8 per cent for beaches, 20. 6 per cent churches, 17.4 per cent for mosque. TABLE Frequency of Visit Vs Accompanying Members
Frequency of Visit Cross Tabulation within Row and Column Accompanying Members Total

Once Alone Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration Within Tourism Circuit Within Duration 81(30.5%) 81 (57.0%) 61(26.1%) 61 (43.0%) 142 (28.4%)

With Family and friends 132 (49.6%) 132 (50.8%) 128 (54.7%) 128 (49.2%) 260 (52.0%)

With Groups 53 (19.9%) 53 (54.1%) 45 (19.2%) 45 (45.9%) 98 (19.6%)

Affinity 266 (100.0%) 266 (53.2%) 234 (100.0%) 234 (46.8%) 500 (100.0%)

More Than Once

Total

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70 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

A little more than half of the sample respondents 260 ( 52.0%) were accompanied by the family and friends when they visited their respective religious sites as against 142 ( 28.4 %) visited independently or alone and 98 ( 19.6%) visited with the affinity groups. Almost half of the sample respondents ( 251 (50.2 %) belonged to the age group between 26 and 50, whereas almost one third of them belonged to the age group below 25, that is followed by 16 per cent ( 80) of them belonged to the age group of 51 and above. FINDINGS As many as 368 male tourist respondents were interviewed for the study as against 132 female respondents. Across the three groups of respondents on the basis of age consisted of 168 ( 33.6 %) of below 25 year, 251 (50.2 %) of 26-50 years and 81 ( 16.2 %) . Out of the sample respondents, majority of the respondents 341 (68.2 %) were married, followed by 111 (22.2%) were unmarried and 48 (9.6%) were bachelor and spinster respectively. Monthly income of the three categories of respondents clearly reflected that 223 ( 44.6%) had sum of rupees 10,000 as monthly income, followed by 166 (33.2%) with a range between Rs. 10,001 and Rs. 20,000 monthly income and 111 (22.2 %) with a monthly income of Rs.20,001 and above. Across the three categories of sample respondents, majority of them 266 ( 53.2%) made an expenditure of Rs. 5,000 and less during their visit to their respective pilgrim site, that is followed by 142 (28.4%) with an expenditure of Rs.5001-Rs.10,000 and 35 ( 7 %) with an expenditure of Rs.15,001 and above. Majority of the respondents 260 (52.0%) visited their respective holy sites with family and friends, that is followed by 142 ( 28.4%) and 98 (19.6%) number of respondents paid their visit with their affinity groups. A little more than forty per cent of the respondents 216 (43.2%) stayed in the lodges and guesthouses as against a little more than one fourth of the respondents 144 (28.8%) preferred to stay in the hotel. On the other hand, one fourth of the respondents 126 (25.2%) sojourned at the paying guest place and an insignificant number of respondents 14 (2.8%) could stay with their friends and relatives during their visit. Across the three groups on the basis of duration of stay, a little less than half of the sample respondents 241 ( 48.2 %) could stay at the religious sites about 1-3 days as compared to other two groups. A little more than one fourth 141 ( 28.2%) and a little less than one fourth of them could stay 1-6 days and one week and more respectively. A little more than half of the sample respondents 266 ( 53/2 %) visited their respective religious sites once as against 234 ( 46.8%) of them visited more than once. Respondents belonging to the age group between 26 and 50 are 130 or 55.6 per cent and similarly, 59.5 per cent belonging to the age group of 25 and less visited for the first time.

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Out of the 73.6% or 368 male sample respondents, 53 .5 per cent or 197 visited for the first time and 52. 3 per cent of the female respondents also visited first time. Out of 68.2 per cent or 341 sample respondents who are married, half of them visited more than once and once, whereas out of 22.2 per cent of the unmarried sample respondents, 58.6 per cent ( 65) visited once. As many as 341 ( 68.2 per cent) were the Hindu devotees, followed by 111( 22.2 %) were the Christians and the remaining 48 ( 9.6 %) were Muslims. Out of 341( 68.2 %) Hindu pilgrims visited Velankanni, 195 (57.2%) are first time visitors. Similarly, it is reported that the number of first time pilgrims has outstripped the number of repeat visits in case of pilgrims belonging to other two religions. Majority of the sample respondents 223 ( 44.6 %) with having income Rs.10,000 and less could visit their religious sites. Out which, more than half of them ( 129 ( 57.8%) had the income of Rs. 10,0000 and less. Out of 266 ( 53.2 %) of the sample tourist respondents who visited once and more than once , 151 ( 56.8%) of them could spend Rs. 5000 or less. Similarly, a little more than half 266 ( 53.2 %) of the first time visitors who spent from Rs.5000 or less to Rs. 15,001 or more during their sojourn. A little half of the respondents extended their halt about 1-3 days and the remaining was shared by 141 (28.2%) respondents with a 1-6 days duration and 118 (23.6%) with one week and more duration at the religious sites. As much as 33 per cent (165) found room tariff expensive as compared to 31.4 per cent ( 157) as transport tariff and 27.6 per cent (138) as food tariff. Across six major motivational factors that generally drive the tourists to visit the pilgrim sites, 31.2 per cent (156) visited for temple, followed by 20.8 per cent for beaches, 20. 6 per cent churches, 17.4 per cent for mosque. A little more than half of the sample respondents 260 ( 52.0%) were accompanied by the family and friends when they visited their respective religious sites as against 142 ( 28.4 %) visited independently or alone and 98 ( 19.6%) visited with the affinity groups. Almost half of the sample respondents ( 251 (50.2 %) belonged to the age group between 26 and 50, whereas almost one third of them belonged to the age group below 25, that is followed by 16 per cent ( 80) of them belonged to the age group of 51 and above

SUGGESTION & RECOMMENEDATION Provision of infrastructure facilities/basic amenities at pilgrimage tourist destination (viz.drinking, toilet facilities, restaurant, cloak room, signages etc) Provision for dress changing room, rest shed bathrooms, pathway and protective ring around ponds, hand railings and etc http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

72 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

Childrens park and power supply, street lights. Provision for roads, pathways, parking. Lodges, hotels, lighting facilities. Immediate replacement of old and worn out coaches/tempo travels. Up gradation of the restaurants of TTDC with first class furniture and interiors. Introduction of cost reduction measures in hotels like the energy saver, etc. The present study suggest that different types of the facilities to the pilgrims are so important. Though Tamil Nadu has become the main transport religious state ,. The TTDC buses are not available as per timetable in the festival duration. And it is necessary to build the railway route at Velankanni. To lodge in Tamil Nadu pilgrimage site we have only few Dharmashala that is why the lodging problem is increasing per pilgrims. As per my knowledge, the following lodging facilities should be given to the pilgrims. To increase the numbers of Dharmashala by the side of pilgrimage sites. The hotels, Lodges should be available in large number but room rate is very high. The temporary living facilities should be available at around pilgrimage sites. .The local religious trust should be paid the attention on the market of the devotional goods and daily needs items that whether the shopkeepers sell the goods in proper prices or not. The pilgrims are not satisfied with existing facilities provided at pilgrimage sites, food and drinking water facilities also. Shopping facilities and about the personal safety the pilgrims seem to be satisfactory.

SUGGESTIVE MEASURES AND INTERVENTIONS It is suggested that reception upon arrival, reservation procedures, front office staff, personal hygiene and room and food services are some of the critical elements of improving the quality of accommodation services. Both the government and private tourism service providers should seriously look into the shortcomings that may impede the growth of pilgrimage tourism in the tourism circuit. It is strongly suggested that the transport network highlighting on the connectivity, operation, regularity and reasonable fare should be improved round the year and more specifically, during the festive occasions. It is also suggested that transport tariff should be reasonable to the pilgrims as majority of them are budget category of tourists. The study has also recommended that government should evolve some mechanisms to subsidize the cost of visiting these holy pilgrim sites in Tamil Nadu. More particularly, domestic tourists with the proof of Below Poverty Line (BPL) should be provided with transport subsidy as there is no difference of experience of the first time and repeat visitors with regard to the improvement of transport network and other ancillary benefits. The findings of the study have suggested for the improvement of basic facilities such as road, parking areas, traffic and health services. Since there is a strong relationship between preferences for destination selection and improvement in basic services, efforts should be made at the higher level of the government administration to help build the infrastructure at all three sites. When these three religious sites have gained visibility worldwide, the Government of Tamil Nadu can take increase the domestic tourist arrivals by showcasing the pilgrim tourism circuits.

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The study has also found insufficient provisions for purified drinking water facilities, rest shed, toilet and wash rooms, cloak rooms, shopping centres, hygienic and clean, safety & security and police and it is suggested to the Government to gear up with adequate budgetary outlays to make the amenities of the three places more visitor friendly, thereby making the place more pleasant and peaceful as the symbol of spiritualism. As such, most of the holy shrines and pilgrimage sites are facing the problem of unhygienic, litter, crime, contaminated water. Thus, approaches should be made to help the religious sites overcome the problem of maintaining the amenities with the direct intervention of the PWD, Heath Department, Home Department, etc and the Ministry of Tourism should take the lead role in bringing all them into one umbrella resolve the chronic problem. Religious duties as the major driving motivational forces stimulating the religious oriented people to undertake travel, the mean experience of sample respondents is not significantly difference on each element representing the religious obligations. Thus, the study is very unique in finding the linkage between the religious obligations of the pilgrims and sanctified atmosphere of the religious sites. Fortunately, all these three places have preserved the sanctity and purity of the places from the religious perspectives for which a stead stream of visitors are arriving into these holy places irrespective of several personal and destination related constraints. Since the duration- of -stay is a critical independent factor influencing the experience of the visitors at the religious sites; the study has found the differences of experiences of the sojourners on basic infrastructure. Moreover, religious tourists are generally long-haul visitors and their length- of- stay is relatively more due to their attachment to the religious places. With this backdrop, the study has suggested to ensure the improvement of infrastructure to help the pilgrims stay comfortably. The study has found the differences of experiences of pilgrims on the amenities at the three religious sites, it is suggested that the existing provisions of amenities are extremely inadequate and more provisions should be made to improve the condition of the amenities, thereby making tourists feel at home and their stay comfort and memorable. Law and order is one of the socio-political risk factors that mostly hamper the tourism business whether it is special interest or common interest tourism. The study has found out sharp differences of experience of the pilgrims about the law and order situation at these three religious sites. Thus, it is suggested that the government should be more vigilant in enforcing the law and order when these three places receive huge number of tourist traffic during the festivals and other auspicious occasions. More police outpost and the concept of community police should be introduced to help maintain the law and order in a sustainable way. The are differences of experience of the sample tourist respondents on many of the elements signifying the religious obligations. Therefore, it is suggested that the ultimate purpose of visiting these three sites should be respected since the performing rituals and offering prayers are some of the activities that most of the pilgrims do at the sites. Efforts should be made to inspire the people and respect the emotional sentiments and attachment to the places.

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While rejecting the most of the elements in the hypothesis, the study has strongly suggested for an effective communication network so as to ensure the operation of the transport more regular, affordable, reliable and adoptable. The lack of association between the service attributes of the accommodation and selection of the types of hotel has led to providing a critical thought of bring about a radical change in the operation of the accommodation units at these three religious sites. It is suggested that government should enhance the capacity of the frontline staff in the hotel by conducting regular training programme. More particularly, soft skills and personal grooming and etiquette should be the agenda of the training programme, thereby imbibing the professional culture in the hospitality sector. When the results showed no association between the frequency of visit and primary facilities, it is quite pertinent to suggest that government should take note of this finding and be proactive in making adequate provisions of primary facilities for the comfort and safety of the pilgrims visiting the religious sites. The Department of Tourism, Govt. of Puducherry and Tamil Nadu should promote the pilgrim tourism circuit with the aid of travel magazines, brochures/ newspaper. As it seems from the mean rank results that preference of the visitors to collect travel related information is high. Since it is revealed that timely services is the first rank preference factor with the test of significance, thus, all the service providers should seriously ponder over and find the ways to make efficient and effective time services at the hotel, restaurant, bus stand, etc. As the sample respondents preferred the easy reservation procedures to reserve the room, perhaps the present reservation methods are not as effective as it is desired for the industry. Thus, all accommodation operators should take cognizance of it and imbibe professionalism along with technology driven into the reservation procedures. It is expected that online transfer would be the highest preference for making the payment for travel services as majority of the visitors are tech-savvy or they get it done through some body. The process of online transfer services should be encouraged and clients should be given discount when they make the payment through online. Since comfort has become the highest preference for the visitors while visiting these religious sites, transport service providers should pay attentions to improve the comfort of the passengers along with other factors such regularity, affordability, safety, behavior of staff, easy payment and quick alternative . The results of Friedman mean rank has made the fulfillment of long-cherished desire as the highest preferred mean rank factor, it is in the line of the common understanding of selecting the pilgrimage center. However, other six factors have also been preferred while selecting these three religious places. Thus, it is suggested that government administration and private tourism establishment should be serious concerned for the long-cherished desire that is quite sensitive, emotional and personal.

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CONCLUSION Pilgrimage tourism is now recognized as a source of diversifying the countries economy. It would how ever be folly to pretend that the sector will continue to stimulate the economy without pro active measures aimed at managing the forces confronting this sector. The study has revealed various problems that confront the sustained development of pilgrimage tourism. The data presented in this paper indicate the potential for pilgrimage tourism development. Although development to date has been limited to few major sites, the analysis shows that it should be possible to spread the development of pilgrimage tourism to more parts of the region. Particularly taking into account the potential for combining pilgrimage tourism with cultural and nature based tourism and the potential for developing new age or pilgrimage tourism it should be possible to use the major anchor sites identified to stimulated regional development These problems had been analyzed in detail and suitable recommendation had been given. As a basis for proposed policy directions and strategies, statistics, it is useful to consider these various recommendations and suggestions abundantly show that by the paper effective implementation of these suggestions, pilgrimage sites can be developed as a heavenly destination for pilgrimage tourism. The overall aim will obviously be to enhance the benefits of pilgrimage tourism and its people in terms of foreign exchange, employment generation, income and government revenue etc. Realizing this potential will clearly require a high level of inter municipal co-operation given the extent of the pilgrimage tourism religions identified. In addition the importance of pilgrimage tourism supply factors identified in the research shows the need for extensive collaboration between the public sector, which is responsible for policy and promotion the pilgrimage site which manages most of the tourism sector which provides the supporting facilities this underlines the importance of net working in the future development of pilgrimage tourism. In developing new products and new markets therefore the pilgrimage tourism attractions of the region should think more seriously about the pilgrimage tourism elements of current demand and in particular the development of new products of emerging niches such as pilgrimage tourism. References: Adrian Ivakhiv (2003) Nature and Self in New Age Pilgrimage in Culture and Religion Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1. American Geographical Society, Vol. 90, No. 4 pp. 536-558 Bar, Doron and Cohen-Hattab, Kobi (2003) 'A New Kind of Pilgrimage: The Modern Tourist Pilgrim of Nineteenth Century and Early Twentieth Century Palestine', Middle Eastern Studies, 39: 2, pp.131 - 148 Bssing, A. (2006): Spiritualitt, Krankheit und Heilung Bedeutung und Ausdrucksformen der Spiritualitt in der Medizin, Frankfurt. Claudia Liebelt (2010). Becoming Pilgrims in the Holy Land: On Filipina Domestic Workers 168 Jayashree B. Gokhale (1986) The Sociopolitical Effects of Ideological Change: The Buddhist Conversion of Maharashtra Untouchables in The Journal of Asian Studies, Association for Asian http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 269-292 John Elsner (1992) A Greek Pilgrim in the Roman World , Oxford University Press , Past & Present, No. 135, pp. 3-29 Johnston, A.M. (2006) Is the Sacred for Sale? Earthscan. Kamla-Raj (2010) Impact of Pilgrim Tourism at Haridwar,12(2): 99-105 Kathryn Rountree (2002) Goddess Pilgrims as Tourists: Inscribing the Body through Sacred Travel in Sociology of Religion, Oxford University Press ,Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 475-496. Shinde (2003) Residents Perceptions of Pilgrimage Tourism in Sociology of Religion, Oxford University Press, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 475-496 Sommer, A., Saviano ,M. (2007) Spiritueller Tourismus: Religises Reisen in Deutschland, Berlin. Terry R. Slater (2004) Encountering God: Personal Reflections on 'Geographer as Pilgrim, Blackwell Publishing : Area, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Sep.,), pp. 245-253 Timothy, D, Olsen, D. (Eds.) (2006) Tourism, Religion and Spiritual Journeys, Rutledge. Contemporary Geographies of Leisure, Tourism and Mobility. Vukonic, B. (1996) Tourism and Religion, Pergamon

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)


Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.77-78

BOOK-REVIEW Merina Islam Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal : Reconsidering Classical Indian Thought (Edited) Publisher: Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra) 2012, pp. 224, Rs. 300/Reconsidering Classical Indian thought is an edited book by Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal. It is a bilingual book which reflects various articles on classical Indian thought. It is an ambitious attempt of the editor with the fundamental conceptions of ancient Indian culture. The book starts with a scholarly writings of Prof. Dilip Kumar Mohantas articles on Debate over doubt between Gautama and Nagaruja. He beautifully put in the chapter how Gautamas claim and Ngrujana refutation can be put as the thesis and counter thesis respectively in philosophical debate .The mutual controversy and opposition between Ngrujana and Gautama are seemed to be important factors for the development of both the schools of philosophy .The author put that doubt is accepted as an existing knowable in the Nyaya set of knowable and that is why unreal or a non-existing object can be referred by doubt .But Ngrujana point is that there cannot be any relation between the state of doubt and the unique feature awareness . If an object is known, then there cannot be any scope for doubt. Dr. Mohanta cited various aphorisms in the whole articles to support the argument put forth by Gautama and Ngrujana. The second article is by Aditi Patra entitled, Re Interpreting the Concept of Dharma in Classical Indian Ethical Perspective. The paper is divided into four different section .the first section of the paper begins with the etymological and other meanings of the word dharma .Then in the second section. The concept of dharma has been analyzed in the sense of objective morality. In the third section , discussion have been made about dharma as character trait and its consequences .The author conclude the chapter with beautiful quotation of Rabindranath Tagore the true striving in the quest of truth of dharma consists not in the neglect of action but in the effort to attune it closer and closer to the eternal harmony . V. Durglakshmi and Meera Baindur article on Bhakti in Upanishads: a Detailed Perspective on Svestasvatara Upanisads,Sheena Krishnan Ulamparabath article on The Transformation of Women in Early North India: A study in Historical Perspective , Indian Vaule-System and its Relevance by Sanchita Bora , Contradiction in Indian Values by Manoj Kumar , Relevance of Indian Philosophy in 21st Century by Manjulata Jeina are of high quality of articles which will occupy a very important position in the history of classical Indian thought and cultural studies. Mohammed Abdullahs work on Indian Value-System with Special Reference to the Holy Quran beautifully conclude with that idea how in a truly Islamic society, sustainable development is a logical outcome of a normal life and that there is thus no need for separate strategy of sustainable development.
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Gitanjalee Bora wrote the article title Vedanta philosophy and its social Aspects in modern time. But reading the article I found that the article is mainly focusing on Swami Vivekandas thought, so the title would be more accurate if it is change as Vedanta Philosophy and its Social Aspects in Modern time with special reference to Swami Vivevkanadas thought, such a title will give better focus. As my observation goes standard diacritical marks are not used for the Sanskrit terms in this article. Above all, most of the articles are extremely rewarding because of the labours spent on it. The editor did not mislead readers as he did not provide any introduction of the papers in the book. He invited the reader to get an open hand access of the paper and do justice with the thematic and literary aspects of each and every paper of the contributors. This is a superb book edited by the author for radical reassessment of the philosophical literature of ancient and classical India with collection of 17 scholarly papers both in Hindi and English languages. It is really a modest attempt made by the editor to familiarize the common fundamental conceptions of ancient Indian philosophical thoughts. I conclude this review with the observation that the book is certainly a reflection of the writings of reconsidering classical Indian thought. Anyone going through all those articles of this book will not fail to notice the amazingly wide breadth of scholarship that the writer has shown

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)


Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.79-80

NEW PUBLICATIONS Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered as one of the most influential educationist and spiritual thinker of India. Vivekanandas personality was notable for its comprehensiveness and deep sensitiveness to the evils prevalent in the socio-economic and moral structure of the country. He preached both monistic asceticism and social service. His intellectual vision was immensely clear and he could easily penetrate into the currents and crosscurrents that were manifested in the history of India. Thus to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) publishing this book and it is a tribute to this Universal Man and a National Ideal for Youth. It is the general intention of the Centre to produce informative as well as positive literature to inspire and motivate the students and the general reader. We extend our thanks to the members of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa for their valuable suggestions and positive assistance towards CPPIS works. Details: ISBN: 978-81-922377-1-8 First Edition, January 2012 Authors: Dr Merina Islam, Assistant Professor, Cachar College, Silchar, Assam. Dr Desh Raj Sirswal, Programme Co-ordinator, CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra) Price: Rs.70/- (Seventy Rs. Only) Link:http://niyamakphilosophy.blogspot.in/2012/01/new-book-philosophy-of-swami.html

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Reconsidering Classical Indian Thoughts Edited by Desh Raj Sirswal ISBN: 978-81-922377-2-5 Second Edition, 2012 Link: http://niyamakphilosophy.blogspot.in/2012/04/new-bookreconsidering-classical-indian.html Publisher: Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Balmiki Dharmashala, Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 (Haryana)

Milestone Education Review


(The Journal of Ideas on Educational & Social Transformation) ISSN:2278-2168 Year 03, No.01, April, 2012 Social-Thinking of Dr. Ambedkar Link:
http://milestonereview.webs.com/

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Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), pp.81-85

PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA Three Conferences in India

by Council for Research in Values and Philosophy


www.crvp.org/ Invitation to an International conference Identity and Otherness Chandigarh, India January 6-7, 2013 Panjab University, Chandigarh, India Theme The term identity refers to such features of people as their race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, religion and sexuality. Labels of identity like men, Americans, Indians, Catholics, Buddhists, and so on generate ideas about people who fit the label. These ideas shape the ways people conceive themselves and their projects. More often than not, people conceive the idea of a 'good life' also by reference to the available labels of identification. Every collective identity is said to have certain genus of structures: First, it requires the availability of terms in public discourse that are used to pick out the bearers of identity. Normative content of a group of people as well as their particular identities with a particular label is determined by its bearers. Identity is an abstract concept that has a metaphysical import. Its referent cannot be pointed at and said to be this or that. To identify is to delineate or isolate the features which mark out from others and hence of a conflict. Thus to talk of identity is to talk of relation of otherness, which forms the basis of the underlying philosophical problem of identity. When we say that identity implies a relation of otherness, what is meant is that issues which are related to identity must begin from recognizing and appreciating identity both in nature and society as contrasting, which can entail conflict. During the past many centuries, Indian understanding of identity is shaped and supported bycaste identity. This was vigorously supported and often vitiated by the stratified social system with an absolute impossibility of crossing ones caste. It is legitimized and enacted by a theological, social and cultural ontology that can draw toward less generous interpretations of such doctrines as Karma, Svadharma, Advaita and Yoga. Even today, caste has not lost its ontological status. This points also to the implication that caste is the basis of solidarities and collective identities. Defined from the aspect of being, caste may be regarded as the historically and culturally located categorization of human persons involving
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certain visual determinants such as colour, ascribed social origin, etc. Caste considerations obtained their metaphysical validity and efficacy through the medium of human cognition, which has been considered as anvikshiki or philosophy in India. Thus considered, they are the explicit manifestation of two kinds of ontologies that this tradition and culture has brought forth; the first one may be called as the ontology of permanence and the second may be called the ontology of impermanence. Thus, there are two conceptions of reality in this culture and the philosophies and world-view in this tradition may be categorized in terms of these two categories of ontologies. Themes/Sub-Themes The department identifies the following themes/ sub-themes for an in-depth study under the proposed seminar. They are: 1. General Categorization of Identities: Human Consciousness and Cultural Freedom. 2. Cultural Traditions and Human Subject: Individualization and Globalization. 3. Person and Identities: The Indian Tradition. 4. Caste Identity and Otherness: Philosophical Issues 5. Identity and Otherness: Phenomenological Elements 6. Identity and Otherness: The Metaphysical Elements 7. Cultural Creativity and the Creative Self: Identity as Value Signifier. 8. Otherness and Complemetarity: Emmanuel Levinas 9. Human Rights, Human Dignity and the Other

Contact: In addition to the above sub themes, the seminar welcomes discussions on other issues that are significantly related to the central thematic content elaborated above. Proposals or abstracts of approximately 300 words should be sent to Professor Sebastian Velassery Department of philosophy Panjab university Chandigarh-160 014 India velassery48@hotmail.com Invitation to an International conference Values Embedded in Indian Philosophy Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India January 10-12, 2013

Theme In the present era of value crisis caused by a conflict between the ancient values and the post modernistic rush for material enjoyment, we think of organizing the conference on Values for thorough deliberation of its pros and coins and for coming out with an agreeable solution that may be welcomed as a culmination of the two and may work as a solution to the post modernistic
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crisis as well. Knowledge is value because it frees us from bonds and the consequent sufferings caused by them. Had knowledge not been value, there might have been no meaning of scriptures, traditions and their follow ups; traditional branches of learning and growing educational institutions are meaningful and are progressing day by day for educating not only a section of society but also the whole human life on the earth only because it is value. All the systems and institutions of learning have a purpose to import knowledge and to cultivate wisdom. So to learn is not to accrue dry knowledge only but to cultivate ones individual and social life as well. Life is a process of living values which is its creativity principle; it has a meaning not only because of knowledge but due to performance of duties or obligations also. Values occupy utmost importance in life and society; they play a vital role in the making of a life human. An atheist can deny the existence of God but cannot deny the role of values he learns since his birth first from his parents and later by society and other sources that have been major in transforming him in to a human being and then understanding the laws of nature properly in a reflective way. The discussion in the conference will be centralized to make points of human values relevant against disguised purposes prevailing in corporate ideology. For Indian sastras, life is an obligation. Had there been no occasion to payoff the debts one owes by birth, no life could be human .There is birth because there are debts (a) it borrows from the earlier life to payoff. Indians believe in three kinds of debts to pay out i. to seers, sages and teachers (ia), ii. to fellow beings and deities (devaa) and iii. to manes (pita).Tattirya samhit 6/3/10/5 says that by practicing celibacy, by performing sacrifices, and by begetting a son respectively, one pays off those debts ). According to a view, the debts are not three but five but according to Brhmaa- texts they are three only because the bhtaa is included in devaa and na is included in pita. These five are discussed in coming paragraphs in connection with five sorts of yajnas. In brief, paying off those debts forms religious, social, socio-ethical and cultural practices of life of man reasonable, lively, and interesting. The philosophy lying behind it is that if all of them are healthy and balanced, the life will be peaceful and peace will be blissful. Thus, our utmost effort is to insure their health and to protect the balance. Since paying off the inborn debts is the purpose, life is a constant process of obligation and responsibility to all which ultimately results in freedom from them, the freedom which is the ultimate goal of life. This freedom is value and therefore every one aspires for it. As human beings are born to pay off the debts, it needs time and requisite fitness and it is for that reason that assuming hundred year duration of the life, with present body, they divide it in to four institutions (ramas) each of which is twenty five years. After five years from birth, it enters into brahmacaryrama, the first institution of life, follows the vows of celibacy, engages itself in acquiring physical and mental fitness, plays sports and learns his lessons from traditional wisdom, respects values, performs yogic practices and meditation and, thus, he acquires fitness including capability to enter into the second twenty five years of household (ghasthrama) which is central or spine of the life. Connected with earlier two institution Vnaprastha and Sanysa are the direct roads towards liberation. The villagers in India think that they achieve liberation if they have succeeded in paying off the inborn debts. In post modern era we notice a generation gap. There is rift between the followers of the life of ancient values and the post modernistic values.

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Indians do not believe in value or a collection of values but in a value- system which in classical terminology is called pururthas that is four fold ideals of human life. Performing of the duties of institutions (varnasrama dharmas), a number of sanskaras, household life, marriage, earning wealth, enjoying sex for begetting an offspring, sacrifices, meditation, pilgrimage, all are value and virtuous only because of them instituted in the system. Pururthas are enumerated generally as four namely wealth (artha), desire (kma), dharma (virtues) and liberation (moka). Bhaspatitra takes artha only as pururtha while ukranti takes artha and kma as pururtha, Arthastra and Kmandaknti consider the earlier three as pururtha only. Generally moka is considered as the culminating point of the earlier ideals but traditional writers consider it also as one of the ideals of life. For incorporating the changing faces of values for a better present living, a living in consonance with the respect of the ancient and reception of the new and thus fulfilling the gap between the two, Ancient Philosophy of values requires to be viewed in the transition of it in recent time. Apart from the following topics for deliberation in the conference scholars may select any of the topics of their choice. 1. Classical Values and the modern value-crisis 2. Myth of the Pururthasas 3. Concept of Values in Indian classical philosophy 4. Post modernity and the relevance of ancient values. 5. Religio-ethical values. 6. Values in Higher Education. 7. Socio-political values. 8. Concepts of ta & Sat 9. Role of three debts (atraya) in Indian life. 10. Values and Social obligation 11. Individual & social values. Contact: Professor D.N. Tiwari Department of Philosophy Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, India Email: dntphil@rediffmail.com Invitation to an International conference Values and Contemporary Culture: An Indian Perspective Visva-Bharati University Shantiniketan, India January 14-15, 2013 Theme India promotes pluralistic ideology which is relevant in the present modern global context. It affirms the postulates needed to preserve the unity in diversity by way of ahimsa parmo dharmathe right to ?Live and Let Others Live.? We are told that one's relationship with one's self is
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internally related with one's relation with the other. Self and other are two sides of the same coin. Violence towards the other is violence towards self. Violence has become a part of modern life. We have learned to live with terrorism, religious conflicts, political unrest and social conflicts in the name of rights and environmental hazards. In some sense violence is a necessary component of real life, but is it necessarily a social and moral evil? The Mahabharata lays much emphasis on trust as central to all personal and social relationship: what is its meaning and relation to violence? All the more, traditional Indian values demand fresh appraisal in the light of the modern global trends particularly when the world is rapidly shrinking and mutual interdependence becomes vital for survival and peaceful coexistence. The aim of the conference is to bring various scholars together for a rich academic dialogue, better understanding of the tradition and its fresh reading. The conference will deal with this theme from the perspectives of literature, the sociopolitical, the historical, and Indian philosophy and religion, inviting scholars to ponder afresh an extremely important part of the common heritage. Specifically papers are invited on the following themes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Indian Philosophy and its Central Massage: Violence or Non-violence? Violence and Modern Life Affirmation of pluralistic postulates: unity in diversity Mokshasastra and Moksha as values Violence and Ignorance Dharma as a legal, social and moral code leading to non-violence The role of trust as a traditional value Bondage in classical Indian Philosophy Women and the Caste system

Contact: Professor Asha Mukherjee Department of Philosophy Center for Women Studies Visva-Bharati University Shantiniketan, India ashamukh@gmail.com

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)


Volume II, No. 02 (September, 2012), p.86

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE Dr. Sheeja O.K., Department of Philosophy, University of Calicut , Malappuram , Kerala. Mr. T.V.Krishnan, Department of Philosophy, University of Calicut , Malappuram , Kerala. Dr. V.Prabhu, Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India Ms. Tanuja Kalita, Research Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India Dr. Umesh Chandra, Associate Professor ,Department Of Philosophy , Agra College, Agra, (U.P) India. Mr. Irshad Ahmad, Research Scholar, Department Of Philosophy Agra college, Agra (U.P) India. Mr. Krishna Paswan, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Siliguri College (North Bengal) Dr. Sheena Krishnan Ulamparambath , Assistant Professor, Department of History, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh Mr. Pankaj Kanti Sarkar, Research Scholar, Rajiv Gandhi National Fellow(UGC), Department of Philosophy, University of North Bengal, W.B. Dr.B.Y.Krishna Murthy, Department of Electronic Media, Educational Multimedia Research Center, Mysore University, Mysore-570006 . Mr. S.Vijayanand, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Tourism Studies, School of Management, Pondicherry University,Kalapet, Pondicherry. Dr. Merina Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy Cachar College, Cachar (Assam).

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Instructions to the Contributors


Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) welcomes contributions in all areas of research proposed by the Centre. All articles are sent to experts who evaluate each paper on several dimensions such as originality of the work, scientific argument, and English style, format of the paper, references, citations and finally they comment on suitability of the article for the particular Journal. In case of review articles the importance of the subject and the extent the review is comprehensive are assessed. Prospective authors are expected that before submitting any article for publication they should see that it fulfills these criteria. The improvement of article may be achieved in two ways (i) more attention to language (ii) more attention to the sections of the article. Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with 12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003-07 and between 3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced with ample margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a certificate of originality of the paper to be sent to the editorial address. Time Line: The last dates of submission of the manuscript are as follows: For April to September Issue: 31stAugust every year. For October to March Issue: 31st January every year. Reference Style: Notes and references should appear at the end of the articles as Notes. Citations in the text and References must correspond to each other; do not over reference by giving the obvious/old classic studies or the irrelevant. Give all journal titles in full and not in an abbreviated form, LJPP follows APA format for references. The following style of reference may be strictly followed: In case of Journal: Venkona Rao,A.(1980) Gita and mental sciences. Indian Journal of Psyhiatry, 22, 19-31. In case of a Book: McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York: Random House, 23-24. Chapter in an Edited Book: Hartley, J. T., Harker J. O.,& Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s:Psychological issues . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association,250-253. For unpublished work: Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic Speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 1999),54-55. In case of institution/Govt. Report: Administration on Aging. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 65.

For detailed reference-style sheet follow our CPPIS Manual for Contributors & Reviewers available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra) Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies(CPPIS) Pehowa is a joint academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana(online) to do fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences. SPPIS Newsletter The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information related to events, new articles and programme details. One can register himself on the below given address and will get regular updates from us. Link for registration: http://drsirswal.webs.com/apps/auth/signup All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Chief-Editor, Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharamshala, Pehowa, Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India) Mobile No.09896848775, 08288883993 E-mail: cppiskkr@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

My objective is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems, and not to solve specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of what it is when we philosophise.- Dr Desh Raj Sirswal

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