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PRACTICAL
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THE
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THE

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AN

ILLUSTRATED
OF

TERMINOLOGY ARCHITECTURE

NOTE

egardless

of

the

extent

to

which

any

special
must nature,

subject
always
an

be

treated
terms

for of
a

general
more or

reading, less

there

in

technical
even
on

standin underof

of

which

is

essential

the

part

th

al
is
to

reader. the intention,


certain is

therefore,
of

of
most

the

following
common

seven

illustrate
It

the that,

architectural
compass,

terms.

obvious
to

in

limited
special the

be
nor

impossible
would do
so.
"

illustrate
necessary

all

architectural
purpose

it

be

for

of

thi

to

his

brief

Illustrated reader

Terminology," with
the
names

then,
of

is

designed

acquaint
seen

the

certain

commonly

architectural

features,
a

familiarity
everyone's

with

which

be
some

regarded
cases

as

part

of
will

education.
to

the
name

reader
for
an

be

enabled

learn
"

th

tectural for
a

often-noticed wall-space
other
cases

feature
two

wil

example,
"

that

the

between
the

arches

lled

spandril.''

In
some

reader
the

will
name

ed
not

to

identify
nature

architectural
which

feature
"

the

of

is

known

will

learn

for

exam

by
is
a

consulting

the

''Illustrated

Terminology,"

"pediment."

The

Cokinthiam

Obdek-

(Modern

\ersion.:

spsplpl
Key
or

eek

Fret

Motif.

iT
"

Greek

Key

or

Fret

Mo

he

Greek
Motif.

Ant^emiok

vf

'f

r#Mf

Egg
Moulding Bead

and

Da

Moulding.

,:,

'!:lV^i;'!ilf,,

Leaf

and

Dart

Moulding.

(Also

called
and

eaf

Tongue.)

Grkek

Wave

Moti

eek

Wave

Motif

Interlaced

Guillocme.

s^. .%"v%
Guilloche.

%:*^\"^

wisted

Louis

XVI

Guilloche.

COMMON

ARCHITECTURAL

MOTIFS

OF

CLASSIC

ORIGIN.

(With

Carlouche.)

SrAMMIL

DlCOMTIOM Fiau*i",
With

Or

MutQOZ

And

CAtToucui

Pau^diah

Ehtkanci.

othque

Cot

Fanlioht

Ova

Door.

Greek

Fret.) hive
capiuls. the

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dcvelapfd thoujh
a

Eg

(Succinive
trtat
ire

ages of
on

virkty based

atl

ociginal

Claiiic

SEP

20

1928

FOREWORD
book
to

HIS

has

two

distinctly
the
various

practical
principal

objects.
styles

Ability

distingaish and
to

architecture, be
a

know

something

of

these

styles, of
every

uld

part
man

of

the

education
woman.

and

culture

l-informed
The
as

and
I, A

aim
part

of of of

Part
a

Practical education,
and the
use

Guide
a

to

Styles,

is to

e,

liberal

thorough

working styles,
so

wledge
as

architecture

architectural of the
general
a

is

necessary

for
so

reader, that it

to

give

it in

succinct

and

practical

way

easily Part II,

be
A

assimilated. Practical

Guide

to

Building,
a

adds practical

to

the

ve

knowledge
those who
are

information
about
to

of
have in
the
or

more

kind houses
at

erected city
who
or

for
the

them

other

buildings, large
way
or

either

country,

her
any

small

expense,

may

be

connected erection of

with

Advisory
public
on

Boards
character.

for

the

ldings The

of

more

chapter
treats

arrangements

with
never

architect

and

tractors

of in
a

subject
manner,

before and helpful


a

presented
glance
at

the

lay

reader

direct
show

the

le
the In

of
work

Contents
will

will
prove.
a

how

this

portion

presenting

practical devolves
can

book
upon

on

architecture
the author only
to to
"

tinct

responsibility
which

ponsibility
to

be be

discharged
possible always

the

ent

which illusions

it

may

dispel
to

certain
the

ular
to

which
separate to

have

clung into

subject,

divide
phases,

and and

architecture set

its several

per

forth

salient

and

essential

oints

in

manner

at

once

clear,

accurate

luminating.
In
great

this
as

task

the

author

feels

that and

the
in

opportunity
the to

the

responsibility, be

that

following

ges

it

may

possible
as

permanently
a

remove

ubject

of

architecture
as a
a

whole

from

its
place
intimate

presen

lassification
position

subject

technical
of

and and of
us.

it

in

ue

as

subject

general
of
all

with

the

every-day is
a

life

Architecture fairly be

comprehensive
a

subject,
one.

but That and

shou it

considered
to

complex in
few

ften

appeared
is

be
the

involved
fact

complexity

n t

due

to

that into

critics its

or

expositors
parts

ve

divided

the

subject
involves

logical

parate

consideration. history,

Architecture practice, The of which

design,
suggest

construction

nd

main

divisions
volume
nor

logical
to any
one

present

is
a

not

designed
on

istory
main

architecture,
aspects
a

is it

treatise

he

of
careful

the

subject
effort
to

in

general. the
that
a

It

repr sent

rather,
a

co-relate

essential
the
part

clear

and

concise
may

manner,

in
as

order should,
to

subj
of

architecture
education,

become,

it

iberal

and

may

cease

be

regarded

^technicaP'
In the

subject.
preparation
to

of
to each with

this

work

the

author
of

has

give

consideration
regard
a

the

subj

ts

proper

emphasis
order
to

to

each

other and
of

ation, consider

in

develop whole.
ipterest

complete

serviceable

xposition

of

the

The
to

subject
everyone.

architecture To
those

eneral

is

of

broad
building,
to

ontemplate
upon

and

who

will

consequently
in the

alled

exercise design,

their
the

judgment

questio

architectural

subject

is

of

direct

interes

FOREWORD

he

logical
begin of with

study
some

of

architecture,

for
with

either the

class,

acquaintance of

ment developthen

architecture,

historic in Here

types

and
are

forms,

architectural
these
as a

design,
types.

which
will

forms
cease

employed study there with

reate

the

of will
types'

ecture been

historic
a

development, familiarity

and

acquired
styles, these
this

practical the

uilding,

and
styles.

architectural

forms

characteristic

of

With

practical
then

familiarity
may

as

preliminary considerar selection

ent,

benefit
the
study

be

had

from

due
"

of

practical of local of

side

of

the

subject
natures

the

ite,

conditions,
the forms architect. the

of dual

materials
presentation

the
of

functions
the

This author's

subject

plan

for

the

work. author wishes


to

The

acknowledge
the following

with

gratitude and
in

kind
who

co-operation have

of generously
:

architects
courtesy

extended

the

of the of

illustrations architectural

To

profession by the

is

due

the

present

merit the

attained American
more

architecture has and


of been
more

of forced

this

y,

for with
have

architect difficult
architects

to

conditions confronted

complex lands
and

the

other

times. would
be

It

difficult ideals

to

overstate

the

further which

impetus would

architectural by
a more

and

practice popular and


any

be and

general, of

appreciation effort
to

standing
understanding public effort

the
so

subject,
that
call

develop

it
for

will
the
the

benefit
most

architecture
serious

alike of
to

must
any
an

and

re

writer

in

field of

of

architecture. to

In

addition

expression

indebtedness

al

FOREWORD

hose

architects

whose

works

have

contributed wishes
permission
to

to

lustration
with

of

this

book,

the

author
or

edge acknowl-

gratitude

assistance

connected

th

certain Messrs.
H.

illustrations.
H.
D.

These

acknowledgments T. R.

clude

Eberlein,
Braun

W.
"
the

Price,

Juli
and

ckly,

W.

Frohne, Record.

Company,
matter

chitectural
thanks

In due
quote

of

text,

thor's

are

to

The
the

Churchman

for portion

ous court

permission
**

to

major

of
to

thor's

Symbolism
for

in
courteous

Architecture,"

and
to

Decoration

permission

paraphrase

rtain

portions
to
*'

of

the

author's

contributions of
*'

theret in

lative

**The

English
in Brick,"

Point
and

View
The

ture," Architec-

Building

Inherent

tie Qua

of

Building

Materials."

C.

Matiagk

Pbiob

CONTENTS
PARTI
A

PRACTICAL

GUIDE

TG

STYLES
PAGB

ABCHZTBCItrBB

The

Nature

of Architecture The Value and


not
a

and

its Place of

as

Part

of

Liberal
Appreciation.

Education.

Benefit

Architectural

Architecture of Architecture Historic Thb


EyoLunoN

Technical

Subject.

Some of

Fundamentals

Architecture. Dependent
upon

Understanding
Acquaintance

Modem
Past

with

Styles.
of

Architecture

The

Growth
of

of Egypt,

the

Great
of
Assyna,

Architectural

Styles. of Rome.

The

tecture ArchiBysan-

of

Greece,

tine The

and

Romanesque
of

Architecture.
Architecture

Eyolution

(Continued)
Renaissance of those Architecture. Two and A Styles

Gothic Study
in The
A

Architecture of the Differing

and

Expressions Belgium,

Great

Italy,

France, Ideal of the

Spain,

England

Germany.

Classic
Study

Immortal in of

Qualities
Several

of

Classic

Architecture. Reviyals. The of

Its

Manifestations Place

''Classic"
Architecture of
the

Important
Public and Btiantine, The

Classic
School

in Beavx-ArU,

the

Design
its

Buildings.
its

The

ings Teach-

Wide

Influence.
and

Romanesque ''Romanesque

Gothic
in

Dbriyationb
America.

10

Revival"

The of To-day.

Place

of

Romanesque Derivations,
in

Styles

in

the

Architecture

Gothic and

Ecclesiastical,

Collegiate,

Military

lar Secu-

America. Derivations, Earlt


and

English The
on

Modern

13

Importance,

Causes Architecture.

and

Meaning

of

English

Influences

American
The

The of

Anglo-American

Countryture. Architec-

House.

Adaptability

English

Collegiate

Latin

Dbrivationb

in

American

Architecture

15 France

Architectural

Types

Adapted
Villa in
America.

from

Italy, The
French

and Place
in

Spain. of Italian

The

Italian

Important Influences

Renaissance
Modem

Architecture.

CSiAteaux,

City

Houses

and from

Hotels.

Little

Appreciated

Architectural

Legacy

Spain*
5

CONTENTS

I.

Native

American
American Types

Abchxtbctubb

Characteristic
States,

of
The

New

England, Creole Work Some

The and
in

Middle Spanish the Middle


on

Atlajitic

and

South. ''Secessionist'' Idea'' and

Colonial West, the

Architecture.

the

"Craftsman

ments Com-

Bungalow.

IX.

Architectural New

Addenda

Styles
to

Applied
New

to

Familiar *'UAH The The

Uses,
Notweau,"

and The House, Hotel,

Old

Styles

Applied
and

Used.

ists" "Secession-

"Modernists."
The

City Modem

The the

Office
ment Apart-

Building,
House

Loft and

Building, the

Great

Railroad

Terminal.

PART
A

n
TO

PRACTICAL

GUIDE

BUILDINa

TER

I.

The

Selection

of

Location,

Sttle,

Material

and

tect Archi-

Style

from

Viewpoints
etc.

of

Relation
Local

to

Site, and

Material,
Local
an

eral GenLabour

Appropriateness,

Materials

Conditions.
II.
Architect
and

Foresight

and

Advice.

Choosing

Architect.

Client
is
a

Building
Architect.
Architect

Business Nature

Transaction. of should the

How

to

Consult

the

The

Architect's
Rightly

Services.
Expect "Extras,"

What from the


etc.

and
Basis

Client
of
Drawings

each

Other. Architectural
Materials

Charges,
and

Supervision, Specifications.

III.

and

Construction of Physical
Natures,

Consideration Materials.
etc.,

and

Properties

.Esthetic Suitability,

ing of BuildCosts, of Texture.

Comparative

of

Building

Materials.

The Materials

Importance

Associated Plans

Suitability
Details

of

and

Styles.

rV.

and

Different
of
on

Kinds
in

of Plans.
Developing Doors,
Tiim

Importance

of Plans

Definite
Details.
etc.

Method
Notes

Procedure

Both Chimneys,

and

Windows, Interior

Stairways, Hardware,
Best

work, Wood-

and
etc.

Finish, The

Lighting
in

and
to

Plumbing

Fixtures, the
Fulfilment

Manner
.

which

Insure

of

Requirements.

ILLUSTRATIONS
Tangiey
From Brewster.
PAGE
an

Manor,
Original

Surrey,

Endand Painting by Anna

FronHspieoe

Water-oolour

Rionards

ARCHITECTURAL
Egyptian

TERMINOLOGY,
Bell Capital Ionic Order
of
a

ILLUSTRATED
....

Column,
Order

Egyptian

Stalk

Column,

Doric Order

Order

(Modem),
Tuscan

(Modem),
Composite

Corinthian
Order Rusticated

(Modem),
Principal

(Modem),

(Modem).
Masonry,

Parts

Classic
Masonry, Moms

Entablature,

Rock-Faced Soins, Architectural


mmon

of

Oassic

Origin

(Greek
Wave

Key.

FreL

Anthemion,

Egg-and-Dart,

L^-and-Durt,
Italian), Spandrils,
Balusters.

and

Guilloche).
Marquise,

Cartouches
Angular,
Entrance,

(Curved,
Palladian Dormer linenfold

(French and (IHrma, Broken),


Palladian Mansard

Pediments

Window, Roof,
Acanthus,

Corbels,
Fanlight.

Console,

Finial,

Window
Panel^

in

Greek and

Spiral

Vohite,

Pilaster Keystone,

Capitals, Renaissance
Attributes,

Modilhon Arabesque, Renaissance Figure,

Dentils, Lunette.

Lant^,
Uses
of Terminal

Console

and

Roman

Arch

GBiyatid

Terminal

Caryatid,

and Figure,

Columns,
Spindles.

PART

L
PAGE

Towers

ical

of American

the

ChAteau
Dwelling

of

Langeais
of

the

Style

Erroneously

Called

"Queen

eDo,"

The

Virginia Building,

Home
seen

of

Thomas

J^erson
Arcade of

Woolworth

throuf^
Post

the

the

New

York

Municipal

Building

Details
Doric

of

the Temple Porch

Cleveland
at

Office

and

Federal

Building

ek

Segesta,
Greek
Jupiter

Sicil;^

Caryatid

of

the

(lomc),
Stator,

Erechtheum, Athens

Athens

Connthian

Temple

Arch

of Cathedral

Constantine,
of

of Rome
Mark,

St.
of

Venice

Cloister
Byzantine of (3othic
of

St.

Pam-beyond-the-walls,

Rome and

Columns,
N6tre Dame,

Capitals
Paris

Carving

Cathedral

ocal

Detail the

Window
Doorway

Cathedral
the

interior;

of Cathedral

of Cathedral

N6tre

Dame.
N6tre

Paris
Dame,

of

N6tre

of Dame,

Paris

Paris. Dame.

pt,

interior; Chimeras
of

Cathedral the
the

of Cathedral

N6tre of

Paris
Dame,

" Paris

N6tre

Gaigoyles Cathedral

of

Cathedral
the
River,

from

of Durham,

N6tre

Dame,

Paris,

FVance
"

England

tmmster St.

Abbey, John
s

London, College.

England Cambridge, England

teway,

eway,

Trinity
of "La

College,

Cambrid^,
Tours, Toura, Prance

England
France

rway of

"La

Ptolette/'
of Maison

er

Ptolette,"

rway

of
Town

Ch"teau
the

Langeius,

France THermite, Tours,


France

urtyflurd

of Hall,
at

de

Tristan

Bruges,

Bel^um
Belgium Spain

Church Cathedrahof
Puerta

Malines,

Toledo,
del Sol, the

Toledo.
CaD'Qro,

Spain
Vemce,
Venice.
Famese,

Palace PaLwTO

of della of of
the the

Doses,

Italy
Italy

urtyard

Palasso Vatican.

Rome,

Italy

lonnade Church
of
Entrance

Rome.
della of the

Italy

rway

"tf S. Maria Library the Whitehall,

Salute,
Cathedral

Venice,
of

Italy Sienna, Italy

Paul's

of Cathedral,

London, England

England

London, in

ssic

Deriyations

Modem

American

Bank

Buildings

(Two

Examples)
New^York New

aty
Harvard
Law

Post

Office School,

Cambridge,

Mass

Water
Tea-House

Temple of Arch,
Museum

at

SunoL

California Design,
on

Claasic

Long

Island

(N.

Y.)

Country

Estate

Marble
Fogg

Hyde
of
Art,

Park,

London,

England
Mass France

Cambridge. of Paris, Versailles,


France

Cour

de
of

Marbre,
the

Palace

lonnade
Central
Petit

Louvre,

Pediment
Trianon,

of
Bois

the

Louvre,

Paris,

France

Versailles,

France

"Orangerie," ChAteau
French

du

Boulogne, Bois

Paris, Boulogne,

France Paris,
France

de Classic

Bagatelle,

du

Shoft

New

York Building,

City
New
New

French

Classic
Row Porch Revival"
from

Publishing

York York Haven,

City City

lonnade
Georgian "Classic

(La

Grange

Teirace),

Detail

(Modem),
Baltimore,

New Md

Conn

Pordi,
Grand

ails

the

Palais

des

Champs

Elys^,

Paris,

FVanoe

(Two
Fifth New Style

views)
Avenue York

Shop

Front,
House

in

the
in

Modem the

French

(Beaux-Arts)
flench

Style

City

F^nt
Main

Modem

(Beaux-Arts)
Public Library

^iged
Modem

Columns Church

of

the

Facade

Presbyterian

of Church.

Romanesque New York

New of the Derivation,

York

Madison

Square

City

nity

Church, for the

Boston,

Massachusetts.' of New
the

awing
Thomas'

Porch

Cathedral
City

of

Baltimore,

Md

Church,
Entrance

York
to

thic

Arched
University
in

Quadrangle,

Graduate

School,

Princeton

otesques

the

Gothic
in

Manner the

b-vaulted University

Vestibule,

Gothic

Style,

Graduate

School,

Princeton

ILLUSTRATIONS
Philadelphia
124
125 126

vost's

Tower,
Militarv

Univereity Aoademy
New

of
at

Ftoniuwlvania, West Qty New York


Point

of the lworth
of

Builcfing,
Woolworth

York

the

Building,
House of
an

City

(Four

Views).

127
.

132

can Garden
Terrace

Country
Front

English of English-derived
an

Derivation
American

Countiy
American

House

133

and in

Sun-Dial,

English-derived
House

Country
134
135

se

Derivation

an

American
Houses, Building,

Countiy
Holbom, Princeton,

136

f-Timber

Qty
Dormitcffy

London N. J
136

er

137 140

House,

Salisbury,
Country

England House,
Walton
on

Thames
House

ish

141
141

Derivation

in

an

American

Country
Origin

Country

House

odem

English
Derivations

Comixxsite of in Derivations
in

American

Country

Houses

142 14b
146

nglish

Pennsylvania Development
House Houses York

cad cal

English

"Neidibourhood"
Suburban

146

odem Library

EnSish "n|dish

147

Suburban
New

in

Brick
158
159

Building,
Library

Citv
New City York Avenue Fifth
Shop
Front,

Private

Building,
in
a

New

Renaissance

Deirivation
Boston,

160

orkatjr
Library Renaissance

160

Massachusetts
in

ublic

of Derivation

tiie

Loggia

of

Modem

American

160

ouse

Renaissance Qty York

Derivation Shop

in

New

York

City

Shop

Front

161

Ftent,

Arched
Shop

Loggia
Front

(Italian (Italian

Decoration Sgraffito with Derivation) Renaissance

161

in

New

York

16

CSty

to

Decoration Shop
Front

Renaissance

Derivation)
Country Country
House, House,
a

in

New

Yoric

16

aty

General
Terrace

View

16
. .

alian

Derivation Derivation

in

an
an

American
American

yard Court-

alian

in

16
House, House,

talian

Derivation Derivation Derivation Derivation

in in in

an
an

American
American

Countiy Country Countiy Country

from Wall

Loggia

16

Fountain

talian

talian

an

American
an

House,

Court
Pool
and

Italian PaviUon

in

American

House,

talian
at

ViUa

Derivation, Union

Front

View Washington,
D.

Pan-American Derivation, Villa Italian Langeais, de ChAteau


Patio

Building, Garden

I^nt
American

France
a

sh-Italian Spanish al

of Buildings,

Modem

Residenoe

in

Calif
Calif

omia.

Spain
in
in
an

sh

Renaissance Renaissance New England

Derivation Details

Window Office
of

Treatment

in

Building, Roof

Chicago,
Type,

omia. Illinois.

sh Early

Dwelling

Gambrel

Hadlyme,

ypical

Connecticut Dutch

Colonial
Pediment in

Dwellins,
Porch,

at

Hackensack, Palladian Modem

New Window
American

Jersey Above Residenoe,


.

eorgian

Colonial
Derivation

with of
a

eorgian

the

Porch

ynnestay." Local Modem


Residence

an

Early Derivation

Colonial
of the

Reddenoe
Early

near

Philadelphia
Type

Pennsylyania

of

nial Colo-

Pleasant

iveden,"
House

its and Philadelphia


at

Dependencies,"

Philadelphia

ntry

Valley

Forge,

Pa.,

Derived

from

Early

Local

types Proto-

untJ^
State
Modem
of

House

of

Local

''Ledge

Stone."
Hall,^' House

at

Germantown,

Pa

House,
American

"Independence

Philadelphia from
the

Country
Dwelling

I)erived

Southern

Type

Plantation
Anne

itehall," White

Arundel

County,
D.

Maryland C
Villa,
New

House,"

Washington,

Elxamples of the Mission, Gabriel


House
Views

Creole California

Plantation

Orleans,

Louisiana

ntry

of
Recent

of Spanish Modem

Derivation, Residence of

Sierra Spanish

Madre,

California
Typical
of

Dmivation,

California
Typical American

"Seaside Suburban

Villa"

of

no

StvUstic of
the

Derivation

Typical

Recent

American

Dwelling

"Picturesque"

Type
Modem
Style
American

Country

House

Developments
seen
m a

of

the

"American

Secessionist"

City

Residence

in

Grand
Example

Rapids,
of

Michigan

the

"Craftsman"
in

Type

^nese
Typical

Influence "Bungcdow"

i^acteristic
"Art

D^gn

Nouveau,"

omia Redwood, of Native of School of the Austrian Shop-front in a Parisian

the

Calif

of Country Bungalow Califomia


or

Dwelling

Viennese

"

Secession

' *

mish

Renaissance

City

Houses

on

the

Rue

Flamande,

Bmges,

Belgium Renaissance

mish

Derivation

in

Modem

New

York

City

Residence
Modem American

City

Residences,

TVpical
New

of

the

Newer

opments Devel-

Metropolitan Equitable
Hotel

Life
Life

Insurance

Building,
Building, New

York City

City

Insurance
New

York

VanderbUt,

York Station,

Qty
New

Pennsylvania

Railroad
Raikoad

York

City

Grand

Central

Station, PART

New II

York

aty

ccessful

Design
Design

for
for

a
a

Level Hillside

Site
Site
American

ccessful
Modem

Country Cottage
and of

House

Essentially
Derivation
a

Small

Native in

mplicity Typical
Architect's

Charm
Modem

Small

En^^h
for
a

Cottage
Houses"

(2 views)
House

English

"Deteched
Drawing

Preliminary
House
as

Country

Country
Preliminary

Actually for
a a

Executed Small
Villaffe

Drawing

Library

production
Elevation

(Reduced) (Reduced)

of

K-Inch ^-Inch

\'S^rking
Working

Drawing

of

House

production
Floor-Plan

of

Drawing

of

House

ILLUSTRATIONS

ction
of
a

(Actual
House

Siie)
Eleyation

of
of

Portion

of

K-li^oh ^-Inch
IJ^Inch
Full-sise

Working

ing Draw-

26
a

ction
of
a

(Actual
House

Siie)
Floor-Plan

Portion

of

Working

Drawing

2G
of
a

ction
Eaves

(Actual (Actual
Top

Siie)

Portion

of

Scale

Detail

of

ile

26

ction

Sise) of
a

Portion

of

Working

ing Draw-

of the diitect's

of

Wainscot
a

26

Pfijet
of

for

National Materials

Memorial
seen

Monument in an.Ameriean Texture


American

27

Possibilities
near

Building

Country

House

Qiicago
of the Materials

27

Instances

Decorative
in
Two

Importance

of

27 Dwellings

Local

Typical
Modem and Materials

Modem

f Moderate erican

Cost
Expression
in

27 of Stone and
in

the

F^npliah
Half-timber in
a

Country Constmction
LainB^

House

27

Same

House

Local

27
House

Relation

of

Design

Country

ear

Philadelphia
of

29 Texture
as an

Expression
of

Buildings
Finish
of

Materials

29

Use

Stucco American

Exterior

29

Country

House

Actual

Half-Timber

tion Constmc-

298

Details

laical

of Door Example

and

Window Modem Houses

Treatments

31

American Houses

of the Real-Estate
the

English
of

Country

House

31

324

oi pplication

in

''Model
to

Villm"

Letchworth,

England.
. .

324

of Architecture

Utifitarian

Bufldings

in

C3alifomia

Power-house

(two

views)

826

PART

PRACTICAL

GUIDE

TO

STYLES

E OF

PRACTICAL ARCHITECTURE
CHAPTER
AECHITECTURE

BOOK

NATURE
A

OF

ARCHITECTURE EDUCATION. APPRECIATION.


THE

AND

ITS
VALUE

PLACE
AND

AS

PART

UBERAL

BENEFIT

ARCHITECTURAL
A

ARCHITECTURE
SOME

TECHNICAL

SUBJECT.
UNDERSTANDING

FUNDAMENTALS
OF

ARCHITECTURE.
DEPENDENT
HISTORIC

MODERN

CHITECTURE
PAST

UPON

ACQUAINTANCE

TH

STYLES

attempt

to

define of and

architecture,

or

art,

is

to

fal
Few

into

the
are

danger safe,

dealing
the

in

catch-phrases.
them
are
more
' '

itions
accurate.

best has

of

clever the
art

Architecture
' '

been

called

ing

beautifully epigrammatic
from

which, definitions.

perhaps,
The

is

as

valuable
has

as

attempt
an

been

the

time

of

Vitruvius,
that

and

early

English

r,

paraphrasing hath and


terse

classic

authority,

states

that

l-building

three
' '

conditions: it would
so

Commodity,
be

ess
any

Delight.

Perhaps

hard

characterisation
"

accurately should

applicable be
appropriate

ll

architecture
to

that

building built, and

its

use,

strongly

pleasing

to

look

This

interesting
a

statement,

however,

could
although the aim

not

alled,

exactly,
us
a

definition

of

architecture, idea
of

ives

reasonably

clear

and

se

of

architecture.
any
one

Taking
of

of

these
the

three world

essentials would
have

alone

as

aim

architecture,

been,
15

and

nld

be
of
of the

to-day,
architecture

heavy if had
* '

loser.
Commodity
always
elevators
to
use,

Conceive
' '

first
the

pect

or

intended governing

building
factor.

been
Grain

its and and

sole

chitectural primarily

factories
also

ilt

with
**

view

include

cond

essential third,

of
however,

Firmness,"

but

ignore
which
has

the

thir
been

The

the that

building

autifully
a

designed
one

it
it
were

is

*'

Delight,"

would built,

short-lived
one

if

not

firmly

and

eless

if it served

no

purpose.

We

must

think
into
as
a

of

architecture,
monumental

then,
or

regardless

s divisions

domestic,

ecclesiastical

ildings,

perfect strength

co-relation

of

the

three certain
two, may

essentials
types
may

suitability,
one

and

beauty.

In
or

ilding

of

these

considerations, each of
the

somewha

overbalance"
importance.
must

three

not

ual

Generally
take cognisance
constantly of
any
a
' '

speaking,

however,

tect arch

of
in

all, mind

and in
we

by
our

keeping

ree

essentials

individual

nsideration
the
outset

given

building,
of

will

establis

om

certain
'
'

basis
or

universal

application,

gardless

of *'What
purpose?

style

any

other
a

detail.

We
thist

will

rselves:
its
t

kind
Does
or

of
its

building

is
express

Wha
this

design its
in

Is

it well-built,
Is
it

is

construction
its

cheap

shonest?
are

pleasing

form

and

detail?

ese

basic of

considerations whether
or

of designed

significance, in
;

entire

dependent

it be

the

style
we

of

alian

Renaissance
at
a

Modern
a

French

whether

oking
It

church

or

theatre. circumstance
to

is

an
an

interesting
opportunity

that adaptations
the

this
"

country

fords

study
"

in

man

ses

excellent

adaptations

of

architectural Architecturally,

sty

all

countries

and

all

periods.

THE

TOWERS

OF

THE

CHiTEAU

OF

LANGB;

TYPICAL ERRONEOUSLY

AMERICAN

DWELLING. CALLED

OF

THE
ANNE"

STYLE

"QUEEN
w

AboTs

ud

behiod

our

moil

JntimsM

"rchiteclure.
make

wdt

our

more

im

should vti'tiDr^'ll^'uiiiiterHt'wblcb

itwlMtlt

^t^vory

intclli

"

i-a

as

racially,

America
no
one

has

been
in

the
this

melting-pot.
country
we no

has
not
one

been

style,

because
"

people,

but

many

there

has

been

^and
as
we

al

American

architecture,
out,

noted
no no
* '

architect

recent

pointed
no

because

have
or

typical
typical
' '

climate

merica,
This,
further

typical
is

landscape
a

tion. civilisato
pursue

however,
at

question

of

style,

this

point

would

be

to

depart

from

d At

generalities.
the
outset

it

seems

part of
some

of

this

work of

to

point

forcibly

the

importance
and appreciation

degree
the

general

rstanding

of
us
or

broad
come

principles in
arts.

architecture.

Many
or

of

seldom other
or
we

contact

paintings,
obliged
we

sculpture,
to

fine
follow
cannot

We

are

to

listen

music

to

the fail

drama.
to
see

go

out-doors,
everywhere
"

however,

dings

^buildings

good,
all
are

bad

and

indif-

nt.

Some
particular.

are

important,

interesting thing is
never

in
so

The
only

unfortunate

that trained

people
to

see see

buildings,

and
The

have aspect

selves
apart

architecture.
any

of of of
to

buildings,
the
our

from

individual
inseparably

interests
a

prospective

builder, that
a

is

so

part

daily

it would

seem

highly
on

desirable the
"

develop of

at

high-school Architecture

course

appreciation special'*
us

tecture archi"

is not confronting when Classics,


a a

subject
turn.

^it

niversal There
was

subject
a

at

every

time
^ *

knowledge
' '

of
an

architecture,
part

ther

with education

the

formed The
fine

important and houses

the

of of
many

gentleman.

stately
manor

classical

dignity South
was
owners

of
more

the
to

old

of

due
than

the
taste

architectural
of
the

education

their

to

the

master-builders.

mas
2

Jefferson

made

the

actual

drawings

for

18
' '

THE

PRACTICAL
' '

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

Monticello,

versity well as for the buildings of the Uninot an architect, but archiof Virginia. He was tecture had been part of his education. To-day there
as
men

who, between business and social activities, would have time to draw the plans for their houses, if they had the ability. The architect is better even equipped for this work ; but an architectural education,
are

few

intelligent and effecslight,would assure tive To most of the architect's work. understanding the architect's work is far more people mysterious and than that of the lawyer or the doctor, incomprehensible while it should by all rights be readily and intelligently
no

matter

how

understood. It is assumed that anyone about to build becomes, of a perforce, interested in architecture, but by reason late interest, and no personal basis of architectural conviction, he is obliged either to make a hasty and halfor considered survey of the subject, to accept the varied and usually conflicting architectural advices of his in this better equipped no are friends, many of whom direction than he. His very ignorance makes him suspicious design for him a building that the architect may he will not like, whereas, had he any appreciation which or understanding of architecture, he would be under no
.

apprehensions. In addition to the prospective builder, there is the larger class comprised of those who probably much to build for themselves, or be called upon never will

in so direct a manner. exercise any architectural knowledge To these, however, no less than to the prospective Their builder, architecture should be an open book. would become of abundant walks abroad and varied
interest, and every building would hold before been able to read. they had never
a

story

which

'"THE The Gothic MuDinMl


itcKl

BATTLE

OF

THE

STVI.F.S''
out

toner

ot

(rchilcftuR. Building,

the ia

U'oolworth
"ea a

BuildioE,

earried

Id

Ure

niudi^rnuivd
ul

rend

Ihruuih elimpK

while

Clu-xir-UenaiMiiiiKK' Iha \" al.w visible of ilie

uJd

rnliinnntlr EiRhiri^Dih

Sr thr Cenlury

AncloJ^nnic

New

York

Cixy

Hsll

i
s

i^

Pi

illii
trr
si
lg

I I

Nor

should
upon,

allasioii
as

be

omitted of
a

to

the
to

citizen
pass

who

alled
on

member of
a
an

board,

ment judg-

the

design if of
a

important
house
or a

public be

building.
"

unfortunate

private library
by
civic
money

bungled hall.
In

tous calamithis of

in

the
we

case
are

city

connecti

impressed
as
a

the

importance
as
a

tectura archito

education Public
the

obligation,
is the being erection

duty

the

nity.

spent

yearly

hout

country yet

for

of
the

important public
has
recommended,

buildings,
seen

architecturally, It is by
no means

the however,

buildings.

to
on

be

that

public

opinions

architecture
on
*

et

up

to

overthrow

professional
in
the
case

opinions
an

tecture archi'

excepting

of
the

incompetent

political" that public

architect.
of

It

is

rather

contention result in

ciation
results is the
to
save

architecture
an

will

securing

ter bet-

through

understanding The of
an

of
may

what

the
upon

tect

trying
appearance
a

to

do.

board
important
or

insist

ng

building
may

in down

few

thousand
for

dollars,
a

vote

architect's
If
the

project
members

splendid

monumental

ch.

of

the

board,
educated,

and

the
the

people
necessary

elves,

were

architecturally
be appreciate forthcoming
the

funds

would To

through

public

ription.

possibilities
its

of

noble
the
an

ectural
part

idea
of
to

is

to

desire
there

execution. be
attempted unknown

In

this that

book

will

duction
the

interesting,

but

vidual indi-

Architect.

understand **gift,"
This,
an

architecture implication
may

has of
some

been
peculiar
be

supposed talent
an
erroneous an

to
or

however,
for
or

readily

proved
is
no

idea, painting

although music,

architecture it is different

less

art

in

certain

salient

rticnlars.
result of

masterpiece
"

of
a

painting

or

of

mnsic

inspiration of

masterpiece

of

architecture painting inspiration

the

result

evolution. their

To

understand underlying
need
hut

sic

is

to

understand
architecture architectural Nor

understand
of example.

one

understand
produced be

tages

evolution should

which

ven

understanding
natures

confused

th

enjoyment.
in
art,

Most
music, them;

receptive

find
nature,

men enj
in
a
no

in

in

architecture,

in

hat the

surrounds
senses,

but

their

enjoyment
plays
to

is

thi

in raises

which their

understanding understanding

pa

nowledge

the

level

ntelligent

appreciation.
in
at

To

see

all
once

architecture the
at

product
study.
necessity

of

evolution,

possess

key
more

to

its
a

Obviously
than very
race,
an

rt

of

building,
the

first of

as

from

dawn

civilisation
of the

been the human

close

inked

with in
In
a

the
measure,

development

as,

influenced

people

who

create

t.

this evolution

connection
there

between
is
more

human

and
mere

tural architec sentimental

than
of

oincidence.

Different different different


religious

kinds and

civilisation, social

characterised

by

developments

roduced
new,

architectural
evolved from days by
as
a

manifestations, earlier of forms. The


and

some tim

often

pr pe

of

kingdoms,
are as

their

degeneracy,

th

ownfall

mirrored vividly

contemporary

architectural of
contemporary

numents

in

the

words

istorians. has alone No

Being
always should

work

of

the
the

hand

of of
man

man,

tec arc
"

reflected
lie much of
as
our

mind interest.
perhaps,

^and

his

of

its

architecture

the
own

past,

has of

been

ttle

expressive
future
ages

architecture

to-da

less

are

to

read

in

it the

commentary

ibis

time

' '

artistic
the study

ideas
and

and

ideals

were

in
earlier

transitional
styles

stage,

adaptation
North of employing
no

of

ther

lands
in the

characterised security
we

American

ture, architec-

and

recognised
to

and

rious

types,

had

desire

experiment,

or

olve

originalia.
many

good the

architectural
because
has

critics
American

have

bitterly
since

ed

times

the
no

nation,

arlier
style.

days,

created
are,

characteristic
two

tural architec-

There

however,

sides

to

this

tion.

ooking

back
be

over

the

evolution
new

of
arose

architectural only made


when

,
ones

it will
were
or

found
out-worn,

that

styles

when
new

conditions social
or

them
change

te,

when

some
new

religious

lly
was

dictated

architectural
reason,

forms.
and

No

new

founded
for
to

without
In

solely
any

because
come

desire effort
The
^an

novelty.
be **Art
to

no

case

has
for
the
an

good
sake

original
Nouveau'* evolve
new

solely
was

of

inalit orig-

illustration
the

effort what

forms

for
spirits ideas.

sole

purpose to
'^

eaking

certain existing
is

restless

believed
And
as

be
Art

monotony

of
movement

artistic
now

the
an

u^'
of

remembered leaving
it had

demi epitrace
ever

ephemeral It

madness, died
because and

after
no

it
reason

no

nfluence. been
or

ve

created,

because,

in

itself,

it

was

not

legitimate. the
last
century,

That the

almost,
no

in
^^

this

country

has

development is not surprising,


hbove

of

striking
should
arts, to not

national"
be it
very

tecture archi-

and

distressing.
the
sure

rchitecture,
to

aU

other

is

part

proceed

slowly,

and

be
or

of
styles

each
are

Sincere

adaptations

of

old

ancient

ch

to

be

preferred
only
as

if the
a

alternative
de

is
"

meaningless
attempt

yle

evolved
an

tour

force
not

an

ove

originality
to

which
produce
prevent

does
'*

exist.
'*

If

this

cou try

is

destined
nothing

style,

recognisable legacies
as

ch,

could
other

it
would

"

our

of

yles

from It
can
as

lands

be

straws

in

rrent.

has
our a

been
present

so

always.

Nor

adaptations
to

of
idea

many

styles

nstrued

contradiction is
a

the

of

architectural
that

olution.
prevail

It

far

more

natural

condition
that
one

man

yles

in
in

equal this
age

favour,
country

than
at

style
time.

shou

paramount

the

present

The

present

is of

one

of

travel

and And

of

education

photography accountable

and
for the

illustration.

human Every

natur
one

selective
some

proclivity.
personal

instinctively

cherishes for
manor,

ideal
Italian

untry-house, English
not
*'

example,
or a

be

it

an

vi

French
for the

chateau. sake

That conformity

id

uld

be

sacrificed
style
out

of

national"

of
the

architecture.

We
of
all

wou

ill

take

pages

of

picture-book

chitecture. Italian
villas
are

not,

necessarily,
the
men

consistent
were

in

th

chitectural

style

because
The

Italians
who

turally architec
and

consistent.

built
no

them, type.

om

they
not

were

built, by ideas,
a

knew variety and


was

of

other other,

Th

distracted
pleasing,

of

and by

perhaps

ually

consequently,

following

prevalent
As

style,

there effect
may

evolved
the

distinctive

ty

proof

of

the

which
upon

selective architectural In

proclivity

the

individual
the there
as

have

desig
the
or

nsider style

architecture
was

of
so

England. conservatism

matte

not

much

tency consi

has

been

supposed.

Once

the

landed

gentr

to

travel,
was
on

new

architectural admired,
English and
estates.

ideas
many

came

in.

The

garden

Italian

gardens

laid

out

The
so

Englishman

red

his

own

kind
Many

of

honse, Italian

he

did

not

adapt

Italian artisans, and


which
the
^'

villa.

painters,
over

decorators
to
**

however, works had


East

were

brought
to
a
a

create

ors

of
as

art

gratify of

the

classic'^ Contact Chinese furniture,

arisen

result mania

travel.

Far
mostly

created

for

**the

evidenced
potently

in
in
a

Chippendale's
favour
as

nevertheless
"

in alien
came

many

other

re di

and
could

certainly
be

style

to

English
the

traditi

as

conceived. the

Later

Brothers

imprinting

architecture

and
was

furniture
not to
wear

time
the

with
late

classicism

which

of

Georgian intercourse
with

period.
of varied of And the

The

more

ideas,
styles,

the

more

travel,
the

the

familiarity
be
the

certainly of

less
one

likelihood
new

development because
the

any

ially

style.

intelligent
this
country

and

cal
must

study be be

of

the
a

architecture

of

to da
essential

largely
to

study

of

adaptations,
with
any

it is
accuracy

to

able

trace

derivations
to

and

It would
or

be

impossible
of
a

acquire

understanding

appreciation
without

the

architecture

of

this

country

practical
of
Europe.

familiarity

with

the

great

ectural

styles

ith

this
to

in

view,

the
concisely

following
the

two

chapters
of
the

are

ned

outline with

evolution
to

historic

tecture,
of

special discussed
of

reference

characteristics

the
a

styles,

consecutively,
as

and

with

great

degree

brevity

is

consistent

with

te

presentation.
however,
to

Before

traverse

the

ages

rom

the

time
day,

of
a

the few

Egyptian
absolute

temple-builders fundamentals
the the reader architects

up

to

resent

of in
of

desi

hould be

be
seen

comprehended
to

by
extent

order the

that

what

histor

yles

succeeded would the


grasp
may

in
be
an

realising
easy

their
matter,

intentions. in this direction,

It

unge real

reader of be

into four
to

maze

of

technicalities, of
all

whereas

great

essentials

architectural
points.

sign

said

comprehend have safe of been


to
**

lesser

ese

four

essentials

rationally
that

realised
the

given worthy
The

building,
of

it is
name a uses,

assume

buildin

the of
or

architecture.'* regardless

design function
and the

building,
should should
his

of

its
and

'^

styl

its

be

expressive
have

appro priat

designer

demonstrated the

is

finished of

building scale and

grasp

of

architectural of

sential

the

pictorial

essential

lig

d'Shade.
Briefly its

considering
own

these

four
while

essentials
seemingly

"

buildin
^a a

feats

design this The


on

if,

tall

right

building,
lines.

effect
result

is is of
not
a

destroyed distressing

by

stron

rizontal

optical
"

ntal

confusion doubt
as

the

part
or

the the

beholder
architect
as

an

tab ine

to

whether in
his The

had he

be

rfectly
to

certain
express.

own

mind upright

to

what

ying

tall,
an

building of
as

shou

press

its
so

height,

with
to

introduction
the vertical
long,

horizontal
serve

mbers
break
no

subsidiary
monotony.

to

the

low in
In

building its design


any express

shoul

ntain

conspicuous

elements

whic

ll

detract

from

its

horizontality. and

short,

buil ing

should of

immediately
its designer,

unequivocally be
tall
a

tention

should graceful,

building upright,

massive
or

dignified,

light

and

and

spreading,
doubt
or
we

or

of

any

other in
so

type.

If

we

are
an

assailed
aspect

ny

conjecture
may

important
to

building, of
the
to
say

well

expect

find

further

serious

nces

inept of

design. appropriateness,
would not

On

score

there obvious.
should The

is,

perhaps, design

which

be

lding,

irrespective
or

of
nature

its of

style,
the

be

expressive
and
not

the

purpose

building,
shop should

hence

priate.
a

little

millinery Appropriateness

look

bank
style,

building.
because of

inevitably
are

vo in suited

certain certain

styles

peculiarly

he

expression modem

ideas.
styles
"

Classic
are

styles

are

fied,
are

French and graceful The

festive,
so on

Italian

refined architecture.
can

and

through

the

of
who

able
for

architect
the

is the
of
a

tect archi-

unerringly
style

select which
will

design
clearly

given

ing

the
express

most

and

tively effec-

the

intent
word

of

that

building.
met
or

''Scale"

is

seldom
room,

with outside

outside
the
conversation

the

tectural of
term

draughting

designers,
is* not
common
' '

and technical
errors

this
' '

is
one,

unfortunate, and
other
errors

because in
"

scale

more

than
one

of

any

kind

be

the

ion

involved
the

of

architecture,
a

furniture

design,

ven

selection
diction,
well
exactly
' '

of
scale
or

picture
' '

frame.
the

In

plain
whether

involves related.

relationship
a

ill
the

If

window,
for
a

for wall-

e,

is of
which

right the

proportions

it

occupies,

architect
is
too

says

it

is
or

''in

." he

If,

however,

this
"out

window of in
scale."
every

large fagade pleasing,

too

says

it is

A
way

may

be

ably exception
may

designed, of be
"out
one

and
fatal

with
for

defect:
"

the be

cornice,

st in

scale"

^may

avy,
or

or

may
' *

be
' '

insignificant with bracket


No
escape

and
rest

inadequate
the
' '

in A
scale,

ti re

in

scale
a

the

of

design.
out

sing
' '

ulding, the
or

single

may

be

of
a

mar ri

whole
too

design. small
or
a

member
the
may
so

of

building
of of

is

rge

to

necessity be
'

''scale.
"

entire

wing

tower

out

scale,
as

or

ngle

feature
over
a

(apparently)
window.
as on

unimportant

the
that

s k

It

is

apparent,

then,

chitect's
very

success

measured his
eye

by for
eye

his

works
"

mus

pend

largely

''scale"

whic

ght

be

called,

perhaps,

his

for

relative

It

will
must

be

conceded
play
an

at

once

that
part

effects in the

of

light

ade

important with it,

design

ilding, solids. all

and

cognate

the

handling in
or

of
a

voi

Architecturally, and all


of of

the
openings,

"voids"
loggias

desig

windows

door
the

arcades

"solids," balance

building
and will

which
solid is

is
an

not

"void."

ilful

void
as

essential

chitectural of
any

design, building,
also
occur
"

be

apparent

in
in

one

's

obse vati

studied
be

with

this

mind.
and study lines,

Lig

shade
most
'

must

skilfully through

manipulated,
too

t m

often
'

much
of

ilding

on

paper,

as

composition
effect

withou

fficient

visualisation

of from

the

of

the
a

executed

wor
casts

ery

projection
shadow,
a

the the
whole

face

of of

building
shadows
the

finite

and
of the the

effect

these
as
a

is

ch

part
or

design of

detail
order.

ulding From

interpretation

classic
on

the

foregoing
scale that the

observations
and
able
to

expression, it
much

propriateness,
apparent

light-and-shadow, architect needs


of

mu

menta

uipment

in

addition
with

his

knowledge

historic

styl

his

familiarity

structural

problems.

It

ARCHITECTURE

noticed,

moreover,

that
these

the

more

masterfully
of

an

tect

handles
he

essentials

design

the
for
scale,

les

ciation
that
so

receives
in
eye

from
such to

the

lay

critic,
as
no

the

perfection
rests the The

matters attract

fo

nce,
no

as

attention

and

praise. will find


of

trained
to

architectural
him

observer,
his conscious

r,

much

delight

in

ciation proceed
of

these

niceties.
in design
present
a
a

To

further

consideration would work,


no

of
inconsistent
matter

the

ciple prin-

architectural
of
the

be

with

purposes

how

esting internow

in

itself,
through

and

necessarily

brief
of those

study
great
we

will

irected
whose every

the

evolution

historic around

present-day hand.

manifestations

see

THE
GROWTH
THE

EVOLUTION
OF
THE GREAT OF

OF

ARCHITECTUBE
ARCHITECTURAL
OF ASSYRIA, OF

STYLES.
GREECE,

ARCHITECTURE
ROME.
BYZANTINE

EGYPT, AND

OF

ROMANESQUE

ARCHITECTURE

IN

order

to

acquire
which with

practical

familiarity
us

with and
to

tlie
be

architecture

surrounds
its forms,

to-day,

actically
to

familiar
some

it is obviously
of and in
the

necessary

acquire

general

knowledge the
ages

evolution several

architecture of

through

the

ountries
It

Europe.
and, of Egypt, indeed, history quite
proper,

is customary
a

to

commence

study in
no

the

of

architecture

with
evolution

its

eginnings
left

although of actual

architectural

vestige

Egyptian

detail

in

modem

uildings.
The

recognisable
themselves character

characteristics
in
three

of

architecture directions:

anifest

principal
the
or

in

he

structural arch
mass,

of

building

(column
;

construc

construction
form

otherwise)
or

in

its

general

or

(tall and
in
or

vertical, detail

low-spreading kind
to

nd

horizontal)
mouldings

and

its

(in

the

of
each

tectural architype

ornaments

peculiar

nationality).
There
are,

again,
of private

three

broad

divisions

in secular

which public
to

to

onsider
secular

types

buildings:

religious,
It class

nd

buildings.
in

is
a

essential

consider

instinctively, because
much

which of

given

building exists
vague

elongs,

the

confusion arises

which
from

in

he

cqnsideration
or none

of

architecture
at

lassification,
28

all.

And

classification

should

5/

s
royal

be

the

basis
to

of

comparison,

and
practical

comparison
comprehension. which

road

intelligent
of

and
these

The
come

importance
to

broad
felt
as

divisions,
instinctively,
progresses.

make

themselves apparent

will

increasingly with

study

Commencing

the

architecture
what
a

of

Egypt,

it will

ealised
was

subsequently
gradually

complex
an

architectural

built

up

upon

essentially
^
^

simple

ation. the
purpose

For

of evolution

this

book
be

the^

following
in of

history
the
most

rchitectural form

will
with

presented

se

possible,
phases

the

intention

enlarging

certain

of

it in

subsequent

chapters.

The
type

AECHrrECTXJBB
Egyptian

or

Egypt

The

of

building
evolution
or

which
was

played
not

its

part

later

architectural either
"

the

secular

ing,

public
case,

private,
temple.
was,

but

the

religious

ing

^in this Egyptian

the

The

dwelling
and Not
very

for perishable,

the

most

part,

modest

affair,

both
no

actually

stylistically.
in
the

only

are

there

examples of

preserv

condition

of the

the

Roman

villas residence
upon

Pompeii
appears

Herculaneum,

but little if any

Egyptian

ave of

had
the

influence

the

later

evolu*

private

house.

Some

idea

of

its

form

has

preserved
and

in

elaborate but
not

contemporary

ings wall-painton

bas-reliefs,
did it is
more

since

its

influence
the

tural architecof

design

extend

beyond
to

days
the

the

ohs,

profitable
of

consider
Egypt.

religious,

emple,

architecture Egyptian

ancient

Essentially, and
the

architecture

was
an

stone

tecture,
on

structurally

it
lintel

was

architecture being
any

column

(a

lintel

rizontal
Although

member the
appear

resting
arch
to
was

upon

two

vertical
to

members).
Egyptians,
a mean

known

the

eir

builders

have

regarded

it
stones

as

noble
to most

substitute
span part,

for

the

enormous

which

th

ed

the

distances
seem

between that by

their the
the

columns.

it would their employed. columns, of huge

Egyptians

gauged
the
many

merit
they
greater

of

buildings

size
they

of

stone

ich

Although such
as

built in
the

eir

those

great

Karnak,
of

cylindrical
columns,
an

drums, hewn
from

they
one

thought piece

ghly

monolithic
was

one.

Theirs of massive columns

architecture and far and


were

of

sublime

proportions,

forms
were

simple
heavier
the

lines.
than

Their

those
the

la

veloped
heads
as

by
of

the the

Greeks,
columns, and

forms

of by

capital

inspired
flowers.

such

lo

ora

palm-leaves

lotus is and

Egyptian influences
architectural
country,

architecture which
social

powerfully
natural

illustrative
conditions essentially
a

exe

on

character.

Being

iou rel

actually
was

ruled
the
the

by
temple,

the

priests, and building being

the

principal

rm

of

building
country,

essentially

treeless The

principal
of
of

material understood

one.

Egyptians,
and
use

course,

nufacture for

bricks, eternity,

but

with their

their

bas

ssion

building
to
enormous

for
be

crude

bric
not

ubtless
as

seemed

perishable,
stone

and

certainly
so as

ble
such

their
part

members,

brick

playe

in

Egyptian
of the

architecture
Assyrians. Egyptian
the rock-cut
the

it later

playe

the

buildings of
'*

Indicative

the
are

architectural

ideal
hewn which,

eternity,
mountain

there

temples, tomb,

fr

one

sides, the

and

usual

whe

buried

beneath

artificial

mountain

of

pyramid,

THE

ARCHITECTtJRE
the

cut
to

into
be

solid

rock
the

of

the

Theban

Hills. preferred
of
a

Thns

inferred
even

that

Egyptians

permanen

to
were

the

impressive
content
to

majesty
rest

fine

tecture archichamber than

They far in
the

in

hidden
rather

heart

of

the

living

rock,

in

ornate

mausoleum. Egyptian
testify
to

All

architectural this

and
"

monumental
the

remai

predeliction
the

Sphinx,
the

hewn great

the

solid temple
statues

rock,

monolithic

obelisks,
at
"

cut

of and
a

Rameses massive

II
pylons

Abu-Simbel,
all these
are

the

sal

acteri charhave sion inva-

by
the

strength

and the
over

immobility
waves

which destructive

centuries
have
swept

and

of

which
for

Egypt.

Yet,

all
was

its

qualities
not

of

massive
and

form,

Egyptian
architects from
lotus,

tecture
artists
and

sombre,
many

Egyptian forms

evolved
papyrus

decorative
were

which
was

essentially
of

graceful
Egypt bas-relief

and

ate.

Nor devoid

the
colour.

architecture
The

by

any
carvings,

of

pictorial

the

inscriptions
tombs
were

and

decorative
even

details

of

the

ples tem-

and

richly, The they

garishly, of
sand

painted
and

i
time

and
dimmed

bright
these

colours.

erosion
have

where
tombs be

been

exposed,
sanctuaries and the vivid

but

he

shelter

of
are

many to

and
as

rock-hewn
intense

colours they

found
recently

as

had

but

come

from

brush

painter. The transitional


is
generally
step

from

Egyptian
as

to

Greek
rock-cut

itecture
at

given
often

existing the
*

in
*

le

Beni-Hassan, because the


to

called of the

Proto-Doric bears
the

le,"

form the

columns
column,

king
the

similarity Greek

Greek

Doric

firs

**

Of

the

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK to Greece,
more

OP

ARCHITECTURE

egacy

of Egypt with

may

be

onnection

tha

consideration

in appreciated Greek of tecture. archi-

The

Abchitectube
of

of

Assybia.

architecture istinctly from that


those

The

of

ancient Egypt,

Assyria
and

differed

quite

ike

of

Egyptian and

its characteristics, direct the were architecture, conditions.


more

utcome

of social

natural
was

Secular
the

architecture

magnificent

ace

less religious far emples were

palaces of the and less dominated less

prominent, kings, and, by And


the

notably being

conspicuous.

priesthood, being a country

devoid, timber,
a

for

eveloped

as stone well part, of building in clay, Assyria but naturally abounding instead hfick architecture tecture. archiof a stone

the

most

Structurally,
unit, the
great

since the brick lintel construction


the
was arch in some

strucsmall tural of the Egyptians

is

as

oth

so not possible, in its true form, was

used other
use

and

considerably, Roofforms. ing though


among

here

by accomplished is considerable dispute often


several and largely used. buildings Assyrian

the
on

of wood, question

this

rchaeologists, extiles were

theories

maintaining

that

Of

only

the

walls
great
on

and
rooms

floors

emain,

but been
was

the

area

ave

here

spanned devised clay.

of the of many only by timbers,


a

could

covering

of

perhaps, which, then lighter wood,

hatch Most

and

buildings are of the form of Assyrian versions that the it is known with certainty conjectural, though sively impreswere of vast size, and were and temples palaces
terraces, a series on approached of great elevated And broad flights of steps. whatever particulars Assyrian are architecture conjectural, it is certain

by

of

the

Assyrians of

were

the both of

first

to

realise

and
and

develop
decora-

possibilities Such

brick,

structurally

y.

portions

their

important
were

buildings
with
or

as

conspicuously of
gorgeous

exposed
and elaborate

faced
colours,

glazed

beautiful
and deities,

with

tiles

forming of

highly
monsters

decorative and little


had

representatio

legendary
architecture

heroes.
from

Subsequent
"

borrowed

the

ians

certainly it. by The

that

of

Greece

nothing
but

with Egypt,
two

Assyrians
of racially
materials
the

borrowed

little

reason

differing
and socially, available.
the

characteristics
as

he

countries, of building

well

as

nature

Architecturally, dispute, of
ever

however, pioneers
as
a

Assyrians

were,

out with-

the

in building been
a

demonstrating material
distinct
"

the
a

possibilitie

brick
since,

material

has

factor of
other

in
races

tectura archi-

evolution

and

expression

lands.

The

Abohitectube histories

of

Greece

Most

architectural of archsBological
many

are

enlivened
on

by

the

tes

authorities of outline of
such these

questions
are

of
great

Although
the
present
not

disputes sketch
of

of

st,

architectural
The

ion

will

allow

digressions.
usually regarding

study

reek
great

architecture, conflicting

however,

begins
the

with

the

liieories
is

origin

of

its

One
column first
is

contention
and
lintel

that

the

Greeks
as

borrowed
as

construction,
from

well

the

form
other

heir

Doric
that

column, the

Egypt.

The

tion

Greeks,

advancing
into stone

in
the

skill

and

on,
own

simply

translated wooden

forms

of

earlier

buildings.

There

is much

to

pport

both between
but
in the

theories.
early

Undoubtedly

there

is
forms
is
a

la si

Greek
no

architectural doubt
to

yptian,

with

less
temple

there what
we

distin

alogy
a

Greek
and

may

imagine wood.

similar
the

primitive
it of

Greek
more

building
to

of

For

present

is

important
in
the

crystallise

clear

impression

what,
to

main, into its

constituted origin.
is
the

eek
An

architecture, understanding important of of


many

than
of
step

inquire

Greek
acquiring

architecture
a

ally

in

practical
day,

stand under
as

the

architecture

of

the

present

earlier

periods.
understand
of the

To
the
*'

understand real

Gree
of

chitecture

is

to

meaning
Revival,'*
to

veral

manifestations frequent architectural

Classic

allusion

the

*'

Class

eal.*'
The

importance
cannot

of be
the

Greek

architecture

in

subsequent

olution

over-stated.

Greek
all
modem of
the

architecture

ndamentally,
from later,

basis
the

of

architecture,
Rome,

at

it sprang
the

architecture of
the

and

fr

at

architecture supplanted architecture,

Renaissance,
idea.

whic

rmanently

Gothic
furthermore,

In
the

Greek
first

it
of
are

is
a

possible multitude

time,

to

perceive

the which

origin
we

architectural

forms
"

with

daily
motifs

s r

to-day immortal
come
* '

^mouldings,
' '

ornamented themselves
day,
not
"

Greek
to

orders
the

orms ^f

whic
those

ve

down
Egypt

present

while live downfall

cient

and their

Assyria
or

did
after

beyond
of

nfines

of

lands,

the

th

pires.

The
an

Greeks
ideal
of

evolved
such

the

'*

Classic and

Ideal** and

in

ture, architec

purity the

nobility

perfection the

at

it has

constituted

standard

through

age

AN

EARLV

EXAMPLE

OF

THE

GREEK

DORIC

TEMPLE

(UNFINISHED)

'

well

mouldi

""

"

"

""

-"

{Tba

CiTyatid

Porch

of

the

Encblhnim.

Alfa"n

CORINTHIAN

ORDER

ARCHITECTIRK

is

to-day

the

fundamental

of

architectural is
as
a

design. colunm-and-

Greek

architecture, highly

elementally, developed orders


to

architecture,
the
severest

time
most

went
ornate

on

Doric

the

thian
three

orders. orders, Dtiric,

The

Ionic
to

and

Corinthian,

are

ly

recognisable

and
Terminology,

easily

be

distinguished

(se

hitectural

Illustrated'*).
assumed by it is

Regardless
elements

of

the

forms
later

Greek
important

architectura

in

times,
forms

ber of

their
the

origin.
Renaissance,
in

Greek
and the

reappeared
in the

in
period

the

again

Classic forms

Revival
constitute

Eighteenth
the
most

Century,
important
a

and

the
part

to-day details.

ur

architectural
forms
pave

To the
a

possess

clear

vision

reek
to

is
the

to way

simplify
for

study

of

architecture

subsequent

recognition ideals
which
came

forms

and

other later

architectural periods
type

being
most

during

and

in

other

lands.
was

The

notable

of

Greek

building
of

the

e,

although

the
far
than

private
more

dwellings
of
the
case

wealthy
of

individua

claimed
sculptors

attention

arcliitects

was

the
was

in

Egypt.
an

Greek

architecture
and its

essentially
subsequently

architecture
to

tone,
was

character,

the of

Doric

marked
and

by

the

refined of

application

graceful

ng

co-relation
the eternal

monumental
of

statuary.

Much in
the

of

excellence
of

Greek

architecture
as

perfection
of
upon.

its

proportions, which,
to

well
have

as

refinement improved

its

detail,

date,

not

It is important
the

to

remember
and

that

Greek direct

architecture
source

inspiration

of te^^

the

of

the

sign

of

virtually
style has

all

the

large

public better and

buildings
suited

-day.

No

been

found

for

pression
form.

of The

dignity,
debt
can

stability of
never

permanent to

beaut

architecture be

the

genius and

cient

Greece
increasingly
temple

discharged,
as

comes

apparent

study

proceeds. kinds, province is


but

Greek

plans
of

were

of

several

fferentiation
more

these

comes

into than

the

detailed
Nor be
can

consideration this
to

it

intended
of
upon

esent.

kind have
a

of

knowledge

Gree

chitecture

said

direct
is
more

bearing
important,
the
' *

superficial
survey,

aspects.

It

neral

to

recognise
great

thoroughly

importance

meaning the purity


were

of of

the

and the
of

immortal

Classic
of

IdeaP

form

and

perfection

proportion

ich

the

essentials

Greek
their

architecture.
highest

An

ese

basic Greek
most
was
an

essentials
temple.

found

expression

the The

important
its
"

feature

of
an

the
open

Greek
central

privat

sidence

planning
a

about
of plan

cour
to

lled

atrium

type

still
later

adhered

countries,

and notably

encountered
the

in

but

slightl

riant

forms,

Spknish

patio.

The
The

Aechitectubb
Rome took
in
arch.

of

Bomb

architects
it,

of

Greek
addition,

architecture and

elaborated the
old Greek

introducing
of
the

highl

veloping,
The

use

Doric
to

order

did
it

not

appeal

to
appeared

phisticated
severe was
'

Romans,

whom

doubtless

and
the

too

primitive.
Doric column,

Their
also

corresponding

rm

Roman

called
' '

Tuscan

'

ee

Architectural

Terminology,

Illustrated

The
.

made highly

bat

little

use

embellished

of the Ionic, the Corinthian.


of the

but

appropriated

and

Most architecture later


a

characteristic
was

Roman
use

development
of column

of arch, Italian

favourite

combined for the theme

the

and

architects

of the

Renaissance. Roman carving


or

and similar

ornamentation
work
of

was

rarely

so was

refined

pure

as

the

Greeks,
were

but
lovers
to

more usually inscriptions,


more

decorative.

The

Romans

of
pay

in their and, to secular attention


than

architecture,

began

buildings, been
and well
as

both

public
them.

private,
works,

had
as

previously aqueducts
as

such

accorded bridges,
theatres,

and lic Pub-

became baths,
or

tectural archi-

monuments,

and
villas,
were

triumphal
became

arches, luxurious

while

the

private
to

residences,
a

and

elaborate

degree,

and
other

filled with

of

art,

bronzes statuary, paintings, including Greek antiquities.


was

and

works

Architecture

fast

coming
to

into occupy

with of There
were

the

people,

ceasing

closer ship relationits earlier tion posi-

exclusive
were
even

consecration
Roman

to

the
to

gods. be
sure,

temples,

but

there

an

greater

have which development

played

secular number of Roman important in the a part as


as

ings buildquent subsemonuments

of architecture
however,

the

earlier

of
It must of of

Greece. be remembered, preceded


that less

that
the forms from

the

ture architec-

Greece
so or

and

inspired

architecture
were,

Rome,

greater

all Roman virtually degree, derivations to remember, of

to forms.

Greek
that

It will be important

later, the

the

inspiration

came

of the architecture Roman, from not secularised


the

Italian

Renaissance

Grecian,
temple

remains, architecture

and of

that

the

Romans

Greece.

Byzantine

and

Romanesque

Abchitectube

Before
the Roman with
grew

the

final

downfall
in
the
year

and
455

dismemberment
Christian of the it had developed,
architecture sustained in their and, until

of

Empire all the


up
on

Era,
there

elaborate
types

civilisation
of church Ages,

two

struggled
warmth

through
religious

the

Dark

by

which the
way,

of

enthusiasm,

keeping
more

the

lamp

propitious

of architecture for its further

burning development.

times

These
Romanesque
development of which,

two
"

by into

known Byzantine are as styles and first high the a of which, reaching in itself, led to nothing the second else, and reason grew merits, of its vital structural the
great

directly

Gothic

style,
stage

which
until the

was

to

completely

fill the
the Renaissance

architectural

coming

of be

in

Italy
in

in

the

year

1400.

At

this

point
to

architectural
a

history
dates

it may

illuminating
following
the the

tabulate

few

course

of architectural
to the

in reference development from in Italy


:

for

fall of Rome

end

of the

Renaissance

Cheonology
End
Early of

the

Roman

Empire,
Period, from

455

a.d.

Christian

Emperor

Constantine
300-604
a.d.

of Byzantium In the
the
name

to Gregory

I, Bishop
Empire

of Rome,
eastern

Byzantine

(the

division
changed

of

Roman
of

Empire),
Byzantium

Emperor
to

Constantine

the

Constantinople

(**City of
in 338
a.d.

Constanti

In
a

527

Christianity adopted and Emperor the Byzantine A.D.


war,

Justinian the
Eastern

began
and Empire

twenty-year

which
and
a.d.

finally

drove
the

Goths

Huns

from

Italy, In
751

strengthened

of Rome.

Rome

became At

independent, this
time the

in the

form

of the

first Papal

States.

Italian

(The

Cathedral

of St.

Mtrl

rds

conquered

the

greater

part

of

the

Byzantine

e. Byzantine II, in
1453,

The

Empire
and half

finally

fell

at

the
the

hands Moslem of

med

Constantinople
a

became after the

al

century

beginning

the

of

the
900

Renaissance
to

in
was

Italy.
to
some

From of

1200

Italy
European

extent

the

field battlemany

ambitious
and 1200
constant to

nations,

suffering

ions

unrest.

From
and

1400

such
grew
commerce.

Italian
steadily

cities
in

as

Venice,
and

Florence

prosperity

mostly
was

through
no

There
the

national

Italian
power parts
:

government

at

this

balance by
five

of united

being the
Duchy

diplomatically of Milan,

sted
nominal

the

''republics'^
at

of
the

Venice,

the

Papal
Naples.

States

tred

Rome)
of the
as

and
great

Kingdom periods
:

of
of the

The
are

dates
given

Italian

sance Renais-

follows

Early

Renaissance,

Florentine

1400-1600
1400-1600 1490-1600

Milanese
Venetian Roman

1444-1643 1500-1540 1540-1643 by


close

High
Late

Renaissance
Renaissance

The

years

and
the
saw

periods
of Rome

covered
to

the
of

foregoing
the

from

fall

the

Italian

ssance,
any

greater

developments

in Great
here
as

architecture
were

subsequent however,

span

of

time.

these with such

opments,
in
the

it is necessary

to

deal
out

briefest
as

possible will
later

manner,

pointing
an

points

prove

aid

in

distinguishing

the

architectural

derivations

of

to-day.

Byzantine
about
as

and
the
**

Romanesque

architecture
were

flourishe
by
in

same

time,

and

preceded
architecture

what

own
the
were

Early

Christian*'
at

Rome

Christians, neither
were,

the
nor

beginning powerful,

of

the

Christian

a,

rich

their

architectural

forts
It
was

of
at

necessity, time
gave

restricted.
the
to

this

that
place

idea
the

**

of
idea The
as

a a

temple,''
**

ode
place

of

deity, of
worship

of

church,"

for

the

devout.
more

temple,
a

whi

shrine,
people

had
came

been
to

regarded offer
the

divine god
to

abod in

prayer

to

their

mple.

In

the
an

church,

devout
came

assembled
to them.

mak

ayer,

and

Invisible
the

God

Gradually

architectural
to
assume

efforts

of definite

the

ear

hristians
Romanesque of

began
"

certain
proper,
**

forms
*'

in

Italy

or

the

Western

pire

Rome,"

and the
**

Byzantine" Empire
at

in

Byzantium Rome."

Constantinople),
Byzantine

Eastern
was

of

architecture Constantine,
when

its

height

under
the

peror
Rome the

he and

removed

capit

om

to

Constantinople,
actually
time, but

the in

term

covers

ly

buildings
at

erected
several

the

Byzantine

pire

this

important

porary contem-

buildings
Most notable

in
of

Italy.
all

Byzantine

architectural
in Venice. additions
1100-1350.

monument

is

the

Church
from

of

St.

Mark,
a.d.,

It

rgely

built
and

1061-1071

with

lunms

marble
great

mosaics,
monument of

between
of

The
is

second the
now

Byzantine in

ture architec

Church
a

Ste.

Sophia,
Mosque.

Constantinople, Ste. been Sophia built


a.d.

long
earlier

Mohammedan than St. Mark,

date

having in

by

zantine

Emperor

Justinian

532-537

Both

buUdingSy
of

however,
Byzantine structural

illustrate architecture.

the

most

salient

cteristics principal
Bomanesque

The

difference
is that

between
the

tine Byzanfirst

and
the

architecture while

oped devel-

dome,

the

second
at

developed
the

the
"

vault.

tine

architecture
architecture
of
grew

stopped

dome

esque ^Romanvaulting

into
style.

the

elaborate

ms

the

Gothic

The
to

**

architectural
different
forms

orders''
in

of works
were

the
of

Romans the

gave

Byzantine of
large

ers.

Byzantine
with
;

buildings
mosaic,

mostly for

brick,

lished dome

and

depending
on

effect
were

the

for

detailed springing

effect

colour.
a
or

Arches

structurally,
than those

from Greeks
short,

different
Romans.

sort

of
was

the

The placed effecting


shaft

tine

column

usually
were

and

often

airs,

and

the

capitals the
arch

basket-shaped,
to

ansition
column.

from

the
were

cylindrical intricately

These
decorative heads
the

capitals
manner,

carved,

richly
or

with

conventional
forms.

tion folia-

grotesque

and

animal and

In

place

of
the

mouldings
of

carvings

of

the

Classic
were

tects,

exteriors

Byzantine

churches vari-coloured
by

sified
well
as

by by

horizontal
the

bands

of

brick, successive

interest

afforded

sed

arches. formed
early
pagan
no

Statuary
the

feature allowed
and
pagan

of

this

architecture,
so
or

Christians
religions

nothing

cent reminis-

of
a

deities,

'idols''

part art

of of

their mosaic

creed. work, reached both


its

The

in

coloured
in

marbles
Byzantine

mosaic

glass,

height

tecture.
plans
were

Church

usually

in

the

form

of

Greek

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

osSy

with

the

dome

covering
and,

the

central
later,
were

part.

omparison
those

with
of

Romanesque

Gothic
square

churc

ans,

the

Byzantine

churches

mpact.

The

dome,

essentially
come

an

Eastern,
as

or

for

naturally
or

to

be

regarded

.Asiatic characteristic
which,

aracenic

Moorish
much

architecture,
in
common.

with

indeed

zantine Romanesque

has

architecture in
as a

was

practised spread
through

not

only

urches

erected

Italy,
In

but

France

Germany
to

well.

certain
extent

details
by
Byzantine

it

was

considerable it the
was

feelin

ile

structurally

essentially

different.
of

Instead

of the

dome

construction church

the

Byzantine addressed
vault in

chitects,

Romanesque
to
"

builders
of
the

their

efforts
of

the

development efforts

as

thod

roofing of
the

their

culminating

thic
The

style

Thirteenth
church

Century.
plan

Romanesque

assumed cathedral

much
plans,

of

aracter of

of
a

the long

later

church
nave,

and

c s

central

flanked
in
the

by

narrower

de-aisles,
"

the
apse

nave

terminating

sanctuary

tar

^the

of

the

later tile
to

cathedral roof of

plan.
the
masonry
*

In

ord

support

the
it
was

heavy
necessary

Romanesque

urch,
a

develop

vaulting

degree

never

before

attempted,
was

and

rib-vaulting,

basis

of
way

Gothic
of

architecture,
a a

evolved.
**

By

definition,
more

plain

vault,

or

barrel*
a

ult,
in
own

is the

nothing
form

than inverted
as

continuous

arch

"

ing roo

of
as

an

half-cylinder,
any

supporting

weight,
principle

well

superincumbent

weight

the

of

the

arch
vaults

(Fig.

1).

When

two

plain

intersect

(Fig.

2),

the

TEE

EVOLUTION

OP

ARCHITECTUKE

13

Belf-Bustaining and Fig. of the


a new

or

supporting by

power the

Is

not

impaired,

Una This and

is fonued intersection the building by

intersection
as

("AB,"
the
"groin"

2).

is of

known

vault,

intersecting

vaults

was

practised The
step

extensively later Romanesque They

the

Romans. builders,
however, the went
a

further. essential the groins,

discovered
of the

that

only

atmetvaults

ur^ly
were

members
or

intersecting the

stones

forming stand
alone,

intersection. independently

These,

they

found,

would

hkXUl
of the
rest

VAULT
of

QROIN
vault, fill in.
see

VAULT
so

VINGU

TLIB stones

VAULTS
or

the to
to

that

lighter

bri(^

might

be is

used
easy

It

how vaulting"

this

discovery

led

to

the

development bones
of

of

"rib-

(Fig. 3), in which


to

the

the

construction,
vaults
"

^o
the

sp^eak)

were

the

groins

of intersecting
of secondary
a

vaults and

themselves

b^cpming chiefly,
to

significance

oftimporfanoe
interior.

effect

aymmetriclt-afe^
this

finished"
Romanesque sufficiency

On
discovery
rests

evolution of the

of

architecture,

the ribs, for the

structural
principle

of

vaulting

the

whole of

(5f

Gothic

architecture, in height

intersection brought About

vaults

varying

naturally arch.

about
these

the

discovery
two

of

the

pointed

structural

facts

the

genius

of

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

thic

architecture

wove

an

intricate from

fantasy in

of

form

details, and of

differing with Europe varying

one

another

the

sam

ilding,

interpretation

in

the

severa

untries

where

Gothic

architecture

ot
SUMMARY

EOTPTIAN

AbCHITBCTUBB

es
cut

of

Building: temples.

Temples,
Private

Pyramid dwellings
of

t"xnbs, perishable

rock-cut and of

tombs impermanent
one

and

etruction:
or

Column

and
or

lintel, blocks.

columns

either

colossal

st

built

of
Stone;

drums
brick
"

eriaU:

was

known,

but relief,
was

little

used.
highly
used,
as

aU:

Carved,

^In

low

incised
"

usually
often

coloured.
it

Burfaoe

decoration.

Stu"*co

formed

s f

ground

for

painting.

Motifs.
royal

"

Conventionalised

renderings
hieroglyphic lotus and
the

of

Deities,
and

scenes

and
based

private chiefly

life,
on

inscriptions papyrus.

decorativ

forms

the

ASSTBIAIT

Abohitbctube

pes

of

Buildfiij^;

Temples Brick-built

and walls,

palaces.
occasional Methods
of
use

struction:

of

the

arch,

thou

seldom

as

structural

aid.

roofing

buildings

larg

conjectural.
Brick Carved

erials:

and
detail.
scarce,

tile.
"

ail:
Stone

^Use
used
"

of

carved

bas

relief

in

isolated

instances

was

and

sparingly.
Assyrians
of renderings
were

Surface
the great

decoration,

^The

the

first and

to

demonstrate

decorative
"

possibilities

glazed
of

tiles

glazed
scenes

brick.

Motifs,
decorative

Conventionalised forms,

Deities,

Obeek

Abchitectube

of

Building:

Temples,

open-air

theatres,

mausoleums

and

priva

residences.

truction: Column

Column

and

lintel.

Roofs
carried

usually
to

of

slabs
of

of

st

and

lintel

construction

th^

point

perfection

CHAPTER
THE

in
OF

EVOLUTION

AECHITECTUEE

(Continued)
ARCHITECTURE
STUDY
OF STYLES
THE

C
A

AND
DIFFERING IN

RENAISSANCE
EXPRESSIONS FRANCE,

ARCHITECTURE.
OF

THESE

TWO

GREAT

ITALY,

SPAIN,

BELGIUM,

ENGLAND,

AND

GERMANY

dismiss
SO

in

few

paragraphs
so

subject
and
so

so

extensive,

diversified,
at
once a

elaborate

rich

interest, said,

is

task
many

and
of

necessity.

It

is
or

be

however, qualities
over

that

the

*4iterary," which

olic,

of

Gothic chapter

architecture will

must

passed
in

in

this

find

opportunity

for

ion

the

fifth

chapter.

Gothic

architecture architecture
of
these

is remarkable

in that

it is dually

ructural

and

decorative

architecture,

both

essential
most

aspects

existent single

in thing

equal
to

rtions.

The
in

important Gothic
to
an

mber
be

considering likened
as

architecture organic
as

is that
growth.
as

it
Its the

closely
was

lopment
of these,
a

natural

and
up,

consistent forth

tree,

rising
putting

putting leaves. endeavour


or

branches,

in turn,

forth
let
us

In

few

paragraphs, of

to

summarise from
the

evolution

the
the

Gothic
vaulting

church

cathedral,
of

beginning

in

achievements

late

esque

builders.
typical short
plan
arms

The

took

the
one arm,

form
long and
arm.

of

great

cross,

three
at

and
long

The

entrance

the

end

of

the
nave,

gave

directly

into The

great

central the
cross

flanked
the

by

side-aisles. and
a

of

formed

transept,

great

48

THE

PRAC3TICAL its

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

tower
were

rose

at

intersection rising above


cross
was

with
the

the
entrance
apse,

nave,

or

ther

twin

towers
arm

front.
or

Th

remaining There
the
most
were

of
other

the

the

sanctuary.
cross

types

of

plan,

but

the

was

usual.

Architecturally, intricate could lower be diversity


capable.
were

the

plan

was

carried Gothic
fhp
Tisivfi^

out

with

of
The

which

only
of
on

architecture
pKnva

wallfl
carried
also

side-aisles, the

columns

and

poin
were

arches;
supported,
thrust.
tresses

side-aisles, outside, by
on

arched

and
to

vaulted, the

buttresses
the

take
rose

latera

Above
to

these, the
was

exterior,
nave

flying and

bi

take

thrust

of

the

arches,

everywhere

there
grotesques,

opportunity

for
with

pinnacles,
images

turrets,

gargoyles, the
was

niches of
and

of Within, and with


at

saints

and

all

profusion

Gothic

detail.
richly

building lighted
glass
"

lofty tall,
a

mysterious, windows
rose

dimly

by

pointed magnificent

fitted window carved

stained the

^perhaps
the
nave.

near

end
holy

of

Everywhere, intricate carving,

too,

niches
in

an

images,
or

dull

colour

chro poly

textiles.

Gothic

architecture
'

is
^

'*

often
is

nicknamed
reasonably

perpendicular

architecture,

which

descriptive,
with

inasmuch and cornice,

as

the/lorizontal
forms
mount
no

entablature,

its

friez

part

of

the

Gothic
climbing
of

idea,
one

wherein
upon

all members

ever

upward, expression windows,


"

other

in

one

magnificent
vaults,

altitude.

um Co

arches,
towers
"

pinnacles, the details

buttresses, of
tracery

all

point
for
sense

upward images
of

even

and

the

niches

point

upward. reaching
made

It is this

upward which

motion,
has

often

the

height

of

the

sublime, the

Gothic the church,

archi

tecture

essentially

architecture

of

ren-

"f

NAlte

Dime.

Paris

TYPICAL

GOTHIC

DETAIL
The flvme-li

The

"upward

Tnotion"of

the

composition

iflchnTacleri^tic.

I
Vi

M
"!
M
if

g,

as

it does^

remarkable
terms.

expression This
in
aspect

of

spiritual

ity

in

architectural will
be
of

of

Gothic

tecture

dealt

with

another
were

chapter.

Some

details of
its

Gothic
structural

architecture

the
others

natural
were

owth outgrowth
on

development,
fantasy

of
the of
new a

sheer
of

and

sculptural

imagination

part
many

the

builders.

Structurally,
one

the
support
"

ging

arches forms for


of

from columns

point and

of

oped
often

capitals
the

^th

group

clustered

columns,
to

capital

ned arches

for

each
were

varying
to

condition, spring
from

accommodate

which
were

it.

Tall,

pointed

ws

the

obvious

complement

of

tall,

pointed

s. arch
thrust'*

Any
**

construction
of
the

must

physically takes
composed thrust

provide
the
of

for

arch,

which force,
and

form
the

of

an

rd

and in Arches

downward
the

forces arch

weight

materials in
sequence
so

from
neutralise

the

f.

naturally

their

ctive
to
a

thrusts,

that

there
but

is only the
a

superincumbent
arch

be
wall

reckoned
necessarily

with,

which

abuts against To

st
wall

exerts

pressure

which
force,

would
the

tend

to

force

it

outward.
the

this

Gothic
built in

builders
stone,

devised
and

exterior outward and piece

ess,
the

heavily ground,
reason

of

slanting
manner
a

d
same

exactly
one

the

same

for

that
a

would which

brace

heavy

of

against

bam

stood

in

danger

of

psing.
wall
arches buttresses took the central
care

The

of

the

lateral

thrusts higher

he

vaulting
the

side
nave,
on

aisles, called

but for

the

s,

vaulting

additional and

esses.
them

These,

resting

the

lower
were

buttresses
in
turn

additional

stability,

weighted

50

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE To
flying

down

with in

pinnacles

of

stone.
**

save

unnecessary

weight
simply
exactly thrusts

themselves, braces
by

these of

buttresses'*
artfully
and
nave

wer

skeleton
counteract,

masonry,

devised

their arches

weight
of
the

direction,

of

the

lateral

the

within.
tracery,

Gothic elaborate
and,
most

fantasy

evolved
of
stone,

intricate

canopies

seemingly
and
most

light

as

texti
of

characteristic evolved confused it.


were

fantastic

Gothic

architecture
is not
to

the with The


not
a

grotesque. the gargoyle,


were

The
or

g t

be

tak

as

synonymous

with
grotesques

gargoyles

all

g t

but
speaking,
some

all gargoyles. stone


water-spout,

Strict

the

gargoyle
distance
to

was

p j

beyond
the
run

the
in
the

wall
such sides

of
a

the
manner

edifi

and
the

designed
water

drain
not

roofs

t
masonry

would
the

down

of

the

and

into

joints.
in
taken

Grotesques
are

Gothic
as

architecture
one

are

legion,
and

generally charms.

of

its most and

quaint

unexpec

Human
as

forms
as

faces,

animals,

bir

and dragons

reptiles, and

well

purely last

imaginary

demons,
^'

griffons handled
countless in

(these
in
ways.

three

called
and the
a

m c

'^

were

grotesque

technique in of

in

Entangled
carvings

sto

traceries,
strange

or

the

intricate
forth,

capital

faces

leered

sometimes

sinister,
in

sometime

jovial.
seemingly

Contorted
from

animals
the

writhed
carved

stone,

escaped
over

details, the

peered

strangely city which

the

parapets,

far cathedral.
as

above

mediaeval

lay of

below
most

the

Some
and

the

notable,

well

as

the

most
"

weir

bizarre,
as

grotesques

of

Gothic and

architecture chimeras

ga

goyleSy

well

as

animals

in

stone

Hf

I,

ili

Hi

lis
0

^"'"5

THE

EVOLUTION

OP

ARCHITECTURE

51

ort

themselves
Dame

on

the
"

parapets

of far

the

Cathedral
from
were

of
any

de

Paris

creatures

removed

eivable

religious

concept,

unless

they
the

devised
in

depict

evil
below,

spirits,

exorcised
to

by

priests

the in
in

ch

and
high

condemned
up
on

remain

transfixed
of
the
a

forever, and

the

parapets
creatures

roof, mediaeval epitomise which

winds

weathers.
Ik

Indeed
of
of the

of
Dame

tmare,

the

chimeras

Notre

that

important unknowable,
realm

phase

Gothic

architecture and than

antastic, in
the

unexplainable demonology Fletcher


as

apparently

of
from

theology.
of
and

quotation
' *

*s

'*

History

tecture Archiuresque pict-

might

be

regarded

an

interesting
thirteenth,
masons

conclusion: fifteenth the


use

**In the
as

the

fourteenth

centuries

Gothic
a

carried
material,

to

the

of

stone
rose

building
open

heaping the

in towers roofs in of

that the

on

archways
transepts,

through

naves

and

and in all
in

tapered
the work fret-

shell-like

spires
tracery.

embroidered They
to
seem

of lace-like vaults treated


scarce

hung the

it aloft
gossamer

ous ponderweb of
pendants

by

art

e,

capable the and fancy

of of

bearing
the

the

stalactite
century

in

which

fifteenth pushing
cut
or

found
to

expression,

eventually

their the

practice
stone

furthest
thinnest

boundaries, of fibrous

they
wood

granular

the

iron,

and

revelled
' '

ricks

of construction before

and

marvels

of workmanship.

It

remains,

considering and
more more

the

architecture
Europe, types

of
to

Renaissance,

in Italy

Northern

ion

paragraphically architecture
France,

the which

important

of of

ic

became

characteristic

and,

Germany,

Belgium,

Holland,

Italy

Spain.

52

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

In England
was

the fullest development preceded Norman


by
a

of Gothic

tecture archi-

Norman

or

Gothic.
brought
an

generally style called Strictly this speaking,


to England

Norman

architecture,
conquerers,
was

by

the

man Nor-

Romanesque,
not

accepted In mass the Norman of expressive like fortresses without


not
a

especially Gothic a as

offshoot of in its decorative style

Byzantine

and details, and is

by

some were

churches

authorities. heavy didly and splenoften


as

stability
as

and

strength,

much tower,
round,

places
was

of worship.

The

square

spire,

characteristic,
was

pointed,
and

and

there

of tracery of the most Durham,


are

many

carving of later familiar is Norman of England cathedrals There rising majesticallyup above the river. buildings in England, earlier Norman many
monasteries, as of Durham

were arches none of the profusion Gothic. One English

castles

and

Cathedral
The

it is safe to regard typical of the style.


but

the

diflSculty in attempting a brief survey is met of Gothic churches cathedrals and with in the fact that few, by reason of many changes and involved
greatest
over additions intention or of the Gothic architecture

and

periods

original

of years, builders,

reveal
or

the
phase
one

plan of time.

any any

Generalities,
survey.

characteristic of therefore, are necessary

in the

present

Following

the

the

style

known

pointed became

arch
a

and

came churches of England *' Early English in which the as fully developed Gothic rib-vaulting
**

Norman

permanent

part

(Thirteenth
"Decorated the
system

Gothic*'

Century). (Fourteenth

of The

the

structural character development was next

Century) in
elaborate
a

which and

in which

became more of rib-vaulting decorative detail began to play

greater

part

THE

EVOLUTION

OF

ARCHITECTURE

63

the

**

decorated'' regarded
and
as

style,
a

Westminster
example,

Abbey,

in

don, Lonits

is

good

disregarding Fifteenth
in
style.

er

later
of the the

portions.

The

Centnry
England is

opment

Gothic

architecture

ally

called

"Perpendicular'* developments
a

Among

vaulting

of
notable number from
groups
a

this
one

phase
was

of the

sh

Gothic
vaulting"
upward
of
a

architecture,
in

which
and
met

great

of

vault-ribs, like

ging ribs

outward
similar forming

each
of

column,.

fan,

diverging
of
also

ribs

other

columns, diversity.
masses

vault

remarkable

ess

and

The of
stone

builders could
carefully
the
may

discovered
from
to

pendent

be

hung

the
stay

es

of

these

vaults,

and,

jointed
of delicate

lace,

could

be

carved
perhaps,

in

form

drop-

ents.

This,
most

be

reckoned
of

the

high-

and
world

brilliant
ever

development Fan-vaulting the carved in


some

stonemasonry^

has

seen.

is found pendent French

only

in

sh

buildings,
of vaults

while
appears

from

the

es

Gothic

tures.

distinctly

English
of

Gothic secular
was

form,
and

and

conspicuous
architecture

cteristic
Tudor

the

domestic

the

period,
**

the

flat-pointed and
by

arch,

usually
the

the

Tudor arch."

Arch,"

draughtsmen,

ve-centred

Certain
are

other

mediaeval

English

architectural
of later

opments develstudy

of importance
country to

in anticipation

English

houses the
most

and

modem period
in
the

derivations. important
nature

Previously
were,

Tudor
part,

dwell-j
of
castles,
of the

for

the

with

thought conditions
country

of of

siege

and

defense

in

view

tled English

government

and
began

society.
to
assume

While
its

house

first

54

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTUBE

peculiarly
dawn in of

oharming
the English

form

in

Elizabethan it had

times, its

in

Renaissance,

inception

Tudor

times.
great ate
common

"""^he
retainers

hall,
was

where

the

lord

and

and

drank, mediaeval but these

the

most

important castles
gave

featur

of

the

earlier

English

and
way

moated
to
a

manor-houses, for of
part
as

gradually
The
**

"desire

greater

privacy.
system,
country
room

great

hall,'*

su v

the the

feudal
English

remained
house,
even room

for

some

ti

"a

of
the

after of

its fun tio

assembly

and

eating
These

the

famil

and usually
oak

retainers

had by often
trophies with

ceased.
means

large forms
were
armour

rooms

were

roofed
trusses,

of

various

of hung
; the

sturd

carved;
of
rushes,
the

the chase and


at

walls and

wi

tapestries,
were

floo

strewn

the
one

head end,
below. the

of

the

house

at

meals
of

on

raised
estate

dais
who

overlooking

those

humbler
the

sat

When
wars

increasing
the

power

of

king

made

famil

among

barons
gun-powder

of

less

frequent
made
the

occurrence,

a and

the

invention
of of
the
a

of
most

moat

oth

defenses methods
plan,

fortified and

manors

practically

useles

planning

construction
or

changed.
house
was

Sixteenth
square

Century,
often The

Tudor form
to

bu

about

court,

in

the

of

several
court

det sem

buildings.
through
usually
a

entrance

the

massive,
a

tunnel-like
tower
or

arched
house.

drive-way, The
manor

under

low

gate

Compton
form of

Wynyates
English

is
country

typical

of

this

pre-EIizabethan

house.
style
'*

The
applied Henry

architectural
to

called
the

Tudor of It of
was

'^

is

to

buildings Edward
in

under VI, which


and

reigns
Mary.

Henry
a

VI

VIH, period,

tiona trans

Gothic

habits

design

wer

THE

EVOLUTION

OF

ARCHITECTURE

55

being

gradually

supep^ed
and under
'*

by

innovations
the

of style
to
*'

Italian
came

Renaissance
the

origin/^ollowing
Jacobean

Tudor
both

Elizabethan considered

styles,

be

prop|
the

erly

theii;

designation

of

English

Renaissance, Anglo-Classic, Century.


The caused

which
or

Later

eventually Renaissance

developed
of the

into Eighteenth

production leaded
windows

of

glass
to

in take

marketable
the
place

quantities of ^^half
unglazed, -timber''

fortress-like
construction
**

loopholes, became
'*

and
popular.

brick

and

Half -timber

construction actual
to
or

consists timber and

of

nothing
of

more

the

the than elaborate left exposed building

frame-work
the spaces

view,

tween be-

the

timbers

filled,
was

**nogged,''

with

brick-work.
over

The
stucco,
the

brick-work
and

sometimes

covered

with
case

sometimes
were

bricks
the

often of
the

in uncovered, in patterns arranged

left

which

suggested
were

by

shapes

spaces

filled. natural
possessed

The

timbers

heavy

and

broad,
comer

and

their

structural
a

tion, disposideal
the

with
decorative

braces,

great

of
first and

interest, buildings,

unconsciously and
examples.

created

in

half
-timber developed
were

consciously
Nearly
examples

elaborated all city

in

later
type,
a

houses

of

this

the

best London Harvard

remaining

to-day

in

Chester,

few
as
some

in
the
of

and
House

in

certain
at

isolated

buildings Avon.

such

Stratford-onwere

Often
carved,

the
as

exposed

timbers

orately elabeaves.

as

well

the

verge-boards important
has

of the English
as

Another development, for


much

conspicuously
and
one

Gothic
inspiration
or

which
work,

served
was

the

modem

the

Collegiate
Tudor character

Scholastic
This
was

Gothic distinctly

architecture different

of in

the its

period. from

56

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

ecclesiastical points The 1^^ Gothic


the
'*

Gothic
detail in

architecture,
common.

in

spite

of

many

of
more

salient
are or

features

of

the

English

Collegiate
in

style

the

octagonal

tower

(usually
the

pairs

Tudor''
nichfifl

flat-pointed
and

arch,

pjnnacles,
The

ments battl

tracery

parapets.

octagonal

towers

were a

usually
turret.

terminated

with

battlements
most

with
fine

lead scale,

The
applied
sense

detail,
with for

for

the

part,

wa

in
a

and

considerable decorative should


of
many

restraint

and
**

remarkable

effect.
really

Th

Collegiate
as

Gothic''
a

of style,

England

regarded of It
Early

Tudor

by

reason

elements
in other college,

Renaissance
be

design
as a

which excelled

appeared
by
or no
a

is to

regarded

style

the

architectural While
the

expression ecclesiastical,

of

school

domestic had
each

and
much

collegiat
in

types

of
in

English
many
as

Gothic
matters

architecture
of

mon com-

detail,

type

is

distinc

in

itself,

well

as

distinctly

English.

In adhered French

France to
were

the
the

Gothic

expression

in
of of the
the

architecture
style,
most

main
the

characteristics of
many

and

builders and

splendid

Gothic
Rheims, Paris
"

churches

cathedrals
Dame

in existence. and

Chartres,

Amiens, ^these
are

Notre
names

Sainte
with
Even

Chapelle
the
more

synonymous

fine

achievements
than

of in
to

Gothic
examples

architecture. of
pinnacles

q f

English
and

Gothic,
tracery,
a

the

French in

Gothic
treatment

ran

spires,

and

of
**

Gothic

detail from

developed the and

distinctive
**

sty

called
of
the

flamboyant,"

flame-like foliation.

motion" Another

ever-mounting

crockets
to

feature cathedrals,

peculiar
as

the
as

French
Belgian,

Gothic
is the

churches

a
a

well

the

fieche,

fine

13

a n

I.

Si

J
5

||
SI

S'sl

i{3

ed

spire lead

constructed

of

timber

with
was

intricately
placed

orate
the

covering.
of
close

The
nave

fleche
and of the

usually

intersection from
a

transept, entrance

and front. divided


to

was

visible

view in

Gothic kinds,

architecture
roughly Fourteenth

France

has

been

into

assignable, and Rayonnant


of
the

respectively

the

eenth,

Fifteenth

Centuries,

and

nated wheel-spoke

Gothique,

('* radiating,'^
ribs

from

disposition
and
many

in

the

great

windows)
are

Flamboyant exceptionally notably


the

(flame-like).
fine
**

There

Gothic of
in

secular Jacques
Rouen.

ings
in

in

France,

House

**

Bourges,

and

the

Palais

de
were

Justice,
also
a

s of
as

of

half

-timber
period,
as

construction in
de

characteristic chateaux,

the
the times.

England, Blois
and

and

few

Chateaux

Langeais,

date

from

When

the

Renaissance
there

first
a were

began

to

affect

French

tecture,

resulted

mingling
not
so

of

forms

which

be

confusing
many

if

it

obvious.
in

The
sance Renaisso

retained
buildings transitional
will

Gothic
than
any

forms
other
as

their nation,

longer

that

buildings,
found
to

such

**La

Psalette''

be

frankly
other

mingle
Renaissance

Classic

pilasters,
details

an

balustrades,
flamboyant

and

with

esses, window In

crockets, and these


to

grotesques,

gargoyles, essentially

mouldings,
many

other French
say

forms

c.

of

"transitional"
whether
the

ings

it would
or

be

difficult

spirit

Gothic

Renaissance
at

architecture and
in the
cases

predominates.
of
many
were

ermore,
other great

'Blois,
chateaux,

subsequent

additions period,

throughout

the have

Renaissance

and

some

been

of

such

impor-

58

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

tance

that
as

the

buildings

have
rather

been
than

architecturally ''Gothic''

classed

''Renaissance"

Belgium
' '

and lying
many

Holland,
France

collectively and
traits

the

"Netherlands,

between

Germany,
from both,

naturally

absorbed

architectural
that
was

beside

developing
The
closely

much

characteristically
of
;

Flemish.
was more

Gothic
akin
to

architecture
that

Belgium

of

France

Holland

Gothic

to

th

of

Germany.
Before the
1914,

devastating Louvain,
Ypres,
were

invasion
Malines, in

of

Belgium
and
many

in

War
towns

of

oth

and

cities,

rich
interest.

Gothic

buildings

exceptional
Belgian most
part,
was
masses

charm

and

Gothic
along
a

architecture lines of

was

developed,
finesse

for

delicate also,
toward

and

detai

^There

tendency,
and

distinctly
as

ur pi in

unusual

compositions,
of
Bruges.

clock

tower

of study

the

Town

Hall

As

in
and

perpendicular
mounting
was a

"motion''

in
tower

Gothi
of

architecture,
church
at

buttresses,
beautiful
type

the

Malines
the

example. that

Th
a

church
at

followed
intersection

French of
nave

in

it had

fle

the
Both

and

transept.

Belgium
architecture

^^

and
to
a

Holland
high

developed
degree city

secula
town

Gothic
trade
were

in

hal

halls,

guild

halls by

and

private

houses.

Thes

characterised
"

qualities interesting

incomparably in
of
mass

ur pi

quaint intricate

and
in

and
carving.

mar

velously

the

details

their

In
style,

Germany,
but
was

Gothic
developed in
such

architecture
to
a

was

borrowed
perfection Batisbon,

high
as

degree

of

and

nobility

cathedrals

Cologne,

GOTHIC
A beLlry

ARCHITECTURE
typical of the
mctureiquc

IN

GOTHIC
"

ARCHITECTCRE
piecv ol

IN

BELGIUM lor

yat

""pnHive

Galhic

deHsn"iemsrkable

(TtM

Churrh

"(

MaOioeB"

denroyed

ia

the

Wir

at

191'

11

.11

S is

""in

THE

EVOLUTION

OF

ARCHITECTURE

69

kfurt,

Strassburg,
style the
was

Freiburg,
not

Ulm

and
in

Regensburg. Germany,
but styles

Gothic
of often

indigenous

spite

fact

that

borrowed

architectural
the

not

develop
many

much

individuality, architectural

German
in
way

ders

attained
style.

masterpieces
in the

French

Their

contribution
was

of
the

rture

from
style

precedent in

the

development and

of

ic

bricky
in
secular

As

in

Belgium
was

Holland,

ic

architecture

Germany buildings

distinguished
brick,
stone,

by
half-

picturesque

in

and

all

these

materials

combined.

In

Spain,

as

might
was

be
quite

supposed, different
Two

the

expression
its

of

Gothic

style
parts

from
reasons

expression
this ference dif-

other

of be
the

Europe.

for

might of

cited,

out

of

many.

Spanish
of

builders,

reason

comparative
Pyrennees, the
great

isolation

Spain

behind
to

barrier
or

of
observe

the

had

little

opportunity

Gothic

edifices Gothic

of

France,

so

dominantly
the the

influenced

developments
There Moors,
to

England,
too,

Netherlands

and

Germany.
of
fancy the

ever-present

influence
the

may

be

ascribed

Spanish

for

surface

ration,

intricate reference
to

ornamentation,

and
or

ornamentation

out

construction
was

constructive
in the Toledo, and,

lines.
entire
even

Moorish

influence
portion
of

most

pronounced in

hern

Spain,

notably
was

Christian
workmen by
greatest
reason

supremacy
were

established,
in
the

many

ish

employed
their
great

building
ability. is
generally

of

ches,

of

skill

and

The

Gothic
to of

monument

of

Spain
Burgos,

conceded
part

be
Spain,

the

Cathedral
though
the

of

in of

the

hern

Cathedral in

Toledo
but dis-

ot

only

remarkably

fine

example

itself,

60

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

tinctly

characteristic Gothic
most

of

the

more

peculiar

of

Spanish
The
from

traits.

conspicuous essentially countries lines,

difference perpendicular
lies

in

Spanish Gothic of

Gothi

the

oth

European
of

in by

the

frequent

introduction

horizontal

formed
shadows,

bold
or

projections,
traceried of

castin

marked
or

horizontal
courses.

by

gallerie
the

ornamental
is apparent As

This
the tower

introduction
of the Toledo

zon hor

in
the

cathedral.
architecture

in

France,

period
from

in

Spanish

representing
forms

the

transition
many

Gothic
of

Benc^ssance

produced

buildings
"

.to the most

peculiar

architectural

interest

^the

two

styles

rendered

tio add

picturesque

by
that

the
was

subtle
purely

infusion

of

Moorish

feeling

and

much

Spanish.

In checked
which

Italy
by
so

full

development
of mould

of

the

Gothic
and of
of

style

certain potently the artisans the

those
the

influences
course

conditions architecture.

Technically, and
mastering

ability
was

and
more

ingenuity
than equal

Italian
to

tect arch
task

the

intricacies Italian
soil

of

Gothic
was

construction

design,

but

on

there

always

the

great

overshadowing, Roman in the

ever-dominant
later to

Classic
blossom
so

influence
luxuriantly

architecture,
works

of

the

Renaissance.
were were

Romanesque
to

Byzantine
In

influences
these
was a

also

be

reckoned
from the

wit

Europe,

styles native
and
the

transplanted
:

Ital
reverse

and

Gothic

growth

in
were

Italy

condition
only

existed,
a

Italians

surrounded Romanesque

by

profusion design,

of

edifices by the

of

Byzantine
ancient Many Rome

but

immortal

remains

itself.

features,

then,

entirely

strange

to

the

Gothi

witb

muy

poioU

wbicb (The

lonEut PbUiu)

ibe dells

liter

srchiMitun

ol

th"

lU

Cs

'd 'Oro.

Venice) IN ITALY

SECULAR

GOTHIC

ARCHITECTL'RE

TYPICAL
FHi: K^'MAN

ARCH-AMVCOLIJIX
ITALIAN ISE OF RENAIJitfAXCE.

'f rHt;

aBCH

AND

COMPOSITION' BASED COHM.N

ON

THE

EVOLUTION

OP

ARCHITECTURE

61

tecture

of

Northern

Europe

are

characteristic
profusion
the

of of

Gothic

architecture
made
it

of

Italy.
to

The

rich

es

natural

perpetuate

Byzantine
of

ative

element,

in

mosaics
the
parts

and

wall-panels of made brick

contrastin
as a

marbles, material
the

while
in many

prevalence of Italy

ing

it natural of zontal horiarchcS

erpetuate

Romanesque
IrinfJa

characteristic
nf hrir"lr
were

bands

nf ji^fir^^nf
capitals

Rouud
as

yzaiitine
as

and

ornaments

plentiful traceries.
as
a

taly

Gothic
and from
windows
were

pointed
small

arches

and
were

Gothic
necessary

walls

windows and French of the


heat

ction

the

sun

of
and

Italy,

so

that

the

rate

of
a

English

Gothic

hes

not

part

Italian

development the decorative

he

style, of

and

this

further

encouraged

ment

wall-spaces.

The

absence
roofs tile

of of

snow

made

unnecessary
so

the that the

sharply

ed

Northern of
was

Europe, Romanesque

slightly
remained

ed

roof There of

the
a

buildings of colour

avour.

good
and

deal
less

in the of

Gothic
as

tecture

Italy,

elaboration

stone

ilding
all

material.

Of

Italian style,

Gothic
none

buildings
is
so

in

the
or

perpendicular
so

ointed

impressive

important spires
perhaps,

the

Cathedral
detail.
essentially

of

Milan,
No

with

its building

countless

lace-like is
and
so

other
in

in
manner

Italy,

Gothic,

the

true

of

its

rendering.
secular

In

architecture
Venice designed in
a

the
a

master-builders
great
many

of
rich

nce

and
decorative of

and

facades

distinctly

Italian

interpretation

Gothic
as

Torms,
the

notably of

(in the
the

latter and

city)
the

buildings
Palazzo

Palace

Doges

della

Ca'd'Oro.

Despite
monuments

many

beautiful
Italy,
or

and does
not

interesting
associate
The
the

Gothic'
style

in
country

one

with
and and

the

with

its people. seemingly the of

architectural thoroughly Renaissance,


architecture,

artistic peculiarly

expression

most

Italian
the

is the
period

style

the

which,
was

throughout
and

here

there, and

of in inconspicuous

Gothic

details,

gradually

taking

form

substance. Abchitectube but inspired


in
the

Renaissance Based
of
the
most
on

Classic
remarkable

forms,

by
world's

the

genius
history.

epoch

Renaissance
and

architecture
a

followed
precedent

Gothic
which

architecture

left
of The

wealth

of

succeeding

centurie

adaptation
real

have

not

exhausted. architecture

spirit
in
a

of

Renaissance
paragraphs,
was

is not
much

easy

to

define

few
growth

because

of
up

its
with
^*

inception
that

and

inseparably which

bound
as

remarkable of Learning.'* which

movement

is known the in

the

Revival

Historically

period

of
1400,

the
at

Renaissance
the

began

in

Italy
was

about
the

dawn

of the from

Fifteenth
the

Century,
Ages
to

period

of
Age,

transition

Dark

the

Modem
1400

and
1643,

in

the

span

of

the

Renaissance
many

from
momentous

the

world

witnessed

about discoveries

to

and

inventions.
The
Dark
narrow

Ages,
and

or

the

Mediaeval
theology, and confined
a

Period, with certain


to

had

been

one

of

bigoted
masses,

ignorance
degree churchmen. virtually

prevalent

among

the

of

rather

crude
the
or were

scholarship
of feudalism,

the
were

It

was

age

when

all

men

slaves

chattels in
that
awe

of
of
a

their
the

lords,
power

and
of

the

lords

themselves It

the

Church.

is

remarkable

period

of

such

constraint

and

pre-

THE

ARCHITECTl'RE APPLIED
TO

OF
THE

THE DESIGN MsriB

ITALIAN
OF AN

RENAISSANCE IMPORTANT
Venire)

MAGNIFICENTLY
CHIRCH

(St.

dilla

Salulc.

vailing

ignorance
so

could
complex

have
or so

remarkable,
the

fabric any evolved brilliantly ingenious

so as

fabric
In
a

of

Gothic
way,
even

architecture. however,
more

diflFerent
was

the

architecture

of the
expressive.

Renaissance Gothic
period of one humanism of sombre,

brilliant,
expressed

and the

more

architecture
"

ecclesiasticism

^Renaissance
another from

architecture

expressed

the
was

aloof

Gothic period. architecture human life, a thing consecrated


architecture
was

to

the

Church.

Renaissance
to

closely

human

allied interests.

human

life,

thing

spirited, from developed

Renaissance

architecture the

was

part arts

of
of

the

intense
and

interest
Rome,
an

in

glories of the past interest which embraced


mythology

Greece

literature, of

phy, philosothe
wonderful

pagan

and

all the

past

civilijjation
swept

enthusiasm

aside
all things

of the the

rempns j The world,


of
to

impetus
the

of

warning!^
Long

Church,
Greece by

the
or

dictum

that
were

pertaining
unholy.

ancient

Rome

pagan

and

enthralled

the

absolutism
arts

of and

the

Church,

liberated
which

minds
were

actually
pagan

welcomed unholy. In
abandoned
a

philosophies

and

architecture, for and


an

Gothic
forms,

forms

were

immediately these
forms
as

Roman

and
the
a

with

basis

inspiration, developed

architectural

genius

of vital

the

Renaissance

style

of

new

and

expression.

Such
leschi,

architects Palladio^.

as

Bartolommeo, and brilliancy


'Bramante

Alberti,

Brunel-

Peruzzi the
one

immortalised
architecture. especially Rome in

their

names

by
was

The
such

period

of prosperity
as

of their in Italy, Milan,


to

important

centres

Florence,

and in the

Venice.

Great

patrons

of

art

came

light

heads
Italian

of the
nobles

powerful
such
many

families
as

of merchant-princes Medici,
The
a

and

the

the

Strozzi,
also,
too
as
a

the

Davanzati, that
to

and

others.
was

Church,

ing realis-

the
took

Renaissance
its plaoe in

movement

powerful
patron

resist,

the

front

rank

of

art,

architecture

and
and

the

revival
were

of

literature.
in
a

Church,
to
one

state another

people

closer

ship relationin
the

than Men

at

any

previous origin
or

period became
:

world
as

^8

history.

of

humble

great

painters,
one

sculptors,

architects intellectual ascribed the

writers creative

the

period

was

of
this

intense
may

and

effort. and tion imagina-

To

be

richness
architecture:

displayed
of of
proportion

in

Renaissance and studied

its
the

ment refineresult

balance

were

Classic
The

inspiration. of
the

wealth

powerful
in

families
the

prompted
and
have

the

erection villas in

of
the

stately
country"

palaces

cities
which

luxurious
been
the

buildings
of

inspiration architects. This

and

study

succeeding

generations

of

brief
of the of

of the period, sketch impelling spirit, may


architecture
Europe,
great

with
help in

its

slight

suggesti

in the
Italy.

tation interpreIn the

Renaissance of Northern of
the

countries
the
were

which

gradually

received

impetus logical hands Italy

movement,

the
forms

developments handled

composites

of

Italian other

by

other
In
arch

and the

blended
Renaissance built

with

national
used such

traits.
column
as

architects domes,

and

Ste.
great

extensively, Maria della fancy


for

splendid and

those
showed
use

of

Salute
surface

St.

Peter's,

and the
a

decorations played
by
such

and

of

diverse
part
as

materials. design,
as

Construction
is evidenced

subsidiary
expedients

to

frank

the

introduction

of

light

iron

tie-rods

between

the

ts
not

of

arches
met

and in
the

vaults,
design. methods

to

take

the

thrust

which

be

Two
than

characteristic

of
were

surface

decoration

carving
of

or

mosaic

highly
^methods

developed
which
to-day

in

period virtually

the

Renaissance
arts
:

"

lost

Fresco

and

Sgraffito.
called
who
were

The
utmost

Frescoes skill

of

the
the

Italian

Renaissance

for

of

painter-draughtsmen
mixed
was

executed

them.

Specially
the plaster

pigments
still
wet,
a

rapidly that,
upon

ed

while

so

hardening,

the

decoration
Frescoes
were

became
often

part

of in

the
exterior

material.
decoration, entire

applied of
arches,

in

lunettes,

spandrils
were

panels

on

fagades,

and

extensively The example


is
a

used

interiors
's

and
of
one.

ceilings.
the

of

Michael

ceiling

Sistine

Chapel

conspicuous

well-known
art

The
in

of

SgraflSto

also being

demanded
carried
was

the
out

utmost the

terit dexstucco

its

execution, finish of the

while
process
a

laster

wall

in of

the

of

hardenin

Briefly, darkened
or

it

consisted
to
a

laying
by
of

ground-coat mixture

laster,
paper,

gray-black the
mixture
a

the

brown of
this

by

Sienna.
of
stucco

Upon

hardening

coat,

finish-coat the and through finish-coat workman

or

er

w^s

applied,

and

on

this
cutting

quickly
it

er^d
the
to

his
dark

ornament,

scraping
"

out
was

hat

under-coat
this
are

showed
the

and hardened.

it

ary

do

before

Both

processes

extremely
their

decorative,
and for
a

but

require

tional

skill
climate
when

in

execution,

uniformly
preservation

rate

like
to

that

of

Italy

their

applied
Italian

exteriors. architectural arch


or

Typical
are

Renaissance

tions composiand
arch,

those

of

column

and

pilaster

oman

entablature,

elaborate detail.
of

pediment
The

and

genera
^'

rofusion

of

ornamental

so-called
pilaster

a b

decoration
the
most

the

Renaissance
single of
upper

is

characteristic design
with

details frequent portion

of

the

sty

other
statuary
a

Renaissance niche,

recurrence

he

the

in

the

fo

shell.

No

type

of

architecture
as

compares
so

with

that

of

talian
and from

Renaissance

remarkably and

combining
restraint.

ne ri

profusion
the

with

dignity

Single
of this

multitudinous
its seemingly the
two

characteristics infinite
most

com pl

style,

with
perhaps

variety

of

fest mani

salient

features application

urety

of

proportion

and

intelligent

nament.

By

far

the

greater

number
been

of models

buildings
of

of
virtually

the

Itali

naissance

have and

long

perfec

oportions

perfect
an

scale"

and
which in
every

Renaissance
is still the

oma-

nt

constitutes inspiration
the world.

encyclopasdia

gui

of

designers

civilised

country

So

powerful
itself
a

is the re-birth in
the

import
of

of Classic

the

Italian ideas and

Renaissance ideals,
a

at,

-discovery

Eighteenth
"

Century

caused

secon

Classic

Revival"

movement

which,
called
a

redundancy

twithstanding, tribute
is,

might basically,

be
to

re-Renaissance.
the

be Rome,

laid

before which

Classi

chitecture

of of

Greece the

and

furnished

spiration
It
was

Renaissance
that Italy

itself.
became architects what the point

natural
for

of

g p

all
to

eager

painters,
and
.

and

scholars,
they

flocked
the

learn

assimilate
masters.

cou
so

om

works

of

the

Italian
was

And
to

ssage

of

the

Renaissance

carried

France,

Netherlands,

to

Germany,

to

Spain,

and

lastly

and.
In

France,

architecturally,

the

**

style

of

Francis
and

I,*
most
"

^'Frangois

Premier/'
manifestation
of
native

is of

the
the

best-known Italian with

picuous

Renaissance native

ending

mediaeval
forms. this
the

forms

pretat inter-

of
were

Italian
at

Many their

magnificent
most

teau chaand
on

built

time,
sharp, in

striking
roof

feature
tower.
unnecessary,

being
Such and of

pointed
more

the
Italy,

roofs,
the

temperate

Italian

roof

was

nearly

fla
eaves.

constructed
architecture

tile,

with
France,

wide,

overhanging it

The

of in
the

although of the

underwent
was

changes

period by

Benaissance,
forms

definitely Century
the

stamped

Classic

in

the

teenth Eigh-

Classic

Eevival. Benaissance elaborate designs


of found
manner,

In

Netherlands, in
a

architecture

was no

oped
in
the

richly

evidenced period
than

furniture
Italian

the
great

in and

the

ings.
popular

forms

favour,
that

the

Flemish

development pilaster,

was

of

the

half

and

half-decorative
terminated
or
an

tapering

toward
human
a

base,
male

and

by
usually

Flemish-Classic
treated
as

female,
elaborate

caryatid,

rting

entablature. architecture
less understood

In

Germany,
Italian

Benaissance
forms

found
or

less

r,

seemed
Latin
extent

less

me
was

than
to
a

in

the

countries,

and
to that

the
in

ment developHolland

great

similar

Belgium. Spain
the

In

architecture
richly
some

of

the with

Italian
traces

Benaissance, of forms,
complex

gely

and and of
a

blended
echo

Moorish

ence,

of

the

Gothic and

formed
type.

basis

peculiarly

interesting

In

England
in
**

the
the

Renaissance of
'

found Elizabeth,
to
a

its

highest
so

reign
^

Queen
applied
term
**

that

erm

Elizabethan,
with

when

country

hous

synonymous
more were

the

English of this

Renaissance/' period
with in

he

important distinctly

buildings
formal diversity

En la

and
of
the

dignified,
Italian
the

little

he

spontaneous

Renaissance. basis of

talian

forms,

however,

constituted
all subsequent

desig

nd

deeply
The
interest

influenced
English to-day,
of

English
development

ture. architec
of

Renaissance by
reason

est grea

of

its

importance
was

in
the

volution

the

modem The

country-house,
country

Eliz beth

manor.

free

from

internal
the

wars

he

government

powerful

and

protective,
less
more

elemen

defence

became became in
more

increasingly

in

evidenc^.
for design
were came

ouses modem''

livable,

comfortable
facilities about the

character.
of

Increased

anufacture leaded
woodwork,

glass windows. and


or

brought
The

autiful

interiors

rich
into

rved

floor English
later, the

coverings

he

Elizabethan,
as

Renaissance
was
an

country-

use,

will

be

shown
of
some

important

the There

development is often and that


was so

country-house danger
country

of confusing
houses,

to-day.

of

Tudor for

izabethan

Jacobean
development
and

son

the

through
so

these

thr

riods In

continuous

consistent.
with style the

the

Tudor

period,

beginning the
less

reign

nry
were,

VII

(1485-1509),
domesticated,

Gothic

became,
The
the

ecclesiastical.
In
many

inted

arch

was

the

characteristic.
while

reign

nry

VIII
to

(1509-1547),
English

Tudor furniture,

trai

hered

architecture

and

some

vance

influences

of

Renaissance

(Elizabethan)

form

THE tha Df Ihe

RENAISSANCE
st

IN the
eDlnncc

ENGLAND
of
monumf

Royal
EDiliih

Ho["-OuBrdg, RinuwiDoc

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OREATEST

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RENAIHSANCE

ARCHITECTLRE
(ypilie'8 the cnlirc luly. lowec (Tlie rhinctfi
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deufned

Chriilopher
at

Wren,

th" Udden

connption in (he huildlntn

of Che "rrhiUrtun' foretrouDdl

RcDunanre

ii

The

reign

of

Elizabeth,

from
saw

1559

to

1603

(when
of
way

Jacobean
in

period

began)
and
the

the

height the

the

ssance

England,
in period,

prepared

for

development

succeeding

period.
years

The

Jacobean
saw a

covering

the

from of

1603 Italian

688,

more

thorough

assimilation
the

and

ideas,

together

with

beginnings

of

French

ence.
stage
was

The

then

occupied

from William
reigns

1688

to

1702

by

Dutch-English
Anne,
were

sovereigns, during
strong.

and

Mary

and from

whose

influences

nd

The

most

notable
England
under is the

monument

of

Renaissance in
I

tecture archiLondon,

in

St.

Paul's of the Paul's

Cathedral James Jacobean Cathedral conception


typical

nced
the
great

reign of St.

(1603-1625),
period,
may

architect

Sir

topher
as

Wren.
typical

be

ded

of
as

the

English
well
as

of

sance Renais-

architecture, work
contemporary
was

of

much

contempo

of

lesser
architect

magnitude. of
equal
a

influence
great

on

his

Inigo
city

Jones,
churches
of

who

designed
which

many

small
for the

furnished American completed of

the

tion inspirachurches.

designers

our

Early
not

St.

Paul's

Cathedral period,
its in

was

until
Anne

after

Jacobean and
the final

the

reign

Queen
until

(1702dying

),

architect.
of

Wren,
first in took

lived Oeorge. England,


place

1723,

reign

the

The
of

development

partly during
the itself

belated

the
from

Renaissance,

Oeorgian
in
what

d,

1714 Eighteenth

to

1830,

manifesting

d be

the

Century
in

Classic

Revival,

which

dealt

with

the

chapter

following.

The

the

Renaissance

in

Italy

was

too

brilliant

intellectually,

to last and politically, indeed, it lasted that

too and indefinitely.


over

unstable socially It is remarkable, It


must

two

centuries.
two
a

always
the

be

remembered

that

those

world

of art

and

architecture
of genius.

left to centuries legacy priceless of

unsurpassed works The decadence


the Rococo of
to
or

of Baroque

Renaissance
development

art

is to of
the

be

seen

in

last

three
was

quarters

the
an
"

Seventeenth
extravagant

Century.

Ornament

developed

degree perverted
vagaries. in

architectural
a

thousand

tionate disproportastelessly and forms distorted were and fantastic impossible and
were

decoration
of Baroque It has

principles feature, the main was buildings. been


the habit of
most

Structural

ignored,

and

not

the

embelUshment

critics but to sweepingly condemn architecture, all Baroque is neither intelligent nor such condemnation merited. be proved fundamentally Granted that the style may illogical
on

architectural

many

scores,

it evolved

many

forms

manent of per-

if nothing was, else, an value, and and decorative more style, later developed essentially along French lines in some phases of the style of rational dismissal, XV. Despite Louis the usual then, of the

beauty

Baroque

or

Rococo

entirely it will be found


expression
page

style as decadent, and valuable idea, peculiar


sequence
more

mere

even

osity, curiarchitectural immoral, artistically place


an

to

it

as

distinct esting interstyles

of

and of the

undeniably

in the

architectural

of the past. This chapter,


has
trace

together
in
a

with

the

been

designed,

necessarily

preceding brief

chapter,
manner,

to

and

define
forms

the

ancient

in

from of architecture evolution Egypt Assyria, through and

its the

CHAPTER
THE
OF
THE

IV
IDEAL
QUALITIES
IN

CBASSIC

UDY

IMMORTAL MANIFESTATIONS
IMPORTANT

OF SEVERAL

CLASSIC
"

TECTURE. ARCHICLASSIC
ARCHItecture the and

ITS REVIVALS.
in THE

PLACE of arts, public its

OF

CLASSIC buildings.

the the

design beaux

school
wide

op influence

teachings

its

lassic

Derivations

and

the

'Beaux-

Arts

School

N
The

tracing

the

course

of

the

Classic
in
the to

Ideal,
most

and

recognising

its

recurrence one

important
:

modem is
answer

buildings,
the

is

impelled

inquire

What,

ly,

Classic
is
a

Ideal?

simple

one,

yet

fraught

with Ideal

great is

ificance
of
on

in

architecture. It is because that


purity,

The

Classic

th
was

Order.
the

Classic
it
was

architecture characterised immortal


not

idea its

of

order
and

by

ty,
have
to

and

order

being

ties, qualito

caused

Classic
as

architecture
the

only of
the

live

stand design

to-day of

rational

basis

tectur archi-

all

time.
was

Gothic beautiful

architecture experiment.
"

ingenious Classic
were

"

magnificent
was
as

architecture
as

not

rimental day,

their

^its principles have lost and

sound that

Euclid

none

of

soundness

centuries
In
the

which
architecture
even

have

passed.

of

the

Renaissance
much

there

were

paradoxes,
amount

shams,

earnestness,

but of

of There

the

experimental
was,

quality

Gothic Classic
degree
73

itecture.
in

however,
to

enough

of
some

Renaissance

architecture

give

it

the

immortal factor three


later

qualities
in
**

of

the

Classic
of

and

make

tent

the

architecture
or

to-day. of

The

Orders/'
in

types

Greek Orders,'*
of
a

colunms,

mprised
of

the

Roman

*'Five details
are

were

mbols

Classic
these

architecture,
'*

much

large

ole.

And
because

Orders"
**

architecturally
or

Vignola,
are

or

precedent" they of of is
purity
were

the

school

they
and The

fine,

but in

because
terms

conceived
form.

gic

executed

of
to

Greek

relationship
it

column

entablature because
"

andard

because
are

logical

and

mbers

relatively
is
*

complementary

not

because

arrangement

Greek.
rests

' '

The
the

merit
fact

of that

the
the

Classi

lumn

and

entablature

in

column
ft

(both
the

structurally

and
which

apparently)
rests

adequate
it, and the the

to

su po

entablature
adequate
perfect

upon

entab latur of

is of
A

weight
balance further, of

to

explain

girth

lumn.

exists.
it
seems

Before
a

proceeding
brief outline

advisable
growth

esent

the

logical

of

assic The

colunm.
first
the

Greek

order,
placedx
more

the

Doric,

was

massive

a
seeming

avy,

columns
as

closely

together, than

and
necessary

(as

well
the

being)

massive
The

pport

entablature.
of.
to

refinement

of

base
a

been of

thought

Logical

design,
however,

meaning
was

re ti

form

structure,

apparent
was

Doric
the

capital. beam
to
a

The
resting
a

shaft
upon

of
it
was

the

columi;i

cyli dric

rectilinear. It
was

It
necessary

wa

essary

effect

transition.

also

effect the

transition

from

the
the the

vertical

line
or

of

the

column

horizontal
upon

line it.
member Hence

of

architrave,
**

beam,

whic

sted

abacus," the

the
shaft.

circular

wl-shaped

surmounting

'"CLASSIC
BANK

DERIVATIONS"
BUILDINGS. BA8ED

FOR
ON

MODERN
THE DORIC

AMERICAN AND THR

lONir

ORDERS

OF

ANCIENT

GREECE

aeutsl"
I.

an

b"l

randgred

ii

Vark

Cny

Poit-offiH)

vmrd

Lbw

School,

Cambridn-,

Mma.)

The

beauty-loving

Greeks,
often

however, clumsy

were

not

long of

nt

with order.
in
*

the

heavy, Their

proportions
toward

the

first

effort fluting

lightening
shaft.

red
*

the
' '

vertical they

of
a

the

To
* *

add
annulets,

ttle
' '

detail

designed
the
was

few

rings,

or

immediately
next

below

abacus.
the

The

evolution
derived
from

Ionic

capital, and
abacus.

its

spiral
in
con-

lutes**

Asia

Minor

used

jun

with

an

almost the Ionic

concealed order,
column
was

With that

the

opment girth
of

of the
the

it
was

was

found
necessary,

the

Doric

not

and

quently

shaft

lightened

and

its

verticality

sised final
the

by

delicate

fluting.
came

The

development

in capital

the

Corinthian
effected from
to
square.
a

order,

which

design shaft

of
to

the

perfect vertical
It how

ition

from

entablature,

the

the

horizontal,
upon
was

and
of

from

round Corinthian
First,
the

will

een

study

the

capital
necking actually

this

ition height

achieved.
the
clear

indicated
ing terminatupward outward

of

shaft, lines of

without the
shaft

it abruptly.
the

The

continue

gh
volutes

foliation,
which
support

gradually
the
concave

springing abacus. This

abacus,

form

of

square

with

sides,
of the
rests

performs

the and The

function with

of

fitting the

the

shape

capital
on

rming

architrave

which

it.

of

the

Corinthian the
additional

capital

immediately
of
any

below
the

the

gives

impression

weight
sense

the
great

superimposed
weight the
never

entablature,
is

while
by the

o
and

counteracted
of

lightness

of
can

detail

leaves.
that the

It

be of

gainsaid design,
in

Corinthian
expressive

capital
of

masterpiece

being its
form.

both

it

ion

beautiful

With
took

the

evolution
a

of

the

Greek

column,
evolution
of

there

ral nat

place

corresponding proportions

the

latur entab

both The Greek

in

its Doric

and

its

decoration. exemplified
a

entablature
of
a

(as
plain

in

rthenon)
into split The
of
to

consisted triglyphs
run

architrave, and
great
a

frie

vided

and

metopes

cornice,

whic

upward
of

into the

the

pediment.
closely

proportions
the

Greek
the

Ionic
was

followed
continuous

ose

Doric, of
heavy
a

but

frieze

nd,

allowing

continuous
appearance

decoration of
the

of

bas-relief

gures.

The

architrave of the
a

markably

lightened
three

by

the

expedient

splitting
upper

into

horizontal
the the
also,

divisions, lower,
and from

ightly

overlapping
marking

fine

decorated

ulding

division
was

the

frieze.
elaborated
the

rnice

member,
extent,

decoratively

introducing

(in later
Corinthian is
aptly

examples)
cornice.
a

denti

modillions The

of

the

Corinthian
proportions and
cornice,
was

entablature and

model
applied
as

of

skilful decoration.

equate

architrave

frieze
the

remained
last,
or

in

the

Ion

rm, the

but

the

''finishing''
to

member
crown,

building,

elaborated
the
**

form

a
It

gically

terminate
to

entire in
made

composition.

quired

effect
course

interest'*
was

diversified
a

shadows,
of
the
were

the

''dentil*'
cornice,

part

thian Corin

and

the

various
was

mouldings required, of

rat dec

Greater
a

projection
shadow
that
a

in building, of

order
but

st

strong

at

the

top

the

evident
the to

plain
the
no

"overhang"

stone,
as

yond

face

of down,

frieze,
matter

would
how
masonry

seem

though

kely

topple

securely

it migh the

tually

be

anchored
correct

into this

the

of

ture. entabla

To

illusion,

the

"modillions'*

wer

STBUCTLRE

AXUI.O-[TAI.lAN Tbia "mall


building.in Ihf

DKRIVATION
eaiden ol
a

IN
large

GARDEN
rounlrj'

TEA-HOISK
place
id ud

Amerii-an

].i"i( .-hi.tof

lal.
let
"

pR"B"iiniDWrei"lmK"IutryiD"lual

derivaiion.

It

La

sirellrnily

WORK

OF

PURE

CLASSIC

INSPIRATION GREEK AND


lo

COMBINING ROMAN
Hyde

ELEMENTS

BOTH

(The

"Marble

Arcb"

entnncA

Park,

LondoD.

EDglmd)

CLASSIC

DERIVATIONS BUILDINGS (The FOH


Fog"

ARE MUSEUMS,
MuKum

APPARENT
LIBRARIES of Ail,

IN

VIHTUALLY
AND

ALL

MODERN

ART

GALLERIES

Cmmbridfe.

MuesrhuHtls)

duced
and

"

flight,

graceful
to

brackets,
care

spaced
the

at

vals, interof

seeming

take
the

of

overhang additional
underside modillions,

the

most

portion
was

of
the
spaces
**

cornice.

An of
the
the

ous ingeniof

expedient
in

treatment

the

ang,

the
or

between coffers,*'
the
to

with

n the

panels,

intention be
and
seem

being
lighter. famous

projecting
were

slabs

both

These

the

''Three
Vignola

Orders." added
and
be
seen

The

Orders''
Tuscan,
Ionic.
"

of
or

two

developments,

Boman
Neither

Doric,
will variations. popular

the
to

Composite, embody Boman


new

or

iples

they

are

The

Doric

(later
with Doric, The

exceedingly
the

in
was a

the

Benaissance, of

her

Corinthian)
slighter
was,

refinement
the
a

the
of

with

girth

and effect,

addition

Composite
Ionic
volute

in
a

combination Doric
that the

o abacus, volutes

Greek

and Ionic

decorated in diagonal lines


three them,

ring

from
out

Greek
a

mainly
or

in

comerwise,
with
not
use

direction, the

st in

of

lying

parallel

the

of

architrave.

The

Bomans
exactly changes
as

did

the

original

Greek
many column

they

found

but

made both
than

in

proportions,
with
far
more

and

treated

entablature

ornateness

characterised

Greek

architecture.
later

The

most

characteristic

development,
Benaissance
columns,
great

enthusiastically
was

adopted
placed between
treatment

by

builders,
in
a manner

the

arch

illustrated and
seen

by
most

the

he

Colosseum,
arches.

in

of

the

Boman with

phal
of
the
were

Pilasters

corresponding and
all

al

Greek
developed

Orders in

five with

of

the
the

Boman
columns,

s,
were

conformity
as

greatly

favoured

purely

decorative

features

the

Benaissance

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

These

are

the

barest

elements
-we
a

rders/'
in

and
the

uried

in previous chapters fall of Rome, then


even

the of have fickle

*'

Classic
them
to

seen

attempt

erpetuate

them,

while
Byzantine

departing

from

them

in

he

Romanesque

and

o the

development
for
"

of the

Gothic

led architecture which forms, Classic style.


were centuries

hen,

three
came

e-bom

in
a

the

but forgotten, were centuries, for to light three again glorious Then, Renaissance. period of the

for

early

century,

Classic

forms

were

ot

entirely Rococo

forgotten,
styles.
latter
part

in the

vagaries

misused, of the

even

if

Baroque

nd

In

the

of

the

Eighteenth
of

Century,
was

eaction

from
And

the
the

extravagance

Baroque

table. ineviClassic
of
as

reaction
and in

took

the

form

evival

in

France

England,
in

of Some
country

the

feeling
even

his

revival
as

manifested

itself

this

ate

the

first two
there
so

decades

of the
present general

Nineteenth

Century.
no

nd

while

is

at

the
or

period
as

feeling

design

sweeping
' '

to
are

be

called

Classic

Revival,
and
as are

Classic

derivations in

everywhere

pparent,

uildings

almost desired such


and

invariably
to express
as

monumental of dignity qualities

such

nd

permanency,

seums,

banks,

post offices, libraries, capitols, the larger stations. railroad

The Observation
with
a

Classic
of
the

Revival

in

Fbancb is
the the

Classic

Revival
of

best

begun of

n France

momentary

survey

progress

rchitecture XVI. ouis The reign

immediately

preceding

period

of

of Louis

XIV
the

came

to
as,

close
as

in 1714
that

and
the

he

architecture
period,

of
was

period,
pompous,

well

of

receding

elaborate,

grandiose.

ings order

of

the

time

show and
was

conflict

between
extravagance,

Benaisand

in
out

design in
what

'Baroque
called

carried Grand

(most

appropriately)
XV,
the

Manner.'' period,
period, its
height
synonymous
curves

The

succeeding
the style work
**Eococo''

that

of

Louis

is

often

because
at

*'rock-and"Louis

"

reached
is practically

this

time. with

ze

Rococo,
fungous
art

the

ful

rock-and-shell
invaded
recklessness all

that,

like

some

h,

branches
and

of

decorative
'

with

'

ng of the

rapidity.
in
their

The

tics characteristhough

period
and

were

distinct in form. in
a

nature,

rate

various appeared

Curved
designs,

lines and
lack

and
of

cate intrimetry sym-

foliation
was

all

considered
many

desirable
of
art

achievement.
from

tation Imporat

of

works

China
already

this

time

Oriental

fantasies
style,

to

the
grew

fantastic

ue-Rococo throughout work

which
the

increasingly

extra

reign
is

of by

Louis
no means

XV.

Much without

ative
but

of style

the
was

period
too

the

frivolous expression.
in
the
so

to

effect

any

nently

great

architectural
interest

Despite

the

intense

Rococo wearisome

style,

it

extravagance

finally
the

became of XVI
the

and

acting
the

that

reaction

Classic
,

Revival and

set

ith

reign

of

Louis

(1774-1793)
popular

Classic
close

became
**

increasingly
'*

until

the

of

Empire

period,
the
uncertain

in

1814.
**

Despite
reigns

*'

character Louis

of XIV,
at

style

through

of

Louis
as were

XIII,

and

Louis
and

XV,

buildings
in Classic
Paris

the

palace

Versailles, and of

the

being of
many

planned
portions the

commenced,

dignity
to

Versailles

attributed

J.

H.

Mansart,

master-architect

Louis
of

XIV,
Mansart which In
the
we

who

vastly

enlarged
to-day this
country,

the in
the

palace. French
*'

me

is preserved call, of in

ty

roof

the
as

mansard'*
his the

oof.

works

Mansart,

such

additions

Versailles
was

and
much

the
of

Second
the

Church

of

Invalides, became XVT,

ere

Classicism
the

which
of Louis

tional

architecture

of

period
had

aft

Louis
of

XV
life.
as

Rococo
Mansart

fallacy
's

lived of

its

butterfl

an

conception

Classic
and

forms

well

those

of

his
with

contemporaries
a

immediate than style,

edecessors,

dealt XVI
"

heavier
and

Classicism dignified
and

Louis

an

imposing
of

mirable
playing

qualities
an

proportion
part

alignment
later

rts

important
architecture.

in

the

ment develop-

of
The

French

Classic
however,
sources,

elements owed but


to

of

the

architecture
not

of

riod,

their the Louis

inspiration
architecture

directly
the

assic

of

sance. RenaisXIV

The
constitute

periods
a

of

XIII

and

Louis

period
of the

of

Classic
of

Revival,
the

but
Renaissance"
forms

rathe

continuation
a

impulses in which

most

re-Renaissance,
to

Classic
of

were

ruggling

shake

off

the

vagaries

the

Baroque

yle.

The

real XVI,
were

French

Classic
in this
by

Revival
the

took architects

place

unde

uis

and

period
a

and

impelled of
the
the

dual

Classic

inspiration

Classicism
influence
at

Renaissance,
great

strengthened
archaeological

by discoveries

rect

of
time ruins
by

de the

that

in
of

(Jreece
Pompeii

and

Rome,

and

especially

buried
caused

and

Herculaneum.
can

imulus the

these

discoveries

be

likened
the

on

boundless Italian

enthusiasm Renaissance

evoked

from

pioneers first

the

in

1400,

when

they

I,

Phu^l):n|"htr OF

XAMPLE

THE

DELICATE

EICJHTKENTH
LOIIS XVI

(:^:^"Tl"RY

PURE

DERIVATION

OF

THE

FRENCH

CLASSIC

ARCHITECTURE

OF

LOLIS

knd

"pplicBlion

of

d"tul

cbBncurutic

ofl^e

beat

French

Clnuie

"rFhilecun

I
CLASSIC FRENCH (LOUIS XVI) DERIVATION BUStNEtiS BUiLDINO
IN

THE

CROWNING

THE
aware

CLASSIC

IDEAL

81

in the so of the possibilities lying dormant ng neglected treasure-house of antiquity. The Classic Revival as reflected in the architecture a d other arts of the period of Louis XVI showed from Baroque Rococo forms, mplete reversion and in what developed, is known the ** Formal as d ase ' * of Louis XVI, a style of the utmost refinement kept flat,mouldings Wall surf aces were d urbanity. finely d cornices had slight projections and were Ornamental was treated in flat sculpture delled.

lief, and usually confined to a panel or medallion. liptical window hanging openings, with garlands wn on each side, as well as ellipticalmedallions, were y popular, architectural characterand another istic the frequent introduction of ** attributes ' * was These * * attributes ' * consisted decorative purposes. designed groupings, in low relief, of obadmirably jects associated with the building such as symbolieaily
"

lyres and other ique tragic and some comic masques, ical instruments for the fagade of a theatre or concert hall (as at Amiens), palettes, paint-brushes and for an art gallery. paraphernalia er Earlier French
characteristics of architectural composition, this period, ** academic, ' ' still at called, the Classic Revival architects of the period
even

XVI, was and the great change chiefly in ters of detail. forms Classic, derived were While many purely there were forms, ectly from ancient sources, many origin. o, of Italian Renaissance
Later

erned Louis

formulated architecture, as and Nationale des Beaux Arts, ght by the great !l^ole nded these two kinds of detail, developed a certain feeling as well, and adhered strictly ^'modern"
6

French

the

earlier and des

French

**

academic**
plans.

emphasis
as

on

sy m

axial

Architecture has
had
a

taught

at
on

cole

Beaux of

Arts
many

wide

influence France,

rchitecture
the

countries

outside
other

becaus

fact
of

that
years

students

from
there,

countries
the

spe

eriods
the

in

study

assimilating
thought which

nd

habits
called

of
**

architectural
Arts

produce This

at

is
design

Beaux

Architecture."
such great

and

detail
more

is

of

importance
directly

t will

be

discussed

thoroughly

following

he

history

of

the

Eighteenth
of
no

Century

Classic
to

Revival
that

The

architecture

period
developed

subsequent
along

he

ancient

Greeks
as

has
that

lines of
Louis

of

tudied

refinement period which the

of

the

period the Petit

XVI

he

produced Chateau de
other
* *

Trianon
in the

ersailles,

Bagatelle

Bois

oulogne, the The


term

and
* *

so

many

buildings

describable

exquisite.
of

period
**

Louis
of

XVI

was

followed,
the

after by
to

o-year

Reign Period,
was

Terror'* covered
even

of

revolution,
years

rectoire

which
carried
the

the
further

1795 under

18

assicism
It

than
's

Lou with

I.

invaded
a

realm

of

women

dress,

Tunique
and

la

Grecque,"
as

and
that

with
Mme.

such

Classic
in
well,
**

coifiFures

of
which

Recamier shows,
as

mous

portrait Classic
portrait

by

David,
of greatly

rely

furniture
was

the in

period.
favour,
as

The

Al go

in

the
were

rei

Louis
in

XVI

when

the

ladies
**

of

the

Court
or

p t

Classic
of

draperies,

as

Diana"
This
was

''Hebe,"
the

reek

nymphs

mythology.
or

period

stes

called decade

*'Neo-Grec"
of
the the

**Neo-Classic."

The

Empire
saw,

(1804-1814),
at

following
dawn

Directoire,

the

THE

CLASSIC
a

IDEAL

83

eteenth

Century,

taste

for

Classic
Not

and

archaBO-

ical forms

piration

hitects

a mania. content with amounting from Greece the remains and Rome, of forms Egyptian designers and revived
"

to

inxes and terminal figures, heads and other details. Classicism of the Empire outdid, in profusion of forms, the Classicism anthe very haeological of its inspiration. Many uity which formed details of

architecture survived, preceding schools of French * * * ' a decorative as ably the use of attributes motif. Emperor er such a warlike these attrias Napoleon, butes
were

often military, bristling with spears, introducing not only Boman helmets and armour, trappings of design current at the time. So complete was the leaning toward archaeological ms that much the Empire architecture of period is
most
extravagant to possess
are

Empire

designs

merit, even interesting.

though

nearly
great

The

two

s
no

Percier and Fontaine, who of the period were less noted for their furniture designs than for
These
as

ir architectural achievements. eed, are generally regarded

two architects, the creators and the

emost exponents style. of the Empire Despite its bombastic and grandiose qualities, its aviness and its frequent lack of refinement, the pire style seldom failed to achieve dignity, and many

of the period are of a high order of architectural Italian precedents were cellence. virtually ignored forgotten in the enthusiasm over antique forms. Among the most interesting of all relics of the period France the apartments are for Napoleon remodelled
Fontainebleau,

ks

Compiegne Malmaison,

ntry-house,

and done

Trianon,

for

the

the and Empress

sephine.

Extreme

as

was

its nature,

many

archi-

ectural

details

of of

the

Empire

period When
any
as

have

survived

he

architecture followed
to

to-day.

pronounced

st

with the
or

such

extravagance

the

Empire

sty

owever,

exclusion

of
so

all

other

thought,
as

it usuall
to

egenerates, by
a

becomes
style.

wearisome
the
great

be

s p

new

Even
saw

architecture
in
style the
was was

Italian of

Benaissance

its
The

decadence Empire of

opme deve

the
and

'Baroque.

ception,

after
France,

the

presence

Napoleon

nger

felt

in
out,

Neo-

or

Ultra-Classicism
of
that

gra ual

died
enthusiasm
create

failing, which

in
had

the

absence its

first

gl

aided

initial

expression,

works

of

sufficient

stylistic

spontaneity

ssess

lasting
impetus of
the

characteristics.

The

of

the

Classic
of begun

Bevival
the
*'

had

swept

awa

ch

official
which to the

influence
had period
* *

Academic
exert

SchooP'

architecture prior

to

national
and

of

Louis

XVI,
' *

with
the

cline

of

the

Empire
Beaux
up

archaeological
Arts prestige

school,
to

Ecol

tionale
to

des build
to

began and

take

definite

form

the

the

stylistic architecture,

formulae

ich

this the

day

characterise
of
the

French

ch

of

architecture

world.

The The Classic

Classic
Bevival period influences

EEvrvrAL in

tn

England commenced

England

wi

Georgian
the

(1714-1820),
of

inmoiediately
reign of in of

ing follow

Dutch

the
somewhat

Queen
its the

Anne,

lasted,
the

though

waning
until
the

Classicism Victorian

ward in
The

end,

beginning

1837.

Eighteenth

Century
during of
the

Classic
the

Bevival
of

in
the

England Georges,

ached

its in
the

height works

reigns Adam

tably

Brothers

(1760-1820),

THE

C5LASSIC

IDEAL

86

however, were the reign of George III. The Adams, ' ' Classic Taste. the first architects to design in the

' '

Following Sir Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones, bean great English Benaissance architects of the JacoWilliam Kent, who died in 1748, produced period, ** Classic in the nature were more which ks of a * Kent *s vival* than of the style of the Benaissance.
of inspiration, moreover, in Italy, and both Kent
were

rces

directly

re-

ived and a contemporary, the designs closely resembling bbs, produced many in France. later Empire period k of the No English architects, however, popularised Classic
to
so

rms

great

an

extent

as

the Adams,

or

so

skilfully

antique creation of modem motifs ployed The Classic Taste became the ildings and furniture. ght of fashion, and, guided by the Classic ideal of
a

in the

English placed upon in city buildings, is its hitecture which, especially aracteristic to-day. Classic ideas found extensive fashionable acceptance in the architectural and decorative expressed ' ' ntings of Angelica Kauffinann, and in the allegoriParks and gardens * English portraits of the day. formed with the Classic trend of the period, with
permanent

gnity,

stamp

was

frequent

introduction

*'

ssic

statuary.
were

of Sculptured

temples** and garden busts in hemispherical

hes

characteristic architectural features, and important buildings, whether tually all the more lesiastical or secular, public or domestic, were of '* and portico** type, with Classic columns. pediment was a period of the Classic Bevival in England

iod of very earnest architectural effort, resulting much work destined to exert a strong influence upon architecture on both sides of the Atlantic sequent

Geoboian With
such

Colonial

in

America
for
not
ocean

widespread in
have

enthusiasm it
the is

Classic
all the

idea

architecture

England,
crossed

at

surprising
American

at

this

should

to

lonies,

creating
be

and called

moulding
**

the

style

which

should

curately

Georgian
was

Colonial/*
a

American

Classic
coming,
a

RevivaP'
as

distinctly from
the

different

velopment,
at

it
later

did,

largely
than

France,

considerably

date

Georgian

assic
The

influences.

Georgian
study

Colonial in
in itself,
the

architecture will
come

of
under It

America,
more

tensive

detailed important

nsideration
to

eighth

chapter.

is

re

establish Revival
from
the

its
in

connection and

with
to

the

Georgian
its

assic

England, American

recognise

t d

later

Classic
of
North

Revival.

The

Georgian
took
in

Colonial
forms

types

American and
In
the

tect arch

different
the

in of

the

South

pecially

treatment
a

dwellings. Classicism England followed and

the

Nort

ere

is noticeable
than

great

Georgian
form.

of

detai

ther

of

general

New

doorways, Classic

ndows

and

interior

woodwork windows

m f

rendering
an

Palladian
carpenter's

Greek

order

th

honest

technique.
types

To

differentiate in such

the
New
; the

of

Georgian
towns
as

Colonial

chitecture

England varieties
; those

Salem

wport

and

Boston

found still

in further

New

York
south

iladelphia
cannot That

and
be the

Baltimore in
of

is

attempted inspiration
came

cursory

maimer.

the

Colonial
from

and

Earl

erican
the
note

builders
following
on

directly
by

England
Glenn
Brown,

is cle

paragraphs

Mr.

fro

the

doorways
work

of in Salem

Salem,
covers

Massachusetts.
three

**The

best

periods,

fro

THE

CLASSIC

IDEAL

87

the influence of the publishowing cation in 1740, a work (in England) of Batty Langley The title of the work tensively used in this country. * Country the character plains of its information:

45 to 1785

dearly

lders^

t
'

of

and Drawing

Workmen's

Treasury

of Design,

or

the

and

Working

the Ornamental

Parts

of

hitecture.'

*In the period from 1785 to 1810 the character of the Adam, and Bobert k reflects the influence of James books on interior decoration in were published se After 1800 we the eflFect of Revett 3 and 1786. see

issued in 1788 were publications, which in this period Greek influence is 1794^1816, as free our early builders made arly reflected. While not simply of these good publications, they were
Stuart's

They their individuality in design showed yists. ' ' their good taste in adaptation. in addition to the works There were, by mentioned Brown, many others of like character and varying Among rees of architectural merit. the best known these
American Builders'

Colonial Assistant,"

inspirations filled with

was

^^The

ntry

carpenters'

frames, cornices doorways, ails of Georgian window interior woodwork. It is due to these books that
and
Early

developed architecture sistently and with a high general level of merit, over there were arge area no tural architecand in a day when in this country, in no teachers as great schools and
no

onial

American

nce,

ready

means
' '

of European
"

apprentice. iring architectural by far the greater t number of early American done the work ldings were of carpenters, and were by details carefully m mere sketches, supplemented

study for the It is remarkable

fiuscribedfrpm

these precious

English

books.

Tbe

88

THE

PRACTICAL
a

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

result

is

lasting

tribute
must

their work

which

love f to the conscientious have inspired and guid/Bd the

master-builders The

of Georgian Classio

Colonial
ik

times

in America.

Revival

Amebica
as

The Georgian
through

American Classic
the

Classic Revival, inspiration,

distinct from
about

came

largel

wit of friendly relations France during t and the distaste for things English So closely allied, indeed, is this American War of 1812. to the contemporary Classic Revival style of France,

development

Th Empire. * * that it has often been called ' * American esti left a number of inte of the Ultra-Classic popularity in this country, monuments of which, perhaps is to be found in the remaining the purest example po ti of **La Grange Astor directly below
Terrace,
*'

on

Lafayette York Grange

Stree
City,

Place Library. Row,"

in

New
* *

opposite
now

the old Astor


**

La

an Terrace,

called

Colonnade

was

built in 1836,

comprised eight palatial city residences. Classic is this relic of the '* Revival," and typical of the style as it found expression essentially in this country, Despite study.

So

an tho oug

form,
time

and

that the stately old facade repays clo its origina the demolition of one-half indignities it has suffered since t the many

it was York the centre of New fashionabl when is its inher life, it retains a quality of dignity which itself, from Greece the immortal tance from ture archite

the world to-day. which, in ruins, dominates fence, with Gree At the street-line was a cast-iron The shallow porch was imposingly flanke anthemions. by twin pedestals, on which stood cast-iron candelabra
of pure

Pompeian
past

form.
tense

These
because

approaches
a

of

in the

city

spoke h regulation

are

ed

them itself,

**

as

sidewalk still
remains the

encroachments.''
nearly

The
intact,

de

which

is

able and

proportions entablature.

in
The

relation

of
the
*'

base,
manner

nade colon-

base,

after

porary

French
the is flanked by
five
the wreaths

buildings,
strongly

is

of

rusticated'' and

courses,

joints
by
an

emphiasised, Doric
columns, entablature
French the
"

the set-in

ce

pure

Greek

surmounted

abbreviated
of
pure

rated deco-

with

Empire
street

style. is

Like

French
nature
on

city

house,
a

level stately

rega

in
rooms

the
are

of the of

basement

the
or on

ing draw-

premier
great

Stage,
rooms

first the

flight.

lofty
are

ceilings expressed
the

these
externally

premier
the

by
appear,

the

height

of
the

dows, win-

at

heads

of

which

again,

French

wreaths.
the

This
premier The walls
narrow

embellishment,
etage

furthermore,

nguishes above
to

in the

importance

from

the

it. of

of

base and with


a

are

sufficiently
placement

allow

gallery
on

the

he

tall

colunms

directly the front. built

it

cast-iron

rail

ng

across

The

columns,

each

of

five

drums
of

of

solid
the

stone,

superb
a

in

proportion,

the

detail

capitals
monument

direct Lysicrates

replica in

of

the

Greek
The
originally

Corinthian
cornice

of

Athens. and
was

is

of

pure

ic

composition,
cresting this facade illustrates Revival, but also

crowned The
here

by
acter char-

nuous of

of has
so

Greek
been

anthemions. considered
the

in

detail,

se

it

admirably
only
as

very

spirit

Classic

not

expressed
work

by of

American
the

ers,

typical

of

much

French

e.
the

Following

Classic
taste

Revival in

in

America,

taste

into

the

analities
which

and

stupidities it
was

of
to

the

mid-

Victorian
until
the

perio

rom

not

emerge

ea

nineties.'*

The

Decline
to

op

the

Classic
the
to
a

Ideal

in

England

Returning is found,
revival,

England,
1815,

Classic
competing

Ideal with

in
a

ture architec

about and

be

pseudo

othic

with resulted

spirit
in
an

of

restlessness

clecticism

which
the

architectural had of

chao

ortunately

imprint
through most

of

Classicism
the

been

rong,

continuing
that
were

reign

George

1820),

the

important
implanted. Classic,
or

fundamentals

of

tect arch

securely

The

height shortly important

of

the

Greek
was

Revival

in

la En

before

its

decline,

signalised

veral

architectural
popular In 1762
*'

publications
as

whic
as

ofoundly thought.
and

moved

taste

well

tural architec

Antiquities
;

of

Athens/*
Adam

uart

Revett
in had

appeared
1831,

in

1764,

Robert

Spalato'';
which

Inwood's effect of
forms,

''Erechtheion''"
creating
an

rks

the
pure

intens

miration
or

for

Greek

independently

ench With
study

Italian
the

interpretations. of
the

decline English

Classic

Revival excepting
a

in
in
too

England,
the

of the

architecture, house,

pro inc

of
any

country

becomes
or

matter

involved

but and
no

the

architect

the

critic,

and such

the

confli

styles

tendencies significant
throughout

resulted

in

diversified
from

fort

that Isles

influences
the
to

emanated
era.

itish
It

Victorian
to

is
was

only

important

allude

the of

Gothic
Ruskin
earlier

Revival in

ich well

inspired
as

by

the

writings of
many

185

by

the

writings

and

co t

held

similw

Lacking
interest
great

real

motive

power,

the

rather
to

tual ineffecproduce

in works

Gothic

architecture

failed
an

(since

it

was

not

expression in
the

of England

the

s),

yet

occupied
to

architectural and
almost

thought
stop

ciently

retard

further

opment

of
attempted

Classic
Gothic
to

architecture.
Revival
the

The

of

Ruskin
**

in

England

is

interesting
country
*

architectural

observer**
the

his

chiefly
'

because
*s
* *

it

was

impulse left
**

for
many

fantastic

carpenter

Gothic
the

which

so

rn,

hybrid
country

traces

in

form
type these

of
is

Gothicand

can'*
have

houses. perhaps,
"

The
how

familiar,
architectural which

wondered,
**

sities better
they

happened** than

^wooden

houses

were

ng

parodies
to
'*

of

the

**

Gothic

Style**
windows

aspired
pointed

express**

in
which

pointed
hung

sharply
**

roofs,
and

from

jig-sawed
'*

n
too

tracery**

drop-ornaments.
to

Gothic*'
to

ls,

*'fine**
were

(supposedly)
done

be

entrusted executed
'*

the

nter,

in
the

very

crudely sculpture, is
an

iron sanded**
one
**

ngs,

often,

like

wooden style

epresent
reasons,

stone.

The

interesting
it is

for

al

although,

architecturally,
It

sible** impos-

and examples

indefensible.
remain
towns

is

interesting
the
more

because
ous prosperas

so

in of the

and

about

cities

and

United it
so

States,
forcefully of revival

far

West

Michigan, futility of

and
an

because
artificial

illustrates
an

rendering
nor

artificial stood, underand

vival,**
and

neither
the
nature
or

rendering
and

half
of

expressiveness

style

ial

wilfully
who

blindly
out

ignored.
buildings
were

Carpenters
in this
not

and
may

actors

carried but

style

been
**

ingenious,

certainly

intelligent.
with
an

This

Gothic'*

ex-

emely

poor

and

ill-considered ''eighties,'*
'*an

bourgeois
made American of

French

chitecture

of of
that

the

tect arch

period
genuine, that
we

imitation
be
the

something,

ich,

even

if

would
owe

undesirable/' sorrowfully
house,

It

this

period

familiar
the

brownstone

front'' which
was

type
an

of

city

and

country

mansion"

enormous

box
steep

in

shape,

wi

ungraceful
whole

rendering

of
a

the

Mansard

ro

crowned

with
entirely

strange

protuberance
purpose

like itself,

nning-tower,
to

without

in
a
more

lation

the

building.
turn

Builders of
mind
victims
examples

of

sprightly
their

enterprising
or

erected,
"

for
strange

wealthy

ients,

(in

this

case)
many

-a

version

Swiss

Chalet,
retired

of trees
no

which of

still

exi

destly The

behind

the
was

tall

their
other

grounds. style

Classic
or

Ideal

forgotten, and
must,
any

derstood,

appreciated, consciousness

one

possessing
this
time,

chitectural of

at

ha

spaired

the

future

of

American

architecture.

The Early in the


of

Classic
Nineteenth
a

Revival

in

Germany
Berlin

Century

and

Munich but

centres

powerful
of
more

Classic
forms

Revival,
showed
more

rman

rendering

Classic

vig

an

finesse,
Many and and
Berlin
on

and

archasological buildings

exactitude of
considerable in

th

eling.

important
entirely such

gnitude

Classic
as

character,

both

ma Ge

Austria,
and

the

Parliament
to

Buildings influence

Vienna,

testify

the

on

erted

Teutonic

architecture
that these,

by

Classicism.
other
to
on

It

range,

however,

and fail

buildings
any

th

prior
absolute

and

subsequent

date,

express

architectural

conviction
Ideal
was

the

part

of

th

signers.

The

Classic

"study,"

not

ration in
so

"

^there
Revival
more

was

not

the
was

spontaneity
so

or

asm enthusiFrance,

the
much

which evident
been
the

marked

in

even

in

less-demonstrative
the

nd.
of

It

had

same

with Gothic
and

German
"

renderi

Renaissance
were

and

architecture failed with


to

^th

ns

students architectural
effort.
was so

always, styles

really

ify

outside
of
past

their

national

creative style

No

characteristic
style, shows
to

of

the

country

the

essentially

modern
forms, and
'*

which, likeness

remotely
to
no

based works

certain
other

Classic
land, kind
rather

o
part,

seems

express,

for is the

the

most

rtain

of

bigness*' nobility. in
a

which
This
comment

attribute
has ^^Kultur

o
been

ance

than

thought
on

ably

expressed

tecture^'
.
.

by
.

Mr.

Guy
are,

Study, it is
and
to the
men

in
true,

^*The
two

Nation:'* schools The

**

There
the

of

art

ermany,
which

academic

the

modem.

academi

still

clings

precious
who

heritage
their

of

the

is from

school
the speak

formed sixteenth
the
same

of

draw

tion inspiraand
the

and

eighteenth
language but

centuries
of

still

beautiful

art

Nuremberg is

and

Rottenburg,

whose

influence

tunately

negligible
the

**It

is, however, of has such

modem

school

that

expresses

the

culture that
power,

Germany.
moved
men

Animated

by in
her

the

restless

se

Germany
as

ambition and

for Kauf-

Bruno working

Schmidtz
with in

have
even

succeeded,
audacious of
as

by

astonishing
the
to

originality, which

giving
seems

nation
been
wave

style

architecture
the

have
great

ted

national
has

expression.
swept
a
over

The

unrest

which

Germany
upheaval

has

so

fed

the

nation

that

complete

in

art

has

ken

place

the
we

very

foundations
a

of
new

the

past

have
touches

be

ased,

and

find

strange

art,

with

mysticism

of

the

East

and

possessing
a

much

darin

everness,

imagination,
is

and

strong

artistic
of

quaUty

it there
a

unquestionably vital
force

the
;

evidence
indeed, people

power

great

restless
arrogant,

it is
whose

the

expres sion

of

an

conceited
the Latin
or

ideals
race.

reign

to

either
that

Anglo-Saxon
that
we

it art

with

eternal the
that
pastf

quality Do
of

has

marked

eat

epochs architecture
of

of

find

in

modem quiet,

m G

spirit

truth,

that

natura

pression

an

enduring

power

which
?

is These
upon

the

unconsciou

possession felt and


among

of
the

true

greatness

attributes
the before
the

columns

of
but
as

Karnak^
what

olis, Acrop

in

the

Forum;

is

felt
or

gantic

monstrosities
whose sole
.

the claim

Bismarck
upon
us

Leipzi

nument,

is

their

over pow

bulk?
.

/'

The

Beaux France
at

Abts
a

School
when
that

Returning and
was

to

time

architecture
in
**

gland

America, in
a

and
more

(for
**

matter)
than to

France

self,

state
be

chaotic^' be

tiona trans

there

could

perceived influence, critics, in


was

growing

up

gantic

influence.
scores

This
many

condemned destined
"

veral
tremendous
no

by

to
a

pl

dual
intelligent

part

modern
can

architecture ignore
or

pa

ich
was

observer
to

belitt

destined,

first, tradition,

raise

the and

scattered
Renaissance, into
which

remains

chitectural
of
the

Classic
of

fr
they

quicksands and, welding

decadence

rayed,

Classic powerfully

and

Renaissance
rationally

into

finite

composite,

and
the

moul

architectural

thought

of

civilised

world.

This
Beaux

great

influeniCG
and the

was

the

French

Ecole
architecture
on

Nationale
can

Arts,

style

of

its based

be

neither

Classic
nor

(though
Renaissance

many

Classic

amentals)

(though
"

characterised

many

Benaissance
architectural
the

forms)
design of
of the

^but
distinct
Beaux

**

Beaux

Arts/'

of

characteristics.
Arts
have
stamp,

Because
all

teachings

placed
it

modern
to

architecture
possess
a

permanent
grasp

tant

distinct
exposition

of
a

the

Beaux

idea.

The

following
enable

and

study
observer

of

the

trations

will wherein

the forms forms

architectural
play
an an

to
part, part,

ive
wherein will

Classic

important

Benaissance
be

play

important
only also

able,
of

as

well,
two

to

discern
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Beaux

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traits,
itself.
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devices

and

inventions

peculiar

the

Beaux of

architecture

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also

the

result

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of

thought,

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ngs
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symmetrical
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masses

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axes"

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and
axes

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The of

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o
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idiary
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ing.
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on

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building, the
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such entire
theory

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the

New

Library, axis,

disclose

theory will of
show
reason

ing such

and

grasp

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axial

planning

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merit

logic, only of

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as

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,

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to

buildings.
of
on

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ilding,

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it,
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bear dictate

avenue
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It

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that

symmetry

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essen tial

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buildings,

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monumentar^
owes

buildings,
much
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for

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chitecture axial
plans.

Beaux

Arts

insistence this ateliers

It

must
was

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be

supposed
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p c

in
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Greek, ideas
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ture architec
the
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of

symmetry,
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plan

Roman
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Caracalla

typical
system

Beaux

ts

plan,

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perfectly

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ax

subsidiary
The
great

axes.

French having
the

school, made

however,
an

deserves
absolute of
a

stinction
law
the

of

symmetry

tect arch

and
stages

essential its
has

requirement

buildin

first
Beaux the

of

development.
its

The
of

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critics
to

and

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principal teachings is
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faults

which insistence

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on

point

in

aux

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or

is

this

symmetry.
an

this

insistence
that,

breeds
for

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''paper'*

architecture,

the

sake

try

rather
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than

for
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expression

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ments requiremust

building,
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Beaux
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architect
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necessary

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essary

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in point,
opponents
a

plan.

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an

criticism

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fact

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up

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it is of

interesting
Arts
any

the

Beaux

architecture better
or more

have

suggestion
large

for

cal logi-

manner

of

planning
may

buildings.
in
an

It

is true

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planning development
an

result
of
a

unnecessary

and
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ficia artitrue

building,
of

but

it is
Arts

able
a

graduate symmetrical
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the
plan

Beaux

is
also

capable
a

cing

which

is

logical have

economical committed
fact
must

Whatever Beaux
that

offences

may

by
remain
the

Arts

architectural
in

formulae,
general

architecture
the
great chaos

i
cases.

culably
time

gainer

in

majority
reigned, itself the

of the
Law,

when

architectural
in

great

le

stepped
a

and
of

constituted rules
in design main

and
ever

lished

code

which
elements

have,
of

beneficially
design. architecture,

guided

the

tectura archi-

No

no

art,

no

philosophy
to

or

religion
and

is

bigoted, is
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and

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domination
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utism be
on

desirable

A of

school

architecture
a

fountain-head

inspiration,

court
may,

matters

of
merit the

form of its

and

procedure, widely

and

by

of

the

teachings,

and

permane

mould
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cannot

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to

of

many

countries,
have
come

whither
to

students

practise said
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fairly
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school aim in has the

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implant
importance

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it

nts

impression

of

the

of

synunetry.

Beaux
may

Arts
often

detail, be
to

of

which

we
or

shall
replaced
but

speak by

pre ent

forgotten,

form

appropriate
Arts of planning

other

countries, and

the

theory the

aux

is basic,
It of

underlies
a

whol

ructure

architecture.

is

later

expression

Classic
Having

Greek developed
in

ideal
a

order.
plan, it
the the

symmetrical
from

studen

rceives, of

designing building,
and
that that all each

elevation

cade

his

this,

of

necessity,
masses a manner

is
are

mmetrical,
as

the

important
in

lated

to

balance

other

at

on

reeable the
are

and
Beaux
to

logical.
Arts
type

Excellent

American

examples

of
New

f agade
York

for in

monumental buildings
the

ings buil
as

be

seen

in
the

such Museum,

blic

Library,
the
new

Metropolitan Office
last

Customs

use,

Post

and

the

Pennsylvania bearing

ro Ra

station
in

(the
style with
the
to

named,

however,

lation

Beaux fundamental
'Beaux

Arts

architecture).
ideas
of

Combined
symmetry,
a

Classic
developed,

ord

Arts

school

ll,

certain
even

distinct
frivolity.

French
The

quality
style,
for for

of

gaiety
reason,

and,

mes,

this

ways

seemed
casinos,

admirably
music-halls, fault of

suitable
theatres
Beaux

exposition similar architecture


the

ings buil

and Arts

ings buil

peculiar
been

equently

that and

of

counteracting by
that

dignity introduction
courthouses

neral

conception
frivolous buildings
have

composition detail,
so

the

distinctly
other

banks,

in

which

the

expression
as
an

of

dignit

essential,

avoided
This

the

style,
of of critics

unsafe
at Arts
once

tect arch

medium. and
has
one

frivolity
feature

detail,
Beaux another

tractive

detractive
given
the

tect arch
weapon,

hostile

of

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they

have

amply

availed

themselves.

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detail
an

there

will

be

found,
on

in

the

Beaux
to

Arts

l,

admirable for well,


on

insistence
columns

adherence

Classic

rtions
as

and devices

entablatures,
as

and
the
courses,

tence, insisbase and

such
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accentuating

building

by
the

rusticating^^
central
part

the
of
to

stone the create

tuating of

building

by

ng

extravagant

detail
a

architectural
rules
as

resf great

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few detail

such
has

strict

these,

er,

in

characterised
to

nearly

Beaux
of

Arts their

architects, Together
were

often

the
many

serious

ment detri-

works.

with developed merit.

extravagant
many

however,

there

also

forms

ermanent

architectural
Beaux Arts

In

style,
sources,

detail
Renaissance of designers and all
other
are

drew

its
forms,

inspiration
and

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ic

from

from

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forms

characteristic
and
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the

Classic
earlier

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reigns.
are
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XVI,
gay

in
cursive

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rent. appa-

in

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on

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there

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ornament.

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fret

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tical of

windows
Louis feature
on

and XVI, and

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Classic
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pediments.

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often

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in
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the
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form
Arts

of

grilles fagade,

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ngs,

in
most

and

is designed

cursive

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flowing

charac-

possible.
on

Another
French

characteristic designers
fertile
or

metal of this

ment embellishschool

which
a

ha

vished

wealth

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gracefu

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marquise,
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on

.and hood
entering.
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projectin

doorway

rain-shelter
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Architectural from

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the

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parted
became in

conceptions
to
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of

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gaine
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treatments,

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the

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of

fountain
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figures

central

portico modern
are,

Public

Library

illustrate
sculpture, with the

this
and

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architectural in
of the keeping

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perfectly

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ts

character Although

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building.

School
its

has

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many

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fundamental
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students
scale

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exa ger

in

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buildings

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style

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rit.
We
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on

summarising, the
plan symmetrical
out

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Beaux plan,

Ar

chitecture
axes,

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with

laid

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to

in

the

elevation,

ile

adhering
great
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logical
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proportions This

of detail, Louis
or

mass,

allow

freedom

detail.
Italian Italian

while

derive

om

Classic,
chastity,
yet
possesses

and
romance

XVI,
Louis

usuall

cks

Classic

XV

finement,

certain

positive
for

architectural
types

alities

eminently

appropriate

certain

ildings.
The
type,

for

example,
a

is

not

so

well
as

suited style the

to

row

fagade Renaissance.

of

city

residence
a

the

of

alian

On

large

f agade,

exagger-

peculiarities
and
are

of

Beaux in

Arts
the

detail

are

not

so

api)arlarger

overlooked
a

magnitude

of Nearly rendering of
a some

the

ts

of facades,
Arts

monumental
however,

building. in
a

all of

city

thorough portions
into
one

the

style, off
scale,

resemble and and, with


American

larger lot.

ing,
fault
to

sliced in
be

crowded
perhaps, the style.

city of
the

This

greatest

found

Many great

leading Ecole

architects
des them
Beaux the
cases,

have

studied
in

Nationale back
with In

Arts
most

Paris,

and
parts

brought teachings.
use

important
have

its

most

they

made and of

far

of
than

the

larger of
the
a

precepts
detail. distinct In

of

planning
work

composit

the

certain

and

individuals has
works.

process

of
close

architectural observation from they

dure

been

apparent
upon

in

their

Directly
commencement

their
of

return

the

l,

and

their

practice,
French

sig deand

buildings
* *

which
Arts
or
* '

were

entirely detail.

ely
was

Beaux

in

every

Gradually
in
some

the
cases

modified
outward leaving
**

abandoned,
of
Beaux great the

and Arts

entire

aspect

architecture

peared,
of to

only

the

deeply-instilled
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iples

order,*'
or

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style"

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ely

Italian

Georgian
who

English
have

character.

That

American

architects of
the
real

studied they

in

Paris

convinced the American

benefits by

which
their
Arts

derived

School,

is Society
to

evidenced
of
renew

foundation

o
who

Beaux

Architects, the

periodically side of

in

reminiscence
^

ture picin

their
award

younger

^atelier''

days

the

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and

scholarships

and
ambitious of
the

prizes

for

nt

'*projets''
draughtsmen

submitted from
many

by
parts

tural architeccountry.

Many
the

features frame-work

of

the
of

Beaux
our

Arts
college
as

idea
courses

of

teaching in

rm

arch

cture,

and
of of the

in

such

instances and
Arts

the

Massachusetts French

stitute

Technology
Beaux

Harvard,
the

uat gra

moulded
M.
of

entire

system
so

thought
great

and
leading
years;

instruction.

Despradelle,
has

lo

spirit
M.
Duquesne

Technology, of

been

de

veral

Harvard

directs

aching

in

Cambridge
of
Beaux

to-day.
Arts

Evidences

teaching
many

are

widely
which,

ominently glance, will

distributed, might be
be

and
thought

buildings Classic
as

rst

of

directly
to

tion deriva well,

found
and

inseparably pervasive

combine,

er-recurrent

influence
too,

of

the

Beaux

ts,

which
more

is

conspicuous,

in
of

South
Buenos

America,
Aires

important City.
illustrations by
reason

buildings

xico The

show
of their

examples direct

which
expression

have

be

osen

of

Beaux

ts
The

traits.
two

details Paris,

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the

Grand admirably

Palais

des

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in

depict
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often
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fantasy
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ale

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tion introducfrom

of

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than

sculpture.

The this

motif
for
as

in

fagade

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fondness
as

naturalistic, the
The

rather

Classic

sculpture,
of

well

profuse

ngling

of

divers with
more

details

divers
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origins.
reminiscent
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medallion, though

garlands,

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florid,
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Italian
the whole

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des

the work

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Exposition
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architects.
examples

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country

several

In

thoroughly first,
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of Beaux

illustrative
New

shown.

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architects students,
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symmetrical developed
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ental

building,
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axial
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The

entire

building,
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in
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sition and,

and

detail,
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distinctly
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a

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ter,

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example

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a

influence

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d,

jeweller
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parfumerie)
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such

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flares
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pediment
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city
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house

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details,
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offences
a

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Classic
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architecture,
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rench

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rail
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use

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up

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traces

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and
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of

Italian
of

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forms, window fatal

the into
the

device

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the

thir

ory

entablature

illustrative
of

at

license

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destroys

merit
Arts

many

herwise

excellent
It has

of
observed
in

Beaux

origin
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spiration.

will

be

that
the

the'

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followed of
the
almost
rooms

exterior
the

expression

the

importance
rusticated,

on

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the

etage/

the

severe

base

building,
above

ich

blossoms
level
the
story.

into

exuberant

festivity

reet

From of

foregoing
Arts

observations architecture,
in this

on

the
from

merits
a

fects
the

Beaux

and

stud

illustrations
to part

presented

connection,

it wi

possible

discern which

in the

many

American school
more

buildings
has played

portant side of

great

is

the

Atlantic, opposition

and

to

understandingly been
offered

preciate

the

which

has

AN

EXAMPLE

OF

CLASSIC ESSENTIALLY lilt into


ft

INSPIRATION OF
null, York
""

IN BEAUX-ARTS
ktc

MONUMENTAL DESIGN

bEiT, Public

CBllcd

"eDcia"d

column*"

(Tb"

New

Library)

French
styles.
was

architeetnre

by

the

exponents

of

pure

an

It

said
works
* *

in

previous the

paragraph

that,
**

excepting
American
Arts

the

of

Classic

Revival unmixed

or

e,

Classic
are

derivations
rarely
met

with

Beaux

ences,

with

in
true,

American
though
met
museums,

ture. architecdesigns
with

This,
Classic

in

measure, are

is

inspiration libraries
as

usually

in

bank

ings,

certain

and
Tomb is
in
the true,

art

and York
nearly whether

mausoleums

Grant's
it

in

New

City.

Classic
monumental

inspiration, buildings follows


or

underlies
country,

al

this

the

rendering

character

of

the

Modern

School,
Classic endured
the

the
in

Renaissance

Italian
and

School. Classic forms,

The

Ideal
many

architecture,

architectural through
French
to
possess
or

developments,
the 'Beaux

but Revival

gh through

Renaissance,

Classic
Arts
greater

the

Modem

School,
and have

always potent
to

proved
than the
or

qualities
movements

stylistic

which

adopt safe

re-mould

them.

And

it is cycles

to

predict

that

Classic

forms,
will

through their have

of

architectural
when

evolution, other

retain forms

rtal

qualities

architectural

forgotten,
in
"

and
the the

that

**

Classic of ancient

Derivations**
successive

will

apparent for

architecture
genius
of in
age

future
has

ries

the the of

Greeks
which

lost

of

its since

significance
the

centuries
Hellenism. chapter

have

golden
of
part

The

design
what

the

following
in

is

to

aid
been

rning
by

American and

architecture
Romanesque the

has
styles,

the

Byzantine

and called

that

remarkable

fabric

of

Middle

Ages,

Gothic

style.

CHAPTER
BYZANTINE,

V
AND

ROMANESQUE
DERIVATIONS

GOTHIC

"

ROMANESQUE

REVIVAL

"

IN

AMERICA.

THE OF

PLACE

ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC MILITARY

STYLES DERIVATIONS,
AND

IN

THE

ARCHITECTURE

T0-6AY

ECCLESIASTICAL,

COLLEGIATE,

SECULAR,

IN

AMERICA

TO

group

American
Romanesque

architecturar and might


types

derivations
Gothic styles,
to

Byzantine,
a

is

tablish

triology
these

which

be

said
have of

be

logica

ly

in

that
role

historic stylistic

played

but

rtial

in

the

expression

architecture

America. A brief
styles

consideration
will recall
a

of

the
past

Byzantine
phase
a

and
of

esque Roman-

architectural

spiration
many
a

in

this

country,

but

phase

which
to

left

eat

important time
to
come

monuments,
"

destined both

endure

long
secular.

^buildings

ecclesiastical

And and

in

ecclesiastical styles
as
an are

architecture,

zantine

Romanesque to-day
our

distinctly
factor

to

ckoned

with
of

important

in

spiration
A

church

architects.

brief

consideration in American
part

of

the

Gothic

derivations
will
great

aptations

architecture played architecture, by


that
as

outline

ry

important
in

mediaeval
as

yle

ecclesiastical played
in

well

the

less

rt

it has
The

some

secular with of by
this

types

of

building.

acquaintance the
a

formed
chapter

Byzantine
book early

ture architecrecall

in
was

second

will

th

style after

developed
the

the

Christians,
the

co si

fall

of

Rome

(with

temporary

ROMANESQUE
A

DERIVATION
in New

OF

THE of the

ROMAN
tile,

TYPE

brick

churcb
ol

York *nd

Citv,
the

Ibe

dome of

tbe

fifures

lerTSMWtU,

dufta

RomaD

pedimenl CarinthiBn

ion
the

of

Classic

architecture)
of
Byzantine

and
style.

considerably
It
was

development that

the

Gothic
architecture

will characterised

be

bered
by
the

round
that

arch
the the of
a

sprin^ng
arches,
as

from

short,
as

clustered basket-

columns, capitals which

well
were

the

of
was

columns, curiously Mosaic

treated
but
was

with highly largely

ng

primitive, decoration

ative and

character. the

dome,

not

the
as

vault,

was

the

covering

tant
and

structures,

such
*s

Ste.

Sophia

in

nople, Constanti-

St.
be

Mark

in

Venice.
further, the vault that
system

It

will

remembered, developing
to at

Romanesque of roofing,

tecture,
directly

the

great

Gothic
was

style.
way

Romanesque

tecture,
a

its

best, style,

by
a

of
never

being

hybrid oped. develparts

transitional
It
same
was

and
uneven

style merit,

fully different

style

of

the

building

often barren

seeming

architecturally
and others, colourful

,
same

ill-studied, time,

and

stupid, rich,

he

architecturally

intricate,

and

interesting.
considering which
one

In

the
has

development called the


as

in
the
**

American
Romanesque
as
* *

tecture archi-

been
accept

Reviv

must

designation
and
the

embracing
"

tine

derivations
say,

well, have

Revival,

it i

to

might
the

well

permanently of
**

and

pervasi

moulded
country,

character
not
a

architectural

design

this

had
as

Renaissance

Revival*'

anted
us

it,

will the

be

seen

later.
**

Let

consider

status

of
* *

style**
* *

in

American
be

tecture

about
be loth,

1870.

If

style
to

it

could
it
**

called,

should influence
century

in
the

any
**

event,

call

American.** the 1836,

of

Classic
out

Revival**
even

of

dawn
when

had

died

before

Colonnade

Row**
came,

was

built
the
type most

in

New
part,

York
from

City,
the

spiration
and

for

mo

based

bourgeois
or

of

contemporary

French

chitecture,

from
The

misguided,
first

unintelligent created and

ers follow

of

RusMn.
of ''brownstone familiar
to

inspiration

su

numents

architectural
fronf
anyone

stupidity
type

vulgarity

the

of
has
or

city

residence,
the

m d

who

traversed
other
great to
^

reets

of
cities.

New
It houses

York,
created,

Brooklyn,
also,

similar
country
^

Eas

those

burban
square

usually
with
tower
* *

alluded
a
or

as

mansions

eat

boxes,
* *

hideously
* *

mishandled
* *

mansar

roof

and

cupola,

which,
as an

with index

ole

horrible and

ensemble,
social
status.

was

regarded

alth
The

Gothic
produced
even more

effort,

as

we

have

seen

in
no

the
less

thi

apter,

architectural architecturally
The
country

aberrations
illogical
was

and

and dire
great

struc

rally

dishonest.
great

in
"

need

architectural light. Ruskin's failed

revelation
**

some

arch tect

Seven
to

Lamps
even a

of

ture Architecglimmer

' '

conspicuously light
clear in
or

shed

faint

the

Cimmerian
intelligent

darkness architectural

in

which vision

every

ho

seemed

plunged.
The
person

light

which
one

appeared
of
the
greatest

at

this

juncture

came

of

American
his

architects

H.

Richardson, clear

great

because his

architectural

visi

and and

intelligent,

architectural

intention

finite

sincere,

his

architectural

reasoning

soun

enlightened.

The

great

Romanesque

Revival
the

which of of

he

led

became

rst

conspicuous

with
the

publication
tower

his

perspective

awing

of

splendid

Trinity

Church

which

appeared
' *

in
1874.

* *

The

New

York
may

Sketch
be

Book

chitecture
first stands

in

The

church
the

considered
Revival,

the it

monument

of
as
an

Romanesque of

to-day

expression highest
1890

American
It the is
true

tectural
the

ability
from

of

the
to

order.

decade
many

1880

witnessed

erection

great

important
not to
say
no

buildings
architectural

of

architectural equalled period,


as

sistency,
structures

insanity,
or no

he

of

other

country

other place

ugh

the light.

Romanesque

idea

held

its

ng

One

architect, mould
the

no

matter

how

great,
of

could
so

not
great

architectural
the
really

thought
remarkable

ry,

and

thing it
soon
came

is

that
to

hardsonian exerted

Romanesque"

(as

be

ed)

such

widespread the for


style the

influence.
might of

son Richard-

demonstrated
as a

that

successfully churches,

be

ed

medium

design

railroad

stations, private

business
houses in

buildings,
city and
a

educational
country.

buildings
He had number
the great
many

tors and

and

copiers,

but followers,
as

far
who

greater

re

admiring
Revival
era.

welcomed
of
a

esque

the

dawn

new

and

hopeful

tectural
late
even

The

Montgomery in
as

Schuyler,
saw an
'*

architectural
**

critic,

ng

1891,

assimilated American then


bid

and

revised**
of
to

esque which,

the

future
it

Style** fair

tecture archi-

indeed,
contentions, well

become.
the

Schuyler's admirably
Romanesque
was never or

his for
the

analysis
he
reason

of

style,

founded,
for

saw

possibilities
that

Revival
**

esque Romanthat

finished**
styles

style,
were

in

the

sense

Classic

Gothic supplanted

finished.

Gothic

tecture

Romanesque

architecture

fore

the

latter
so

had
that
no

reached
**

its

complete

stylist
exist

velopment,

perfect

examples'*
as

present

Romanesque

architecture,
or

the

Parthenon
cathedrals
we

presents

Classic, Gothic.
It

the

great

French
as

present

seemed,

then,
at

though point where it into

migh

ke

Romanesque

architecture and,

the

it
a

terrupted,

revitalising
American

it, develop
style.

tee Nin

Century
:

Mr.

Schuyler

wrot

in 1891)
^^It

will
in of

be the

seen
"
"

that
"

Romanesque

tect arch

Norman,

the
an

German
architectural

and

the

Provengal

ases

it, constitutes
to

language

applicable
from
we

all the

our

needs,

for

there
to

is

no

mode

ilding,

ecclesiastical already
not

the

domestic,
to

ich
in

have
we

not
may

successful
hope has for
not

examples

sho

which

still been

more

signal

s c

in

the

future.
so as
no

It

conventionalised

formalised free
a

longer and

to

be

expressive,
ample

but

ill

and

flexible,
to

it affords his

opportunity
and

designer
if
he

manifest
any.

scholarship

his
be

vi in

have that

So
come

much
so
near

cannot
to

said

previous
It
to

style

has

establishing may

self.

is

to

be

hoped
its
resources

that

our

designers
not

ntent

develop
as
so

and

be

tempted
have

andon

it,

many

promising
history
or

beginnings

be

andoned
an

in unlucky
*s

the

of

modem
*

architecture,
*

rough

disastrous

caprice.

The

critic

estimate
America
the

of

the

destiny

of

the

esque Roman-

Revival evidence Mr. and which


after

in of

is peculiarly futility
not
more

interesting,

ars

of

architectural
on

cies. propheof

Schuyler
evidently

did

reckon
powerful,

the

impact

her,

architectural within
so

made piece

their

effect
"

apparent

ars

this

of

writing

the

great

Renaissance

al,
great

championed

by

McKim,
influence

Mead

and

White,
from

and

French-Classic
Beaux

emanating

the

des

Arts
greatest
was

in

Paris. legacy of Richardson


to

Perhaps architecture

the

can Amerithat
a

his

demonstration this
country

of lies

the
only

fact
in
a

tectural intelligent style,


the

sanity

in

cere sin-

and be that

scholarly
style
of

adherence
what

to

worthy

ric

it may.
as

Richardson
as

architects public,

his

time,

well

the

crim dis-

that

architectural of desirable

precedent
results,

i than

and

more

productive experiment.

tectural in of
he

And

doing

this,

he

left

behind

him

splendid buildings
these
are

architectural

achievement

in
among

the

designed. Church
in

Conspicuous
Boston, the

ty in

Sever

Hall Court
and
a

and
House,

Austin

Cambridge,

Pittsburgh

the
many

nnati

Chamber
pleasing
through the of

of

Conmierce
and

great

nently

residences
New
many

railroad States.

stations,

ially

England
of
were

While

the

works

Richardson's perfectly

followers
legitimate
the
an

admirably of of
those
a

sincere dominant
who
were

and

ssions

architectural him
merely
not

idea,
as

works
opportune

ost

imitated ill-studied,

expedient

and

only the

worthless real and

themselves,
aims
of

but
the

tended
Romanesque

to

discredit
Revival. will in recognise

The
of

architectural this

observer
period the

the

ings build-

interesting of
stamp.

American

architecture

se

buildings

Richardsonian Usually
of
stone,

Revival
their
cavernous

bear
proportions

an

takable
are are

massive spanned
is

and
by

often
great

heavy.

The

entran

semi-circular by
a

arches,

and
tower

composition

usually

dominated

sturdy

th

pointed
with of
the
out.

roof. which
acanthus

The
the

carved

detail
or

may

vary

in

rit

Byzantine leaf,
or

Romanesque

ing render
may

grotesque

heads,
were

rried
the

In

masonry,

the
treatment
' *

stones

each

hew

th

rough,
* *

chipped
rock-faced.

which

classifies

su

sonry

as

In

the

Richardson
find
* *

Romanesque

buildings have been


as

of moulded

bri

often

that

the
* *

bricks
stone,

esemble

rock-faced University,

and,
an

in

Sever
of

Hall

arvard

there

is

abundance string-courses, capitals

speciall
muUions

ulded
other

brick

for

cornices,
with

nd

details,

foliated

in

unglazed

rra-cotta.

The

decline

of

Byzantine
of of

and

Romanesque
thought

ideas
in

dominating
and
the

trend
rise

architectural
the

ountry,

Latin

derivations,

Itali

nd

French,
remains
to

is only
reckon

the
to

logical point with

subject
out

for
what

another extent

chapter
we

to

ha

till

Romanesque
on

derivations

merica,

before
derivations
the
to

passing

to

the

study

of

our

modem

othic

in

this

chapter. Revival entire


the

Although

Romanesque

of

1871-1891

ot

destined American

mould
architecture,

the

subsequent
style
possesses

character

dmirable

qualities
that

for it has

expression
been the

in
inspiration buUdings,

ecclesiastical
of
a

rchitecture

gre

any

distinctly
doubt, in of To
the

successful

church
always
to

and
a

ithout

continue
capacity,
style.

occupy

prominent
equal

lace,

this

of

importance

nearly

hat

Gothic
a

cite
for

few

examples
yet

which

are

conspicuous
rendering but

nly

their

scholarly

imaginative
style

he

Byzantine

and

Romanesque

for

th

rchitectural

merit

regardless

of

this

consideration.

observer

may

profitably
its
the the

study

several

churches

York

and toward
under

vicinity. Madison
of of

Particular

attention Presbyterian Metropolitan

ted

Square
the great

hy

shadow
chapel

and

to

the

Columbia is
seen

University.
in and Pacific in
Los the

er

admirable
Joseph
at

derivation
Babylon, in of
a

Church
again,

t.

Long
moment

Island,
to

ort

ourselves

the

Coast,
Angeles,

he

First

Church

Christ

Scientist,

ornia.
that the 'Byzantine

Li

and Bome
of

Bomanesque represented

churches
the

early

Christians
simple Byzantine
as
an

in kind

ideals
tions adaptamay
come

stinctly

religious

thought,
styles

of

and

Bomanesque

regarded
for

architectural edifices
the ranging
'

expression of style the


more

peculiarly

ble

the
sects,

church

radical
an

stant

while

Gothic

effects

tectura archidegrees

expression
*

through
to
was

various Boman church

piscopal

high

church*

the

itself,
peculiarly ings, build-

Bomanesque adaptable

architecture

once

considered
modern
office

for development

the

design
of

of

but has

the
grown

this

essentially
away

American

further

and

further
treatment.

from When

any

esque
of stone,

possibilities and the

of
floors
not

walls

of
more

steel
than

beams, eight

and
or

the

of
the

the

building
was

ten

es,

style
the

adaptable.
structure

It of
the

became

impossible,
was

er,

when

building

entirely

teel,

and

the

proportion

of

voids

(window

openings)

alanced,

in

relation,
was

the
of

solids
a

(wall
heavy

spaces).
to

esque
and, with

architecture
from

massive,
not
or

acter, charconform

its

nature,

could frame,

be
to

made
soar

this

skeleton

steel

upward
or more.

wenty,

twenty-fiver,

thirty,

forty

stories

for

the

private
newer

house adaptations

the

style
were

became in
vogue,

'^

shioned/'
their

a
the

spite

marked

architectural
country

interest,
houses
newer

chardsonian dismal from


of

Romanesque
^'

seemed

rk|

and
Italian

heavy" villas
styles.
however,

beside
and

creations
or

apted

French

chateaux,

riations
The
it

English
style,

Gothic
created

survived
**

the

distast Revival

ich

in

the the
a

so-called Romanesque

Gothic

mediately

preceding itself
for
as

Revival, and

tablished
derivation
we

permanent

inspiration of
American
of

source

various the
current

types

buildings.
this
for

us

find

in

architecture
may

country

thic
**

derivations
Ecclesiastical,*'
' '
"

which
**

be

called,
**

ence, conveni-

Collegiate,''

Military," in and
part in

Commercial
several the
types

^the

designations renderings
of

referring
the style, these

varying of

pa

building

in

which

renderings

pear.

It

is

natural and
is to be

that Gothic found


greater

by

far

the

greatest

part

of

Gothi

spiration

derivation
in

in

American

tect arch

church

and of
the

cathedral
these

buildings lack
the

while

the the

proportion style,

irit

of
a

Gothic

meritorious for

minority

fers

peculiarly

interesting

field

observation

udy.

The

explanation of
our

of

the

failure
lies
to

of

the
the

greater

Gothic

churches
have

in

circumstance
the
to

at

their of

architects

failed

consider

organi

ture

Gothic
to

architecture,
a

have
A
tree
comes

failed grows
out

recognise of
a

similarity forth
put

tree.
as

se

tting

branches

it

into

its

growth, of

ese

forth
Ways

leaves.
of

Different

varieties
way

tre

different

growing,

each

characteristic

^
II

STRONG
o( the

MODERN
niaaaive (St.

VERSION irKEulirils-

OF

THE

GOTHIC
a i-er

Thomas'

whirta Cburch.

charBrti-riBoi

New

York

Cily)

specieSy
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and

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like
on

wind-bent which
of

cedars
seem

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the

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ore,

take

forms residt of

curious

and

sque,
so

although
a

the

special

conditions.
or

And

Gothic
grew,

church

the

Thirteenth gaining in
various

Fourteenth

Century
out

organically,
or

size

and
tions direc-

hing
as

in

chapels

cloisters
each

the

growth
and idea. rising

progressed,

addition
the main

springing
stem

ally

spontaneously

from
church
the

Gothic

The
to

Gothic
take

itself,

its

massive

esses

thrust springing

of

the

side-aisle

s,
to
an

and
take

flying the

buttresses thrust
of the

upward
nave

above
was

great

arches, created has

organic

growth,

its
exactly

many
as a

members

by

tural
next

necessities" the trunk


to

branch

greatest
at

take

the

greater

strain

this

. is

It

doubtful
to

if anyone
an

but
actual

Japanese
copy

artist
a

would
"

pt
an

construct

of

tree

^but
were

interesting
no one

hypothetical

undertaking
it

t
any

tried,

engaged

in
features upon,

would of
the
a

dream
**

that

tural

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from

design'*
bough Regardless

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could well

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that

pine

would

growing

maple would branch

tree. at

o
that

appearance,

the of
the

designer pine

least

feel

the

oduction

would^
to
a

destroy
tree.

the

ical is in
a

resemblance curious
to

of
fact, the

his

work

maple
very

It

however,
great

that

few have in
have

tects, archiessayed
such

relation adaptations,

numbers
their

who

ic

indulge
The result hence

thoughts
that

table

simile. illogical

is

they

produce

(and
adorned
wings

unconvincing)
with related buttresses
to
any
"

Gothic
which
natural

fic edi

"

^buildings
with the

abut
expres-

arches,

not

of

growth

of

the

building

fine

hybrid

ructure.

They
or

have

copied

Gothic Gothic

forms
feeling.

without

derstanding And
here

experiencing
to
a

it is important is

point

out

the

reason

wh style

othic

architecture to-day,
as

peculiarly

exacting
or

apt

compared The
very

with
life

Classic of

Renaissance

rchitecture.
upon

Gothic
real
and

architecture

pendent

the
has

degree
entered

of
into

understanding

eeling

which

its

contrivance,

sp ir

of
the

the

comparatively
media

superficial

forms
In
other

whic

material

of

its

expression.
on

Classi

Renaissance

architecture,
of certain
necessary

the

hand,

mportance

material
to

forms intelligently this


way, matter

outweighs manipulate
to

egree

of
render

feeling
these style

nd

forms.

In different The
remarkable
:

design

he

Gothic
mth

is

very

from of

ing design

the
a

Gothic
number

style. of

first

kind

design

roduced of far

latter-day
second
has

expressions

Gothic

architecture
number

the

produced of

greater

of

misexpressions

Gothi

rchitecture.

Certain
values

carefully of
the

considered Gothic
appeared
style

thoughts

on

the

sy bo

in
a

the
paper

expressive
contributed

desig

church writer
1914,

edifices
to

in

he

**The
* *

Churchman'* Symbolism
:

magazine

of

March

1,

entitled
' '

in

Modern

Church

tect Arch

here

quoted if
that

**It of
most
reason

is

doubtful
the

sufficient

emphasis
of

has all

ever

be
arts,

ade

fact

architecture,

the

he

expressive for
of

vehicle lack of lies

for

symbolism.
of the

Possibly

he

this

recognition
in the

symbolic
very

alues

architecture have

fact

that

rchitects
of

appreciated
average

it.

When of

the

training is taken

ractice

the

architect
so

to-day
to

onsideration,

this

is not

greatly

be

wondered

in
in

the

first

instance forms,

he

has

become
the

versed,

by

necessity,

material
ontset

and

in
one

second
the

finds world
*s

himself, workers rarely


level,

he

of

his

practice,

of
or

age

of

which
literal

the

sesthetic

spiritual
at

ideals highest commercialism

above when

materialism
stop

their

they
lowest

short

of

absolute

heir

level.

**

Broadly
its

defining
in

symbolism,
current

before
architectural
are

proceeding
ments, achieve-

expression be said by

it may is

that

there
to

two

kinds. literal
"

First

impelled,
are

instinct,

think

of

symbols,
to

of

comparatively

little
with

importance
axe,

adorn Paul

rine
a

of sword

St.
"

Matthias
^to
carve

the
a

or

of
the

St.

about
the

doorway
ox

winged
of

the

winged

lion,

winged

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the

eagle

the

evangelists. This,
to

* '

be

sure,

is
only
art

one

sort

of
to not

symbolism,
master, at

but and
into

the

which

requires of which

erudition
enters

edge of
our

all.
show

Perhaps enough

ecclesiastical of
that

edifices

do

not

his

sort

symbolism,
their

but

it

is

not

upon
or

such
for

consider

significance

to-day

posterit

will

depend. fundamentally important is of


of
a

**The

symbolism broader the kind,

to

be
and

ed

in
a

church
basic spiritual

architecture understanding and their minds


have the

ves the
gone

difference
Many
a

twe be-

material.

architects

about in
their

work only

in
a

designing
collection done
room

church
of
to

by

bling

material

and
that

this

they
has

generally

such
the

an

there
of

been
spiritual.

left

no

for

consider

things
no

Obviously
for

other expression

type

of of

building
the spiritual

calls
as

into

play

necessity

opposed

the

material
as

in
church
that the
means

architectural
edifice,
so

design

to

so

great

gree be

the

and

it is therefore

the

more

deplored
to
grasp

few of

latter-day
seeking

architects
such

ha

iled

futility of form

architectural

pression
'^A

by

without
of stained
or

feeling.

meaningless Gothic
are

assemblage
tracery

pointed
glass will
not

arches

ockets,

and forms,
edifice
a

windows,

ich

architectural church
more

tools,

produce

well-designed
any

with

true

architectural
assemblage
will

aning

than
also

meaningless
or

rds,

which of

are

forms,
true

tools,

produce In
none

ece

literature
can

with

literary

value.
of

arts

expression tools of

signify
that
art

anything have
element,

consequence

less

the

been
to

directed
the

ought,

which

is

the

spiritual
express

end

finished
great

fabric

will

thought.
no

No

painting

by
of

technique
the

alone,

literary

masterpiece
any

virtue

words
solely

contained by
its
reason

in

it ; of

or

tural architec

monument

the

accuracy

material

form

of
which

several believes
in

parts.
accuracy

There
to

reful
even

stupidity
accepting

be

architecture
that

its

real

meaning
to

art,

believes
will

careful

adherence expression

material
an

rms

bring
may

the

required

of
an

id

architect

conscientiously
some

develop
of
a

tural architec

project
to

from

work

the

past,
even

and

entirel

il

produce governed
a

in

execution

design
same

creditable.

other,

by

exactly

the
more

inspiration,

oduce
into

masterpiece.

The

deeply
as
a

the fine
he

studen
art,

es

the

study he is

of likely played

architecture
to

baffled
parts

become,
the

until

realise
the

actually

by
become

material
apparent

and
certain

it sp

Gradually

there
truths, and

lar

chitectural

suddenly

it

xr

very

clear

architectural
others
are

achievements trivial
to

are

great Forms

and

lasting
cannot

and
prodace

transient.

alone architectural

be

assembled
unless

the

highest
to

ssion
that As
a

there
known
to
art

is
as

brought
art.

such

an

assemblage

quality
corollary

the is

last,

it

must
an

be

brought

out

emphasis
nature

that

above and

all
not

abstract
at

entity,

entirely what
of

spiritual

all

material. does it take it is the


the much

*'But

form?
of
a

What
work

part,

if any,

he

production

of but

art! not

Certainly
before
of

taken

into

consideration,

important

broad
spiritual
proceed

understanding and
to
a

opposed

of

the
must

the logical
to

material.

And
accepted symbolism

this

ssion

and

conclus

before

it
for

is
the
to

possible
reason

discuss the
a

tecture,

that

expression
of
art. to

o It

lism

is

only

be
in

found
orderly
that

in

work succession,

fore

necessary,

take

zance

of the
the
as

the

fact

architecture
as
an

is

an

art,

ciate

meaning

of

art

abstract only

entity,
such

and

reach

obvious
is conceived

conclusion
in

that

tecture archi-

the
a

highest
vehicle

tenets

of

true

is

capable

of

becoming
of the

for material
the

symbolism.
'form'
most

**The
of
to

question
a

place in

of which

brief made

discussion, is its
relative

salient
son compari-

be

importance In
speaking toward be

in

with

other

considerations.

specifically establishing
in

architecture,
truth

added
''form''
only

testimony is
to

about
not

had

stating

that

speaks

of
;

architecture,
for

but creation
the

of
of

art
a

in

it

al

manifestations
the
painter

in

the

masterpiece,

has

his

technique,

writer

his

words, things

the
common,

architect
in

his the

architectural intent
of

forms. their
use,

These
to

all

the

arts,

we are

should
nothing by
or

never

lose

sight

of

the

basic
not

truth

ese

but
of

tools.

One
a

does
tool

become
over

rpenter

virtue
a

slinging
by

bag

oulder,

great

writer

virtue

of

mastering

ctionary. ''Great
acquired
the

architects
a

have

been of
were

only

those

men

ve

knowledge that

material but
tools,

f orms, and

remembering

while
the
use

these

who

ha

garded
the end

or

manipulation but

of
only
means

these
as a

forms
part

of

their

endeavour
other
part

of

ns.

And end
have is is
''It
or

the
attainment

of

the

necessary

of
to

architectural essentially
essentially

expression, spiritual artistic

th

ll

realised called
called

be
or

that

qualit

ich

art,

that

qualit

ich

spiritualism.
only

is, then, be
an

in
as a

such
work

an

example

of
that
we

architecture
may

may

regarded
expression

of

art

expec

find
the

of

symbolism, idea

and

in

consideration

tremendous
out

spiritual

which it
is

it is

required
altogether in
most

ing

in

church such

architecture,

is

not

rprising modern
* '

that

symbolism
edifices

lacking
country.

church

of

this

There of

is

required
magnitude

symbolic
that

expression nothing imagination of expressed


religion
create

of
short

fabr
of

ideas

such

ghest

degree it,
or

of the There

architectural highest
are

can

ev

nceive
achieve deep
mystery,
a

degree
to
as

architectural

ab it
as

it.

be

ideas
itself,
some

broa

and

far-reaching
some

ide

intent
awe

to to

by
those

architectural
thoughts

ns

sense

of

and
are

stimulate
the
most

human

mind
"

which

noble

and

the

mos

perhuman

ideals

at

once

exalting

and
first

humbling.

is

is

the

symbolism

which of
a

is

the

architectural

sential

in

the

design

church,

obviously

of

er

importance ecclesiastical

than

snch

symbolism
the theology.

as

might
of

d the
*

heraldry,
of

attributes

saints

insignia
because

material
master
a

And

the

builders tangible architecture,


not

of

the

great

pean Euroof

cathedrals symbolism vitality


of

achieved of which
time,

expression
an

the

church has
many

expression
but

been

impaired,

rather
have
to

tened,
so

by
limited
by of

latter-day and forms understanding


which

architects
as

in

vision
the
master

ine imagin

that

copying
these

they

saw

the

church-builders

they

must

ve

the

desired

result. of
set

'*An

appreciation thus

such

architectural here

truths
go

as

been

far
not

forth

will in

far

toward

standing of

only

the

failure design,

archited^ral
but
the
reason seem

ficance

much

of of

our

church

the

lasting

values from

such
an

examples

as

would
' '

resulted these

such

appreciation.

From

thoughts

it will

be

apparent

that

tectura archiare

sincerity in
style,
to

and

architectural
any

understanding adaptation
of

tial

designing
and
from

worthy

the

this
any

view-point
to

it

will
the

not

cult

discern, building, stylistic

in

effort only

determine

merits

church in

not

its

degree
the
real

of

success

re

rendering,

but

architectural

underlying

either.
affords
a

American
of

architecture

smaller
scholastic

number
or

les

Gothic
than

derivations
in
a

in

giate colle-

buildings occasion
the
or use
a

ecclesiastical
comments

buildings,
in

yet

for of
college,
the

few

this

connection. of

In

Gothic
the
to

style

in
success

the

buildings attending
extent

greatest
come

the which

will

be

found

from

the

to

finished

design

is

unecclesiastical,

yet

expressive

Gothic
of

Mediaevalism.
design
every
a

Nor
more

is the
easy

performance it

of

at

whit

than

sounds.

t V

Gothic with
church

form

is

characteristic,

through
an

sociation,
skilful
in

edifices, contrivance
a

and

only of
a

ally exceptionforms

architectural
anything neither
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these

sult

but

compromise" church
building.

building
nor

whic

ggests

well-designed

an

sively expres

designed Success in

educational
the

undertaking,
effort

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and

amply

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architectural ability
conspicuous

involved,
the

proclaims
one

chitectural
such

of

designer,
as

if
the

were

to

ly

instances

impressive
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the

grou

buildings
scholarly

for

the

College
of

of

the

City
for

New

York,

^e

group

buildings The

Graduate adaptable
for

geof
most

Princeton expressive

University. Gothic

most

derivation
will be

scholastic the forms,

collegiate
style

architecture

found Gothic
"

in

transi tiona

which

combines
Renaissance

Tudor

a of

rly

English

forms

^the

style

llegiate
American
out

architecture

of

Oxford
of
success

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style
at

Cambridge.
have

adaptations with
conspicuous

this

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c r

Princeton
Bryn

sity, UniverMawr
as

the and

University St.
for Louis
private
Few

of

Pennsylvania,
as

l C

University,
and

well schools

in

many

ildings
country.

public

throughout have architects

European

derivations
by American
style
such
as

be

felicitously

employed
English

th
to

is

/'transitionaP* buildings,
properly

applied

ca ed

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although

derivations
with
a

migh

considered
to

in

connection
there

chitectural element
speaking

debt to of

England, of this

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sufficien

thic In

allow
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brief

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one

Military
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FROM

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onw

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In

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Military

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on

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at

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Point,

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Military
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it

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Military
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It

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military
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From
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iately

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e,

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In

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Point

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ry.

Ecclesiastical the achievement

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at

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ings build

West

successful. interest
to

They

, a

furthermore,
group-study

significant
well
was
as won

the

student

an

individual
competition
to
a

building

udy,

for it

the
was

work
so

in
even

largel

cause

apparent,

committee
a

of

chitectutal

judges,
architectural

that

here

was
a

tremendous
architectural In
a

pressive

idea, of the

dominant

rpose

in

the

vision
the

designers. between

this,

de in

lies
a

difference
"

mere

building
purpose,

work

of

architecture

the

first

lacking
; the

consequently result

failing
a

in

expression

second

bein

of

definite

and

intelligent

architectural

tention.

These

observations
may

on

Gothic
concluded and

derivations
by
on
a

in
few

can Ameri-

architecture
**

be

comments

Commercial
or

Gothic,'*
re-creating
term
* '

the
* *

difficult Domestic

creating,
* '

in Commercial

this

country

a
' '

othic.

The

Gothic
idea
one

is, from
the
most

ery

natures
a

of

the

commercial
term,
yet

and

Gothi

dea,

paradoxical
to

which

apt

pplies

certain indeed,

of

our

architectural
in

essays.

Muc
not

rchitecture, this
country

is paradoxical
in certain
to

theory, in makes

on

but
fact

historic
some

periods
extent,

Europe,

nd

it is
as

this
'*

which,

such

erm

Commercial while
on

Gothic'*
it
may

an

apt

and
as

accurate
a

e,

in

fact,
one

well

be

criticised

par dox

paper.

It

is

to

be

submitted,
suggested
*'

however, by is
**

that

the
"

variance and

etween

ideas

Commercial variance the actual

ide

uggested
of

by
thought

Gothic"
than

rather

in

ealm

between

architectural

"MILITARY

GOTHIC"

ITht

ChBpel

of

the

West

Point

Militai

rements
to

of

our

modem
Gothic

office
style
' *

buildings
may

and applied
is
the

the

which Gothic
be

the
*'

be

t most

A
may

derivation, for
the with
reason

however,
that
a

claimed,
dispenses

steel

building

turally

the

Gothic

essentials

ing,

pointed steel

arches

and

buttresses.
no

Structurally
point

dern
any

building building.
becomes steel

possesses

in

common

Gothic
affinity modem

Superficially,
apparent at
once.

however,

ing

The
;

building
a

is smaller
to

''

perpendicular" ground
greater
area

i
than The

it springs
church,
* '

from
and
movement

far
towers
' '

Gothic

heights.

ndicular this the

of
offers

its lines
a

is essential,
external
the the

and

Gothic

style

direct
of and
a

expression.

Furthermore, of
the

by
steel

reason

comparative desirability
proportion

emess

skeleton, offices,

devising
of

welMighted
to

predominant in the
design.

void
the

solid

is

called
offers

for
an

Here, solution,

Gothic

style

architectural

its

tall,

slender,
spaces.
or

vertical
The

members,

and
style

its

absence

solid
the

wall
external,

Gothic

is
of

adaptable
the

superficial, exactly
the

expression
same
reasons

modem

building

for
style,

that
not

th
to

esque

considered

earlier,

proved

able.
despite and
and
ideas ideas the

Thus,

absolute
a

incompatibility office church,


existing

of

the

ses

of
of

modern

building
and

and despite

the

ses

Gothic

the
them,

us

structural

differences
an

between for

is, nevertheless, in
not the

adequate

sanction buildings
that

Gothic

ations is
the

modem to

tall

of
the

to-day.

It

intended
only
to

imply of the

Gothic and It is

style
others

solution in the

problem,

alluded

ninth

chapter.

intended

B(X)K

OP

ARCHITECTURE

ather

to

bring

out

the
or

thought unpermissible in

that

there

is the form.

nothing

tylistically of
The

illogical

in
of

ment employ-

Gothic difference

derivations
in
purpose

matters

and

idea derivation

existing is,
**

between after

he

prototype
a

and

its

modem

hiefly
**

difference

which

might
the

be
mind

called
is

literary,"

mental."

Instinctively

disturbed
rushing

houghts

of

bank
up

of

swift the

elevators,
towers

bu

tock-brokers
or an

and high building

down
mass
on

of

Notre in the in

Dame

athedral, of

of

being

chanted
Broadway

dor corr

office

lower

Ne

ork. is

Dismissing
possible It
as a

these
to

purely
some

associative

thoughts,
architectural

form

impartial associative

onclusion. reckoned
^yet,

is true

that

thoughts architectural
Middle Ages

shoul

powerful

factor of

in

desig

if

the

Gothic with

builders

the

en

confronted
buildings,
**

the

necessity they
not

of

erecting made
we

towering
the

fice

would

have Since
we

mos

their

perpendicular" architectural
those
T

style? styles,
may

admittedly

rrow

not, to

with
given

propriety,
kinds

rrow

most

adaptable

ildings

Modern
commercial

architectural buildings in
a

adaptations have
of been

of

the

Q^thic
by
such
as

sty

attended

con sp

success

number

instances, Realty apartment above

inity Times
New

'Building,
Building,

the

United
numerous

States
tall

Building,

houses

York in
"

City, size
great

and,

towering
the
success

all
its

of

these

th

actual
the

and

in

of

Gothic

vat der

Woolworth be
or

Building.
that
a

It

may

truthfully
the
ways.

said
lay

pause of

to

study

th

ll

repay

student

observer

architecture
a

several

There in this

is apparent, building.

first,
The

great

tectu archi

intention

magnitude

an

""hDbJKnph IRAL DE81"X.

h}

H.

TeUa

INA A

WHICH

THE OFFICE MAGNIFIED

MEDI^evAl, BUlLDtN'G, SCALE

GOTHIC
WITH A

STYLE TRANSLATION'

HAM

BEEN OF

ADAPTKD
MATERIAL

FOH
AND

.MODERN VASTLY

liowe THE

and

gargoyle

"t

twenty-

Dei NEW YORK

WOOLWOKTH

BUILDING,

CITY

ty,
above

even

the the
' '

nobility,

of
plane

this

intention

has

raised
by

highest and has

usually
an
a

attained which

the

mercial^ the

created
of

edifice visiting
In this

entirely
"

characterisation
of

Englishman
respect,
as an

Cathedral
Woolworth

Commerce/'
is
of of its the
to

then,

Building

be

regarded
order.
a

tectura archi-

achievement
the
matter

higher

In

execution,

clear from
a

idea

of

it

tectural of

significance
elements in

will

come

tion consideraof
mass,

certain
shade,
these
mass

its design"
scale,
in

elements

and

material,
elements

and

stylistic

derivation.
be

Taking

succession,

it may
"

said

the

is successfully
in
a

handled
of
such

matter

of
size.
to

vital
The

tance bears

structure

colossal relationship
from
at
at

seemly

and

logical viewed in
girth

the

of
rear,

the and

building,

whether

the
right

front

or

it diminishes The
abutting

the

height of roof
appear to

the

roof.
an

gables

the

base
the
they in

the

effect

agreeable
"

transition
small
are

from
as

sub-structure
to city

elation

the
shop shade,

which, ^gables building, entire


or

equal

size

the

house-front. the
by

In

the

manipulation
rare

ight

and

designer

displayed
the
**

tectura archimotif by

ingenuity levels
they
any

utilising
structure,

canopy''

hree

of
cast,

the
to

and
three

these

serve,

the

effect

horizontal
perpendicular

divisions
**

ut

conflict
the

with design.

the

movement"

of

whole
not
any

Anything

resembling in
a

ce

could under
way,

possibly
pretext,
monotony

be
yet

introduced it
was
even

Gothic

n,

necessary

to

break,

me

the have

and
from

ocular
sheer

displeasure

would

resulted

perpendiculars

uch

tremendous

height. of
material,
a

In

the

matter

skilful

architectural

translation
an

' '

was

necessary.

Gothic
of
stone,

architecture
in
the
matter

sentially

architecture
the

teriors,
story,

whereas

Woolworth
terra-cotta.

Building, Forms,

above then,

ird

is of

glazed
a

whic

created
were

from

solid
here That of

material
from
so

by
plastic
a

hammer material
difference be
so

isel,

contrived
modelling.

ns

of

essential
could
a

terial

and

method

production
is

honestly
point

successfully

overcome
* *

significant
'

ly

in

architectural
* *

derivation,

but

in

architectural

translation.
Perhaps
study
an no

architectural Woolworth of

consideration Building
as

involved brings
out
so

of

the

element

design
could

the
a more

consideration graphic in architecture

of

ale

of
of

its
the

detail.
importance

Nor

illustr tion

of

scale

fered. The details


from where and
the
two

of

the

Woolworth different
elevated
range,

Building
stations several
"

are

to

en

widely
are

reet,

they
at

hundred
several
story.

^from feet

air,
as

close

from

the

gallerie
It

ch

gallery

at to

the

forty-second
forms possible
forms

cessary,

then,
as

contrive
as

which
with

should
historic

be

relation
and
they

scholarly contrive have


the
saipe
seen

pre

ent,

to

these

with
from
not
own

such
the

subtlet
street,

at

would
at

telling
time at
as

effect would their

low,

and
monstrous

appear

crud

when

level. in
to

To

design is
not

^'in
merely

scale,''
to

understood
merely
a

this

co n

magnify,

increase

ameters

and
the it
to

thicknesses. of
that the

Such

process

would of
was a

resu

ly

in

creation
say

architecture
process

nightmare.
one

"Gice

the

here

of

co s

subtlety,

practised

under

peculiarly

exacting

tions.
is
no

The
a

scale

of

the

cornice
no

of

five-story
or

ing

matter

meriting in
the

less
success

attention, of
the
means

less

involved but the

tectura archi-

design,

problem

is

by

no

so

cult.
the
matter

In

of

stylistic

derivation
successful.
have

the

Woolworth
Essentially

ing

is

conspicuously

cteristic which their No


**

Gothic declares

forms they
' '

been
been

used,

and

in

have

frankly

used

pictorial structural is
at

rather

than of
a

their building buttress, is


at

structural

need by

steel

(unless
yet

-bracing)

served

flying
story

their
graceful

uction

the

forty-second The picturesque by far


"

once

and
was

effective. given

interest

of
of
the

Gothic

expression forms, building

the
up

use

gargoyles

grotesque

animal the
great

among

traceried
the street

ts

of

from ^invisible interesting


The

below,
from

but

irresistibly
or

in quaint been used,

chance

ses

windows
of

galleries.
grotesque

tectura archi-

pleasantry

the

has

also,
stone

he

detailing
under the

of

the
ceiling

lobby, beams

where

sculptured
preserve

ls

will

for
owner,

posterit

admirable
the with

caricature

portraits and of has this

of others

the

the

tect,

master-builder the
erection

prominently building.

ified

remarkable

Detailed
to

consideration the

been Building

indulged
for the

in

with

ence

Woolworth
one

reason

besides buildings,

being
its

of

the

most

noteworthy intention of

of and peculiar

American

design architectural

(in both

form)
value

trates

many

points

he

lay

student.
now

It

remains

to

comment

briefly in of
a

on

the

difficulty

xpressing

modem

domesticity
aspect

the

Gothic

style,

ially

in

the

exterior

dwelling.

Several

tangible,

yet
one,

potent,

factors
a

militate

against
recollection

its of

perhaps,

distasteful of the forms

smal

and

stupid Revival,''

monstrosities another, of

the

inept

Ruskinian associative

Gothic

constant

ntal

connection

Gothic

with

ecclesiastical

ildings. Some
residential

interiors
interesiting

of
and

Gothic

design
a

ha

en

conspicuously

successful, in
the

ubs
^but

have
these

been
are

agreeably exceptions.

rendered
Lack

Gothic

st

of

familiar thought. in
*

precedent The
a

as

had

its

effect

on

associative

ediaeval
the

Gothic
castle.

residence

(excepting
no

few

citi

There
of

was

well-to-do
or

middle
was

class,
a

the

dwelling by
no

the

serf

peasant
a

ru

ffair,

means were

attractive
too
customs
so

as

basis dissimilar
modes

for

derivation.
from

ocial
to-day less

conditions
:

widely and
from

tho

manners,

of

living

bo

variance,
numerous

that,
vast

the
*

architectural
*

poi

view,
''

and

costly

Mediaeval

tions Deriva

in
' '

the

way

of

Twentieth
in

Century
expression,

American
even
or

castles

have

been

lacking
a

whe

hey

have

possessed
interest.
Europe

certain

quasi-roslantic
between day in the America

ev

icturesque
in
to

The
the
an

chasm

Middl
is

ges

and with
of the the The

present

ide
The

bridge

architectural
church
has
a

derivation. remained

idea
as

sufBciently
in
^ ^

imilar,

also
' '

idea
fact
no

of that

fortress

implied

ta Mi

Gothic.

conmiercial
with
our

architecture
the past,

mpersonal,
no

holding intimate makes

analogy

laiming the

contact

with

individual
in

li

present,

Gothic

derivations

fo

cceptable. The

dwelling,
has

however, itself,

has and

undergone

too

man

hanges,

moulded

been

moulded,

GOTHIC

DERIVATIONS

131

ly
to

to

our

personal

desires,
to

preferences,
primitive

needs

and
form.
upon

revert

in
will and

type become

its

Mediaeval
apparent

truth

increasingly the
Italian

deration,
houses

in

subsequent
villas,
a
more

study

of
from

English their

and
nature,

which, direct

developed derivative

offer

opportunity

architectural

expression.

The

following
of
to

chapter English .is coxmtry


type,

designed
house,

to

outline
its

the

ion

the

from

earlier

the

modem

with

correlated

American

ations.

CHAPTER
DERIVATIONS,
CAUSES
ON

VI
EARLY
AND

NGLISH
IMPORTANCE, INFLUENCES
AMERICAN

AND
OF

MODERN
ENGLISH
THE

HE

MEANING

AMERICAN

ARCHITECTURE.

ANGLOOF

COUNTRY

HOUSE. ARCHITECTURE

THE

ADAPTABILITY

ENGLISH

COLLEGIATE

NO

person

in

the

least

familiar

with
country

the
can

ment developfail
of
to
our

ccord

to

in this of architecture its great England share

in the

trend

rchitectural English
our

thought. derivations
country
are,

perhaps,

most

domestic
in
some

architecture,

and

conspicuous to a lesser expression established


was

egree

other

types

f n

Renaissance

architecture,

The of building. became which

England

under

the

Georges,
as
**

to this

country

and Georgian

which

transplanted

Colonial'*
on
^ ^

is

more

ully

dealt

with
' '

in

subsequent

chapter

American

rchitecture.

Our

present

observations
country
on our

are

directed
and

more

closely
and
to

o the

English

house,
own

early

modern,

ts

influence

country

house
on

architecture.
the

he

preceding
of

chapter

erivation and

that

**

emphasis ' * transitional


forms
monumental

laid

English blended
'*

style
**

of

othic

Renaissance
English American

called

Collegiate
have

rchitecture.

buildings
but little, largely of

nfluenced
of

architects

cause be-

the

stronger

counter-influence

the

Beaux

rts

school It is by

in
no

France.
means

unnatural for

that in
at

we

have designing
two

turned
the

oward

England house,

inspiration
there
are

ountry

and
reasons

least

strong

narchitectural
132

for

this.

r
"

I'D

sll

in
m

m
f^
1 a

ENGLISH
[ul .nd

DERIVATION
.ccurslo

IN

AN

AMERICAN
of .ho

COUNTRY donionk
architeclu"

HOUSE
of Ihe

EthIUIi

romark.blv

rendering

It

must

not

be

forgotten
are

that
very

our

family
"

ties
are

with

English

people
race,

strong the constant

^we

of

the

-Saxon
strains

and
not

even

admixture
the

has

materially
our

modified
forefathers.
to
us,
nor

dominant Things

cteristics
could
to

of
never

English
**

sh

be English

alien'' people.
to

can

we

ever

alien'* is

the

It

equally
may

important said
to to

remember
the the

that
very

the

sh

be life,"
any

have have

invented

idea in best based

country

and

enriched nation.
life,
it is

idea
own are

unlike
in

other

European

Our indeed, hard


to
un-

connection English
amount

with
precedent

country

good

and

conceive Anglicise

ny

of

evolution conception.

which

could

this

hereditary English, life,"


a

The

then,
as we

having
understand

originated
it

the

idea
naturally the

of

ntry

to-day, dwelling,

oped
of

suitable

kind

of
to

country the
proper proper

tory his-

which

is

essential and

understanding
appreciation
English

its

characteristics
charm.

the

of
idea life

peculiar life
the

And
idea
on

since
which
our

the
own

of

ry

is the

country

development in
the in

of

domestic
country

architecture
house.

is best

wed

EJnglish
Italy
and the idea.
country

The always

idea differed

of

life

in

France

has idea,

derably the

from
American

English German
houses,
were

and

consequently life, the

country

and

the

German
were

after
largely

Mediaeval
after

es

antiquated,
if
as
one

patterned such of

French,

were

to

cite

only

conspicuous

les
name

the

castle

and

gardens

'^Sans
by

Souci" Frederick
von

itself
or

being
vast

French)
estate

devised of Prince

Great, in

the

Piickler

u,

Silesia.

The

English and
present,

country

hoase,

however,
from

has

been

ontinuous
the

logical
and
many

growth, of its

its

earliest features

tim

salient
country

ha

een

incorporated

in

the

American
gone

house. through

nglish
Keep,
present
'^

evolution
the
* *

has
' '

successively
'

Hall

and

the

'

Manor, house,

' '

untU
' '

it
its

reache

form,
been

the
the

country

and

changes

ave

all

in

direction

of
greater

attaining
attraction.

greater

co fo

greater

privacy
was were

and
a

The

**Keep"
Its walls

fortress-like

affair

of

feud

imes.

thick
was

and

had
by

few
no

smal

glazed

windows.

It

surrounded

gracious

ardens,

but
visit

a or

deep
attack.

moat

and
Here, the

drawbridge
motives

isolat of

t from

from

protec tion

rather
him
rooms

than
in

sociability, dungeon-like
the

lord's

retainers
There
were

dwe

th

this for

abode.
and

lord

his

lady,

but

these
Life

wer

parsely

and centred

uncomfortably

furnished.
**

in

Keep''
our

in
**

the

great

halP' and
the

(the
great to

prototype
common

modem and

living-room

'')
gave

this
name

sembly

eating-room

the

ty
"

English

dwelling

immediately

succeeding

it

Hall.'' The

**Hall,''
Hall,
a
* '

name

preserved
Hall,

in
Moreton than

such
Hall the

places
and

rdwick
was

Haddon
seemly

ke,
Keep,

more

dwelling
the
type

forbidding
house

and preceding

became

of

country

imme diat

the became and


some

Elizabethan
more

development.
apparent
were

for Com

and

elegance

considerations
made
country at

an

defense,

attempts In

arch tec

gardening. the time when

later

Jacobean

sea

all English

architects

turned

their
was

ward

Renaissance

Italy,

and

when

England
the

fi
type

th

Italian

designers

and

workmen,

formal

AMERICAN-

COVMTEY

HOUSE

GI"D

Cove.

Irimi

laluul)

AN

ADAPTATION

OF

THE

ENGLISH

'TCDOR"
HOVSE

STYLE

IN

AN

AMERICAN

COUNTRY

Thf

Hyle

which

Diicked

the

traniilianiil

h"ii(c.

id

Eneland.

fmni

Gmhic-

to

RcnliHucc

archit"-

Italian

garden,
and

with

terraces,

grottos,

fountains,
stamp

uary staton

^Hemples,''

placed

its

permanent

English
"By much quite ''great walls

garden
the

design.
of the

end

Sixteenth
austerity
only
was

Century
of
the

the

gloom

and had
the

of the primitive disappeared. The hall,"


were

**Keep''

surviving

feature

was

but

this, too,
with

rapidly

treated
was

barrenness

of the
as

chase

relieved discarded and famUy in

panelling, oak by tapestries,

Its changing. its barrack-like


banners,
armour,
as

trophies

family

well

rich
ever

and

decorative

portraits. comfort
an

Furniture,

too,

developing

variety,
creating

and

ance, appearconstantly

toward contributed livable. more


Throughout changing the Tudor
the

environment

period
''Manor" Tudor

the
of

*'HalP'

was

ually gradand

into

Elizabethan
places such Hall

Jacobean Sutton
Longleat English of with
front

times. Place,

Great
Moreton
were

country

as

Old

Hall,
a

Hengrave
new

and

House domestic
time, such

stamping

architecture.
as

Many
were

on character houses of the

this

Longleat,

subsequent of Great

additions. Manor Tangley


aspect, later
an

The

continued Elizabethan

later,

garden
conceals,

(Frontispiece)
early

behind built

its pleasant
with

Norman
the

Keep,

quite

about by spanned

changes,
garden

charming
water,"

and bridges,
aquatic became
than
at

moat, original has been treated

as

"ornamental Under

Elizabeth,
internally the Tudor and,

with England

plants.
more

prosperous

and
so
on

more

peaceful evolution

any

that

imchecked,

by

prominent

stimulated families in foreign


almost

of the country by sudden fortunes trade


in
time

earlier house

time,
went

made

adventure,

became
houses

modern

maritime and its appearance.


are

Some

great

of

Elizabeth's

Hardwick

all,

Holdenby, and

Bramhall,

Knole,

Montacute
as

House instance

ollaton

Westwood. Manor,
to
many

And,

in

the

reat

Tangley
up

earlier

dwellings
renovations

we

rought

date

with

extensive

ditions.
Even
at

this

time
house

there

became

apparent

one

of

glish
as

country
a no

characteristics and

which
peculiar

remains

-day
use

less and

conspicuous

charm

of
great

local
houses

varied
were

building
local
stone,

materials. with
heavy

Mo

the

of

sl

ofs,

lead windows.
sometimes

flashings

and

rain-leaders
stone
was

and
scarce,

leaded brick
and

cas me

Where
with
stone.

ed,

the

comers some

and
counties,

window notably

do

enings and

of

In

Ken
was

urrey

Sussex, Elizabethan

half-timbered
type.

construction
many
cases
same

vourite

In used
this

stone,

br

half
at

-timber different
as

were

all

in

the

house, of colour

p h

times,
as

and

diversity
natures

xture,

well developed

the
an

varied
essentially

of

successive
type

ditions,

picturesque the

mestic of is

architecture the the

which period
of the

even

formal
supplant,

class

ifices

Georgian
keynote

did

not

ich

domestic

architecture

gland
Early

to-day.

Jacobean
forms,
with

manors

continued
of

along

beth Eliz

the

note

the

Italian

Renaissance

coming design.

increasingly
The

conspicuous, Civil

especially its

in gloom
not

g d

War,

with

brief
but

omwellian
consecutive

Puritanism,

interrupted, of
the
the

did

che

development
the

English of
such

country

use,

and historic

period

saw

erection House,

famous

mansions

as

Hatfield and

Audley Park.

En

orpe

Hall,
the

Coombe

Abbey

Raynham

period

of

Inigo

Jones

and

Sir

Christopher

A-J

ARCHITECTURAL

TYPE
LATTER-DAY

WHICH

HAS

FURNISHED

MUCH

INSPIRATION in Bolborn,
London)

(Old

houKi

A
The

MODERN
dccontive

ADAPTATION
value ol

OF

ENGLISH work

HALF-TIMBE! ia
uk

bsK-timber

oI

iU

mem

uDf

(Dormllory

buildinc

at

Prinreton.

N.

J.)

il
2 fr

b1

both
and
was

eager

exponents

of
for English
a

the
the

Italian marked

Benaischange house.

both
coming entering
*

responsible
over

the

country

Before
which
country

into

discussion
Taste** wrought well
are

of

the

chilling
the

'the house,

Classic
it

in
note

lish Engreview

would

be
which

to

in

characteristic
dwellings in

details

to

be

associated
and

Gothic,
times. and Tudor

Tudor,

Elizabethan

ean
late
the

(Stuart)
Gothic
barn-like
of

In

houses,
type to

doors
heavily

developed framed
to

battened
times
*

those the
* *

Tudor
arched

usually
*

pointed in

conform
were

Tudor
stone
woven

openings
were

which

they

Bare
coarse-

walls
**

hung
which, between

with

tapestries,
was

or
no

arras,'*

however,
rooms.

used

in
were

place

of

doors

Panelled
tracery,
* *

cots

frequent,

carved
decorative

with
*

Gothic
^

with

the

familiar

and
rooms

linenf

old
open

motif.

ceilings
trusses

of
which

large

showed
the

the roof,

heavy and
these

timber

supported carved. period,


"

trusses

often

elaborately

The

Elizabethan
Benaissance, in
some

really
was
as

to much

be
a

regarded
transitional It
has
to

as

lish

as

d,

respects,
as

the
same

Tudor.

been

cterised

bearing
Benaissance bears

the

relation
the

fully

oped

English

as

French

style

ois

Premier

to

fully

developed

French

ssance.
many

Thus

Elizabethan
features
many
as

houses towers and

are

found
battlements,

to

retain

Gothic and

tres but-

Gothic

mouldings,

while

introducing

re-headed gable

windows
ends, oriel

instead
windows

of and of

pointed
large

Gothic
bay

dows win-

windows,

in

leaded

glass,

with

sash

the

casement

type.

4ineiif in

* *

old

panel

of

Gothic

and

Tudor
tracery

tim

ntinued

popularity,
from

though

Gothic

motif

sappeared Half-timbered in

domestic work

architecture.
a

reached houses,

high
in

stage country
**row*'

of

ment develop-

Elizabethan
shows

both

and
in

ci

illustration in London.

characteristic
be remembered,

lborn,

It work
of

must

however,

at

half-timber few in
examples

originated
such
early

in date

Gothic
remain

time

ough

to-day

pecially The

England.
of

interior
many

the

Elizabethan
of
hall,
the
'

house house
'

began

ume

characteristics
was

of
in
such

modern

mes.
as

There Haddon

the and

great

and,
the

examples

Hardwick,
a

*4ong

gallery.*

staircase
feature,

was

made

highly

decorative

tural architec

with
the

elaborately
usually

carved
carved
as
a

hand-rails
in the

a of

wel-posts,

latter The

form
had

raldic

animal.

staircase,
until

feature,

be

rgely

overlooked the Elizabethan

the

Sixteenth
onward
never

Century,
again

om

period
insignificance.

sa

to

architectural The
great,

cavernous

fire-places,
gave

with
to

overhanging

od,

of

Gothic

type,

place

smaller

fire-place

th

elaborately
of
the

carved,

and
a

often

polychrome
coat

trea ment
arms

over-mantel the central

blazoned In
gave

of

us a

forming
the

motif.

subsequent
place

tion evol the

over-mantel
painting,

carving with
of carving

to

ove man

surrounding

and

framing

as

in

the

works

Grinling
were

Gibbons.
of figured
out

Elizabethan
geometrical

ceilings

plaster,

in int lac

patterns,

carried

with
until

able considerthe

freedom,

and

this

type

held

in

favour

the

Seventeenth
and

Century.
these in

Panelled
turn
gave

ceilings place
to

were

troduced,

the

139

cally

painted
character

and

the
which

low-relief
came

plaster the

ceilings Eighteenth

Classic

with

ry

Classic
the

revival. Elizabethan
became

During

period,

floor

coverings elements

and

ture

upholstery

important

o
and
more

ior

comfort,
became

and,

through

the
more

Jacobean plentiful of best

period
and
to-day.

d,

increasingly

similar

decorative
interiors and
to
more

embellishments
were

Panelled
Elizabethan
carried

at

their
times,

in and
*'

the
the

houses

Jacobean
luxurious
interior

latter

and

modern*' of

vel de-

the

domestic

improvements

the

r The

period.
exteriors by of elaborate

of

Jacobean bay windows,

country
as

houses
well
as

were

ened

by
of
a

large

mullioned
the

windows member

(the
dividing

**mullion**
one

window
from
from

being
:

opening

er

the in
a

member wooden windows

dividing
sash,

one
a

pane

of glass
fanciful and

er,

is

**muntin**).
ends,
roof often

Dormer

with

gable

ur,

diversified
later
wall,

Jacobean
in
than

lines,

differed
a

dormers
rather

that
a

they part
were

were

essentially

part

he

of

the

main

roof.

The

nces

of

Jacobean

houses

architecturally
or

elaborated

with

Italianesque of
in

columns often

pilasters

and
ends,

sion

carving,
brick

heraldic, assumed
shape

while

gable

ially

buildings,

much
the

of
of

the

sity

and
Dutch
Italian

picturesque

of
*

gables

the

nd

Renaissance
detail
was

type.

An

notably the

characteristic

of

Jacobean figure,

tecture

semi-grotesque
and

terminal grotesque The


as

ently

used in
however, the

as

pilaster,
of

forms

often

red

form
as

finials.

typical
it
was

Jacobean alien

l,

characteristic

to

ny

other which
terrace

details
was

of

the

style,

was

the
on

small,

stunte
posts
on

elisk,

commonly
on

placed
gate

the
and

rden

balustrades,

posts

bles. Intricate
of Italian

carving, the
period,

both and and and and quaint

in

stone

and

wood,
was

was

act cha

this

detail

carried
with

ter

patterns

designs,
earlier forms of

though
English
were

irit

of

Elizabethan

execution.
the result,

ny

interesting
to

ntributing

the

achievement
the

that

peculiar

pict

sque

richness
at

of
close

Jacobean
the

style.

'But

the

of

Jacobean
for

period,
began

comparatively
to

artificial
apparent

fashion in
the

formality
of
the

mak

self

dwellings
Anne,

reign

of

William

Mary

and of the

Queen
Georgian
however,

forecasting Houses
a soon

the of

Classi the

vival

Period. maintained which


was

tch

reigns,

certain
to

element

melike

atmosphere

vanish

in

rks The

of

the

Georgian
manor

Classicists.
was

Jacobean
but
the

still
house

more

picturesque
more

th

rmal,

Georgian Wren died architects


were

was

formal
the

th

cturesque. I,

in

1723,

during the
Kent,
reigns

reign
the

orge

and

the

of

of
the

cceeding

Georges

Gibbs,

and

Adam

others. The of attained


of of fashion
the
was

for

things Classic

Italian, Eevival,

then and

for
whatever

rks

Georgian
in
the
new

mode detail

of
was

scholarly
more

and
than

academic
lost

ceties

design

and picturesque

in

ssing

the and

informality
houses.
**

of
Many

the

Tudor

izabethan
were

Jacobean

titled

men gentle

architectural
the

amateurs*'

and
layouts

had
of

much their

with

design
a

and and

garden
an

ow

aces.

Such

scholar

amateur

was

the

Earl

I
s

j I
5i

M^

AN

AMKRICAN

COUNTRY

HOUSE ADAPTED

OF AND

COMPOSITE
BLENDED fnlugod fnlugod

ORIGINS

BKILFILLT

The

genermi

etlert

o[

Ihii

Kduh

u"

Ihit

ul if

EnslisI Enslisb

cottige.

while

the

tie

ngton^

who called

published the
**

portfolio

of of

drawings

by

dioy
with

Antiquities
contemporary

Eome/*

This

other

similar the furnace

publications,
enthusiasm
the
over
was

but

fuel
art

for
and
one

of

general
and

ic

architecture,
of

Earl

poone lam-

with
who

those him

gentle

but

terrific

satires vein
:

addressed

in

his

characteristic

"

You And Yet Fill

show

U8

Rome

was

glorious,
onoe were

not

profuse,
things
noble fools;
of
use.

pompous
shall, half random my
the

buildings lord, land drawings beauty vain of many


church to

your
with

just,
imitating

your

rules

Who
And

from

your blunders

sheets

shall

take,

of
some arcs

one

make; theatric gate. state,

Load Turn
"

with
a

old

triumph

garden

"""""""

Shall

call to

the catch

winds
cold

through
at
a

long

arcades

to

roar.

Proud

Venetian

door."

The

Anglo-Classic in its The in


plan
as

country

house
to

showed
earlier
and and

radical
English

es

compared
were

ings.

plans

formal

symmetrical,
symmetrical
coes portiin

oped

correspondingly

formal
and
to

tions.
gave
an

Classic
air
them of
of

pediments
dignity their

colonnaded houses, and of

the

doing ticity. domesdisap* with

eprived

earlier

atmosphere
roof-lines

Interesting
and straight the

and sky-line

irregular

d,

became
and Classic

hard

and finial

formal,
urns.

chimneys
and
a

In

Jacobean
were

Elizabethan
of the wall the

houses, of
eaves

dormer
house,
the

dows win-

portion
up

the

resquel picturoof,

carried

through
dormer

of
became

but

Anglo-Classic
of the

window
and

entirely

roof.
are a

Systematic
part

calculated designing, effects.


In
but

spacings
are

indows

of

formal

not

ctive

of

informally

artistic

the

Classic

chool

of

design,

*^

picturesque

accidents'*

mpossible. Within,
most

houses

of

the

period conveyed
imposing,
patterns

did

not by

belie their

mpression Booms in
or

of

frigid
were

stateliness
high
plaster and

ex ri

with

chas
Brothers

eilings

low

relief
fresco
were

by
Italian
the

the

dam,

formal

paintings
for

by

decorators.

he

settings of

admirable

delicate
Hepplewhite,
as
a

Class

urniture
not
so
**

the

Adams,
that

Sheraton
fashion
quaint

and

t is

remarkable
much

embraced fantasies
and

rel

rom

dignity
Taste" mellow,

the

of

dale's Chippen-

Chinese
the

in

furniture

decoration.

one

were

home-like
as

oak-rooms
as

of
more

beth Eliz

and

Stuart

times,

well
the

the
of

formal

still and The

human,

interiors
Anne.

of

period

William

ry

Queen

Anglo-Classic rendered
and
as
a

style domestic

of

the

Georgian
by
the

Period American

tter

style
many

lonists,

while
its

it offers

admirable
seems

tural architec

features,

ultra-formality
for
any
uses

in
the

need

dical

modification desired
and
in
a

other
to

than

expression

dwelling
formal

designed
receptions

be

the

setting

rge

elaborate

and

impersonal
has
to

tertainment.

Georgian
of
style
contact

Classic with
the
our

architecture

ough
a

points
popular

life

of

to-day
except
nearer

mak

for

country

house,

it
to

orgian
the

Classic
works

humanised the American however,


club

and

brought

of

Colonial
that
or

builders. formal city


shop
pure

It

is
or

to

be
the

said,

the

re de

fashionable

exclusive in
the

ma

nd

great

architectural

inspiration
possesses exactly

gian Geor

style,

which

that
most

degree

gnity,

impersonality

and

urbanity

desired

ildings

of

this

sort.

II. T.

Llnd"l"rK,

ArctaiUd

(Albrn

LlDdiberg)
IX AMERICAN COUNTRY
HOI'tiEi)

TWO

MODERN

ENGLISH

DERIVATIONS

Uctun.

wbile
itroke

the ot

"II"elJT*

introductioD iodividuaLity

Ibe of Id deajgn

[ocnml

lUlinn

Pillnduin

eptrsDct

["

"

dirint

but

rii

reflection
can

of but this

an

artificial

taste

in if

its

own

time,

the

be

doubly
country

artificial
to-day. remained

inappropriately

yed

in

Strong
end
of

Classic
the

influences

in and

force

until
even

Eighteenth of
the

Century, Nineteenth
chaos mistakes
architectural

appeared when of

he

beginning
of

Century,
began,
as

architectural architectural and


such

out
the

which

such
Revival of

Buskinian
as

fantasies

the

ts

Charles
has

Eastlake. been
made
to

Mention

elsewhere illumine

of

Mr.

Buskin's
gloom

cessful

attempt

architectural

the

''Seven of
to

Lamps
the

of

Architecture/'
exist,
to
on

The
both sides

inept of of

nts

period
testimony to

still

the
any

tic,

bear

the
an

unwisdom

rary

attempt

popularise and
Buskin,
was

architectural the

style.
was,

Eastlake
more

less

is

known,

of

two
had
a

he
more

perhaps,

sincere

than
's

and
the

lively
a

n.

Eastlake and

vision

creation
was
no

of

style nothing

of

tecture

furniture
and based

which
on

to

be,

if

picturesque,
's

stylistic
the other

precedent. that
happens. becomes

ake

mistake
in

lay

in

ignoring
or

fact
art,

the

resque,
the
or even

architecture
of

any

s not

result

deliberate
unpleasant effort

intention, in
which
direct has

and

re

actually

proportion
gone

he

amount

of

conscious

into

it

ivance.
published
a

Eastlake
*'

book

in in

1870,

and

for
of of

time

style" in have

found
England

expression and
mute

hundreds Many to
were an

small
we

America.
testimonials
* *

these

with
for
the

us,
*

unenlightened pointed glass


here gables

ng
were

artistic.

There
**

queer

windows in kind

of
and

bull's-eye** scattered

deliberatel

differing

size,

and

ere

in

the

walls of

; there

were

galaxies and from


rosettes,

of

turned and

sp riots

es,

explosions

sunflowers dripping

ig-saw

traceries work and lesthetic


was

the

eaves.

Decen

rpenter

scalloped,
in
a

perforated

and
of

scro

wed,

the

interiors, curiosities

few

survivals
restlessly

to-da

indeed,

decorated
and
^ '

th

obviously with
apparent
were

European-Oriental fans,
or

motifs,
* *

embel

shed

peacock

feathers
reason,

and

vases.

out With of

sufficient into with


wooden weird

glazed houses,

tiles

lours

built

and
of

gable

en

embellished and its

mosaics

broken

gla

ells

pebbles
best and
the

imbedded
Eastlake
to

in

stucco.
was,

At

style

undeniably,
the later
style.
one on

helped

make

possible

ance accept

of
At

more

legitimately

picturesque
style
was

its

worst

the

Eastlake

of

the

mo

ntastic

and

nonsensical
effort

parodies
the

structural
ever
seen.

chitectural

that

world

has

With
1858,

the
a on

rise
new

of
era

William
dawned
crafts.
craftsman,

Morris
in

and
in

his
the

schoo

out

England

real

thought
an

arts

and
a

While
and

Morris
essayed

himsel
no

artist
works lies

and
in the

c s

architecture, fact that he

his
taught and

tremendous
people
to

cance signi
to

in
about

thi

nestly in

things effort.
of
the

artistic,

appreciate
as

artistic

Such Eastlakian demanded

absurdities

the

hybri

nifestations
and
the
new

school
honest

became

able, intole

creed

construction,
ornament

pressive things.
F.

construction, Morris,

and
Bossetti,

appropriate Bume
a new

Jones, others,
set

Walter

ane,

Madox

Brown,

and
and

few

abo

king

honest itself

designs,

the

spirit
architecture.

immediately

de

felt

in

contemporary
were

Webb

and

Shaw

the

forerunners

of

such

gre

English E.

architects Norman
are

as

Voysey,
Dawber

Lutyens, and of
in
a

Bidlake, host modem


style
no an

ie-Scotty
And
country

Shaw, the which


any

s.

these

architects attempted
type,

the
its

sh

house,

rary

revival
and
most

of

historic
picturesque in the

but composite works

rather
of of

mal
was

essentially
charming and
to

al

earlier

Tudor, and

bethan

Jacobean
modem

times,

blended, and
owes

adapted
requirements.

nised modem
charm is

express

tastes

The

English
to

country

house

its

teristic charac-

several
in that of

facts

in
has

its

composition. chimneys,
and Houses of the the of
present

It

historic,

it

borrowed work Manor

casements,

bits

half
-timber

like

the

time-hallowed built by

Keeps

and

it

land,

the

forefathers

ers.
is

It

indigenous,
belong
to

because

its

materials modern

as

well

as

it

the

land.
returned of local

The
to

English

tects archipractice

have

advisedly
the
the
most

the

admirable and
texture

making

materials, of

have and

also
colour

sed

endless materials,
many

possibilities and
the

ifferent

picturesque in

possibilities the
same

ingling is

different

materials

house.

It

picturesque in
terms

because
of

it expresses
and

inherited
materials,
element

tori hisand has


not

forms

local

varied
this design. whole of

ccessfully
nervously

picturesque

because

striven

for

in

the

It

is
on

expressive,
a

because understanding English

its

conception the

natural
of

informality

domesticity
should
of

country

life.

It

be
its

apparent
own

that

any
so

fabric
entirely which

so
an

plainly

an

owth

soil, and

and

expression
it

he

national
must

traits
a

tastes to

called

into

be

difficult

one

successfully

transplant

to

adapt
tastes

in and

another

land

and

to

express

and

me

ther It

requirements.

is

fact,
of
the

however,
English such

that
type

successful
of
are

American house best


ideas

country
at

merous.

And
achieve
some

expressions

their

whe

hey

measure

of architects

the

American
and
owners,

equirements

of

their

blende
copy
as
a

ith

their
to

English

inspiration. merit
Nor for
all

No

literal

can

aid

possess

architectural
and
accuracy.

other
can

than
a

stu

exactitude architectural design


copy
can

copy

possess

ny

significance
must,

the
be

reason

that
"

arch tect

above nothing

else, lack
is for

expressive expression. be regarded


reason

express

but
house

of
to

The

English

country

as

orld-wide
the

inspiration
country
terms
more

chiefly house

the
of

that

presses

essential
potently

domesticity
any

chitectural nationality
the

than

other

ty

of

dwelling,
type.

with

the

possible
chateau

exception

Early

American
for
; the
a

The

French artificial

seems

setting of
more

comparatively villa
it

and

formal
romantic

nd

life

Italian

is, perhaps,

more

genuine,
; the

but

is

no

less
a

formal

and

cer mon

Spanish
an

hacienda

is

dwelling, which

but,
we

unles

eatly

modified,

alien

abode

with

have

cial

affinity. essential
bond
ancestors,
our or

This

quality
most

of of
us

domesticity,
feel
our

this
the people,

unconscious

which
the

with
own

homes

homes

of from

shoul
of
our

onerate

architects stylistic the

any

charge To
forbid

mania Anglo-

of adapt

plagiarism.
type
as

tect arch

to

English

of

country

house

would

nearly to

as use

unreasonable
green
a new

to

forbid
or

landscape
to

inters
we

in

painting

trees,

suggest

at

devise

speech.

The

English

style

is

TYPICAL

MODBRN

ENOLISB

SUBURBAN

HOUSE

^11
p

I'

iil

medium,

whether

for
to

the

large
so

or

the
some

small

country

house,

and

is

likely

remain

for

time

The

art

of

architectural
and

adaptation
more

is

becoming

better
Styles

understood
are

intelligently and and

practised.

being of

assimilated -understood

worthily ignorantly

ssed

instead

half

ited. architects the the


sympathy task of merit. if English
one

Certain
and
to

have

become and interest

attracted

to

certain have results

which produced

they

adaptation

has

questionable is doubtful
of

It

could derivation

illustrate
in
an

more

splendid
country

nt

American
at

dwelling

than
and

the

great

stone

house Other

Glen

Cove,

rowbridge
who

Ackerman. remarkable Eyre,

American
success

tects archiin

have
are

attained
Wilson

English

ations
and and,
country

Grosvenor
Russell Lindeberg.
Pope,

Atterbury,
Mellor Mr.
are

nson

Wheeler,
notably,

John
H. of

and Linde-

T. which
they

houses,
in ^English
that

several
show such

illustrated,
strong

remarkable
"

dual
typify

ssion

and

American.
and
are

They

cut,

straightforward

intelligent expressive

adaptation
of rather sound than

ts

best.

Such

derivations

well-advised critics

architectural would have


us

conviction,

some

believe)

hesitating

tectura archi-

imitation. is true
that
very

It

few

American
house attain
work

adaptations
such free

of

the

English the

country
as

rendering

of the

picturesque

the

of

British
in

architects,

reason

is to
than in

be

found

rather

temperamental One has

ences

architectural

differences.
we

heard

it

deplored

that

lack,

in

America,

the

icturesque
the

local
of
the

materials
modem
an

whicli English
answer

contribute
country

so

largel

charm
so

house. for
are,

ttempt

superficial
however,

to
point.

account

ifference,
a

is beside and variety


and

the

There

merica,

wealth

of

interesting
if

buildin
one

aterials,

both
only
near

natural

manufactured,

wer

cite

the

ever-interesting
so

Chestnut
effectively

Hill
used

ledg

tone,

Philadelphia,
of
that

by

rchitects
It is

vicinity.
the

true

that

'British
tiles
our

architect
stones

may

employ
we

ariety
even

of

slates

and

and

which

lack of

ut

supposing could still

architects
themselves of

(speaking
these

verage)
would

avail be
a

materials,

here

conspicuous

difference

in

inished
For

house.

this,
as

the

client

is
to

accountable.

The

average

erican,

compared about

the
of

Englishman,

is strangely
personal

elf-conscious He
that will
amaze

things

intimate
oflSce
;

ti re

rear

''skyscraper'^
the

buildings
launch

tels

whole

world

he

will

tect arch

and

engineering

projects
through

of

colossal

tude, magnisuccess.

and
when

carry

them
matter

with house

brilliant
comes

the

of
becomes has

his

own

under and
a

nsideration,

he
He

astonishingly deep from have English misgivings those both


country
are are

timid

about
of his

hous

ich

will

be

different
perhaps,
the

neighbours.

and and fact,

his

wife, admired

travelled
house.

in

Eng lan

It

their
or

ideal

"

^but

they
who

afraid entire unusual


was

that

the

iends,
laugh

even

passersby
the
**

strangers,

ll

at

odd

windows
that

and which

chimneys,
to

will

call

queer''

intended

cturesque.
Real appreciation of the picturesque,
on

its

ow

s^

is, after
coupled is

all, with

a
an

cultivated

appreciation,
timidity
the

and

this

inborn
lies
at

where
of

outside the house ences differand

on

concerned,

bottom
country

between

the

modern

English

American

adaptation. departing from timidity'' the the


"n

Before

statement

of
of
to

this
the

chgrf
average

^architectural
client,
a

the

part

an

writer which English

would he
Point and

like

paraphrase
a

arge

few

comments

made of

in

magazine

called

**The

View

in

tecture Archiorder

''(written
the
the matter

for

^^Arts
more

Decoration'
and
point this

')y in
a

ake

specific
architecture

moral.
and

In

practice

of

fearless view
has

didly
the

self-assured

English
of
present
a

point
type

of

made

ble
of

evolution
if
our

of

country

house and

the

which,

personal
never

timidity

self-

iousness

endure,

will

become

prevalent

ca.
must
as

It

always
a

be
are

remembered
not average

that

American

tects, archifor inasmuch

class,

entirely
country at

responsible
house,
every

the

hed

aspect
are

of
very

the
often

they

coerced
and
"

turn

by

the

rements,
them

restrictions by
their clients
*'

interdictions
worst of

imposed
all,

by

the

^and, and

ectly
'

delivered
officious
us

advice"

opinions

of

their

ts

friends.
a
a

Let

take and

modem

English which decided


a

country

house
of

which

ypical,

house

couple

prospective

builders

have

is,
'

beyond
has
a

peradventure,
quaint,
with

* *

ideal
well
out,

of

their

dreams.
for
at

'

It

rambling
a

adapted

future
a

enlargement,
angle

wing

perhaps,
is

slanting

from

the

house.

roof

line

varied the

and

diverse,
"

following low, there

the high,

interior

planning

of

house

^here

with

infinity

of
every

varied visual

pitch slant
are

and
of
the

unexpected the
same occur

angle, The

ing diff

with
and
are

observer.
unexpected

d w

chimneys
picturesque

of

so

nd

because inside first

they

only

where

eds

of
house

the

rooms

dictate
from

their the

placement.

is

designed

inside,
which

its
are

exterio

turally
to

shows create picturesque


type,

unexpected externally,

features
for
the

sible impos

superficial windows
panes
"

effect.
are
a

nother

detail,
with

of
type

sement

small
the
average

leaded

ndow

admired
as

by
as are

American

home

builde
in

lmost

much
house

it

is

shunned. and
the

Everywhere
charming
a

nglish

quaint

surprises
low,

rtical
on

sundial
a

let
flagged

into

wall;
a

hooded lead
a

do

iving

terrace,

hand-wrought
pipe,
or

pper

leader-head windows
these

for
in
a

the

rain

riot

of

ittle
All

cluster. contribute
to
a

things is
a more

the

general
house, tastes

impression
and
must
an

at

the

house

than

mere

home

of
for

person

of

individual

and

appre ciati

the
the

picturesque.

Inside,
are

house

is

pervaded
window-seats

by

the and

same

feelin

ere

inglenooks,
at
run some across

quaint
a

way sta

and
may

unexpected
a

place,
or

great

oak

am

room,

overhead
charm"

in

passage.
a

he

house

is

thing the

of

continual
beneath
stay
a

of
never

char

diverse

that his
nook for the

dweller
may
corner.

its week
'

roof without

grow

red,

and
every

guest

ing discover

and

Now

average

American
he

client,

who
selected

goes

architect misgiving
apparent

(whom
and finality,

has

probably showing,

w
an

ch

trepidation),
a

with
which,

picture

of

this

house,

few

very

inconsequential

changes,

embodies

eve

of

himself
and

and

his this
as

wife. client

The
as
a

architect
man as

is
after

delig

welcomes

his

fancy.

With the
first
as

much

dispatch drawings,
patterned

possible delineate
the

he

res
as

set

of

which
after

nearly

possible

client's

ideal.
sketches them presented, greatly
the

The

the
may upon

prospective
even

builder
early

may

and

(at this
the
success

stage)
which house. friends,

*atulate

architect the English


to

with
country

has takes

rendered

idea show
to

of his

the

drawings

wife
to

and

unknowingly

bidding
the his that
house

farewell

his

chances have
tastes.

of

ately

attaining
reflected

which and

would
honest

tectura archi-

actual ubiquitous

His

friends
nearly he
things

"

and
elects
to
own

omniscient
pass
on

jury
matters

every

American much they is


*'

in

might which
roof

better
feel
queer''

be
he
"

his

law
to too

"

tell

him

ought
^'^far the

be

warned

st.

The architect
'
'

eccentric," is
*'

must

be
these

crazy,"

plan

tical. imprac-

A
the

few

of

sapient roof,
to

advices and
the

effectively builder
a

pose dis-

of
to

interesting
his of
a

makes
exactly

direct roof

architect neighbouring and


romantic

substitute
house.

roof it goes

the

So chinmeys.
with

with wife

quaint
always

windows

picturesque

His

had but
to
one

associations friends

casement

ws,

of
of

her the

(whose
tells

knowledge
her

i they lars. burg-

ior

that hard

architect)
and ordinary

that

draughty,

to

clean
the

easily
type
"

forced
of

by

Consequently window
no

American
no

ble-hung"

is

installed
to

window
more

less

hty,
open

less
than

difficult
any

clean

and

easily

other

type.

Another
not

friend

is

nced

that

the

chinmeys

will

draw.

This

he

putes

to

the

fact

that

they
"

are

designed,
builder ordinary which
house

externally,

ong

picturesque
the the architect remaining

lines

and

the
to

makes chimneys.
first
are

no

have All

change features the

stimulated eliminated,
are

admiration
by
one,

for

original

by
he

his
shall he
not

assiduous
not

friends,
disappointed convinced

who

dete mine

that

be
become

in
that

his

house

the

interior,
will
across

has

varying the

oor-levels

be

practical,

and
a

that

gre

beam
welcome,

the

hall,

with

quaint

carved

mott

will iron. these

"look

queer,''

and

might

better

be

ncealed
With
he

few

changes,
to

which architect

seem

to

him
is

qu
left

ivial,

returns

the

with

what
the

original
many

scheme,
country
notes.

and houses,

explains. he

If

architect

ilt

remains

patiently

sile

takes The

work

proceeds by
the

(if the
his house
as

client

has

not

been

eff tua

discouraged

friends

from

the
The

whole

building),
little
time,

and

is erected.

client
from
will be

fe

disappointed but
trusts

he

visits

the

building
house

ti
to

that it will,
of

the
he

finished
reassures
*'

king;

doubtless
the volume

himself, practical"

remembering

excellent

advice

had
It

from

his

friends.

is finished,
He is of
not
even

and

he

is
to

aware
wave

of
the asking

keen original why in

ment. disappointdrawing

likely

the
was

face

the

architect,
out
may
as

the
the

origina

ea

carried
architect

agreed
point
out,

first
mild

co f

The
every

in

wa

at

salient changed
"

feature in
the

in

the
to

original something
The and
two

drawings
safe,
are owner

dered

finals,

co s

and
after

commonplace.

seldom of

od

friends

this

interview,

the

lives

in

it

unhappily
he
may

ever

afterward, telling
his enough
on

deriving friends
to

satisfaction
idiot

from unfortunate

what
employ

upid
an

he

was

architect.
more an

His
than equal

friends,
half

the

other for

hand, the
in
unhappy

who

actually find
owner

responsible
of

degree of it
"

gratification
how

consoling it
might
to

with

thoughts

much

worse

been

bungled
* '

if
moral

had
^which
that

been
is
we

left
plain
"

entirely
^io easily

the

tect.
in
the

The

mula for-

statement

if

consistently

adhered rather
forward

ur

honest

personal
our

desires,
we

and might house


with

consulted
look
comparable

coerced
attainment
and

architects,
of
a

the

country

i
of

etic

picturesque
'

values

the

works

the

sh
some
a

architects.
respects

In

the

American
dwelling,
house

architect
especially usually
lighted,
type.

has in
the

oped develplan.
more

more

practical
country

American
rooms,

contains
than
an

and
house
as

these of

better

English in

ry

corresponding

And American
English
the
to waste

such house
country

rs

heating and

and
more

plumbing
efficient.
to

the Many

re

livable
houses,

charming

look
undue

upon

from

outside,
space

in

their

plans

an

tendency

unnecessary

corridors
to
a

and
number

passages,

and small
number
have

to

fice sacri-

large

rooms

great

of
a

rooms.

English

plans, points,
at

however,

offer
two

of

very

lent

least

of

which
by

been

used
tects. archi-

conspicuous These ''office"


on
"

success

and
are as

credit the

American
front" finding garden

two

points
latter,
estate.

''garden be
seen,
"

and
use

the

will idea

the
may

large be
or

The

of

front,
house

er,

developed
even

attractively the
cottage.

in

the

ate

size,

For

some

time thought when

the
to

American the impression


from

householder which the


the
as

devoted
his
either

st

of

his

dwelling
as

uld

create

viewed
or

front,

ove

up

to

it,

passed
now
' '

along

road.
* ^

The

fron

en,

to

be

distinguished imposing
hidden
at

the

entrance
' '

front,

made
wing

and the
the the

architectural,
rear,

with usually
that

the quite

s v

and from
part,

the

aspect

of

house
most

direction.
long

The
of

English,
living curious of is in

for

have
were

be

nd

in

their
gaze

gardens,
of the

which
by the is

sheltered
laid
the

om

the
rear

public
of
tea

being
of

out

the
the

house.

Much
where

life
often

English

ace

garden,
gathers,
an
or

served,
on

ere

the
or

family

after

dinner,
walk.
of

the

garde
'*

rrace,

enjoys
'*

after-breakfast the
aspect

The
from
owner

g d

front,
assumes

then,
to

the

house
and

r,

the
to

English
that of

architect
the
' *

portance
even

equal
a

entrance

front, service
was

*
"

rhaps

greater the

importance.
kitchen
to front

The

win

en,
one

containing
side
trees,

and
some

laundry,
extent,

extended
the

and
so

concealed,
that
"

by
of
the

plan ing

of

both
might

and
be

rear

house

th,
some

in

fact,
cases,

fronts both
the

architecturally

treated
American

English front the

houses
has
been
presents

and

aptations,
garden

entrance
so

sacrificed
a

front, while

that the

latter
must,

beautiful

mmetry,

former

of

necessity,

oken

by

the

service

wing.

Several

examples

appear

ong

the It
an

illustrations.

would

obviously
*'

be garden
to

absurd
front'*

to

design
if
there

hous

th

attractive from
a

were

rden

which

view American

it,

but

when

the
owes

pla

ticipate
the

garden,

the

architect

muc

British

architect

in

the

matter

of

beautifying

rear

elevation.
front
'^

And
leads
so

if
a

the

desire
to

to

develop
also,
the

den

to

desire
the
honse

develop, for

y
of

livable
the
' *

garden,

much

better in

evola-

American
'

country

general.
the plans
a

The

office
larger

which

is

included

in houses

of
on

most

he

English

country

is
of

room

the
with

floor

provided chauffeurs,
estate.

for

the

purpose

dealing
employees

men,
large

gardeners Here and


wages
are

and

other

paid,

accounts

kept,
place

aints

heard,
apart

all
the

the
rest
own

business of the

of
house,

the for

acted

from

the

5ce*'
so

is provided
that
master's

with
is private
no

its
need library

outer

door employees

and

vestibule,

there

for
or

the

ing invad-

the

study.

The

living English
as more

room,

of

course,

is
and

developed
was

from in
the

the

country

house,
a mere

welcomed
for of
*'

this

ry

than

substitute dismal of period the

formal

rlours'*

of

the

more

American
hall" taken

tecture. historic in
this

The

importance
country

great
was

English
chapter,

houses the importance

up

er

and

of
' '

its
too

direct much
here.

ndant, of
our

the

American
lives the
comments

* *

living

room,

is

rt

daily closing

to

require
of
our

any

discussion

Before
a

tale

architectural
be made

debt
upon

nd,

few

should
by
or

the

successes

attained

the

modem

English

tects archi-

in

**

community"

''neighbourhood"
American efforts

planning,

compared

with

most

in

that

tion. The English


to
our

''neighbourhood"
American
' '

groups

of

houses,

gous
two to

real

estate

developments,
we

highly
emulate:

desirable
unity and

traits

which

would

do

diversity,

skilfully
character

combined

The

architectural

of

the

156

THE
' *

PBAC?riCAL
^ '

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

English

gronp

of cottages
cottage thus

is consistent shows

and

while

each
f rpm

individual

picturesque
the

nnifie ences diffe

its neighbours,
' '

defeating
usually

monotony

of

jif^'

rows

of

identical
put

(and
up

individually
speculative

at^ominable)

dwellings

by

the

/
/

It will

be

shown merit

in the

second

part

of this
asset
asset
so

book
to

th

architectural
built
that
**

is

most

significant
"

house

by

real-estate
not

operator

^an

tangibl
cause

it should

need

to

be

better

pointed American

when architecture'* out to be a conservative

urged it may

in be

the

practically

investment. much to English


to
or

but
as

architecture in no types
house

owes

tect arch
a

of and

building
the

such

degre

in the

country

school

college
assume

buil ing.

Of
greater

these,
part

the
the

country

house
because

must

of

debt,
to
us
"

it has than
an

been

mode

and

an

inspiration

^more

architectural

characterised model The of domesticity.


expression in

by

peculiarly English

picturesque elements house is a symbol


"

of country

terms of architectural life which American the

certain
has long is
a

concep tion

shared

instinctively, of
racial

with

the
even

Englishman.

It
rather

questio
a

aflSnity, or fashion. architectural with


national
most

identity,
It

than

mere

is natural modifications inventions,'*

and

obvious dictated
we

th

certain

superficial
and
*'many

traits
home

should those of

at

in

houses

patterned

after

ancestors.

CHAPTER
LATIN
DEEIVATIONS

Vn
IN

AMERICAN

ABCHITECTUEE
TYPES
THE PLACE ITALIAN OF INFLUENCES
AND

CTURAL

ADAPTED

FROM IN

ITALY,

FRANCE
THE

AND

SPAIN.

VILLA

AMERICA.

TANT IMPOR-

ITALIAN IN
A

RENAISSANCE
CHATEAUX, LITTLE

ARCHITECTURE.
MODERN

FRENCH

CITY TECTURAL ARCHI-

HOUSES

HOTELS. LEGACY FROM

APPRECIATED

SPAINl

ATIN J
ing

derivations
all

in
have
are an

American
come

architecture,
to
us

mean-

that

from

Italy

and

and
cultivation

Spain, of
forms

of

peculiar

importance familiarity

appreciative
types. most

with

tectural

and
caUs

And

if
to

the mind

thought

an

derivations adaptation
that

vividly viUa, is
of

the
be

American
remembered

of this than

the

Italian

it should
comparatively
in

derivation Italian

less
types

tance

influences

other

ing.
so

That
and
on

little

has be

come

to

us

from
as
a

Spain
lack
as an

is

remarkable,

should
the
or

taken

rather

of

appreciation

part

of

the

architect
material

than
in shown

evidence

of

unavailable

Spain. how
on

In

an

earlier of
the

chapter Italian

it

was

the
a

tecture archirevival

Renaissance, from
the

based

lassic

forms,

emerged
architecture,

involved analysis

maze

of

eval
of

Gothic

and

some

of and

the

Renaissance

architecture,
was

in

Italy

European

countries,
style

also
the

presented.

The

architectural
"

of

Renaissance

is
fluent

fiex

style

a,

style

which in by
many

lends types

itself
of

to

tectura archiIt is

expression

building.

characterised

nicety

of

proportion

in

its

larger
167

mbers,

and

by

nicety

of

scale

in

its

detail.
are

sance Renais
refined
column

mouldings, Severe
pilaster

especially
compositions
may

the

Italian,
of arch

licate. and

and

ch

be
or

relieved by

and

humanised
in the fresco

nventional The
masters

ornament,

decorations by
as

raffito.

architecture

evolved

Renaissance

alian is

is
in

so

well

studied,
adaptations,
museums,

architecture,
ranging

suitable

many

through
and

urches,

theatres, city

libraries, besides
for
the country

clubs
an

bmldings,

offering
villas villa

inexhaustible
for

ne

of

inspiration Of American

and

garden

chitecture.
as

Italian

and thereof,

its
more

garden,
wiU

ll

the

adaptation

id
No

later.

study

of

the

influence

of

the
could

architecture
be

of
complete

alian

Renaissance
without

in

America familiarity
firm
of

either the Mead

intelligent
great

with McKim,
Italian

works

architectural
architects
as

"

White

hese

believed H.

in

architecture

ncerely

H.

Richardson
architecture.

believed The
of work

in

Byzantine
of

Romanesque

McEom,

ad

" who

White,
were

indeed,
trained
stamp

and

the

many

younger
room,

tect arch

in
on

that

draughting

place

ineradicable
onward,
style

American
as

architecture,
well,
the
a

fr
of
many

94

and

effected, has dictated

revival of

alian

which
most

design

country's

notable
of
a

buildings.
firm,

One

member of

the

Stanford
of the

White, finest

was

ster

detail,

connoisseur and

points
The

chitectural library of
a

ornament

decoration. housing Morgan, the

sma

rble

in

New

York, J.
P.

private
unanimously
not

the
place

late
among

is
ten^

corded American

the

best

if

the

ve,

achievements

in

architecture.

DETAIL
GDlrsilH

OF

PL iDKEiB of i" p Ihi

This

Pnllldiiia

adsplabilily

To

say

that Boston, in the

this is
a

building,
masterpiece of
by style,

or

the
of
a

great

Public tecture archi-

ry

in is,
are

American
little

matter

misleading.
architects,
as

Italian,

rendered
works have firm of

American
Mead in "

most

of

the

McKim, approached

White.

Few the
real

architects of and this

attainment

in

interpreting
the spirit
of
was
even

to-day, of
the
Italian

with

se

understanding, Little, des


Beaux

sance Renais-

architecture.
Ecole

if any,
Arts

influence
apparent

of
in

the

h of

the

McKim,

Mead

"

White,
was,

in
rather,

the
to

early
carry

days
on

the

firm.
from

Their
the other

mission
hands old

torch

of

Bramante,
masters.
a a

Peruzzi,

Brunel-

i,

and

the

Italian affords

The
of

Morgan
an

library
historic by
an

unique

example

for The

style
open

in

pure

adaptation.

nce,

formed The called door

loggia,
of
' '

is characteristically
arch and tall

an.

composition
* *

central

side-

s,

Palladian

composition
is

(whether
proportioned.
the
great

of

w,
name

or

opening)
from who
on

faultlessly

is

derived architect

Palladio, made facade


of
the

Italian

ssance
The
no

this

his

favourite the
the

motif.

niches,

both

the

and style,
Few

within and

loggia,

less
a

characteristic
Italian
such

balusters

of

perfect

form.

buildings general and

in

this

ry

combine

harfiionious detail in
ornament

proportions

such
study

exquisite
the

mouldings.
and
to
come

Morgan

library

thoroughly, its

intelligently is to
at

appreciate discover best,


and the
as

infinite of
it is

architectural Italian

ies,

real

essence

tecture archito

its

directly The
two

as

possible

do

ut

visiting
elevation
repay

Italy. of
a

illustrations,
and and
a
serve

showing of

street.

the

building study,

detail
to

the

a,

will

careful

impress

on

anyone

more

vital
of
the

and
Italian

lasting

comprehension than

the

architecture of

Renaissance

antity

words.
member

Another
"

of
FoUen

the McKim

firm
"

of
^was as

McKim,
as

Mead
a

ite

Charles

great

master

large
a

architectural
master

conceptions

Stanford
the

Whit

of

detail.

To

his

ability

country

es

the

noble

conception

of City of
way,
"

the
one

Pennsylvania
of
the
or

Railroad
most

erminal

in

New

York

splendid the

chitectural in

monuments
a

America,

of

worl

tterned,

general

after vein
of

the the

Roman
Italian

Baths

aracalla,
vastly
great

designed magnified

in

the

sance, Renais

and

wonderfully
must

engineered, for of
all

is

railroad of
any

terminal the inmiortal idea

stand
power

time

illustration
express

architecture and

human

of

magnitude
as an

dignity

stylistically,
style
or

it must Italian
a

stand

illustration
not

of

the

Renaissance
so

does minute
Library.
apply

necessarily
so

ply the the

enforce
rendering

technique
of

and

exquisit So

the

Morgan
may

flexib

style

that

master
a

it with

success

jewel

casket

or

railroad

terminal.
of
the

To
firm of

catalogue

architectural
"

attainments would
special
so

McKim,

ad

White
much

necessitate
study
"

much it to
so or

space

volve has

suffice
or

say

that

no
an

rm

exerted
on

profound

sweeping held
so

American
taste.

architecture,
New
works,

high
is
at

mp

of by

good
their

York and

City,
the

especially,
country

cher

actual and of
the

lar

their
The
to

sincere
style

splendid Italian by quality dignity

influence. Renaissance
reason

is of
the

peculiarly of
"

ited

city

architecture and A
serene

nicety

oportions

that

mentioned
may

before

exibility.

be

expressed

in

su

HcKIni, A

"-md

Whilf.

AnhlIKU SHOP FRONT ol Ths OF

NEW

VORK

CITY

ITALIAN Ooihim

RENAISSANCE
Compinyl

DERIVATION

(Pnnii"

OF

ITALIAN

RENAISSANCE PCBLIC
BUILDING slyLc

ARCHITECTURl

"ckcrouad

ia

id

"

which
Bdmod.

mUht

be

emll"l

"Flor

(The

Public

Librmry,

MiuBrhuHtti}

AN

ITALIAN

DERIVATION

IN

"

ITALIAN
Ths

DERIVATION
laggis

IN
the

NEW

YORK

CITY

SHOP

FRONT feature

arculed

sbove eseeDtislly

itreet

of the

level Iinlisn

is bd tircliit"cturml ReDsiHBDTe

DETAIL

OF

S(

FKONTS
by the

OF

ITALIAN
iDggi*,

DERIVATION Eighlecnl
Thencoa

trinie-arched

"uribule"pBDel"st

ihowi "h"fi(ttagtory.

York
or

buildings the
shops
may

as

the
Tiffany

University and in such

or

the

Century
A
as more

of

Gorham.
a

dignity

appear

building

the

building,
on

originally Fifth
Avenue,

for
or

the
a

Knickerbocker
degree
appear

Trust

ny

of

humanism
in
such

approaching

frivolity
as

may

ful

facade

the

sgrafflto
Another
a

shop
shop,

front

shown
Italian

in

one

he in

illustrations. design,
rears

of of

tion derivamarble,
loggia, for

delicate
by
an

facade
open,
a

white

tively similar

lightened
treatments

triple-arched happy design.


the solution

form

the

w-lot
must
a

problem

of

city

house from

It

be
study

apparent,
not

foregoing

remarks, illustrated

from

only

of

the

buildings
with

chapter,
that

but
the

of

the style

buildings of
to

which

we

are

al

iar,

the the

Italian
successful
"

Renaissance
solution
not

i
of

peculiarly
of
or

adaptable architectural

ty

problems
but

problems

only

ite

type

of

building,

problems

involving

the

expression

of

such

unarchitectural
It would be

qualities
to

as

ty

and arcade
the

distinction.
of
greater

diflScult

contrive

rt

combined
street

dignity of
the

and

richness
shop,

triple

arched

front
one

the

Gorham

ew style of

York
of

City,
the

shown

in

of

illustrations.
the media for
a

In

Italian
are

Renaissance,

this

expression

inexhaustible, possibilities study of


in Italian
we are

and would

study

of
an

range

and

infinite

form

stive
the

architectural consideration
the
an

itself.
derivations

In

in
by

the

of of

country

villa,

confronted
in
of

somewhat

architectural
even

paradox,
a

that
country

we

have
house

ed,

and
to

welcomed, the the setting

type

ded the

form

for of

American
the

country

life of

original,

villa

Italian

noble

the

naissance, of
country

formed life.
alone,

the
It has

setting
been
a

for
case

very

diflfere

nd

in

which
this,

tect arch

form, added

has of
been

been
romance

borrowed,

and

rtain

elements

(more
with American
the

literary really

th

rchitectural)
success,

has

developed,
a

extr ordi

into adaptation
its
tastes
or a

modem of
was

dwelling
villa

e
not

American because

Italian

satisfi

prototype
or

in

any

way

expressive life,

American
a

American

modes but rather

of

eith
it

reflection thing
purity

criterion,

because
with
far Venus
the
woman
more

autiful

to
as

look

at

"

^beautiful
though The

the

sam

assic

the
life
not

Parthenon,
of

link

th

the

human
to
us

to-day. it
woman

of

Mi

peals

because
it deifies

typifies
of idea

-day,
woman,

but

because the

all

time, than and

typif ing
a

goddess,
appeal

as

an

rather

p s

The Elizabeth
as

is literary,
to
us

romantic
as
an

aestheti
woman,

ueen

appeals
country

actual
to

ust

the

English The and make


it

house

appeals
is
more

us

actual

house.

Italian
has
real

villa
the

in
of the

the

rea

the

ideal
to

"

been

task

modem
he

chitect
with

it

and

habitable,

which

ne
Let

conspicuous look

success.

us

back

at

some

of and

the
at

great

and

famous life
we

llas

of

Renaissance formed
to
see

Italy, the clearly

the

country

ich

they
come

setting, wherein

for

in the

this Italian of

way

st

villa

p t

in

our

American

adaptation,

qualities

propriate

and
respect

alien.

In
a

one

the
real

Italian
expression houses by
city

villa

of

the
a

Renaissance

logical modem

and
country

of
in

purpose

whic

st
a

hold
the

common

with

it

"

retreat.

Wearied strain
of

endless

intrigues
great

nervous

life

in

the

palazzi

LATIN

DERIVATIONS

163

ence
and

or

Borne,
servants,

the

nobles,

with

their

families
to

and repair

nds

found
the quiet
to

it most

enjoyable
and read wearied
must

the

cool of

loggias, their family

terraces,

wonderful The endless


the
same

ens

villas, of
and

rest
no

and
less

poetry.

ican

to-day, business

by

al

activities and
the
same

cares,

find

pleasure
country
retreat

in

an

environment
the

created nobles.
between characterised

esemble The effete

the

of
in

old

Italian

anachronism

exists

the

difference life which


the

and the

indolent Renaissance

idea

of

country

Italian

noble,

and
life

some wholeshould

and

vigorous
the

idea
modern

of

country

which

cterise

American
with
to

country formal

gentleman.
ceremony,

Italian
was

entertained
almost
equal

his He

that
or

of

feudal

lord. outdoor

ed
too

in often

no

active brought

sports

energetic
the

life,

with
whom

him

spies

and have

poisoners
left

parasitic

friends
city.
we

he in
very

should

behind
was

in
by
a

the

Villa

life

Eenaissance wholesome,
on

Italy
or

all

have
sort

heard, of
thing

in

any
our

desirable
life

which

to

pattern

country

of

to-day. modifying
new

Our
them

architects
to
some

took

the

settings,

and,
and
enact

extent,

devise

dramas
the
most

in clear

place

of

the

old.

This,

perhaps, of
stage at

brings
the

understanding
Italian which
we

he
"

propriety

American and of

villa
one

of

derivar
have

^it is
to

setting,
because

in

feel and

home

its

inherent

beauty
a

and and

in

spite

of

its

associations
our

of
own.

life

entirely

different by
**

from
time,

Renaissance cloaked
by the

vity,
mantle

mellowed of

is
so

further
that where
we

romance,'*

find

much

historic

association

of

real

charm,

old,
the

forgotten
mantle

histories

could

tell

(if

we

lifted

of

romance)
kind
ns

of
of life

muoh entirely
or

sordid

intrigae,
either
we

blighted
from

hope what
to

different
from what

mo

suppose,

conceive

be

odem

American

ideal.
architects
the
master
rare rare

Of

all

American
adapted,

who

have is Charles of
of

essayed
A.

talian
has

villa,

Pia

ho

combined
surety
an

with
equally

degree

architectural

kill

and

degree
The work. the

imagination,
of
has

ympathy

and
has

real

artistic
apparent

feeling. in
his

result

the

bilities the

been

He peculiar

charm,

the

romance,

and

arch tect

chastity
given
at
once

of

the

Benaissance
at

Italian
time,

villa, in
a
a

as

his

rendering, and

the

same

and
of
note

ner man-

subtle
expression

forceful,

something modem architects designing of

modem

igour

of

and

of

appropriat

Other
success

American
in the

have

attained

onspicuous

Italian
master, of

vi

rivations, works

but will

Mr.

Piatt
always

is the
as

accredited
monuments

rank

able remark-

architectural
It

sincerity

in

intelligent
the Italian

adaptation. villa,
from

should

be

obvious

that
in
a

ture,

is inappropriate
the
greater

cold

northern

climate,

ough

part

of
year,

the
a

United
country type

States
of
most
as

is, during

veral

months the

of

the of

ant unpleasa

climate,
the
warm

villa

Italian
and
as

is built
it
comes

retrea

months,

such,

well

withi and

pale

of

suitability.
are

Southern be
the regarded Italian

California
as

uthern

states

to

the

more

obvious
as

bitat
the

of

houses

of
type.

villa

type,

well

Spanish

The

superficial

characteristics
and

of

the

Italian familiar
:

vi

readily
roof

recognisable, of

reasonably

lo

tched

corrugated
arcaded

tile,
loggias,

stucco

walls,

occasional

on

balconies,

garden

terraces,

ft

Si

II
6
-"

patio,
house. Italian of
a

which

is

the

salient

f eature,

also,

of

the

sh

The

garden distinctly in
plan

is

inseparable

from
nature,

the

house,

being
to

architectural
and of
in

is closely
The
cannot

it both

general

character.

resque

possibilities
or

the

Italian and

garden
those

verstated
of

unduly

admired,
have of
our a

of

the

great

the

Renaissance
greater part
seen

formed,

and

will in

always

the

inspiration

garden
sion impreswhere

n.
the

We
garden

have
art

what
Italy

deep

and
upon
were
manner,

lasting England,

of

made schemes

rate and and

and

beautiful in
the

laid

out

oughly thor-

frankly Georgian

Italian houses.

about

bean Jaco-

country

The
as

Italian
'

type

of

garden,

though
possesses

it
so

is

what

'formal
picturesque

garden,"
that

many

ment ele-

of

the

its The

formality greatest pools,

is

its

least
was

icuous in
the

characteristic.
disposition
statuary,

skill

of

terraces,

fountains,
as

s,

garden

and the

pavilions, of all

well

as

nimitable

artistry

In

design

these

garden

lishments.

It is conceivable Italian they


of garden

that
type

many
as

people their

have

decided

upon

villa
are

building by
of

inspiration
the

se

completely

fascinated form its


fact
a

Italian
plan*
and

which
garden
to

must
owes

part

the

The

Italian significance

permanent it
came
as

value
an

eal

the

that

gent intelliattempt

solution

of

the

problem

which
nature.

exists
The

in

any

lend

architecture connecting to the

with link, its

Italian planting
groves,

garden
ing bindits

e it

subtly

devised
or

surrounding

hillsides casinos garden

race ter-

walks

and

detached

and

pavilions

ing bind-

it

to

the

villa.

entirely

architectural

ARCHITECTURE

erely

spreads
to
some

the

architectnre
sharp

of

the
line A

house of

or

utward
the

iuevitably of
natural
an

demarcation

here

planting

nature

begins.
and

garden
natural

entire

nformal
up

leads
to

planting
sharp

contours

irectly

equally

line

of

demarcation

he

architecture

of
to
more

the

house. general consideration of

Returning Italian
be than

sance Renais

derivations,
that European

in

American play style,


a

architecture,
more

ust

remembered
any

these

important

art

other

excepting
from

alway

he

Classic
the

bases

of

architectural
of
the

design, Renaissance
gave to

which

ndeed,

architecture The

itself
architecture

holly

derived.

Greeks
of
the

ternal

fundamentals
and

orders,

the

mouldings, which
Romans,

ntablatures

the

general

proportions

wer

ubsequently
and

further embellished
once more

developed

by
the
own

the

umanised be
revived language
a

by
in
our

Renaissance
age
to
as an

Italians

tural architecexpression

peculiarly of drawn
country

adapted

the

best

wide

range

architectural
certain life'*
owner,
as

problems.
comparisons between
by

We

have
*'

pirit

of Italian

conceived
and the the

the

sance RenaisAmerican

villa
To

modem

ntleman.

understand chateau,

artificial

status

of

apted

French

similar

comparisons

cessary.

French
was
a

country
very

life,
formal

notably

in

the

Eighteenth

tu Ce

affair,
and
to country.

consisting, life
Hunting

indeed,
being
was

ban

social

entertainments

merely

ansplanted
a

from than

city
a

more

ceremony

sport.

It

is

significant
that
to

fa

this
not

connection,
even a

to

remind

ourselves language prefixed

the
convey

French

word

in with

their
a

ea,

and

borrowed,

definite

artic

AN

ITALIAN

VILLA

DERIVATION

IN

AN

AMERICAN

COUNTRY

BOUSE

fill
I

ISf

HI
2 8"=^

It

-i II

sport
more

/^

conscientiously outdoor-loving

endeavouring English
neighbours

to

emulate
across

channel. and
Antoinette of French
'*

Versailles

the

**

several
are

charming

play-houses*'
illustrative

Marie

admirably
life. buildings Marie
and and of To the of her

of

the

country

gardens

and
Trianon,

the

e-believe
the
at

farm

Little
coterie

red

charming

of

friends
attired Here

lay

being

milkmaids
' '

shepherdesses, silks and

appropriate
the keynote

costumes

and
naive

satins.

of

that

charming
expressed

artificiality houses

is architecturally French

in

the

country

he

nobility.
the

Some

of

smaller
to
a

chateaux
the American

should
architect
country
as

oflFer
who

consider

suggestion in
chateau

i and

ed

designing
style

semi-formal
be

house,

may

regarded
house
at

reasonably
a

priate
place
as

for

magnificent where
in

such

fashionable

Newport,
are

elaborate and where the

and
the

formal
avowed

tainments
is and
to

order,

tion

recall
the

the grand

splendour,
manner

lavishness,
the
court

the

y, XVI.

of

of

The

case

is
due the

again

case

of

theatrical
for the kind
American

scenery,

contrive

with

consideration
owners.

of

life

to

be

ed
of

by
the

A
type

large
may

country

chateau

be
or

an

architectural

ssion
"

absolutely
according
set

appropriate

absolutely kind
of life

inappropri

entirely

to

the the
'*

it
country
*'

ded
place

to

off.

'''Biltmore,*'

Vanderbilt Ochre Court,


are

in

North

Carolina,
Brown,

and
at

or

house examples
as

of

J.

Nicholas of

Newport, of

excellent

American for

adaptations their

the

French
man-

au

commendable

architectural

as

for

their by

suitability
their
owners.

to

the

kind

'*

of

country

fe^'

enjoyed
to have

Other

American

families their XVI,


**

of

social

prominence
done

ha

ected

country

houses'*
the

in
at

ner

of
"

Louis

recalling
Newport
'*

Trianons for

sa Ve

such

well-known

houses,

example,

**the A

Marble

Palace style
once

and
very

**Roseclifif/'
popular of but
now

French

by

ns

in

favor,

was

the
to

style

Francis
This, round
"

First,

tra si

from original

Oothic
chateau

Renaissance. with

in

fact,

style, like

towers,
a

capped

conical

roofs,

almost
yet

steeples undeniably of
expression

style

bly undenia-

picturesque,
an

equally

inappropriate for American

architectural
or

medium
life.
of

stes

American

As

the

influence
and
was

the
turn

Renaissance
supplanted

style
by

supplanted
the
more

Oothic,
French

in

Classi

chateau though
no

became less

increasingly

artificial.
a
'

Chateau
impressive

ture architec
air

has

certain
* *

dignity,
smartness

certain
*

bility

and

of and

which
merits.
to

has
The
a

its

appropriate
however,

plications
never

its

own

style,

be

expected

become

part

of

American

chitecture.

Of

French
was

influences
said in
the

in
fourth

city

and

public

buildings

ch

chapter,
the

outlining of Louis and

end

of

French
the

design

from revival
of from Beaux
a

time

XIV

rough

classic

of

Louis
Arts

XVI,
teachings.
of

esent

manifestations will

It

be
with

apparent

study
that

that

portion city
part

text,

its
a

illustrations, and city XIV

French

tect arch

plays
of
many

conspicuous
of of
our

agreeable

in

sign

buildings. through
the

AH
Beaux

French

yles

from

that

Louis

Art

"nd

"ucccHfu]
"

introduclion
m
HD

of
Americui

Ibe

Spaniili
moDumeatAl Waahinctnn,

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53,2

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if"

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it

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THE

"AMERICAN

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STYLE, REVIVAL

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EXAMPLE AMERICA
of LyncnUa

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THE

CREEK

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folumu
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Row.

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with New

French

Empire

(be

IricK.

iron

York

City,

built

in

1836)

16

Modem design be XVI and

French
of
seen

style,
many

have of
the

been
largest
chapter,

extensively
American

utilised
hotels,

the

will

in

the

ninth

and

the
for
fronts.

style
many

has suitable

furnished city
of

the houses
more

inspiration and
extreme

shop
type to

The

frivolity
is

the

of

French

tecture

excellently

suited where

the

design
to to

res

and

restaurants,

it is desired and
for
too out
gay

offer
effect

ive

environment architectural reaction will debt


of
great the

to

the

patrons,

iant

background
from

gatherings. hotel
chapter.

inevitable

much

frivolous ninth
to

tecture The

be

pointed

in

the

of

American

architecture in
the Arts
are

the

tecture archidevoted

France

is
des

stated
Beaux
comments

paragraphs

the

Ecole
foregoing

in

the

fourth
to

ter, chap-

and the

designed of
country

point

necessarily
as

artificial
to

position

French
house.

tecture
was

related

the

American
that
the of

It

remarked

above itself but

architecture

of
derivations.
no

ca It

has is

availed
true

Uttle

Spanish produced native


the

that

Renaissance
as

Spain
yet

master-architects
race,

Italy,

the by

genius
legacy

he

its

art

strangely
many

enriched
architectural further

of

Moors,
of

evolved
adaptation

forms
in

well

and

development

this

ry.

Spanish

architecture

possesses

certain

distinctive
plan,
or

res,

in

both
or

plan

and building,

detail. the

In
patio,

whether
open

esidence

public
a

inner the

yard, of

is
wrought

marked
iron

characteristic. work
for

In

detail

balconies,
There

railings is, too,


the

and
low-

es

is equally tile

characteristic.
as

ed

roof,

found

in

Italy,

the

same

preva-

nce

of

stncco

wall
terraces.

snf

aces,

but

no

such

frequent

loggias
Most

and
Spanish
colonies,

houses,

as

well

as or

those

in

the

anish

whether

in
manner

town

country,

wer

ilt

somewhat
no man

after

the

of

private
or

fortresses, felt
secure

though
community

trusted in
which

his he

fellow,

dwelt. with
but by

The
few iron

outer

wal

heavy
small, door

and
high
was

forbidding, and
a

windows, grilles. affair,


against
aspect
on

ese

protected

reet

massive,
locks

iron-studded
"

wi

ge

bolts
but

and
actual

ponderous
siege.

barrier
gentler

an t

Whatever

mestic inner

architecture
court,

existed
was

was

lavished
gay

the

pat

which

often

with

flowers,

oled

by
the of the

fountain
patio
master

in

the
the

centre.

Into
of

gallerie
the

ound

opened usually

chambers occupying

hous

ose

the

first

fl

ove

the

ground, the

while

the

servants

dwelt of
the

below

d
the

performed
court

domestic

duties

household

itself.

Many

Spanish and
far

patios quaintly
greater

are

beautiful

with

flowers and
a

untains,
by

devised
number
cattle,

galleries resemble horses


outer at

arcades
sort

the

door

barnyard,
secure

where within the


that type
was

and

poultry
over

wer

pt

main

door
the
was

nigh

must

suppose

Spain,
evolved,

time
a

when
country

aracteristic

ieves

and
with

brigands.
plainly

The
apparent

tradition need,
houses

of

the

protected
seen

tio,

is

to

be the

in

rlier

haciendas

and and
or

ranch

of

Southwest
the
event

ited

States
by
Indians

of

South brigands,
taken plan

America.

In

tack

outbuildings
and
great

could loss possible

ily rea

be

burned,
the

live-stock
inner
court

sustained, for

ereas

made

it

Illiy

|lf|lV

riri-2

BS-g-z

rf?S

HI

^3= I

'I

LATIN

DERIVATIONS

Bl.KN'DING
ITALIAN

MOTIFS.

SPANISH

AND

CoIoutihI

temnjottK

dEtHJla

of

Cbiraga

afficf

buildinc.

dencDed

id

riel

tected four

householder forbidding

in
walls

outlying

districts,
a

to

offer
to

and

stout

door

the

der.
however,
property,

To-day, of

when
the

no

need

exists
an

for

such

protecti

patio

offers especially is
being

architectural in
the

tunity

of

peculiar

charm,

private
recognised

ence. with
as

This
greater

opportunity
zest
many

yearly

by in

the

architects

of and

our

Pacific
In
warm

well

as

the

South
the

East.

ry

dwelling of far
the

situated Southern
the
patio

in
Pacific
may

prevailing
coast,
or

tes

the
a

states spot

he

South,
beauty

well

be

made
in
cast

ing

and

of

real

significance

the the

daily

of

the

occupantia.

The

shadows
the

by
most

surroun

walls

will

render restricted
a

patio
area

cool

at

hours possible

the

day,

and

its of

will

make
of
and

contrivance
as

very

intimate
many

kind

gardening,
ing interest-

ell
types

the

selection

of and

attractive

of public

informal
buildings

semi-outdoor
the
patio

furniture.
usually

In
of
to

takes

the

courtyard,

serving, to the the

in
inner patio,

the

plan
rooms.

of

the

ing, build-

afford

lighting

The
are

tectura archioften
a

possibilities
sight which
of

of
purely

however, function

in

its

utilitarian by
reason

as

light-

is unfortunate

of
may

the

numerous

ctive The

courtyard
patio of the

treatments Boston

which
Public

be is

effected.
really

Library

an

an
a

courtyard,
pool
or

flanked
the
centre

by of

cloister-like
a

loggias,
plot. is
one

and
truly

in

grass

ish,

Spanish-American, attractive Union


architects

patio

of

the

conspicuously
Pan-American

and

appropriate in
an

features

the

'Building
devised

Washington,
space,

C.

Here
tropical

the

open

rich

verdure,

flanked

by

open

stairways

and

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

lconieSy
centre

and
of
a

with

great

Aztec

fountain
appear

playing
strange

tiled
of

floor,

wherein

teresting The

figures
patio,

ancient

South been its

American strangely

ogy. mytholneglected counterpart,

however,

has
and

American courtyard
have been

architecture,
has fared
more

Italian

little
to

better, Italy
for

although architectural

es

turned
to

spiration

than

Spain.
as

Spanish

architecture,
adaptable
and
to

well

as

that with
popularity

of

Italy,

culiarly
stucco,

construction increasing both


these

hollow
of

with

the of

the

terials

the

spread

Latin

derivations

widened.
The
a

Italian
place

villa
in
our

or

the

Spanish

casa

can

never

cupy

architectural
English of for
country

thought house, but


well
as

entirel

mparable
a race, we

with
are

the not

because,

Latin
these

extraction,
types,
as

Anglo-

xon.

Our
chateau,

esteem

for

ench

will

be
upon

based

very

largely
aesthetic

upon

ary lit

association

and
be

superficial

attraction

they

will foreign

esteemed
elements
a

and
into
our our

accepted
life
"

because
^not

th

ing

because

e,

ancestrally,

part

of

life.

CHAPTER
NATIVE
TYPES

VIII
AECHITECTUEE
OF AND
ARCHITECTURE. WEST, THE

AMERICAN
CHARACTERISTIC
STATES,

NEW

ENGLAND,

THE CREOLE

MIDDLE

ATLANTIC
SPANISH
"

SOUTH.

AND

COLONIAL
IN

IST "SECESSION"

WORK SOME

MIDDLE

THE BUNGALOW

CRAFTSMAN

IDEA

ND

COMMENTS

ON

THE

SPITE
and there

the

continned
and

pronouncement
who
no

of

writers
the

critics

architects

bewail
truly

fact

is

**

no

national
the

style/'

''American
exist
country. not
one

tecture,

fact
types

remains
peculiar
as

that
to

there this by

but
types,

several

And

considered
their
to
''

divided should

what
a

naturalists rich the


the
source

call

habitat/'
architects
at

afford

nspiration is important

our

throughout
to correct
* '

country.

It

the
' '

outset

loose

and early
some

misleading
buildings

term
a

Colonial,
more

and

to

divide
with

can

little

accurately,

chronological
to
a

distinction.
extent

This

division of
locality,

may

ade

great

irrespective of
native South,

and

nsideration

of

the

types

American East

tecture archi-

characteristic
then is
a

of

North,

and

West

be
common

better

understood.
matter

It

to

hear

any

American

ing, builddesignated

of

date
' '

prior

to

the

Civil
as

War,
as

lonial, if

which
people
were

would
to

be

absurd
the

it is

rate, inaccueven

give

question

's

thought. evolution

The

of

native
primitive

American
beginnings,
is
a

architecture,
through

its

necessarily

it

highly

developed afford the

manifestations,
a

consecutive
opportunity

and
to

would study

peculiarly

interesting

history

of

the

American

people
173

"

stndy
so

so

detailed broad be
points.

could and

properly
as

be
the
more

included
present

in

view

extensive
out only

boo

erein

may

pointed

the

salient

portant The

broad
**

distinction

between

* *

Colonial

ture'' Architec-

and

Georgian"
that

(or
the

**

Georgian
essentially

Colonial")
native
is

chitecture

is

first while

is
the

cessarily

primitive,
and,
and

second

essentially

ported

by

reason

of far

greater
more

national sophisticated

pro per

development,

aborate.
Early the
"

Colonial
various

architecture
home-country

reflected
influences Welsh,
in

very

accu rat

of

the

English,
"

Dutch,
erected

Swedish, buildings

French,
parts

rman

who thirteen

different

of

iginal

colonies,

while
effecting

Georgian
a

Colonia
certain
as

chitecture
at

tended
least

toward detail,
of
the

f u

in

and

toward

effecting, distinctive

we

eat

modifications
modes

previously

tect arch

of

the
of

varied

nationalities. America, earlier Early

The

architecture

Post-Colonial
distinct
survey

and styles,

Classic
be
seen

Eevival by
a

is
brief

from

ll

of

and

Georgian

lonial
The

architecture.
clearest this
chapter

and
of

most

useful

manner

in
seem

which
to

udy

architecture

would divisions
We prevalent
in

study

by

general and

locality, geographical.
types

the

being
to

chitectural

have

consider
the

en,

the

architectural

in
New

Earl

Georgian
settlements

Colonial
of
in

periods
York

England,

New

and

adjacent
Delaware

portions

New

Jersey,
portion

Pennsylvania,

and the

uthwest

of

New

Jersey,

and

in

Southern

ates.

NATIVE

AMERICAN

ARCHITECTURE

175

architecture Louisiana, and Southwest


as

The

of the of
the
on

French

early
the

and Spanish

Spanish

Creoles
in
are

missionaries

and
separate
as

Pacific
the

Coast

"

these
of
the

eties

from
are

architecture

teen thir-

colonies be
taken

they

interesting
course.

in themselves,

and

up

in due

In

New

England demolition
'^

the which

rigorous
goes

climate, inevitably examples

as

well
the

as

yearly
progress,

in

wake homes

have

left but
and New
was
a

few

of the
reason

the

earliest
to

colonists, the

for

this

we

are

likely
as

picture
type

England evolved
wealth
of

type

of

Colonial

the

which

in Georgian
examples
may

nial Colobe

times,

and

of

which

to-day. England
of is
houses
were

New earliest resting off-shoots it

The

strange

contemporary

houses

in

and land, Engand

modified, tations. of their

true,

by

local

necessities

One

most

conspicuous The
comer

characteristics
posts

was

dy

construction.
often

of
square,

the

frame

twelve

and

fourteen

inches
tenons

heavily dowels,
many
or

ed,

and
pegs.
very

held It

together has been

with

and

en

discovered
houses
were

that

of of
a

early

New

England
construction,

actually

ish

half

-timber

concealed

behind

ly

es

mask superficial filled in with were

of
stone

clapboards. and
mortar
"

The

heavy

sometimes

brick,

the laths

interior
and

surfaces plaster,

finished the

with

rough,

-made

exterior

sheathed

clapboards. An interesting
the overhang

feature of
the

of

direct

English
as

tradition
well
as are

U-"

second

story,

the
to

diamond-paned in the earliest

casement

windows
New

which

een

examples.

England

houses

176

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

with

gambrel
of New

roofs

nearly

all

belong

to

the

earli

period As

England
grew

Colonial
more

architectijre. the

the of the

country

prosperous,

colonists the and

developed
route

correspondingly.
between
the
an

ture archite Mor


and

ships New
number

plied World,

perilous brought

Old

with

them

ever-increasing
more

of skilled

artisans,

trained

in the the

cated sophist

forms

which

characterised

architecture

Georgian
The

England.
New in England their houses exterior
more were

still
save

severe

a
the

Puritanical
which

aspect,
more

for

became

and

elaborate. door,
a

Class

J
columns
or or

pilasters

flanked

the

supporting

curved

entablature.

or pediment, pointed Beneath the pediment

deUcately
there
or was

moulded

graceful The usual


of

fan-light, exterior

with
treatment

wooden
was

leaded
complete

often division

sheathing

white-painted
the whole shingle the plain whole
most

and

clapboards, four-square
roof.
common

shutters house
were

painted
with
a

gree

roofed
other

lo

pitched
course,

There

types,

being
the
more

the

barn-roofed
simplicity

typ

with
the

gable-end
exterior. houses

and

utmost

marking

The
were

pretentious often

of the

larg

New

England
**

and

corner or quoins,'* intended to distinguish

embellished fashioned stones,


house of
some more

with

t i

in

woo

the

ous prosper-

merchant

prince

from

those

of

humble

neighbours. An interesting
house is
the
"

peculiarity

and

interior

oft-met-with house a which of rich

of disparity
would

the

New

England

between
appear,

exterio

from
kind

to be a farmstead road, disclose the most within

the

most

humble

ma

and

intricate

carved

work wood

and

panelling.

NATIVE

AMERICAN

ARCHITECTURE

177

The
house

writer

is familiar,

in detail,
portion
New

with
of

the

old

son Robin-

in.i;he Narragansett other The


very

Bhode
houses
an

Island,
in that
of
not pass
rooms,

well

as

early

England
presents

nity.
utmost

Robinson and

house
were

exterior

simplicity,
the

its interior
explorer

beauties
would

lly

famous,

architectural of the

without

suspicion

beautiful

panelled

ed

ed

pilasters, balusters
famous

Dutch-tiled
within. Even is simple

fire-places the
entrance
verge

and

twistof this
'

rty

old mansion in its appearance.


houses
an

to the

of actual

New

England with
the

will of

all be

found of

to

have

been
which
centre

gned

idea
to

conservation

heat, in
the

ed

chimneys

be
on

placed
an

always

the
case

house,

instead
in

of the

outer

wall

as

was

usually

in houses
same

middle
of hall

and

southern

This

necessity
entrance met

conservation

of

colonies. heat made


houses
^^

spacious seldom

of

the

Southern England.

"

ure
upper

with
of

in

New
were

Stairs
often

to

portions

the

house

most two

steep,

er-like

the

affairs, built homes. humbler


often the made

in between The
more

walls,

especially
with
many

larger

house,

places, in

conspicuous

architectural and
the

rts

development

of

the

hall

hall

rway.

When

it is
of of
a

itecture

remembered New England


lengthy
must

that might

the

early

American

in

itself

be

made

subject
that

and be

interesting
left

book,

much

unsaid,
to

and
a

it is apparent in the that


with
only

ent
most

chapter salient

it is possible high-lights. architecture

give

picture

Late

Georgian
early

in New
:

England Samuel

saw

two

us

Americfin Charles

architects

Mclntyre,
; the

Salem,
12

and

Bulfinch,

of

Boston

former

178

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

noted

for

his

influence

on

for second buildings.


Mclntyre,

his

achievements

residential in the

architecture,

design

of

publ

really

master-carpenter

and

builde

endowed
contemporary

with

exceptional

taste

and

Georgian
his
time

architecture of of the Classicism

architecture, in New England

appreciation in infused
a

strong

no

of the

Adam

Brothers.

In

his

work

comprising, mantelpieces
the
urns,

the notably, old gateways, Massachusetts, of Salem,

doorways
are

to

be

se

the
of
more

sunbursts little a

medallions, Adam pure


virility,
a

fans scalloped inspiration, treated,


the

and

all, wi

little

more

their architecture
the
* *

Adam
of

prototypes.

weight It is the

than New

charac terise England

Samuel
most

Mclntyre people,

minds Colonial

of
' '

was

architecture. Georgian, entirely

conception 's In reality, Mclntyre wor local transplanted style,


of
New

which their

constitutes,

a with certain associated The work of Charles buildings, design of public

part

England.
lay mostly
original Hill in

Bulfinch
of which

the

chuse Massa
in

State
is perhaps
a

Capitol,
the

on

historic

'Beacon

to Bo

most

famous. and

Bulfinch
governed by

designed sound

vein

essentially

Classic,

a d

ideal

in planning principles his dignity^ was and of his bases of


time
was an

H and composition. influence the on younger


excellent
one,

architects

making

Classic A

thought. architectural New England characteristic

structure

is

white-painted
gleams
so

wooden
so

church,

whose

quaint
seaport

steep

among

many

grey-roofed
streets

towns

elm-shaded Here, Connecticut.


many

again,

from Maine of villages is a type Englis of direct


and

derivation,

based,

in

naive

often

primitive

man

on

the

works
towers

of

Sir of
of
a

Christopher
these New

Wren England
steeple,

in

England.
churches,

of
the

the

addition character

shingled

are

of
the

the

al

of

the

beautiful
Hall,*'
entrance

tower

of

old

House,
towers
rose

**

Independence
over

in

Philadelphia.
of
the

the

front

church,
until

ding
was

in

series

of
this
**

diminishing
sometimes
'*

boxes

the

le

reached, designed

springing

from
the
early

ately

lantern.
New

Many
were

of

churches
the tower

of

England Trinity
to

beautifully

ned,

of

Church,
be
one

in
of

Newport,
the

Island,

being

conceded

finest

les.

All

the

early date
of

American
than clumsy
* *

churches those
strange

of

this

type

were

earlier

and called
'

incongruous by

ents

carpentry,

Mr.
*

Cram,

acid

cleverness,
front porticos

Grasco-Baptist.
...

It

cannot

be

ken:
columns

of

four-foot
inch

cal Classistock,

made
together the

of

seven-eighths
and

pine
echoing slab
the

nailed
to

painted
kick
green

white,
the blinds bit
of
once, a

like

um

incautious

of

heel;
to

sides,
round-

ed

with windows,

clapboards, and
at
a

little

brick in
the

ney chimhappier

sticking stood

up

the

stem, cote

where

the

little

that

housed

Sanctus

*' these
* *

Disregarding

blundering
' '

examples

of

misunder
and

Classicism, England
most

church

builders
do

in

small
to
remember

ric
that

New

villages appropriate
along

would and
the

well

their
should

proper

house that
"

r
so

be

designed built
more

lines

of

which

sincerely
perhaps,
more

by

their

forefathers detail
the

^better
trained

ned,

refined lines
to

by

tect,

refined

delicate,

tapering

oden Early
Few

tower,

yet

in

the

essential

element

of

style,

American small
a

Church.'^
parishes
church
can

aflFord
not
a

good
one,

Gothic
the

church

if

Gothic
would is
more

be
to

good services

congregation

do

well pathetic

hold
or

in

the

fiel

thing

repellent,

speaking
to

bo
a

manly

and
church

architecturally, which

than vainglorious

behold
and

sma

untry

is

pretentious

am

in

its

architectural

expression humble
place
yet
more

"

Shaving worship

departed
of
not
a

rogantly
and

from

the

of

more

ncere

devout

generation, from the There of


of

obviously sophisticated

withi

inking is

distance
aping.

churc
pretense,

stupidly

is,
a

in

such

futile

attempted

glorification
whatever

purse-proud

parish,

glorification
A New
to

Deity.
manner
**

England
be
**

architectural
as
an

which
*'

me

regarded

actual
name

style

is

o-called

Harvard'*

type,

the

derived old

from

arliest

buildings

erected

for

the

University

mbridge,
These
accent

Massachusetts.

buildings
given

were

of

brick,
door

very

simply window the

handled, trim

nd

by In
of

white

and

hite

cornice.
were,

general
course,

character,

old

Harvard

uildings

English,
It

with
from

certain
**

est int

Colonial
that
the
to

inflections.
the

is
of

Harvard'*

rchitecture

architects revived the burning

modem
use

times of

for ( Sta

White bricks of

first)
relieve
In

the

occasional

urnt

monotony

of the

large ends in
of when erected,

uniform

xpanses

wall.
must

bricks,
to

of
the

number become purple,


at
scarce

be

exposed in various
At

the

fires

nd

discolored
up

shades
the

blue,
the

gr

nd

to

black.

time
were

uildings
too

Harvard
a

University
to

br

material

allow

of

discarding

tho

burnt
with

ends,

so

these

were

built
The

into
was,

the

walls
naturally,

the

other
one,

bricks. is
to

effect

interesting
present

and

be
of

regarded harmoniously
detail

as

the

origin colored

he

excellent

variety

s,

to

be
brick
threw

considered
became
out

in
more

greater

in

Part

11.
very

When

plentiful,
burnt bricks,
or

bricklayers
using wall long and
them

dly

all

the

only

the

construction the in
level the

of
of the

drains,
ground.

of A ideal

foundations
period aim
was

th

low fol

which
wall of

bricklayer's
uniform
"
* '

up

absolutely
* *

jointing,
'

devoid
*

suggestion
was

of
left

color the

or

interest of of
our

'

or

texture.

It

for
much

architects
the
charm
came

own

time

ver old

that Harvard

of

the

brickwork
* *

buildings
by
to
as
a

from

the
of

accidental burnt and


bricktexture

sity
This
as

effected led well


patterns

the
new

recurrence

interest
a

in

color

rick,

to

realisation
and and

of

the

possibilities

orming
soon

in

brickwork, sought,

bricks

with

burnt

became
as

highly
inferior.

specified,

instead

rejected
**

The

Harvard" in

style for

has clubs, in
of

been
schools,

very

successfully
and

oped
other

designs
of

city-houses
the

types

building
was one

which dignity,

desired simplicity

tectura archi-

expression

and

est. studied
of
"

Having

this

necessarily
"

brief Colonial
what

review and

of Georgian

the

tecture

New

England
if
or

ial

^let
to

us

discover,
architect

possible, home

may

be

it

the

the

builder

of

to-day.

this

New

England
of

architecture

of
an

Colonial

times

affords
of

lth

suggestion

and buildings

admirable of to-day.

basis
No

design

New

England

type

82

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

rchitecture
a

could

be

more

style

for

any

building is
one

unsuitable in the far West


the

or
or

more

the

alien South.

localities settled oldest in most n this country, townships there and exist to-day homes large number of historic old wooden and Let days. builder, the prospective of earlier hurches bear the committee this in mind, herefore, as well as
of
who

New

England

ember
an

is vested

with

the
on

or architect building. library

voting

responsibility for a plans

of choosing
new

church

In

comparison
traditions

with and

Europe

we

are

poor

in architectural
Let

in social

and

local
even

traditions. build
up

s,

therefore,
we

guard
If
we

jealously, and
live in
a

those

hich

have.

quaint,

old New

England
houses
elms
our

ownship,
among

where
the

unpretentious

white-painted wayside
means

leam

trunks
oppose

of old by

ilac hedges, intrusion We


of

let

us

every

shade in

and

power

he

of

any

architectural
even
our

style

alien

to

the
to
are

ocality.
extent

need

not

follow ideals in

local

precedent
house
we

he

foregoing
may

the

uilding.

We
true houses

modernise
and

and

uilding
older
can

to

type

pleasantly

yet modify, harmonising

erect

with

he

of the

neighbourhood.
porches

skilful

tect archi"

introduce
every

sleeping

and

verandas
yet remain
not

nd

certainly within design to


in
a

interior

convenience,

appily

the
a

pale

of

consistency.

Do

ask
tile
The

im

stucco

house

with

Spanish

mission

oof

peaceful
would

little hamlet be
one

in the

Berkshires.
taste
as

ffence

against

good

well

as

gainst

architectural
New

propriety.
type

The

England

of

house,

either

Early

or

eorgian

Colonial,

holds into
a

ample

possibility seemly,

of architectural comfort-

development

charming,

NATIVE

AMEBICAN

ARCHITECTURE

183

homelike

and
home

entirely

desirable of to-day.
of
apparent

house

for

the

England
of

builder
southernmost

South

the

the

New

England
parts

s,

Connecticut,
York
of early

there

are

in
traces

certain

ew

State,

and

New

Jersey,
house
"

of

another
as

American

^the

type

known

tch

Colonial/'

Thaaa

t}]^
fmn
on

furm
if}

hmiRAftj

whi^h

hold

mnoh

nf
are

intftrftfli-

the

architect
on

of

to-day,
Island

to

be

Long
on

Island, both and banks


even

Staten
of Hudson,

(old

Dutch from

aaten'')j
York
most

northward
Valley.

City,

up

the

Mohawk

The

familiar

of

the
house

superficial is
the

characteristics roof-line
the
"

the

Dutch
sweep,

Colonial differing
roofs of

low^^
of ten\ In

ful

entirely
early

from England the


* *

steep,

gambrel
Dutch

New roof

houses.
* '

Colonial
and
to

gambrel
the
eaves,

shoulder
is downward
* *
* '

is

near

ridge-pole, shoulder
England ridge-pole, and pitch, The the

longer

sweep

from of
the

the

while

the
nearer

shoulder
the
eaves
a

gambrel which
lower

is usually
makes slope,
nearly the from

than

upper

slope
to

slight
a

shoulder

eaves,

sometimes Dutch small


by

vertical.
house made
to
was

original usually families


early
on

Colonial
in the size,

modest

ir,

and

accommodate wings.
placed the all
space

ing

addition Colonial
floor

of house

successive
plan

typical
rooms

Dutch ground
for

the roof

and
As

utilised
the
type

the

low
were

storage.

developed,
the

houses and

built

with

half-story

under

roof,
means

ted
small

ventilated
at
were a

(most
the

inadequately)
of
with the
full
a

by

windows
it
the

level built

floor.

few
story,

es,

is

true,
as

second
building,

gh

type

type

connotes

low

set

184

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

close

to

the the

ground
low,

and
graceful

rendered
contour

essentially
of

res pic

by diversity
The

of building natural
to

materials

used

its roof and in its construction.


of
the

building

look

across

Holland,
was

material be would
difficult by
shown

Dutch,

if

brick,
to

but

in this
although

country

brick

most

obtain,

manufacture

was

the
work

colonies. in which
over

encouraged One is often


the

the

governments

of

early
out

American
as

bric

bricks
Holland
no

are

pointed by
the
was

having

be

brought

from

first Dutch
actually

settler

Some
often made

of
as
on

this

brick,
but

doubt,
far
the

imported,

ballast,
this

by

greater

quantity

side because

of

the

Atlantic,

and

is
were

taken used

Holland

brick

Holland

dimensions

its manufacture.
Failing made and
to
use

obtain
of

brick,
local
up

the

Dutch
either

Colonial
carefully

builde

ready dressed, Some

stone,

square

or

laid

in rubble
houses

masonry.
were

Dutch

Colonial
comparatively

built
have

entirely

wood, the

though
years.

few

of these

survived

The lies
in

interesting
the fact

peculiarity that
The

of these walls
were

houses

however,

all four
gable

may

be

different
of
stone,

construction.
as

ends
was

usuall

well
a

as

the

front,
stucco.
stone

which
The

most

oft

treated
wood, in the house
the
or

with
walls

coat

of

rear

might might be

be

of house.

brick,
In

and

wood the

us

same

studying
to

Dutch whether

Colonia
or

it is often

difficult

determine
an

front
eaves,

porch,

formed
addition

by

additional
to

projection
the

the
or

is

an

of

coincident
are

subsequent Houses construction. both


met

house

its

with

and

porches

with

equal by

frequency.

out wit Th

porch, New

however, England

so

conspicuous in all early

its absence out throughis peculiar houses, to

NATIVE

AMERICAN

ARCHITECTURE

185

h,

and feature.

forms

the

origin

of

this

essentially

ican Amer-

We

have

no

European

prototype
as our

for

the

porch,

even

the

Italian

loggia,
extends

and

journey
we

of architectural

rvation

southward
more

will

perceive
those

early of the

ican

porches

nearly
than

resembling
even

ent

American is

dwelling

the
the

Dutch
two

type.

ntion

directed

especially villas of
the

to

ans

Creole
minor

plantation

illustrated.
Dutch

old Two

New

teresting in-

details

Colonial
Dutch

house,

widely
saw-cut to

employed
wooden

to-day,
shutters.

are

the Dutch

door

and

The through
open

door
centre

is familiar
so

all

"

cut

horizontally
may

its
to

that
and
the

upper

half
the

be

thrown

admit
to

light

while
of

lower

remains

closed
or

prevent

ess

straying

poultry,
The

the

egress

of

would-be
apertures

ying

children. in the
have forms been

solid

shutters,
crescent

with
moons
as
an

of hearts, recognised detail


for

ces,
very

to-day
many
a

other and inexpensive


cottage.

attractive the

modem America
with of
a

As

architecture
along

of

Colonial
lines,
work

became Georgian

developed detail and spread

Classic
the
agency

through
the

such

men

as

tyre designs,

through
many

of

few

good
and

books door-

charming
grace

mantelpieces
previously
rather

began
farm with used,

to

the

primitive
were
ren"

house.
an

Classic

forms,

however, and

interesting the
most
so

freedom
part
as

individuality
rather

for models, of

suggestions architect of
study.

than
may

ing
much

that

the

to-day As

interest,
from the free
we

well

worth

his

might

expected

hands
use

Holland,

in

of find

delighted, who of a people bright in architeccolours ture


many

and

furniture,

interiors,

unlike

the

evalent

chaste

white
of

of and

New

England,
green.

carried

out

rious
In

shades considering

blue
the

olive

adaptability
uses,

of

the

Dutch striking
the

nia Col

style
be

for

present-day

certain
to

fac

ould

apparent. very

Designed

fulfil

primitive

eds

of
Dutch

unpretentious

settlers,

mostly

farmers,

Colonial
to

house desired" of

copied would,
even

as

it

stands fail
to

woul

ave
to

much
the

be

indeed,
the

come

requirements

moderate

cottage

to-day.
In

point

of
even

style,

however,
acceptance

the

Dutch
in

Colonial
its
native

hous

ould
is

find
at

wider

localit
the

an

present

accorded inexpensive
a

it, especially
cottage

for
or

sma

comparatively
It
possesses

suburban

me.

local

historic
asset,

appropriateness

ich,

in

itself,

is

an

invaluable
expressive

and

its

resq pict

lines,
that
may
a

peculiarly of

of
size
or

domesticity,
of
ample

ch

house

diminutive
with of

proportions

be
In

designed
no

due

regard

for

stylist

opriety.

flight
the

architectural

misconception,
type

wever,
as

could
a

Dutch
a

Colonial and

of

house

ed

model

for

stately

pretentious
have

mansion.

Several
success

American in the
in with
and
among

architects

attained small and

uous conspic-

rendering
style
as

of the

medium-

zed

dwellings
making,

of
much

Dutch
grace
as

Colonial
possible, found

far

use,

su

difications

additions
these
seen

as

have been
the
to

been
the

necessary.

Chief
windows
to

has

addition Dutch

of

me do

(never
give
cases

in
height

original
the

far
rooms.

use)
many

light
the

and
profile
to

upstairs

of

these

dormer
on

windows, the

pecially

if designed
the

effect Dutch of

head-room
contour

second

oor,

destroys
yet
a

proper

of and

the

gambrel
even

of,

general

effect

simplicity,

su

details
Dutch

as

quaint

Dutch
may
/

hardware,

Dutch
source

door

shutters

proclaim

the

ration. south the Dutch of that

Immediately
where

territory
style

near

Manhattan
its

Colonial
there

left

influence
type
"

merican

architecture, necessarily
complex

is found by
reason

another of
the

ype

varied

nalities
and

represented
southern
came

by New

the

early
to

colonists.

To and

rn

Jersey, Welsh,

Pennsylvania

Delaware

English, predominated localities their


of Mawr,
seats

Swedes
in

and and conmiunities

mans. Ger-

The

first

numbers
were

in fl

but

in

certain

there

ely

distinct

in

observance
their

of

language,

social
To-day
Athyn,

religious
names
as

customs

home

countries. and
Bryn

'Bryn

Cynwyd
of Welsh

ak

the
now

original
a

colonists. but
originally
Teuton
as

Ger-

n,

part

of

Philadelphia, bespeaks
the such

an

erman
and
* *

settlement,

early

nist, coloGloria

the

Swedes Swedes
of

have
*

left

monuments

or

Old

'

Church,
and
many

plainly the
parts

Scandinavian
of

points

its

design, in

imprint of

native

arts

Swedish

names

Philadelphia

and

vicinity.
is
not

It

strange left
equally
to

that

these

varied
architectural

nationalities
legacies,

have
each

varied
some

observed,
country.

extent,

the

traditions

home

The

study

of

these

national

traits,

er,

sometimes would of
proportion
can

clearly
involve
to

defined,
a

sometimes study

blended
nately unfortu-

modified,
out

detailed
present

the to

review.
out

The

writer

hope

only mark

point
**

certain

salient
type*'

cteristics
as

which it may

the

Pennsylvania

welling
for

be

regarded

to-day

as

an

tion inspira-

Staunch
so

and
that

skUfnl
even

stone

Imilding
houses
the

was

Welsh

adition,

the

earliest for
not
so

are

found
of

nstitute
early

admirable
times, the
at
as

models
was

workmen
as

to-day

brick
local

plentiful

it

became
as

ter,

while

ledge

stone,

especially
near

such

ill

quarried
itself

Qiestnut the
most

Hill,

Philadelphia,
permanent

p s

available

building

teriaL
An early
seen

Pennsylvania
"

house

of

the

Welsh
the

type

be

in

Wynnestay/'

which

forms

subject
are

of

the
as

illustrations.
a

Salient
sturdiness
echoed of to-day.
and

characteristics of
aspect,
an

cited

general

honest works

ki
of

simplicity

admirably
architects of

in

many

iladelphia
worthy

The

stone-masonry
as

special and

study,
the
as

such

details
over

the the

so

oden
be There

shutters

quaint

hoods

door

st

remembered
was a

characteristia
local resemblance

certain

traceable
lower which
of

earlier

farm Delaware in

houses
"

of
^a

Pennsylvania,

Ne
to

rsey

and
even

resemblana^e

is

ted

the

homes

of

colonists

varying

tionalities.

While with
natural

the

exterior

walls

of

many

of

these
were

houses left

tted

white-painted
stone,
*'

window
were

frames,
roughly

some

stuccoed,
architects,

in

ner

called

roughcast**

by

English

itewashed.
very

This
successfully

interestingly employed
in
type

primitive by their of
place

device of

en

several

esent-day

local
of and and
the

architects
historic took

admirable
the

modem

nderings

vicinity.
of

alth

sophistication

the
in

comparative
colony,

verty

Quaker
lost

simplicity of
were

Penn's charm.
pompous

chitecture

much

its

original

On

hones

ugh-stone

houses

grafted

Georgian

THE A

PROTOTYPE
dwelUnc
near

Colanikl

PennsylvmuB

built

("WyDDHtsy,"

FhilsdFli"hi";

Chajlia

BarluD

Keen.

ArcliJtHt

THE A

DERIVATION
id

Diodtni

FiniuylTaiiU

dwcllini,

niintiuiiiDc

it* dsam

tbe

"Urlinc

qualitlH

ot iu

prototype

id

Dppendenaei.

Philadclpliia

THE

PRE-REVOLUTIONARY

"MANSION"

OF

PENNSYLVANIA

Tbadnlliof

olRevalutioDiry

diyBin

Amerio
any

rurDislieB
type

pncedcol

far

"

type

of

hi

unlike

Europcso

NATIVE

AMERICAN

TYPE

TYPICAL

OF thnw
._..

THE

BEUT

GEORGIAN ceiitlBniBn
wu
..^...

ARCHITECTURE reRwiuiblc
...

IN
(or
...,

AMERICA
b
b

PhilulFLphiB
.c

thi"

nmuksbly
^__

beat

G'Hir^uk

-"^^

Ball."

Pbilulelphik)

ays

and

Classic
upon

details
modest

thrust

themselves,

often

dvisedly, period,
stately
most
as

farm
saw

dwellings.
erection

The of
many

ian
and the

of

course,

the

mansions charming

of

high

architectural legacy of

merit,

architectural

sylvani Pennit,

the

local

architects
type,

have

interpreted in
several

Early

Colonial

shown

of

the

trations. environs
upon

The

of
good

Philadelphia
taste

are

to

be

congratulated

the

of

the
native

group

of

architects in

who

consistently

followed and assured


type

local

precedent
This

the

n
has

of

suburban
not

country

homes. continuity

procedure
a

only

the

of has
made

worthy

appropriate effect

of

dwelling,

but

for
so

an

able

of
in

architectural
most

consistency

tre dis

absent
the the

parts

of of

America.

drive

gh

beautiful
observer
a

suburbs
with the for
The

Philadelphia
that here

will

ss

thought the

has

evidenced

respect

continuity it is

of plain, they

architectura
have

development.
modernised, The
have needs

houses,

which,
and

indeed,

it is proper of modem
a

should
country

requirements expression

been

given

in

delightful

local

tectural

dialect. should
type
"

Mention

be
a

made

here

of

the

Anglo-Pennwhich
works
younger

anian
notably

picturesque
in the

architecture
always

expressed
Eyre,

interesting
the work him. of
In

Wilson

and have

in
been

much inspired

of

tects find

who forms

by

this

style

distinctly

English,
local idioms

honestly

rendered
sometimes

materials blended
is

and with

in the

of

expression,
type.

Native is

Colonial doubtless

That
to

the

due

the

minant

Anglo-Saxon

strain

which

is

still

strong

nnsylvania.
Fnrther sonth,
the
type

in

Maryland, The

in

Virginia
most

and

in

rolinas,
of

changes.
mansion,
than

popular is and
a

mental

cture
the

the
type

Southern
rather

however,

pictur

later

the

earlier

less-known

antation
The

dwelling.
first
were

colonists,

though

mostly

people
by
both

quality,*^

tremendously
and original of far the
from materials
manor,

handicapped
were
*

lack

cilities.
so
on

Labour
that
the

painfully
* *

rce,

the site

or

*big

house

whic
of

ood

splendid

establishment

lat

rs,
scarce
no

was

often

magnificent. the
first

Building
colonists had
little
a

ston

in

the

South,
Their

and

lit

brick.
to

dwellings,
and which
was

then,

made
at

te pr

magnificence,
of

attained,
a

best, of

certai

ement built
Later,

dignity
them.
as

reflection

the

peopl

more

ships either free

plied
or

the

ocean

and
found for
more so
*

more

illed
to

labourers, the
new

indentured, possible mansions


more

th
the

country,
owners

it became
to
erect

no

althy their
were

plantation
estate.

tin bef

Brick
stately
or

became
mansions
* *

plentiful, the
^ '

th

ere

built

of

type

of
seat

hall,'' 'Whiteof

in in

Maryland, Virginia.

Westover,

IJie

rds
An

' '

appreciation in
a

and

understanding
the

of
vogue
a

The
of

Classi England,
so

ste"

architecture,
part

Georgian
of

came
chaste

of

the of

education the
ancient

gentleman,

th

dignity the
stately

Greek
*'

temple
'^

liv of

ain

in

colonnaded
This

porticos
strain
later
on
**

uthern
to
an

mansions.
extreme
'^

Classic
the

was

often
as

ca

ed

during
as

Revival''
Delaware

ch

examples

Andalusia"

the

hi

m
its

III Us

ect

peristylar

Greek
and

Doric continued

temple, in War, favour


as
own

surroimding
for
some

welling after

house)
the

Revolutionary
*s

evidenced
home,

by

Jefferson and
for

design

for

his of

"Monti-

,*^

the

buildings

the

University

nia.
comparing with
that

In

the
of
that

later
other it
was

Colonial
parts

architecture
the
country,

of

the

of

it must
the
most

emembered

the

architecture,
culture,

for
means,

of

people

of and and

considerable
classical the
not
master

ment, refine-

leisure

education.

Slaves
in feudal
a

worked of archal patrithough

plantations, magnificence,
like
a

dwelt
a

sort

unlike English

lord, The

prosperous

squire.

difference
were

in

the

fact

that
slaves

the

planter's
instead of

broad by
of and

acres

made

ctive life
one

by
of

tenants.

The

the

planter

and
ease

his of
a

family palpable reflection

was

naturally

of

considerable
not

dignity,
of such

that

it of

is

surprising

to

find

de

life

in
of

his

dwelling.

The in

study
the

Colonial
however,
any

and
like of

Post-Colonial
the

ture architecstudy
may

South,
of

detailed

of

the

tecture

portion
the

America, of
an

readily

interestingly

form

subject
than

extensive

book

tself.
can

We

do
to

little

more

place

it,

here,

in

it

ion

other
point
as
a

early
out

architectural
the

expressions

ca, in
all

and its
means
use

role
for

which
the

it may

properly

model Southern
period,

architect
manor as

of

to-day. of

the

plantation
as

the

ian
of
may

Colonial its
be later

well

certain
the

cations modifi-

development
as
a

under suitable

Classic for

viv Re-

regarded
of
any

model

the

ry

residence

American

gentleman

to-day.

rough

historic plantation

association,
manor

however,
only
an

we

think

of with

uthern

in

connection

nsiderable lodge and

estate,

where

imposing of
person
a

gateway,

te

the the

other
owner

evidences
a

grand of

ment establish wealth

proclaim

ominence.
American

architects
country
manors
"

of

to-day
after

have
the

designed style
of

many

mirable

houses
to

the

gre

uthern

jenumerate

them,
should

indeed,
be

woul

cupy
an

several

pages.

The

style

remembered for

excellently
mansion

appropriate which is to

native
grace
an

expression
extensive
a

ately

country

tate.

In

its

essentials,
but its
use

it by
states

is
the

Qeor^an,
great

purel

glish

style,

land-owning
upon

lonists

of

our

Southern of

has

placed

it

eradicable
In New

stamp

American

nationalism.
there known
as

Orleans,
architecture

Louisiana,
as

exists

type

lonial
the

little French

it is interesting
planters. of
name

architecture
correction might

of
of
a

the

Creole

popular be

misconception

the

te

Creole*'
to

here

in

place. from

The
the

belonged
early

rst

those
and

families
came

descended
to

French

ttlers,
as

later

include
**

certain Creole'* used


to

Spanish implied

lie fam

well.
social

The

designation and
apply

ghest

distinction,
to

was

(contrary
those

rrent

supposition)
were

only admixture

familie

ich

entirely

without

of

coloured

ock.

These of in

Creole
fine
exile

families
family,
under
some

were,

in
them

most

cases,

French

ople

of

titled

Huguenots,

ving

assumed
many
a

names.

Others
plantation
at

wer

litical

exiles, behind

and

quaint verdure in
rare

old

vil head

reened

semi-tropical
treasures

the

you,

concealed

French

furniture^

AN The

EXAMPLE finsit devsl


opine

OF
Dt of

THE

PRE-RE

VOLUTION

ARY

ROITHERN in tbe

MANOR-HOUSE
wu

AmericsD

Colonial

iicrhi lecture Anindel

South

aloDRClaoii;

G"r(isD

("Whitehall."

Anne

County.

Maiyland)

AN

AMERICAN

EXAMPLE

OF

THE

"CLASSIC

MANSION"

OF

GEORGIAN

TWO

EXAMPLES

UF

THE

CREdNE KNOWN

ARCHITECTIRE A.\(KRICAN
in thr f"I Sulllh

OF

LOUISIANA-

TVPE rombinpd
to

iBflucnres

both

Fn-nrh

and

Spaainh

d*"lop

"

IJl

ware
their

and

silver,

taken

overseas

by New

the

fugitives

retreats

in

the

strange

World. Virginias*' and


were

As

in

the

English
the slaves,
a

colonies
plantations and
as

of

''The

Carolinas/*
by
negro

(mostly
New

cotton)
was,

Orleans inhabitants

from
became

earliest

days, in

busy

port,

its

rous

trade.

The in

Creole
much

plantation
the
same manner

villa,
as

as

it
the

was

called,

was

plantation
as a

villas in

he

West

Indies.

The

actual
was

house,

dwelt
story

by

master

and
to

his

family, malarial

raised

above while and


many

ground, ground-level

avoid
floor

dampness the house with of


these the

at

night,

contained
of

kitchens
servants,

the

active
also,

quarters

the

dwelt

in

cabins
aspect

plantation

hands.

The

picturesque

old and

French

Colonial
treatment

lay

largely

in
Stage

their
porch

low
or

lines

in

the

he

premier
posts

gallery,

with

its
of in
to
a

slender

and
houses
entirely

simple show

railings.

Some influence
Built
and

these the
meet

old
ence pres-

Orleans
of
an

Spanish
patio.

Spanish
of

the
now

and

requirements this
once

people

life
our

vanished,

quaint
most

architecture

of city

most

ern
some

(and

picturesque)
flashes has
of

may

stil
for

interesting of
to-day,

inspiration regarded
than
many
a

the

tect
as

who

hitherto rather

it, perhaps,
document dormant

an

historical

curiosity

American

architecture

containing

bilities.

In

studying
in
our

native
the

American of
we

types

of

architecture,

ially of

light

modern
not

adaptations

of
at
a

the
very

colonists, Spanish

must

forget
were

that,
braving

date
of

missionaries

the
to

gers dan-

the

Far

West

to

carry

Christianity

the

ndians

of

the

Pacific
had

Coast^ preached valley. Junipero,

as

the
and

French taught
great

Missionary it Spanish faithful


up

ere

Marquette, the

own

Mississippi
Fra

The
with
many

s m

his

left for

behind
us

them
a

great

buildings
now

whi

ssess

to-day the

strong

significance,
of
the

bei

ppreciated

by

architects

the
most

Pacific
part,

Coast.
needs

Mission

architecture, modification

for
for

c s

use

to-day, who

because

tho

arly

monks

and

missionaries for
their

reared
and

the

res pic

buildings sadly
all with
so a

churches

monasteries

re

handicapped
the

in
to

building performed from crude.

facilities.
by their
new

t V

work

had little

be

ands,

but it

assistance

their
There sincerity interest

c v

that

was

necessarily
of the

is, ho ev
per

distinct
dissociated

element

architectural romantic

uite

from
the early

naturally
were

ssociated

with

missions.
cloisters

There and,

ful beaut
general,

proportions,

charming of

in

rked

degree brick Adobe,


to
was

appropriateness

in
construction,

these

buildings.
and
a

ome

used the and always


were

in
natural

their

li

one.

local
worked.

clay,

was

material
was

eady

hand nearly

easily

Wood
crude
were
a

li

ed,

and

with and

quaintly
roofs

carpentry.

all

surfaces
tile the

plain,
in

of

the

corrugate

familiar

Spain.
missions
our

It

is
are

little
not

remarkable
more

hat

early
as

Spanish
one

widel
and

roclaimed
types

of

most

picturesque

abl ava

of

American
yet

architecture.

Spanishto

can, Ameri
that

perhaps,
as

essentially

appropriate the architects

ity loc

inspiration

for Southwest.
architects

of

our

enti

acific

Coast

and

Pacific

Coast

have

availed
type
to

themselves
some

his

peculiarly

interesting

local

exten

EARLY Outer
wall or Sin

SPANISH Gabriel Mission.

ARCHITECTUKE
Lot Adk^Ivs.

ON
CaUfortua

AMERICAN
(ITKO).
^

S
The
i

archiUrtural "t^e'haa'pmfu^Jlylnfruenr^^modcrn "^'"i"D

Tha

modim

Calilor

NATIVE

AMERICAN

ARCHITECTURE

195

ing

with Spain

it many

elements

more

directly
also

derived

and
type

from

Italy,

and
strong

have

developed influence of
exposed

stinctive

in

which in

Japanese handling is yearly


Pacific
most

apparent,

especially

the work

ork.
residential Diego
other
to

Much

interesting architecture of
the country,

added Coast,
from

to

the

Seattle,
of

and
the

danger
is the American

to

be of

feared,
a

parts

danger

lack

architectural

unity.

In militating of

architecture,

ce

is

constantly

against
styles.
are

consistency,

ially
not

in
mean

the

matter

local
for

Consistency
endless
every

monotony, to
we

there

and

esting
theme

variations
to

be

played
have

upon

archi-

ral

which

fallen Pacific
show

heir.

Most

public

buildings

of
the

the like,

Coast,
few

as

well
traits
other

banks,

theatres, conspicuously

and

local in

ring of

from

similar
"

buildings peculiarities, confined


to

the

United
and

States

^local
seem

mostly

interesting

promising,

tic domes-

architecture.

Before

taking

up

three
of

distinctly
American the

modem

and

tinctly disthis

non-stylistic should
up

types

architecture,
story

briefly
to

bring
bridging

of

American
the
present

tecture of

date,

the

time

between and
our

clean-cut

native

colonial

types,

period

of

varied
the

derivations.

Following

early

Colonial
the

period,
early
as

came

the
the
the

Postnewly-

ial,

running

through

part far
was

of
as

lished Classic

nation, Revival,

and
of
was

extending
which
more

time in

of

said national
at

the ings feel-

chapter. aroused
us over

This the

in

1812,

when

war

with
foreign
**

England

that

time,

to

turn

for

inspiration

toward
"

e.

Hence

the

American

Empire'*

style

^ultra-

assicism Pompeian What

in

architecture
details
on

and
every

furniture, hand.
as a

Qreek

temples

was

worthy
taste,

in
such
Terrace
years

design

result
as

of

ported old
to

Classic
* *

monuments
' '

Colonnade
was

w,

La

Grange in
the

in

New

York,

soo

st

sight

of

architectural Buskinian bourgeois reared

chaos
**

whic

llowed.

Early fantasies, and

Victorianism, debased

Gothic,*

stlakian

French

tect arch

pseudo-Swiss
of

chalets architectural
**

themselves In
us

mad

nightmare

insanity. finally
savage

18

Philadelphia

Centennial
speaking, the
some

revealed of
of

chitecturally
from

most

nations,''

this

time

on

glimmerings
make

architec tural

conscience
**

began
Anne" type,
a

to

themselves

felt.
based
a
on

-called

Queen

style,
on

actually
was

ench

chateau
creating and
upon

if
type

anything,
of house Let
us

sincere be
too

effo

ward

which
not

should heap

bo

easing

picturesque. its unnecessary artificial designers


did
not
"

muc

rision

towers,

its queer of
no

windows picturesque
than

generally

expression

lues.

The himself,
of

of
realise

that
that
*'

time,
the

less

Eas

ke

picturesque
and

is

thing
a

design

that

it

happens,"
be
' '

if the

resu

calculated The
as

intention,

it cannot
*

truly

picturesque. however,

effects
the

of

the

Queen

Anne
's

style, mad

ll

effects

of and be

Eastlake
rosettes,
even

outbursts well admirable


's

of
into

su f

spindles and
are as

lasted in
such

90s,

to

felt Mead
of

piec

design
other

McKim,

"
same

White period.

Newport

Casino

nd

buildings
was

the

leaven clarified

working, architectural
vision By the

however. outlook the

H.

H.
of

Richardson
his
or

ad

the

time

is

own

splendid

of
opening

Romanesque of the

Byzantine

Revival.

World's

Fair

"J
"

AMERICAN

TYPK
Fniin "nMur*!
no

developed
purely
a

hiBtorle

style.

growth"

AN

AMERICAN

TYPE

DEVELOPED

AM

AN

EXPRESSION

OF

THK

""PICTLRESQLE"

liu

unonhodoi

u^?l

E'"i'i^p^"D''ifrrhile"-tunil in'c"iris."Tl"'reB^1.'xainctin"e8"p

DeciKa

to

m"t

modern

AmericaD in Ihe

rpqulKmentg, crcaiion or distinct

and

dnaga

in

IdckI

malcristg,

bme

rcaiilted

nBtiunal HOUSE

typn

MODEHN

AMERICAN'

COUNTRY

DEVELOPMENTS

NATIVE

AMERICAN

ARCHITECTURE
was

197

cago
to

in
see

1893
the

the

dy as.

country light and


np

ready
new

for

change,

accept

architectural
the

There

sprang
a was

in of

Chicago Classic
as

marvellous
yet
a

hite

City/'
which

thing

beauty,

of

sicism

recognised

bearing

message

modernity. The architects


"

White,
and

of the became

World's
the

Fair,
leaders and

notably
of

McKim,

architectural
present
era

ught

ptations to the been


be

effort in America, derivations and


present

the

of
that

the
of

pages
an

commenced. of European and in

From

the

pages

open

architecture book, oft-consulted


a

must

apparent graphically illustrations. In the course

glance

through
there
was

ertain

amount

hitects ection

who of importing
for

of opposition felt that a menace

of evolution, the part on


to

freedom

of many lay in the

appeared, American,

styles in toto, and architectural buildings this reason, many iarly pecul-

and

evidently

expressive

of

kind

of

thetic revolt. On one page

appears

typical
or

American thereabout,

^ '

sea-side
as

age,''

built, perhaps, interestingly (and


house shown

in 1896
even

also

pleasingly)
it.

conglomerate
architectural in with

try

below

Certain

as,

an as such lish half-timber

expression work,
were

(usually counterfeit) of
brazenly
most

thrown
sort,

ieldstone tUe

chimney

nish
in

roof

"

of the Spanish

informal

and

in tile only,
of this

and

anything

Much profile. reason of the very in the intention


peculiarly

work

period,

counterpart

of recklessness element of the architects, attained values kind of spontaneity finds which pleasing better studied in many country side and sea-

possibly fiance deand

houses

of

to-day.

Newport,

in

Rhode

Island,

is

ch

in

houses

of

this

kind,
above

as

also

Bar

Harbor
many

in other

Maine,

the

north
summer

shore,'*

Boston,

and

ion fas

localities.
**

The

deliberately to-day
not
to
"

picturesque'*
^perhaps

house succumbed We
or

is

seldom
to

tempted

it

has

itics'

always

merited
European

ridicule.
styles,
types
"

adhere modem

ve

rictly

adapted of early
and

to

opme deve in

American

excepting
the

thr

rections,

these

three
no

only

in

field
to
**

of

domestic

chitecture.
we

Owning find

allegiance architecture,

precedent Craftsman" is
very

yle,

Secessionist
and
the
at
*'

chitecture,
a

bungalow,"

which

bungalow
Middle

all. usually and its regarded vicinity,


of
as

The

West,

designating,
developed

pecifically,
strange, well be

Chicago

has

veral

interesting
regarded called
in
' '

types

architecture of
a

whic
of

ght

as

the
**

works

group

me

should

be

the

American
'^

Secessionists." Style follows


sometimes
"

Mr.

Cram,

an

addresb
them
one

on

in
:

American

chitecture,
**The

paragraphs Secessionist
"

as

might
even

call

ost-Impressionist, be

Cubist, and
his in
some

is

the

latest
most

element

introduced, Unlike
he work
"

ways

he

is the

est int

confreres
himself
heart
may
seems
we

in

Germany,
little
except

Spain
in

candinavia,

shows
or ^f

mino

omestic

at

are

conservative
he

rac

hatever

individuals
His his
to

be
to

"

^but

here

is

stimulating.

habitat governing

be

Chicago
a

and
strongly

the

Pacif

oast,

conviction
forms of

developed
Some

nmity

archaeological
houses

any
are

kind.

he

little

of

the

Middle
clever;

West
some

striking,
of the work

qui

ovel,

and
Pacific
no

inordinately

he

Coast,
less.

particularly Personally,

around I
do
not

Pasadena, believe

xquisite,

it

AN NoUblyin

EXPRESSIOK
the Middle

OF
WcitC,

THE

EUROPEAN
havo

"SECESSION"
mnny

IN

AMERICA BDeDdeaT

there

sppeHred

hauneg

which

cipren

ORIENTAL

INSPIRATION THE

IN

'BINGALOW COAST

ARCHITECTURE

OF

PACIFIC

FORMALITY

AND

INFORMALITY ARCHITECTLRE

IN

CALIFORNIAN

tyfHcal

Pacific redwODc)

Coast trunka.

''BuuhlIdv"
The

ia

aevo

tbroudb
ii

ao

cntTum

peri

latunJ

liungaloK

itself

coDitrueied

iuide

uid

ble and

wholly

to

sever

one's

self

from

the would

past,

it

expression

and hand,

it certainly
the
astute

be

sirable unde-

On
of
our

the best

other

archaeology

modem
and
two

work,
leads

whether
nowhere. much of

Classic Out
value

or

c,

is

stupefying of

of

the
may

play

these

tendencies

.'' illustration this architecture by Wright,


younger

An

will

convey

an

idea

of

the

ter charac"

of

of

the

American
exponent

Secessionists
of

use

designed Lloyd
many
more

the

greatest

the

style,

whose

work

has of
on

profoundly Middle

in fl

architects
comments
as

the
the

West. intent
survey

Some

general idea, Nouveau''

aim

and

he

Secessionist '*Art

well
movement

as

paragraphic
are

the

reserved
of
this

for

duction book.
*'

in

the

concluding

chapter

portion

he

In

Craftsman''
expression
' *

architecture of
a
' '

we

find direct

very

direct
simple

simple
The
**

very

and

Craftsman
"

idea,
^the
were

indeed,
the

might

better life. would

be
The

creed"
one

creed
its

of

simple
traced,

is

which,
to

origin
"

lead

tly

back which

William
all

Morris
adherence
or

^a

style, forms

or

point

decries

to

which
Its

recall

arts

of

foreign

lands

other

ages.

exponents

ain

that

whatever in freedom

may

be

lost

in

historic

association precedent,

is gained in
actual

from of of

constraining
a
* *

establishment
the

contact

with

nature
' '

f.

It

is

architecture

the

simple

life.

Nor

need

it

be

supposed
a

that
austere

"Craftsman"
and

tecture archiThe

is necessarily
is

thing

ascetic.
all

framed

to

include, other

necessarily,

furniture,
as

draperies

and

fitments

of

the

home,

well

he

both

inside

Subdued
of of the

colours perfect

of and

nature

are

specified simplicity,

as

mo

xpressive

reposeful especially Tones


are

and

ement

primitive, desirable.

in
plain

textile
"

textures,

considered
flat

^flat wall things of

s f

stencil
or

decorations, dull
and
'

often
"

symbolic,
values

aten

copper

faience blues. creed

dull Most

browns,

eens,

tans,
'*

greys

commendable
honesty
expression

l,

the

Craftsman and
a

'

includes

of of the

c s

frank,

unashamed
direct

c s

"

tenet

inherited
Morris.
*'

from

earli

usade

of
part

William
of
the

Craftsman*'
to

idea Morris

"

coincident
movement,

with
is

similarly
*'

related
scheme design.

the

Mission

of

architecture,
The
' *

concerned

mostl
' '

th
can

interior
be

Mission

Style,
from

so

far

called
"

such,

originated rush-seated, for


a

two

simple

straight-line

chairs,
architect that the

designed

by

cific

Coast
In all
art

small

Califomian
advocated
our
' '

paris

urch.
of

Mission
to

idea
'

tio rej
aim

related
the aim

historic

'periods,

its

entical latter

with

of

the still and

**

Craftsman
a

*'

idea,

whi

exerted,
over

and design and

exerts,

widespread
of

the

fashioning
other

textile

ramics,

jewelry

things

than

architecture

furniture.
Its

definite
has
yet

place
to

in
won

the by

mosaic
the
are
* '

of

American
' '

tect arch
style,

be

Craftsman
to

is

current

style.

We wide

able

perceive

that

been
so

accorded far
as

and

intelligent
up
*

appreciation,
the
' '

it

sincerely it is
amount

lives
not

to
*

creed but

upo

ich

it is
to

founded,
a

only

safe

right

cord In
some

it

proper

of
as
a

serious
seen

appreciation.

discussing danger

the

bungalow discussing

in America,

the

of

thing

which

does

ally

exist,

excepting
is
and

in
the
since

rare

instances. dwelling
type
to

The
of

real

only

**bnngalow''
Indian,

one-story

th

-East
we

this

is

peculiar

a,

will,

perhaps,

do

well by

forget

the in

absent
name,

larity look
any

in
at

type

suggested

the

identity
as a

the

American form of

bungalow

distinct
quite

type,

other
The

dwelling, bungalow,

and in

often

itself. in
many
are

American
of
type

other

words,

varieties
unlike
the

small from **A


cottage

cottage,

virtually
we

al

which

which lightly

take

the

Webster
or

defines

it:
or

built,
a

usually
story,
accurate

ched

tiled,

house

of
"

single

ly

surrounded
enough
as

by
far
as

veranda" The

definition
of
stucco,

it goes.
of
or even

bungalow
and

to-day
of

be

of

fieldstone,

hollow

tile

al

construction,

of

brick,

and

its

roof

may

of

Spanish
one

tile is

or

of by

shingles.
a

If

invited
at the

friend
one

to

visit
little,
he
may

him if
any,
see,

in

hi

galow" idea portable


a

seaside, of
to
a

has

nite defi from

of

what
house"

manner

dwelling

substantial giving
to
a

two-story

cottage.

low-sweeping will
cause

roof,

low

appearance

t
as are
on

ttage,

the

owner

describe
*'

his bungalows"
full

villa

ngalow." and
floor,
two
or a

Nearly
half in

all height

American
"

ory

that
means

is,
of

story

the

and
more

provision
small is usually

by
sleeping
a

dormer
under

windows,
the

rooms

roof.

veranda

prominent

feature
a

of

this
after

type

dwelling,

and

since

it
or

is
a

not

bungalow

the

-Indian
"

fashion,
type,

cottage
seem
' '

of
that
a

the
new

English tion designa-

ek-end
were

it would
* *

needed.
and
may

Bungalow,
as

however,

is

likely

e,

do

well

as

anything,
of

despite
its

the

bility^

and

usually

the

inaccuracy,

application,

ARCHITECTURE

The
and

bungalow
low-cost
have

is

distinctly
on

popular the
a

type

of

era mod

dwelling

Pacific

Coast,

wher

rchitects livable
of

developed
and

it into
it is essayed
nearly
every

thoroughly
to-day,
part

charming with

nd

affair,
success,

varying

grees

in is
than

of
a

the

country.

The

bungalow
extensively

appreciated, it is

in

popular

wa

re

understood,
take
it
a

and

if

architects
more

nd

prospective
and

builders
it

will into
a

little

ou se

develop
role
a

miniature
fills
and

all-year-round

use

(a

it very

frequently

to-day),

there
American
to
nor

ma

evolved
of

highly

desirable bearing
no

essentially
whatever

pe

dwelling, affair
other

similarity
its
name

opical
any

from

which

has
any

come,

architectural
point,
having

type

in

other
a

country.

At

this
an

presented
to

in

necessarily

bri

rm,

analytical which
to
a

guide
possess

those

architectural
form,

styl

types

definite classification,

and
it is
no

which
less

ma

subjected
to

definite little

tant impor-

direct
of
our

critical
which

attention

toward
**

certai

ases

subject
' '

might

be

called

tural Architec-

Addenda. In
point of

style,

comment

will

be

made

upon

th

range

movement

called

**L'Art
**

Nouveau/^

and

upo

Secessionist
and will

(now
Germany.

Modernist*')

movement

stria It

prove

interesting, the results


old
to

as

well, have

to
come

direct from

vatio obser

toward

which

plication

of

certain
"

architectural modern
the

styles

to

ne

chitectural

types

the

city loft railway


and

house

and the

sho

ont,

the

tall

oflSce

building,
hotel and
new

building,

va

dem

American inventions
art
' '

terminal.

many

to

fulfil
has

unexpected

duties
up to

of

Architecture

splendidly

lived

stiny.

CHAPTER
STYLES
APPLIED

IX
FAMILIAR
"

APPLIED
TO NEW AND

TO

USES, NOUVEAU,"
THE

AND

OLD
THE
"

STYLES

USES. "MODERNISTS."
THE

L'ART

SECESSIONISTS"
THE

CITY
THE

HOUSE,
MODERN

OFFICE

BUILDING,
THE

LOFT

BUILDING, AND
THE

HOTEL,

APARTMENT

HOUSE

GREAT

RAILROAD

TERMINAL

O
of

study

of

stylistic
complete

expressions
without design which It
some

in

architecture

wonld
certain

be

acquaintance

schools

of

exist
the

outside
of

the

the

historic

periods.

is

purpose
*'new''

this

er, certain

therefore,
new

to

discuss
of

certain old

styles, which have

applications
the history

styles

added

to

of

architectural

development

odem

times. of
the

One

first

secessions
1896 ^L^Art

from in
the

historic form
' '

precedent
of
a

appeared
was

about
'

movement
new

known
as

as

Nouveau.

This in which, all

art,

inating,
design seemed of

its

name

would

indicate,

France,
at

in

general
to

into
entirely

convulsions

the

likely
or

transform
design in

previous
and

Classic
L'Art
an

academic
Nouveau,

architecture

ture.

furthermore,
dominance of

assumed, feeling
and in
the

rarily, of
as

absolute

jewellry,
well
as

ceramics,

bookbinding
arts. not

other

s,

in

the

graphic
could

The
of

style, its

however,
novelty,

last

beyond

the

first

because
sought
to

it

was

illogical

and
to
accommodate

ally basic-

unsound. decoration, In
art,
two

It

mould
accommodating

form

instead
respects,
as

of

decoration
naturalistic

orm.

it

was

highly

of

employing

motifs

plant

forms,

and

render203

these
a

in

naturalistic
flowing

manner.

^'L'Art

Nouveau'

style

of

and

sinuous
* *

lines, forced,

often
' ^

graceful

too

frequently it
was

bizarre
also

and

and

although
that

turalistic,
forms is true
works
nouveau''

highly
were

artificial, forced
school
to

in

tural It

employed
that
no

into of the though

illogical had

use

previous
way

design
creations there free

p d

in

any

similar
even

of

art

enthusiasts,
an

migh

traced

accidental

similarity
or

in The
its
most
*

some

Gothi

nderings
in

of
France

leaves
and

fruit. found

style

reached

ight

ready
' '

outsid
the

ceptance

in
and in
too

Belgium,
^^

being

too

French

for

ma Ge

emotional"
solely

for

the

English.

It

pied,

America,

by

reason

of

its of

novelty,

thout its
As

any

understanding
creators.

whatever

the

intention

French
a

style,
as
a

'*L'Art
sort

Nouveau^'

comes

to

us as

to-da
a

metimes

of

joke,

and

nearly

always
perhaps,

g m

and

ephemeral

fantasy.
with

This, all

is

together

fair,
had If it
had

because,
some

its

faults, of real awakened

^'L^Art

uveau^^

occasional done

flashes
more,

tion. inspira

nothing
form,

it of
the

preciation

of of

graceful

and

inexhaustible
from Parisian

ssibilities One
"

deriving
the

decorative
shows

motifs
a

pla

rms.

of
style,

illustrations

sh

ont

^the

perhaps,
a

exemplified
or
a

at

its
or

best,
a

all

buildings,
may

hat

shop,

candy

shop,

sma

eatre,

permissably
cannot

indulge
a

in

architectural
or
a

ol fr

One

imagine
*^art
nouveau^'

courthouse lines,

post-office
can

signed

along of and
and

but

one

ily rea

think

instances
pleasing.
a

in

which To-day,

the

style

might
it is
to

ceptable

however, style,

tents

purposes

**dead"
the

excepting

in

print

which

it

left

on

previously

Classic

arch

AN

ARCHITECTURAL OF GERMAN

CONCEPTION THE
VIENNESE

CHARACTERISTIC AND AND This

SECESSIONISTS

MODERNISTS eumple
ii liken [rom
"

dnwia(

by

re

of

the

Beaux

Arts"
over

For
the of

it
'*new

was

from
art"

the

brief

intense

enthusiasm

that in
a

French

tects much

received
of
give

the their
many
a a

idea

rendering
detail,

tic naturalisas
a

vein

ornamental architectural

as

well

their

ncy

to

forms

certain

sity

and
early
as

often
1870

certain
few

frivolity.
restless Austrian

As

designers and
ture architec-

experimenting dangerously
however,

in
like

strange

furniture
of the
'^art

that

nouveau/'
take
a

ally,
form,

their the

efforts
^90
's

began
the
**

to

nite defi-

and
an

in

late

Viennese
"

sion*' Secesner forerunists, secessionwhat

became
of
as

actual
' *

school
school

of

design

the

the

* *

Modernist
name

of

to-day.

The

their

would the
new

imply,

rebelled
of

against

regarded
and

as

slavish
means

copying

archaeological
Their
as
a

sought

of
to

expression.
some

art,

s,

might

be

considered

extent

creed,

declaration. it
was
a

While
and

creed kind
and

based
of
very

on

simplicity,
very to

it
unlike

was

strange

simplicity, difficult
any

that
with

William
other

Morris,
art

compare

movement
were

of
as

other
^^

land

or

period.
as

secessionists
to

nearly

original''
suggest

it

ble

be,

and
elements

their
of

works things

but

remotely

in

elusive

Japanese
is
a

and different
first,
as
wa"s a

tian. Egypkind
decoration whole,

Secessionist
*^art
nouveau'' as

architecture

very

architecture;
an

in
to

the

is

regarded

accessory

design

in

the

second,
as

the

whole

design
to
may

regarded

te

illogically)
as

subordinate
work for with emphatic

its
seem,

decoration. it is
is,

al

much

secessionist conservative, and


cleverly, is most

ty,

distinctly
sparingly

decoration due appreciation

used

fact

that

its

value

when

it is made

incident

rather is absence forms,

than

an

end

in

itself.

Secessionist
plain wall

chitecture
an

characterised
of

hy

broad,
and
or

s f

mouldings
architectural

of

all

Classic

storic
a

either

decorative,

close

association

of

furniture,
of efforts
the

fabrics
modem
largely

and

oth

cessories.

The

consistency

Austrian

German
that
one

secessionist designer

is
only

due house,

to

ct

creates

not

the

but

rniture
well,

and

its

entire
as

scheme

of

interior of
the

decoration,
gardens

perhaps,

the

layout

su r

it. Such
designer
the

procedure

is

highly

desirable,
and
*'

assuming
versatile
to

is sufficiently

capable
^the typical

carr

entire could in
the

scheme

"

Secessionist'*
any
or

vil
way.

deed,
As
any

hardly
case

be
of
any

achieved
**

in

other

extreme*' acceptance

radical
to
a
as

sty

style

of

which
that
of
one

the

amounts

cree

is

essential
acceptance
or

believes style
seems

sincerely merely
to

in

it

suc

any

because
*Hhe and
latest

it

is

fad,''
doubly

because deplorable,

it

be

thing,

in

that

style

individual

th

debased.

The

Secessionist
modern

movement

of

Austria

profoundly
decoration
many

fluenced

architecture,

interior producing
at

rniture

design
not

in

Germany,

works

gnificance

entirely the
the

measurable

the

present

tim

In

France,

Secessionist

movement

found
architects
same

pression

in

''Modernist** is
apparent

school here
the
same

of the

corators.
of

There

ance avoid

Classic broad,

or

historic
plain

forms, wall

effort and

toward

fecting

surfaces

strikingly in

original'*
have

forms.

The
strange

French
exotic

Modernists,
flavour
to

tio add

given
the

much

of

the

rk

by

introductipn

of

certain

Oriental

devices

ially

as

derived
costumes,

from

Persian turban

architecture. head-dresses. textile motifs

Many

ernist"

Oriental
bear

me
of

bottles
this

and

Persian

denc evi-

interesting be supposed,

influence.

As
a

might
small

America
of the

saw

counterpart

scale,

however),
many

Secession,

and of

ying
have
to

to-day ^'Modernist"
not,
as

reflected
movement,

scintillations
also
on

the

small

scale.

yet,

an

American
though
we

**Modernisf have and


a

tecture archigood

reckon

with,

bit

emisf
great

interior American

decoration

furniture. in architecture work,


has
as

The

Secessionist
of

i noted
extensively

Lloyd

Wright,
part

Chicago, preceding
contemporary

whose

he

latter
influenced

of
many

the

chapter,

architects
of this school

of

the

West.

The
has

exact

place
to

of

tectura archi-

design
both
the

yet

be

determined,
must

and

its

real

present

and of in both

ultimate,

depend
client.

entirely

sincerity
is much

architect
of the

and
American and

There

the

best

ist Secessionwhile
strange

architecture

which
examples
to

is pleasing show
much

refreshing,

tudied ^'forced"

which
reason

is
for

too

possess
way
or

valid of being
a

existence.
from forms, should
venture

which precedent,
for
to

is by

departure
of

academi

the

guidance
No
copy

historic

the
attempt

master

designer.
no mere

amateur

it, and
another
ever

of

work
or

which
personal

has

ted

from
can
or

's

sincere
a

conviction recognisable

uity

possess

degree

permanency.
us
now

Let

turn

to

certain
wherein of design

current

architectural historic distinctly


how styles
new

estations been used building,

in
as

America media

old
for

determine,

if

08

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

his

has

been

done,

and

with

what

degree

of

stylisti

ropriety. We
have,

in

the

larger

American problems,
a

cities, of

certai
which
on

ighly be

specialised
germane

architectural here
to
present

ay

few

remarks

odern
**

city

honse,

the

tall

office loft

building

(once
the the

calle

he

skyscraper''),
hotel,

the
apartment

building,

gigantic

odern

the

house,

and

great

em mod-

railroad
The
variety
not

terminal. city
to

metropolitan of

house,
the

at

the

outset,
many

presents

problems

architect,

of

which hedged

strictly
the

architectural.
natural

He
of
''

is

doubly site, building

bout

with

limitations

the

and

wit

he

multitudinous

''restrictions
of

of

city

codes is

The

''architecture*' when
the

the
the

exterior, street

indeed,
is

i f

design of
of
An
to

of
the

facade
may

finished,

nd

the
in

interiors
any

rooms

within
styles

be

carried by

ut

range

"period"

dictated indeed,
or

im

of

the

client. here
rooms

interior

decorator, the

may

called certain
Of the

in

work

with

architect,

to

execut

independently.

working
the

relationship responsibility
the

of

architect
in

and

tor, decora-

and
will
The larger

clients'
said of
in

this
of

connection,

be

second

part

this

book.
in
most

trend

architectural

development
to

cities

would
and

seem

dictate

certain
than

styles
others.

appropriate
are

in

better

taste

ere

strong

recomimendations, the
a

for
a

example,

ward

designing
vein,

facade modified
or

in

modified
French,
manner

Italian
or

naissance

Modem
in the

rect

Louis

XVI
type,

style,

called
stone
use

th

arvard"

of

brick,

with

white

trim
has
a

and

casional

ironwork.
the Holland

Surprisingly
Dutch
type,

little

beeu

de

of

of

which

remark-

l*tture
".

in

Now

mivE

Coupii the -Low York Cit)-. ia of dctsila in bri(faiiyuJriu c


o(

ii

ii
"

Si

III

able
a

rendering
New

is York

seen

in

one

of

the

illustrations, have
which

ng

City

residence. half

Fire-laws

ded
so

the much

picturesque
charm
to

facade city -timber in England, Chester, and

and

to

old
that

Flemish,
a

French

German could of

streets.

It

is

half -timber
use

*'efFecf

be

obtained
materials,

by

ingenious the result

(or

misuse)
be
At
in
a

fire-proof

would

palpably
one

artificial,
time city

and
houses
manner,

consequently were

undesirable.
designed

arly

Romanesque
contemporaneously

in called of
the

strange and
in

attempts
more

hic,''

successful

adaptations

Gothic-Eenaissance
First.

transitional
will
not
now

style
the

of

is

We

speak

of

entirely

s
in

*'brownstone
rows

front/'
the

mercifully
of
even

disappearing
"

under
copy

hands
could

wreckers

^it
a

was

an

ly

base

(if it

be

called
poor
's,

copy)
taste
a

entirely
existed of its in

debased
France
on

kind in the

of

bourgeois
*80

early

and

repetition

like,

either
to-day,
as

side
or

of
even

the

Atlantic,
the

is

nately its

impossible actual
house

in

future. the

In

planning,

complete

organism, and order


an

city

is

complex for
part the

affair, highest of the


as

tural architecof

problem
ingenuity
be allow, and

calling
on

ability
Booms
site
quarters

the
as

architect.

provided
with

adequately

the

restricted
servants*
a

light

and

ventilation,

kitchen devised,
as

skilfully
and
a

incorporated, number
of
elevators,
such

service

entranc

convenient

ations chutes

self -operated

dumb-waiters,
and heating

ry

and,

of

course,

the

plumbing

s.

ith

all

these

details,

only
upon

in
to

part

suggested
as

here,
some

architect

is

now

called

effect,

well,

THE

PRACrriCAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

**

' '

nse

of
a

spaciousness twenty-five
house

"

^perhaps lot.
The

in

city

hous

ccupying in
city

foot

greatest

evolu tion

planning
' '

took
stoop entrance

place
' '

with
the

the
narrow

ment abolish

of

the
The

high

entrance

and
plan,

ithin.

basement
house
to
on

with

the

fro

all

of

the

or

near

the

building

line,
the
nature

enabled

he

architect
or

design sometimes

something
of
occupying
too,
an

in
almost the

of

oyer

lobby,
nature,

monumental

mposing Some
in

and

whole

width
economy

of

ot.

architects,
other
parts

by
house,

ingenious
have of

pace

of

the
or

designed

gre

wo-story

living-rooms and
as

salons,
lot

considerable

ength,

wide
"

as

the

(exclusive
desirable
confines

of
in

the

party

all

thickness)
cramped

device
'

most

the

necessari

'

and

shut-in"

of

the

usual

welling.

Much

yet in

remains

in

the with

evolution
the

of

the

city

house

especially

connection

architectural
low-extensions.

tion reclama-

of

back-yards,

roofs,

and
too,

Ther

re

unrealised
or

possibilities,
garden

in

the

introductions
at

patios

small

court-yards,

either "solarium**
retreat
recent
even

the

groun
or

level,

or

sunk
has

in

the
an

roof. attractive
house
to

The

parlor

added
a

off design, under

the

dinin but

room

of

many

city

of

mor

still

remains

to

be

done

create,

architec turally

unfavourable urban speaks,


opportunity

conditions, dwellings.
here,
not

more

livable

attractive

One
an

of than

the
a

city

mansion,

whi of

is

rather the

problem,
for
up.

but of

average

and of
our

even

small

city

house, made
the

these

most

residential
of

streets
designing
met,

The been

problem variously
From

tall
with of

office

buildin

has

and

often

conspicuous
there

success.

the

point

of

view

design,

ifew
a

red
or
a

seemly disguise,

and for of
or

well-considered
a

architectural
the

g,

steel
or

frame, window

whole

presenti
to

maximum
of

voids,
wall

openings,

um

solids
manner

surfaces.
which
the

Hie

skilful
was

in
forms

the

great

Woolworth of
a

ing

treated in
can more

subject
chapter.

carefully
no

led

discussion precedent
of

the

fifth

Obviously
the treatment

ric

be
vast

followed
than
the

in

of

lding

size

greatest

European
as

draL
than

Historic
models,

styles
so

have
we

beeii
have
the

used

motifs

that

Metropolitan

in

New

York

City,
campanile, arcade
so

done

in

the

guise

of

an

an

Renaissance
see
a

enormously
or a one

magnified, Colonnade

an

Italian

Classic
can

ing

building
the

tall

that

scarce

discern

order
most

of

columns.

In

tall

office

buildings,
to

architectural
the first
two

effort
stories
three

in

is usually
level, the

confined and
to

few
or

above
stories
mass

street
crown

the

upper

building. by which
countless

The

intervening

of

perforated design, If
evenly
as

windows, expedient
detail,
*

is

usually

of

is

an

both
or

logical

and
were

ble.

architectural
over

interest,'*
such
a

the

vast

bulk

of

colossal in
and

ng

the the

Equitable
effect The
would

Insurance be both would


focus

Building,
optically
* *

New
mentally
'

City,

distressing.
the
eye many

building

seem

restless

e
level,

would

fail important

to

itself
of

naturally

at

and

values

dignity,

and

of

ing of
the

almost larger

approaching

sublimity

(apparent
would

in
lost.

conmiercial
many

buildings),
liberties
must

be

is natural styles

that
to

be

taken urbanely

with

ic

fit

them

agreeably

and

to

the

building

igh

average

of
and

merit

has

been
which for

stmck American this

through

ngenuity
shown
type

adaptability

architect

ave

in of
the

their

designs

essentially

can Ameri

building.
lay
to

Even it

observer
design
to

should
a

not

fail for

to

appreciate

hat

means

cornice,

example,

olonnade in
only

in
the
on

scale

be The

seen

elevated
can

forty
contrive It
at
may
a

or

tories

air.
paper

architect in his

etail

and

head.

look
great

ifferent
and

in if

its execution
we

and
consider the

placement
the

ele tio

stop
nature

to

exacting
we

and
must
come

rea

remendous

of

problem,

ealise

thajk
ul

an

architect
of
a

deserves tall

more

credit
for the

for
successful

uccei^sf

design of
a

building
country

than house.

design

beautiful
could
great not

The

country to

ouse,

perhaps,

be

more

agreeable

on,

while bulk,

the could

office
have

building,

if
a

only and
at

by

reason

its

easily

been is
not,

vast
even

grievous its
best,

rchitectural

affliction, appealing
modern
as

and
the

umanly
Another
some

country

house. architectural

American
a

problem,
than the

respects

problem
in

more

exacting

ffice

building,

exists

the

^^oft

building."
entirely stories
some

Here

structure

intended perhaps
on

for

purposes

utilitarian
in height,

city

building
to
or

twenty

house
some

each

floor

manufacturing Two

dustry
have

commercial
against merit
economy

organisation.
the attainment in in
an

militated

of loft

egree

of

architectural
and often
to

the

building
"

eedy

erection

expenditure edifice
unworthy

^yet
means

chitect

has
or

produced dismissed
as

by
of loft good

no

spicable,
of
the

be

the

atte tion

architectural
a

observer.
beauty,

The

buildin

be

thing

but

desig

pl
'is

lisij
'

sill
y3

'

"I ij
2*

id fumiAbed

id

the

the

inevitable
a

limitations of
the

presented, banality.
is
one

may

keep

i the
on

being office

thing

absolute loft

Unlike of
many

building,
and
may

building
only

eet,

be

lighted light

from
a

front

and

rear,

possible
purpose.
"

addition^ Consequently,
is attempted front
to

from
any

shaft

designed
**

to

architectural
design
can

acter charapparent

which

in

the
or

be

in

the

elevation,
the

street

facade. its

Usually
story

entrance

building

and the
to

crowning

architecturally

treated,
given
over

intervening
window
height
two

stories
space.

entirely

necessary

adjacent
building
towering

buildings
perforce
far

of
must

comparable
rear

exist, blank
and

the

great

side
fourwalls

above it.

the

rows

of

three-

buildings for
years,

below adorned
names

Ordinarily
only

these large

blank
painted

with

signs

aiming

the floors, has

and in

businesses
many

of
notable

the

tenants

of

several

though

instances
strangely

the

tect

made devising
two

this

vast
upon

wall

surface

esting
use a

by
of

it titanic

designs
bricks. In
occupy

formed
a

the

different-coloured
of in
equal the height

few

loft

building

may

both
to

adjoining,
these and visitor
to

but gigantic

interval
patterns

previous loom

their
as
an

ion,

brick

up

esting

commendable
to
a

expedient. American fail


even

No

large

city,
to

especially

or

New

York, edifices, fail,


to

could

be

impressed
their
or

by towering

the

hotel
may

though

ures

through

familiarity
metropolitan
great

feigned

ference,
passes

impress under

the their

individual
or

daily in

shadows,

eats

ently

their

gilded

dining-rooms. hotel,

Th^

modem
organism

American
as

besides

being

marvellou

hotel,

presents

several

unusually

nteresting
and
an

angles
out.

for

amateur

architectural

study,

nside
As

organism,
one

indeed
vast

a a

microcosm,

we

see

under

roof

combination
all

of
to

devic

uman,

mechanical and
comfort
must the great

and
to

aesthetic, the
guest.

planned

ef

leasure

Since
with the
we

the

presen

onsideration of
dismiss
American
at

deal

entirely

architectural
must

pect

metropolitan other

hotel,
interesting

its hotel about of the

many

features. from

architecture the time

emerged of the general


the

absolut

anality

architectural erection
' '

wakening in

country,

and the
of

after

of

ldorf

New

York taking
styles

City, the form of


were

prevalent
a

hotel

styl

llowed
the

suit,

composite XIV,

adaptation

French

Louis

Louis
more

XV
enormous

uis

XVI.
than
the

Structures
greatest
were

reared
palaces
magnificent

lk

French made

or

chateaux,

tel
a

interiors

and
of

sumptuous

superlative
mirrors The
and

degree

by

the

use

ornamental

ma bl

gilt.
of

adaptation hotel
has
many,

this

'

'

'

magnificent
but
not

style

for

rge

been
on

severely
the

intelligently
it is
vulgar

cr ci

by

ground be
a

that

tentatious.
large
"

It
city

should
is
to

remembered, with
impress
a

however,

hotel

building

definite
if

tio int

it is

intended travelling

attract,

and,

possible

atter

the
French

public.

It

cannot

be
and

denied
speaks

gal

architecture

attracts

iversal

language
richness

to
a

all
certain

beholders,
kind of
even same

symbolising
social if

o l

and

distinction. be it is

has

splendid
repose.

self-assurance,

it may

lack

And
managers

for

these
were

reasons

Hotel
that

quick of
the

to

appreciate theatrical

ct

architecture

is

one

most

arts

"

that
even

certain

impression
unconsciously, the
any

may

be by
a

more

readily
number

ed,

though through
through
lobbies,

greater

of

people than marble and

architectural
other
means.

guise

of

the

ng

Thus,
the
are

the
vistas

the

gilded
the

dining-rooms,
hotel
manager

rrors
scenery,
a

palms devised and this

in

modem
the

but make

theatrical

by
the

to

his

success,

people

eating,
gorgeous

promenading
environment

ancing

in

intentionally
actors.

the

unconscious
eat

in
one

richly
may
care

decorated
not
at
some
' '

Louis
all

XIV
the

dining-room,
style

gh

for small

in

itself,

receive
the
name

unconsciously
manner.

reflex
by

sensation whatever

grand he

Call
average

the

feeling
is

will,
"

the
^he

person

flattered
of

by
great
past,

environment royal
cannot
escape

treads

in

the

footsteps

personages
a

and

courtiers

of

the

distinct

impression

of

elation

or

ication.

or

these

reasons,

which these

are

psychological
styles

rather

architectural,
to
* '

French

which which regarded

were

make
hotel

up

an

elaborate
' '

composite
are

might
as
an

lled

architecture,

to

be

ent
sure,

choice is

for

their

purpose.

Hotel is
be
great

architecture,
when

superficial,
its

yet
must
a

this

natural

it i and

ered
to

that
attract
a

appeal
please
high

instantaneous, variety of

and
not very

people,

ing

degree

of

architectural

mination.
evidence
management

urther

of

the

desire

to
seen

please

on

the

part

hotel

is
in
as

to

be

in

the

diversity of

tyles

often
as

found

the
the

interior
'*

decoration
rooms

hotel, constantly

well

in
to

special** the

which

ofiFered

meet

continuous

public

THE

OF

ARCHITECTURE

emand

for

**

novelty."
* *

One
Antoinette Louis XV
or

will
'

find
'

Louis
a

ning-room, resplendent
*'

Marie in

tea-room,

r b

rococo,

and

an

**

remberg

rathskeller,
diversity Room"
**

grill-room

downstairs.
the

reater
Egyptian

may
or

be
**

offered
Pompeian
must

in

form
"

of
yet

Room"

arge

of

inconsistency"
that

fall devised
is

flat
to

when

emembered
as a

these musical
these

things
program

are

entertain,
to

ust

varied
often

devised
have

ent

in.

Very with
taken

special degree for study

rooms

been

carri

the

highest
separately interesting

of
what
to

architectural
they the
are

ingenuity,
worth, observer,

nd,

ffer

much

lay

if

ll
A

look
great

about
many

him

between
vast

the
not other
a

dinner
only

courses.

hotels,

in

New
were

York,

Philadelphia,

Chicago
styles,

and

cities,
new

designe

inly field

in
of

French hotel
close

until

element

entere

e'

design.

And,

to

instance

forcibly

er-present

relation this element


of
the

between
came

architecture in ideal
new

man

thought,

as

a
'*

reactio

gainst

the

prevalence
was

hotel
a

of

cence." magnifi for with

There
"

substituted
of

ideal combined which


the

ho

rchitecture

an

ideal refined
' '

restraint,
correctness

pression
' *

of

that

Englis

ll

smartness.

Architecturally,

the
prodigies

great

hotels design.
the

of

the

French
hotels
as

achieved

of

Such

aza,

in

New

York, reared

and
vastly

Bellevue-Stratford,
chateau Again,
were
as

iladelphia, above
oflBice
all

magnified buildings. styles

ro

gh

surrounding

in

ll

structure,

historic
The
as

used

as

moti

ther

than

models.

architect have

endeavoured
been approached

proach

his

problem

it would

the

Eighteenth
to

Century
design
a

French

architect,
structure.

had

he

required
the

similar

For

architectural
a

expression remarkable

of
choice

restraint

in style

hotel
wAs

n,

however,

of

and

the
success

firm

of in

Warren
their

and

Wetmore

achieved Previously

illiant
erection

adaptation. Bitz-Carlton

of

the

hotels

and
new

Vanderbilt it would delicate,


of

ew

York been

City
difficult

(the
for

first
us

of
to

the

type),
of

conceive English
an

the
style

Eighteenth
Adam applied
the

Century
to part
"

the

ers
Adams and
as

enormous
were

hotel designers

edifice. of
ture furnidistiur

for
of
the

most

chaste
authors

interiors of large

they

were

not

d
was

projects.
in
A

It

desired,
Adam

however, interiors.
had
that

the

newest

hotels,
Adam

out

revival
the

of

ture furnivogue,

and it
was

decorations surmised

become hotel

fashionable

interiors
The

in

the

Adam

would the the

be
classic

immensely dignity French of,


"

popular.
of
type

conflict style
without,

twe be-

the of

Adam
hotel

within,
could

diversified thought

be

so
an

seeming

architectural of
more

bility impossistyle

was

essayed design than

adaptation
of

the

Adam
vast

exterior

buildings four

in

their could

rtions
conceived. this
is

all

the

brothers

together

That

remarkable

tour

de
great

force
Hotel

was

successfully Vanderbilt adapted


^ ^

ved York

evidenced

in

the

City,
style.

brilliant exterior,

example in brick

of
of

tectura archigrey,

The

Adam details,

ed

with

cream-coloured
to

terra-"U)tta

is

an

able few of

introduction
the
many

the

quiet

interiors themselves
that

within in
a

"

who
stop

daily
to

enjoy
reflect

this

New

York

hotel

it is

remark-

le

architectural of
an

achievement^

studied
the rendering

as

an

adaptation
an

historic
type

style
of

for

of

essential

modern
have

building.
in

Some adaptations within,


of

other of

lar

tels

been

designed
architecture,

free while

ia It

Renaissance study of few

the
many

visit

modern
various
other

American

versions
and various
have

oth

yles
In

periods
types

landf.
architects
or

of
with

building
such and

drawn

verse

inspiration
the that

spontaneity
a

freedom
to

in

modern
these
' *

hotel,
remarkable
to

it is

great
are

mistake
of
a

p s

edifices
a

nature

superficial material
A

afford

volume

of

peculiarly

ing interest

for

study. modern large


an

distinctly
is the
to

and
apartment

distinctly
house
"

American and
here

ty

building said

exist

architectural
to

opportunity There houses,

by
been

ns

fully

realised

date.

have it

som

mirably
far the inside

designed
greater

apartment

is

true,

number
out.

suffer has

from been

commercialism,
an

th

and still

There
to

unfortunate
great

ndency,

prevalent, and

concentrate
effort

deal

expenditure
entrance

architectural

in

effecting

posing

and
out

an an
a

impressive
air

hallway, opulence
of
a

th

atures

carried

with give

of

and
the

ev

gnificence

which
itself.
This

false
to

impression
create
more

actu

ilding first

effort

fine
than

impression
a

sight

is
and

obviously
an

nothing for

lure

tenants

excuse

maintaining themselves The


apartment

high
are

rental

en

the

actual
and
much
poorly

apartments

meanly

anned

built.

house and

uffered

from
that
even

this
the

palpable
average

de(;eit

it is rath

urprising
not

prospective quality
or

tenan

ll

look

more
rooms

closely he

at

the

of

the

floors

he

suite

of

is

to

rent,

at

the

carpentry

he

woodwork
display in its

and

disregard

as

immaterial

the

pretenti

of
the
many

marble,

plate-glass

and

gilded

erwork

downstairs architectural
has
are

hall. drawbacks,
however,

Despite
apartment
years.

house There

improved better
plans,

considerably
more

practical details
even

niences

and

far

better

design

in
the

such

as

-pieces, of

wainscotings
moderate
rental.

and

like,

in

the

ent

Real

architectural of
the
many

ability
apartment
are

is

apparent

in
of

the

design

me as

great

houses

high owned marked of

rental,

as

in

which promising

co-operatively
was

by
by

the

s.
' '

departure in which for


a

the

lex

apartment,

sense

spaciousness
a

effected

by
living

devising
room,

each

apartment

large
rooms

tory

like instead

studio.
of

The

other

the

apartment,
on one

being
on

inconveniently
two

ged

floor,

are

disposed
so

floors,

with

te

connecting fact,
a

stairway,

that

each

duplex

unit

miniature of
the

house
apartment

in

itself. house
well
no

The

study

problem
form
more

and

it

different

solutions

might
but
the
great

the
can

subject
be
done
might

stive than

consideration,
to
a

suggest

benefits of

which

from and
to

greater

prevalence both

co-operative and
to

building,

remind
the

landlords

speculative
apartment

ers

that

alluring
constantly

front of
well
of
a

door
less

the

is

becoming
entrance

significance.
a

ome

is very
quality
than
tenants

if it is
the

true

indication

the

architectural
more new

entire
a

building,
investment.
young
renew

but

is nothing
attract

lure,
"

it is

poor

ay

especially
cause

the
to

and

erienced,

but

it will

not

them

their

ases

if the

actaal

rooms

in
meanly

which bnilt.

they

live

are

incon veni

planned In

and
an

building
must

apartment
a

house,

which
cheap
managers

from

ture,

be
a

profitable economy.

investment, Hotel all else,

plan

ll

be

found

poor

reali
please

at

their

building, they
any
go

above
to

must

blic,

and
In

architects
building

of
designed
merit

recognised
to

hi

ility.

type

of

rent,

tect arch

appeal

and

architectural of
great
more

should

be
the

pra tic
* '

considerations
development"

importance. will be said


in
a

Of

tate

subsequent

apter. Among

architectural
the
one,

types

which
terminal

are

essentially
a

dem,

great

railroad
has

is
to

peculiarly

teresting

and have

been

problem

which study.

can Ameri-

architects
It is doubtful
the

devoted

considerable building

if any architectural

similar

in
of

any

country

ssesses

significance

the

terminal

the

Pennsylvania
colonnade, the

Railroad
vast

in

New

York
achieve
which

City.
a

ately

interiors,
conception

quaKty

nobility
greatest

in

architectural

ranks

wi

masterpieces
here fills colossal
a

of dual

European

architecture. in
that
a

chitecture
out

function,

building

id

in

such

proportions

passenger

ngestion

is
every

impossible,
traveller

while with
the

its
a

splendid
sense

magnitude
the which
character
*

presses
the

of
to

prestige

grand

scale A from times.

of

railroad of and

he

trusting long

himself.

building
the

this

departure
of earlier

dingy A

oppressive
of

tra

ed*^

building
is
more

the
a

character

e
a

Pennsylvania symbol,
as

terminal
perhaps
as

than
a

building in

"

much
of
Egypt.

monument,

spect,

the

Pyramids

The

New

York

City

terminal

of

the

Grand

Central

CLASSIC

ROMAN
An

DERIVATION
ciHptional PuDcuiylVHrdi ciample

IN

MODERN
an

AMERICAN eipreuiaa New HlKtioD,

RAILWAY of dicoity York City)

TERMINAL

of

"nhitwiural
Terminul

ITh"

lUilroul

FRENCH

BEAL'X-ARTS

INFLUENCE

[N

MODERN

AMERICAN

RAILROAD

Thialaful*
the

modem

for ft compsriton mBtsriil ofTordg FrvDt^h mx Hhool at desiia

of opposed

Ibe

to

ntptclive Hpnaaivcncu sn-bilcctunl CIbbdc the Htrirl Hchool ot design

ol

(The

Grud

Centnl

Ruilnwl

TenmniU

Stftlion,

N"w

York

Cily)

oad

is
of

interesting
the modern of of
Beanx
not

from
imity

other of

viewpoints

"

^as

an

architecture

with

complex

problems fagade

engineering. this
great
"

The

station
a

proclaims

at

once

tjcoile des
yet

Arts

symmetrical embellished
of

composition^
with such detail

ic
is

Classic,
French.

and

entirely

Characteristic
the

modem

architectare
shown
over

is

marked
the greatly broken of

disregard out-of

for
-scale

careful

proportions,
figures

in

allegoric

the the

central

pediment. whole in
"

This
^an

would
comparison,

destroy

dignity
being and

the

excellent

indeed, terminal freedom

afforded
the

study

Grand
"

Central
^Beaux

Pennsylvania Classic
are

termina

Arts

versus

restraint.

are

symmetrical
the
manners same

fagades,
purpose,

both
yet

buildings

sig de-

for

their

respective
of

architectura

make

them

buildings

widely

gent

character.
most

The

interesting
complexity

aspect
of

of

the

Grand

Central

nal

is the
fact
that

its
by

planning, the

necessitated

he

it is
as

entered
as

tracks

of

two

very

railroads,
are,

well

by

the

Interborough different

Subway.
track-levels, and architects
at

consequently,

several

their
As
that
where

several
a

concourses,

waiting-rooms
the

ticket

es.

practical

consideration

provided

clearly the

readable
traveller

legends
might by
the

be
need

lettered

every

direction,

while

er

confusion
possible, which
a

is of
ramps

saved

introduction,
of stairways.
runway,
or

ever wher-

instead
gently

On

is

a can

long,
move

sloping
more

platform,
on

crowd and

far

quickly
to
run

than for
ramps
a

way, down
the

it
a

is

possible, It

also, probable
many

train

or

ramp.

is in

that

will

place

of

stairways

of

the

public

build-

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

gs

of

the

future
structures

"

^in
as

buildings
these
two

of

which
great

even

markable
are

railroad

but in
an

forerunners.
*

We

live devices
the

age

of

*many
appear

inventions
yearly which
one
were

**
"

^new

str tur

and

systems

and

make

p s

erection

of

buildings
no

unthought architect but


may

the

past.

Obviously
these has

but

an

miUar

with
who

technical

innovations,
with

the

server

become
with
some

acquainted
elemental
to

architectural

yles,

together
cannot

principles
him add in
the

sign,

but

find

much

interest yearly

chitectural

achievements in

which

credit

profession

America.

PART
PRACTICAL GUIDE

II
TO

BUILDING

CHAPTER
SELECTION
EIAL
FROM VIEWPOINTS
APPROPRIATENESS, LOCAL

I
STYLE, MATE-

OF
AND

LOCATION, ARCHITECT
OF RELATION
ETC.

TO
LOCAL

SITE,

MATERIAL, MATERIALS AND

ENERAL

ND

COLOUR CHOOSING
AN

CONDITIONS.
ARCHITECT

FORESIGHT

DVICE.

connectioii
any

with

building,
is

more,

perhaps,

than

other

oonnection,
trite saying:

there
*'A

deep
little

significance
knowledge

he

familiarly

i
the
cannot

ngerous
ideas

thing/'
of
as

To
most
*

be

accurate,

indeed, builders
If

ill

ed be

prospective
' *

regarded

knowledge. be saved
enough
"

they rather

knew, that
without

much
they
any

ointment
they
or

might
know
to
set to

it is
to

either

build
the

ect,

themselves

above
work.
**A

architect knowledge**

they

ly

engage

do

the

little

ngerous ignorance ignorance


man.

because
which

it is usually

ignorance

in

disguise, and
professional

will

not

be

helped.
in the

Complete aid of
the

frankly

calls

is the

aim

and in
a

intention building
may

of

the

following
in

chapters
respects

oint

out,

project,
be

what
to

dual
in

discretion
what
respects

employed
opinion
matters

advantage, had of best opinion,


group
as

professional

be

ed.
are

Certain
matters

things
of

are

fact.
usually
lay

Even
to

in
be

the

first

the

ect's than
group,

opinion
an

is

regarded while
argument

better
the
second

uniformed absolute

opinion, of

in

the

futility

should

be

nt.
15
225

The

points

taken in the

np

in

the

following dictated and The


eadi

chapters

arranged
in

sequence
a

hy

the
step

nso

ocedure
with

boilding
a

hoose,

will

alt

in

practical
to

manner.

practising of
is

tec arc

is

distressed
to
or

find
about
so

that
to

mnch

the

so-calle

advice"

persons

build he
toward

arbitrary,
to

err neo

misleading,

that

is

obliged

devot

nsiderable and

e"Fort
establishing

and
a

time ground

disillusioning
common sense

ient

of

ear

vision.
on

Of

this,
the

more

will of

be

said

in
and

subsequent client.
not

servations The
the
usual

relation

architect
operation

private until The

building
certain site by
very

does
things

architect decided.

important

en

of
the

the

house,
ownership

for of in house,

instance,
a

ften

pre-determined
The architect

piece

and.
best

might

well

be
for

called
the

to

sugges

architectural
he
of

location
consulted style usually
on

but
or on

requently

is not

this

question,

uestion

what
are

is

to

be

followed

in

the

desig

hese

things

the

architect's have from been

starting

poi
for

hough
to

in be

many

cases

it would
advised
to

well the
a

lient

professionally
opinion
as
a

start.
house worth

rchitect's

what
site

kind
might

of

woul

best and

suited might

to

given

be

well of

he in

result

in

better

solution
ways

the

problem.

Varying and

sites here,

call
at
a

for

different
outset,

of
in

locating

ouse,

the

is

case

which

a t

resembling
to

fixed

rule

might

easily

be

angerous

follow.
greatest the

It

is of

the
to

importance
of

to

give
and
as

careful
to

points
to

the

compass

prevailing
in

ocal

winds,

and
the

consider

these

factors
If

esign
remote

of

house

from
from

its

inception.

the

site

one,

far

''improvements,"

the

question

ighting,
least
style/'

water-supply

and before
"

sewiige

disposal is detailed
the lay

should

considered Although
conspicuous less
many

there
''

thou^pht
observer

style

is

to

most

of
exacting

the

architect's

performances,
architect
's

relatively
than
to
an

from
more

the

point
he

ew

of

the

technical

problems

ed

solve.

architect
the

has

been

selected
location

at

this
of the

stage,
house,

and

visited
as

site,

and
has

the been

as

possible,
of

determined,
to

it is
taken,
an or,

well

for

ber of
a

good and

photographs
important

be

in

the

large
survey may

house,
drawn.

accurate

topographi
way

made
the
parts

and different
of

In
or

this
slopes

the

ect
govern

study
certain

grades
design

which

his
use

for

the

house.
survey

he
as

ideal
data

procedure

is to

the

topographical
of
an

for clay
to

the model
out

construction
of

accurately

tioned possible
to

the

site.
and in

On

this

model

lay

driveways
house

approaches,

and in
study is of

block

in
to

the
the

itself, it is to

miniature,
The
a

it

relation

place

occupy.

of

rchitectural
value
a more

project
to

by

means

of
client

model
To

the

st

architect

and

alike. definite
a

the

first

ven

comprehensive and
to

and is given
the

vision

of

problem,

the

second

presentation

he

architect's
to

conception
vivid from and
any

of

relationship
than

of

site

more

understandable number

he

possibly
is
well
the
not
a

obtain
to

of
the

drawings.

mention

here
a

that

topographical
or

of
is

site,
part

being
of

civil

engineer's
's

surveyor's

the

architect
the

work,

and
or a means

is

paid

separately,
surveyor. most

either
It

through

architect,
as

direct

he

is
at

to

be

regarded

for

ng

directly

the

required

result

"

the

estab-

shment
the

of

the

exact

relation

of

house

to

site,
terraces,

as

disposition
etc.

of

drives,

approaches,

o b

The
the

construction architect, should


a
or

of under

the

model
his

is usually
and

undertaken
a

direction,

separate

arge

rightly

be
amount

expected of
without

for special
great

it,

since

it

considerable
be
apparent

work.

It

should

emphasis
on

location,

of

placement,
Many

of

the

house

its houses

site

tremely
an

important.
appearance

well-designed awkwardness have


features
of low

ha

ven

of
fact
that

unpleasing

sol

cause

of relation

the
to

they

been

poorly

place

th

the
many

natural

of

their
and

sites. of

other

hand,

houses have

cost

li

chitectural because,

pretension
on

seemed
it

peculiarly will be
seen

agre

le

observation,

ery

advantage and

has

been

taken

of

elevation,

grades

proaches

background.
as

Architecturally,

well

as

naturally, is in
prospective

the
the

most

ing plea

building with do
well

is the its and


idea

building
site,

which
the to

most

gracefu

rmony

and

builder
his

ten

wisely

banish had,

from

mind execution

som

reconceived idea
house The
style,

he

may

have
an

if the

is

would
and
question
any

result
site.
of formal

in

unharmonious

relationship

site
type

is often
of

involved

in
calling
is

the

questio
a

building
site
of
a

for

le

ite,

while informal all

the
or

rugged
picturesque
must
say

hill-side
type

best

suited

building.
of

Sty

hen

is

said,
To

always that
no

be

matter

personal

redilection. in rustic

formal
is
to

house

should the which


tracts.

laced

surroundings hunting-lodges
in

ignore

ult

ormal

French

and

chateaux

ften

discovered

densely

wooded

AN

AMERICAN

COUNTRY

HOUSE

ESSENTIALLY

PICTURESQUE

lishiDg

Ihe

precedenl

\
rn.

SMA[.[.
ranw

COTTAtlK .iirp^lly S-" \"k (r..m

OF

NATIVK

DERIVATION

Tl["m

of

Dut.h llip rnily in "liirh UiJn :Siutv

(Brm-houws
Duiiaec
wus

lo

b.

LuUi

au,

it

is

true,

is

usually

blended

with

its
means

land wood-

surroundings, gardening.

like

the

Italian
seem

villa,
that the

by

o from

It
of

would

house,

point

of

view

style,

is best
or one

considered
setting
to

in for live

the

light

architectural
are

background it. in
or

the

people
entertain

to the

occupy

If
a

intends
and

and

in

country

formal

rather be

elaborate regarded

(whether
,

not

this

is

to

as

rable)
not
one's

certainly
the
most

the

picturesque setting.

and

informal If,
on

house
the other

be

effective
country

idea kind,
a

of
most

life

is

of

the

simple
English

and

ected

characteristically French and


upon
an

and

can,

formal

chateau

would

prove
success

ble

disappointment,
depend, rather,

architectural architectural

rendering picturesque. from the

omfortable
so

informality
for
every

in

terms

of

the

And
of

prospective
tastes to

builder,
the
a

vidua indi-

ultra-formal enthusiast, will

ultra-simple
type the

*'next-

ure"

there his

is

suitable
through

of medium

ing dwell-

which

reflect

tastes

o
rule

ppropriate
the
a

architectural
essential
matter

setting.

No
is
too

fixed

i and

le" much

of

suitability individual few

flexible It which is

of

the
a

case.

possible

however,

to

submit
either

generalities
cases

might

orne

in

mind,
has

in

those

where for
for
a

the

prospectiv

builder
it

no

predilection desirable

specific him
to

style,

here

might

be

highly

change

mind.
may possesses

One

contemplate
a

building

in

certain
**

locality

marked
New

architectural England elm-shaded which all

character*'"

example,

small

village. ''main conform


to

Here,
street,*'
a

as

drives
may

down

the houses

old

be

seen

certain

They

are

simple,

wooden

houses,

usually

PRACTICAL

BOOK

ARCHITECTURE

apboards,

with

green

blinds,
of house

and
can

the

intrusion be

distinctly
as

alien
well
as

type

only
an

regarded

locally,

in

the

abstract)
and

as

offence
taste.
a

agains

chitectural

harmony this light, the house,

against
in
stucco
as
worse

good
such walls
an

si Co

in

erection with

locality, and
a

Spanish

mission
roof,
may

brig

d-tiled
pas

and
seem,

outrageous

such

architectural

aux

it is

no

in
*s

any

way

than safe general


long

man

ich

have the

accosted

the would

writer have

eye.

It the

is

to

at

newcomers

earned miles
their

of
they

the

natives moved

for
into

around,
new

actually

and

priate inappro-

premises. The

isolated

house

may

be
an

designed
instance
of than

to

conform
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and designer, of

specifications,
'

while with
keen
the of

the

other

member
instincts.

man

artistic

firm
an

three

architects,
or a man

third

is

often

found
ability.
take
as

executive,

marked
alone,

business
however,
as

Many

architects

practising

all

three of
and

phases
which

of
the

their
client

profession, is

well

oth

pects

not

even

aware.

Of
more

ried

interesting

functions,
chapter.

however, All

said

in

the

following
working
have

architects
or

of

lar

actice,
necessary

whether
to

in

partnership
employ

alone, able
"

in

their

highly
the

ists specia

in

different specification

branches
writers

of and

work

superin tendent

structural

experts

addition
upon

to

staff devolves
"

of

draughtsmen,
a

directed weight of

by

whom detail

great

bility responsi

and Having

the

head-draughtsman. from the selected


a

emerged and
now

mists
an

of

misgiving

certainty,

finally

architect,

the
is in
paper,
a

pro pe

builder
see

becomes

'^client,**
put

and
on

his

visionary

abode
his and
eyes

definitely

la

arise of

before
masonry

in

all

its

solidity The
venture

and

nence perma-

carpentry.

is fina
with

unched,

and

the

following
which

chapter

will been
the

deal

siness

relationship
engagement,

has

created
proper

by

chitect's

and exist
upon
on

with
both

ances observ

which
Before

should
entering
feels

sides. topic,
would selection dwellings"

this

important
chapter
upon

however,

writer

that
some

the

present

be

without

advice

the

of

chitect

for

building
as

projects
civic
Here

other

than schools,

such and
result

projects
churches. from
a

buildings, the choice of


a

hospitals
an

ubs

of

architec
or

ll

the

decision

committee

in

competition*

word

about

competitions.

architectural
secure

competition,
a

intelligently fairly the


best

conducted,
conclusively, unintelligently is
the
most

for
as
an

given
as

building
possible

and
:

ign

nearly

ted

architectural conceivable.
Institute

competition

stupid

procedure
American deal

he

of
the
to

Architects

has of

devoted

eat

of in and

study
an

to

subject
standardise
and
of

architectural the procedure the best

itions,

effort

mmittees
results

municipalities,
the

to

secure

le

in this

erection in
'*

important
of
a

buildings.
'

results

of

study,

the

form

'

set

of

rules

ing

competitions
was

to

be

observed form, of
D.

by
and the

Institute
is readily

rs,

printed writing

in
to

brochure
the

nable
of

by

Secretary

American

tute

Architects,
all the

Washington,

C.
of
most

Nearly
are

important
of

public

buildings
and have

this
cases

the

result
more

competitions, firms
to
a

in

ber

of

the

prominent
according

been of

invited
ments require-

ubmit drawn

drawings,
up

program

by

committee.

An for

invited his
work,

competitor whether

ually

nominally

remunerated

successful.
the
museum

In

important
or

civic
city

building,
the do

then,

such

as

ry,

hall, will

municipal
well
to

committee

harge

of

the

project
Architects. of

avail
by

itself can Ameri-

of

carefully Institute
the

studied

procedure

outlined

the

of
matter

In

making
placing
"

awards,' the
power

many

mistakes
award

been
of
as
one

made
a

by

of

in ought

the

lay

jury
as

proceeding
is.
on

which There
the

absurd
competent
prove

it actually architect

should

be

jury
some

of

award,

it will
to

absolutely

essential

for
to

informed
members

explain

the

drawings

the

lay

efore
be

any

intelligent

conclusion

as

to

respective

me

reached.

This

is

true,

also,

of

the with

formation
clubs

of

committees

nd

juries
may

in

connection of

and

churches.
who
may
are

oard

consist with
travelled
there

several

citizens

entire
one

nfamiliar
has
"

architecture,

and

there
and be
an seen

be
many

ho

extensively
should always

bui ing

^but

architect,

p e
no

called professional
such
an

from

some

distant
in

city.

With
the

interest would

the

project,
invaluable,

servic and

architect

prove

ommittee

would advice which


well
would

be

assured
the

of

competent

and of the
fee

diced unprej
and

worth

amount
to

be
a

voted

him.

If

the

scale
"

of

building
warrant

project
the

"

^a

small

churc

or

example

did
of the

not
an

weighty

and

expe sive

procedure
of
was

architectural
in do whose
to

competition,

embers

committee

hands study
as as

the
many

taki unde

placed,

would

well

the

leading
as

architectural
as

periodicals
on

they might, of

btain,
in

well

books
to

architecture, American

and

ill

doubt,
as
a

write

the

Institute

tect Arch

perfectly
of

unprejudiced
architects
whose
out
^

authority, works
would

for

p t

fit them Architects


"

to

carry
*

the

project
*

in certain and

hand.
types

who

are

'

specialists
school

in

ildings
and

^notably
hotels-, for
will

buildings,
to
carry

hospitals,

anks

be

found
to

possess out

certain the
that
type

recommenda

selection
have
them
years

of

ing bui

in

which taught

they

specialised,
many

in

their

ence exper

has

valuable
real-estate
of

details.
operators

Only
realise

in

recent

have

com

the

importance in
the'

securing
of

competent
*

tec arc
'

services

planning

groups

of

rea

LOCATION,

STYLE

AND

MATERIAL

243

houses.
a

Careful
in

architectural
the
as

supervision
aspect
an some

will
a

consistency development,

general well
as

of

given

estate
to

attractivecharacmore

the

individual architects
and

houses. landscape

In

notable
have
been

nces in

architects
the
so

to

work

together living
tracts

toward
environment, which

creation that models of


any

of already
to

attractive
are are

several

should development

be

al

planning
of

the
estate.

building
The

large

real

significant
operators

fact
now

is

that

the

intelligent

real-estate

realise securing wasted, far

that

increased

initial

expense

involved
is
not
are

in
money

competent

architectural invested, and selling


in

service
that

but

there
than

created

'higher

values
planning,*'
' '

would
"

otherwise cities,*' been


and for
on

exist.

ighbourhood
villages

garden
some

and

del

have,

for in

time,

common

tectural and the of of

achievements

England

the

tinen Con-

unlimited
**

possibilities
to
*'

this

practical
are

cation
dawn

architecture'*
realisation
to

building"
country.

but

their

in

this

Reverting
for
up

again himself
a

the

individual
the

who

is

about

dwelling,

following
this

chapter

will

the

relationship and
the the

between architect whom

individual has selected

(now

client*)
out

he

work.

CHAPTER
ARCHITECT
IS
A

n
AND

CLIENT
HOW
THE ARCHITECT'S

ILDING
ARCHITECT.

BUSINESS
THE

TRANSACTION.

TO

CONSULT

NATURE

OF
AND

WHAT
RIGHTLY EXPECT

ARCHITECT FROM
"EXTRAS,"

CLIENT
BASIS
ARCHITECTURAL

SHOULD
OF

EA

THE

OTHER.

CHARGES,

SUPERVISION,
AND

ETC.

DRAW INGS

SPECIFICATIONS

SHORTLY
the
means

before

the

close
was

of

the

preceding
through done has
^ '

chapte

prospective
of for
status

builder
an

followed

o v

selecting

architect, consultation,

having
he

whic

nd

called
the

the
of

initial
*

graduated and

rom

'

prospective

builder,

becom

client.

Perhaps
to

no

one

thing throughout

is

more

important

for

lient

remember
f"ct
upon

the

building
an

of

his

hou he

han

the

that,
a

after

engaging relationship,
is kept,
a

architect,

ntered

business

and
the
even

that

the
for

mor

sinesslike The for and


to

this

relationship of

better
a

arties.

building
expenditure
much

house,
too much

small
on

hous the
on

alls

the
too

of skilled
as a

money

and

professional
**

work

ther

be
^ '

regarded
It
is not

mere

transaction
to

between that in

riends.

intended
should other for will has and
intimate
a
"

by
be
cold ^the
all

this
or

imply

eit

rchitect

or

client each the

suspicious

th

ealings

with

better

friends
and
of

they if
all

roughout,
as

better they

concerned, the best

ne

it should, If
the

be

friends
to

war aft

architect
family those

been

asked
he

dinner,
in
a

the

client's
to

friends,
personal

is

bett
to

sition

add make

touches

use
244

which

it

true

expression

of

the

owner's

THE

ARCHITECT'S

PRELIMINARY

SKETCH

ARCHITECT

AND

CLIENT

245

ividuality.
and

It business

should

be

remembered,
with ^the
the

however, architect

that

ial

relations
separate
"

should
would

kept

strictly have it
so, a

architect
to
manner,

himself

her

and

far

prefers

receive

instructions than
over

writing,

in

businesslike
no

the

ner-table,

where houses,

record is
true,

exists

of been

what

has

been and

d.

Some

it in
a

have

happily
and

cessfully
way,

built
with

delightfully if
any
"

hap-hazard

in fo

little

of

the

businesslike this
has of

ments

entering of
a

the

transaction affinity and

^but

been
tastes

ause

natural
on

congeniality architect
way
a

confidence
than

the

part

of in

both
any

and
or

client,
recom-

her

because
method
to

it is

safe

dable
Betuming

of
the

procedure
average
case, success

in

general.

it might
and

well

be

reit

that whole

much

of

the

smoothness
upon

building

project
before his

will

depend

the

client,

ly

realising,
or

first
to enter

visit
the
a

to

the

architect's he relation.
that

ice,

his that
a

first
he

proposal
to

architect business

has

ected,
It
is

is about
and
men,

strange

inexplicable punctilious

circumstance
to
a

so

business
day and

degree

in

their

business

dealings,

and
own

in

the

enforcement
are

of

tem

routine
in
an

in their

their dealings

offices,

flagrantly

usinesslike To
engage

with
to

the

architect.
and house,
he

architect
especially

draw for
a

plans
small

give

lled
to

supervision,
do him
a

personal

favour,
the

for
whole

which

should of give

be

bly

gratefullhroughout
In

progress

the

lding. lucid of

this

connection, than

figures, words.

perhaps, The

demonstration

percentage

is
say

charges

will

be

dealt

with
receiving

presently" his
to

suffice
ten
per

that

the
on

architect
a

is

cent,

mission

house

estimated

cost

$10,000.00

more
the
does overhead

often
ten not
per

he

receives
cent,

seven

basis
must
'*

cent.) is $1000.00, which,


a

per

his

fee,

th

however,

net, expense

but

allow

certain

proportion
a

(his

office he has

rent,

etc.) and
at

certa

ount

for

the

expense

been

to

produce It
will to

rawings
from the
once

(draughtsmen's
this
total that
amount

salaries,
is fortunate

etc.).
if he
is

en

he

able
and
who

cl

alf

of

his
even

conmiission,
to many must
a

it

mu

become
a

apparent,
man,

client

is

mself,
cost

business

how architect

houses, build

averaging
if
he

$10,000.00
even
a

this income.

ke

fair become

It should
much

equally architect
's

apparent

to

the

client

abo

of

the
to

time

he

should

reasonably
house.

expected
who
"

devote building

to
a

one

$10,000.00
and
very

ient

is
a

small

inexpensive
unfortunately

use

even

''bungalow unreasonable.
is his
first

client'' In

is,
all

ually

the

most

probability
of
to any

ilding

venture
sum

expenditure
he

c s

of

money,

and
conceives
of

is

bound himself

receive somewhat
pictures

ney's

worth. light

He
a

of industry,"
from light

the

of
of

''captain

and his of
to
a

rge

staff house, grandly


to
were

labourers
too,

living
in the

expenditure
patron

himself, giving
some

of

t^,

the grateful

commission architect.
known,
to

build
In work

his
of

$80

nture

libre,

the himself

truth

the

architect the

quite

of

nsiders
cost,

fortunate

produce the
or

drawings

and he
one

may

have
not two

accepted refuse
it,

commission
he
busy

cause
keep

could
or

because

had
through

of

his

draughtsmen client

ll

period.
his

The

small-house

with
go

enlarged

id

importance
the
more

would

do

well

to

(unwittingly)

architect

make

it

practice
to

not cost

to

undertake
less

any

work

for
He

use
no

estimated
doubt,
* '

than lesson

$50,000.
in
the

acquire
* '

his

first

por im-

of
are

scale.
many

here

architects, and
whose

however,

who is of

specialise sufficient

all-house
to

work,

practice

be

profitable.
then, enters
upon

he
due

client,

his
that

first
he

consultation
is embarking

recognition transaction the that will


first
to

of

the

fact with of

business
that
so

and
has,

due necessity,
proportion

recognition
other

fact

architect
a

work

and,
time
the

fair

and
to

just
the
new

(not

all

be

devoted

project.
highly

consultation
as

it
and it is
as

is

advisable

for
outline

dient

be

explicit
as

complete

in
without
with
to
a

his

proposed for
amount

house him
to
money

possible,

technical
statement

dge,

be.
he

Beginning

he

of
do
plans
or

is

prepared
the

spend,
whatever

the

will
or

well
he

to may

show

architect evolved,
or

es

have
from the

whatever
may

raphs
as

clippings

magazines
kind

he house he

have

ed
these
at

suggesting documents
start,
a

of

desires.

the fair

architect of
the

will
nature

be

enabled

the

idea

of
much

the

ect proj-

pon

which in
the

he

is being

engaged,
preparation
meet

and

time preliminary

will

aved

architect's
do
not

of
the
to to
one

es

which connection,
never no

with

client's

wishes.

his

however, ask
matter
an

it is well
architect

remember
copy may

that

should
exactly,

another

how

closely of standing
grounds,
as
a

wish

him

ollow

it.

No

architect
on

would

consent any

uch would

procedure, regard

ethical
a

and
distinct is

tect archi-

such

request

reflection

his

ability.

The

writer

familiar

with

case

in
by
to

which
the

such

request

was

made,

and

fl

efused

architect.
who

The

client,

nothing
the

daunted
he

nt

the

contractor

had

built
plans,

house

wishe

opied,

and, in
the

using

the

original

in

blue-print

fo

till

contractor's

possession,
grave
an

had
upon

an

inferi
the
to
common

uplicate

erected

"

reflection
outrageous
to every

integrity

and

affront
tenet

rchitectural

profession

and

of

ecency. In
the give the
first

consultation

with
confidence,

the

architect

the

cl

hould

his

fullest

withholding in
the
as a

nothin
to

hich

architect

should

know with

order work.

procee

ntelligently
here
a

and should

efficiently be regarded in

The

proc dure

in
client

no

wise
is the client
or

differen

rom

consultation
with

which

acquainting
lawyer

awyer

the
preparing

circumstances
his
the
out

which
If the

equire

in

brief. architect's
the

entertains his he
further, later the

ny

doubt

regarding
for carrying

ability

qua fic

work

in

hand,
any

shou

atisfy

these

doubts

before
and
with client
sure

proceeding friction
any

ertain

complications

will
mistrust

arise
on
'*

if
part

roject

is commenced
If him
the
make

he

client.
let

is

naturally his
architect

canny"

v i

of
upon

first,

rath

han

heap

recriminations which,
^*

him
may

later be
or

for
only

lack
to

armony,

after

all,

due his will

lient's

difficult"
to

personality,
an

oversight
be reasonably

eglecting
to

select

architect

who

ertain The the

please

him. remember,
is paying
a

client

should
that he and
more

throughout

the
standard

cours

work,

fixed

and

or

certain

fixed

standard
than
the

professional architect
that

servic

often
the

receiving
contract,

is the

called
more

up

to

perform)

and

wise

ARCHITECT

AND

CLIENT

249

avails

himself for

of

these

services,
The

the

better
and folly

value

eceiving
apparent

his

money.
cases

futility

should

in
client,

those biassed
to
set

(unfortunately
by
some

frequent)
ill-advised
above

the

outside imaginings

n,

attempts

his

fantastic

architect's
clients

absolute

professional patients,
no

knowledge. both
dealing
men

yers' Law-

and
no

doctors'
more
or

with
than

who

are

less

professional

architect,
as

seem

to

show

better
that these to

judgment
they

and
sought

proceed

though

they informed
them

realised
on

had

out

better
to

special perform

subjects
certain

than
professional

advise

and them.

services
In telling consultation, unless

for
the

architect it is well

all for

that
the

is
client

possible
to

in

the

remember

otherwise
all
are

instructed,
items
as

the

architect hardware is understood market.

will

that
so
as

such
to

doors,
' '

windows,
which
on

forth
are

be

* *

stock, ready-made

by

obtainable
to

the

This

ies,

also,

brick

and

to
are

materials of standard

in

general.
cost,

All

ock"

building
only

materials
large
or

ating fluctu-

with

and

nation-wide
costs.

fluctuations

facturing If, however,


such
as

raw

material
has

the

client

in

mind

certain of unusual

special
type,

s,

casement

windows
or

high-grade
special acquaint

hardware

lighting
or

fixtures,

high-priced
the

face-brick
with has

floor
things

tile,
at to

ld

architect

these

th

t,

before
and

the

contractor

been
The

asked

bid

on

plans
more

specifications.
will itemise

specifications
such
name,

(o

later)

all actual

special
in

material order

equipment,
any

preferably

by
on

substitution
will

the the

contractor's

part.

The

client

find

that

architect

has

full

col

ction

'

'

'

of

catalogaes, bricks, of

and
tiles
any

often

musenm'

of and
can

samples

various
samples wish

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like,

readil the

tain

building
From

product
these

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cli

to

examine.

materials,

will

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possible
'

for
*

the

client
' *

to

ascertain
and
much

exactl

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will

specials saved. of client


which

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la

stress
In

be

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what

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definitely
wishes,

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has

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actly

writer from

Considered preparation

e
a

advantage
standard

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printed
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house,
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estions

regarding
and

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the

wi

foundations Many
to
answer,

comprising
of these in

of
client

finishe

uipment. unable

questions
each
or case

woul

but

the

architect

cou his

commend

certain had
proved

products desirable,
and
or

equipment

which of
economy

in
could

point

other
means

consideration,

illustrate

his

poi

of

samples

catalogue
ideas
on

illustrations.
the
part

Su

initial

agreement

of
the

of

both

woul

eatly the

facilitate
first

writing
would

of
save

accurate
many

specifications inconvenient
Through much that

draft,

and

sometimes
familiarity

expensive

changes
appearance

later.

with
his

the

of
is
often

is

built

into

house,

the

client

disappointed
of

dissatisfied have
the the

with
avoided Much

certain

details, knowledge however,


reposes

all

which
been

migh

been

if

had
can

acquired

start.

detail, client

safely him the

be

architect, of

if the

in

proper

unt

confidence.
to
at

Reverting
the

the
very

importance
beginning, with by
the

of

acquainting
**

'

hitect,

all

special* it should

tra-expensive in

items that this

desired

client,
or

ne

least

less

list

* '

of

extras

which
client's has

often intention.

run

the

cost
one

of

honse

beyond

the

No

detail

ce,

perhaps,

caused

more

unfortunate
than

friction
mattoj:

en

architect
which is

and
the
more

client
to

this

s,"

be

deplored

in

that

no

derstanding
often
a

should client
that rain
he

be

necessary.

Quite

remembers,
had intended,

after for

the

house

completed,
copper

example,

gutters

instead
architect
this
note,

of
to

painted
make mentions four

tin. the
change,

He

ly

telephones
architect,
copper

the
making gutters,

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as

the times

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tin gutters
appear

about allowed
as

as

the

painted

for
*'

in

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fications,

will
answers

naturally

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copper

that
then

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order
whole

gutters,

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other
on

sation

until

he

is confronted
and
the usually several

considerable
items, house
scene,

charge
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for

this
after There

similar the
whole

changed

estimate
ensues

prepared.
grievous
may

grievous

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totally

unnecessary.

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the ground
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for

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cost,
on

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the

go

estimated from instead


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that

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always copper

intended
gutters

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le, that

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rather
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tin.
expensive

he

neglected
to

mention

rence

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were
as

architect,
drawn
was

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up,

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after

the

fications
although,
man

carries before,

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that charge
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may

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ess

in

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than

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tect.

Quite
ill-grace, had
^they

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with

ding he
"

grumbling
heard will this build
was
a

words the house


way

the

effect

always
say

with
cost
a

tects archicertain

they

to

of

moneyy

then the load of

you
* *

find
extras

it costs
' '

half
put

again
on.

as

muc

cause No

of

of
any

they
or

architect

experience
of

standing,

it shou and

remembered, from

will
the

his

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withou

thorisation

client, for

change

eve wha

in

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specifications
one

the

house.

The of

writer

miliar
by

with
a

excellent York
firm

method of

procedure
to

New and
that

architects

eliminate
to

ll confusion

recrimination
any

in

regard whatsoever

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ey
any

insisted
extra

instructions material
or or

ing invol
not

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sti lat

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shown

drawings
made

mu

client

in

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at

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such

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performed,
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purchased In this

stalled

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was

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gument

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is
to

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not

avoided, only
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procedure
but
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men

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It

recommended

tec arc

clients. give
while

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thing

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siness

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or

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such

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building

ov

telephone,
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out

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man

chitects

instructions

without
dream

itten
up
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written

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to

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to

telephone

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rangely
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capable
expensive
any

telephoning
or

chitect
on

change

tion substitu

his

house
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without
order.

following

written

c f

of Allusion
and
as

been

made and

to

the

estimate, important

^o

catio speci

drawings,

these

points,

ll

architect's
now come

supervision

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dealings

with

ntractor,

under
methods

consideration. of
estimating, and

There

are

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only of
cost

one

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estimate

be

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mation approxithe

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with
if
who type
a

prelimi

sketches.

Even

this, by
an

however,

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on

initial

data,

and

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cost

architect
the

had
house

derable

experience

building
come

consideration, of the
actual

often
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within completed.

hundred

rs

house,

The

preliminary
as

estimate,
"

however,

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ded

final

^'^

local

conditions" influence
most

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in

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er
or

preceding the
the

may

it reliable

considerably, preliminary, is that


the

other.
most

The reliable bases

as
a

as

final his

estimate,
on

of

local

ctor,

who

figures
of

definite

ficati speciThere

and be due
as no

working

drawings from should


in
the

the and

architect.
any

deflection
'^extras"

this, be

increase

to

duly

expected paragraphs.

and

ted it

discussed supposed
a

preceding
the

Let

be
of
the

that

preliminary
complete

drawings,
outline of

sting
and sides
to

perspective
* ^

sketch,
* *

four the

elevations house,

or

direct
agreed the

views
upon

the

of

have

been with'
will have

and views.

ed

conform

entirely
drawings

client's

preliminary
to

been been

taken,

perhaps

the

building

site, of
the

and

will

have family

discussed
such

such

members
as

client's in in
to

and

friends

he

has

called

aid

his

judgment.
drawings,

To it

expensive desirable
he
are
can

changes for
the

the
to

later

client

make
of at

every

change
stage.

and These

stion

possibly

think pencil, basis


^a

this
are

ngs

usually

in
"

and for

to

be

regarded

entative

sketches
these,
the

discussion.
are

When

**

preliminaries'' architect
the

finally proceed
and

pronoun

''final," specifications

the
and

is ready

to

with

working

drawings,

th

ient
'^

is asked Standard

(if he
Form
*

has of

not

been

asked

earlier)
Between is seldom
to

to

Agreement

Owne

d
a

Architect."

This builder

document, until
dear

which

prosi"ectiye contains
which
a

it is
exposition

presented of
to

him

gn,

very

the

variou

rvices

the

architect

is required in full,
as
an

perform,
part

therefore
chapter.
CoNDinoirB

printed

here

important

is

or

AflwmfiWT

Betwebn

OwifES

ahd

Abcuitblt

Artide consist studies,

1.

The of the

Archiieci*9

Servioet.

"

^The
the

Arehiteet's preparation large


scale
and

profesriona
of

yicea

necessary

conferences,

nary preli full

working
the

drawings,

specifications,
of of forms

and

ail

dravdngs;
issuance

drafting

of
the and

proposals keeping supervision by


services

contracts; accounts,

of

certificates

payment; business
^The of fee

of
of

eral
2.

administration
The for
Architect**

of
Fee.

the
"

the

work.
to

payable
above

the is upon

Owner
the the

hitect

the defined

performance
as

the
rate,

percentag
cost

einbefore in

the

basic

computed have
out

of

respect
to

of any

which modifications

such

services

been of

performed, these

subj

ever,

growing

Conditions

eement.
3.

ReimhuraementM,
of

"

^The
and

Owner
living
of

is

to

reimburse by him

the and with mechanical,

Architect his the

ts

transportation
in
the

incurred
duties

assistan work, and

le

travelling
costs

discharge
of

connected

of

services

heating,

ventilating,

engineers.
4.

Ewira

8ervioe9 the
extra

amd

SpecM
makes and

(7aMt.
a

"

^If

after which, for

definite
for
ita

sch

been

approved, involves

Owner services

decision expense

pro
or

cution,
to

changes
or

in

the

drawings, by
the
not

specifications
of
labor of
or

or

other

documents;

if
or

be
or

let if

cost

and

material
are

plus
rendered

percentage
for
to

services executed; by either,


the

the if

Architect the
or a

work
or

conte plate

but

Architect
contractor,

is

put
or

labor

expe

delays

caused
of

Owner shall

by for

the
such

delinquency
extra

olvency expense. The work

he

be

equitably

paid

ser

basic is
let

rate

as

hereinbefore
one

defined

is

to the

be

used

when

al

under

contract.

Should

Owner

determine

^Copyright,

1916,

by

the

American

Institute

of

Architects.

certain

portions

of

the

work of in

executed expense

under and
such

separate

contracts,

Architect's increased,
shall be four
to

burden
the rate

service,
connection

responsibility
portions
rate.
of

with the entire

th

per
have then

cent

greater

than the rate


rate

basic
work

Should

th under work.

determine contracts,
event,

substantially such the higher basic


of the

executed
the

shall shall,
on

apply
without the
cost

to

entire

however,

increase,

apply

racts

for

any fees

portions
to

work

which the his abandoned

Owner
of

reimburses
not

ngineer's by
the
the

the

Architect,

and

to

articles

si de

Architect work
or

but
any the
or

purchased part
amount

under
of

direction.
or

hould
the for

it of

be

suspended accepting
by

Owner
the
is

vary
omission
to

any

contract

by

modification
in

of
with rendered
or

any the
on

work
terms
account

covered of this

rchitect
for

be

paid of

accordance service

ment Agreeit

the
of

proportion
such

his

of

up

ime

abandonment,
shall be
made
or

suspension
from
other

acceptance.
fee
on

deduction liquidated

the
sums

Architect's

acooimt

damages,

withheld

from

payments

ors.

Paymentg,

"

Payments
in

to

the

Architect order:
of

on

his

fee

are

due of

ork

progresses
studies,

the

following

upon
entire

completion
fee;

th

ary

twenty

per

cent

the

upon

completion
of

ecifications
per
time cent
to to

and

general
of proportion

working
the entire
to

drawings fee,
the the

(exclusive
remainder
of
on

details),
being

additional
time the in Architect,

due

amount

service
fee,

rendered.
all
is
are

other

than time

those
to

his
as

and
work charges

bursem reim-

of
costs
are

costs

fall

due

from

time
are

his

done

incurred.
a

Until
estimated of the
"

contracts
cost fee.

signed the work

sed

upon
are
on

reasonable account

of

and

payments

entire ^The

6.

The

Oumer's
to

DeoUions.
sketches, documents
is

Owner

shall

give

thorough proposals,

consid

all

drawings, laid before he time him from


as

specifications,
him shall
not

contra

and

other

by
inform
to

the

Architect the
Architect

and,

ever whenof of

prompt
in
nor

action
such
to

necessary,

hi

reasonable

delay

the
or

work

th

prevent
season.

giving

drawings

instructions

ors

in Survey,
a

due

7.

Boringe,

and

Teeta.
accurate

"

^The survey

Owner
of

shall
the

furnish

the
site,

tect Archi-

with

complete
and

and of

building

giving

rades

lines

streets,

pavements,
boundaries,
as

and

adjoining
and
contours

properties; of

rights,
site,

restrictions,

easements,

th

and Owner
or

full is

information
to

to

sewer,

water,

gas, and

and

electrical

The

pay
when

for

borings

or

tests

pits

for

chemical,

al,

other

tests

required.

8.

SupervUUm
against

of

the

Work.
and

"

^The

Architect in the of

will

endearor
of

to

Owner
he

defects guarantee architect


to

deficiencies

work

contractors

does
of

not
an

the
is be
to

performance
be

their
from

contracts.

ervision

distinguished
by the

the

continuou

sonal

superintendence

obtained

employment

of

the-works.

When Owner

authorized
and

by
Architect
to the

the

Owner,
shall be

derk-of-the-works
engaged
paid by the

acceptable
Architect
upon

ary

satisfactory
of

Owner
monthly
"

and

by

the

Owner,

ation

the

Architect's Eaiimates.
or

certificates.

9.

Preliminary make he be will

When

requested
estimates

to
on

do

bo"

the
cost

te Ar

will

procure
endeavor with material,

preliminary
to

the the

of
as

k may

and

keep

the

actual of the

cost

of

work

consistent

the

purpose
but
no

building made
can

and before
be

with the

pr

kmanship
of than 10. work

and
working
an

estimate

drawings

and

specifications

regarded

er

approximation.

Definition
"

of
in

the

Coet
2

of

the

Work,"
are sums

The ordinarily incurred

"

words
to

the

cos

as

used total

Article of the

hereof

be

interprete execution

meaning
work,
the

the
not

contract

for

the
or

including

Architect's but in the


cost

and
certain

Engineer's
rare cases,

fees,
e.

the
when
or

sa

clerk-of-theworks,
is

g.^

material materials cost


cost

furnished
are

by
the

Owner
of

below the work

its

market is
to

cost

re-used,

be

interpreted
the
new

of

all

materials
have fully
contractor's

and
been
if
at

labor

necessary materials prices and


"

to

complete
been

work, and

would been

all

had
current

or

had

paid

market

when

the

work

ered,
11.

plus

profits
Documenta. the

expenses. Drawings of
or

Ouynerehip
of

of
are

and Architect

specifications
whether

as

service
are

property
executed
"

the

the

which 12.

they
Stiooeeeora

made
and

be

not.

Aaeignment.

The

Owner

and

the

Architect,

ds

himself, other

his
to

successors,

executors,

administrators,

and
successors,

assigns

party

this assigns

agreement,

and
such other

to

the

executor

inistrators,
of

and
this

of

party

in

respect

of

all

enants

Agreement. shall agreement,


enter

The

Architect

have

the any

right
architect

to
or

join

with

him

in

the whom In

of in
the

this

architects

with

good death
of
or

faith
or

into

general
one or

partnership
more

relations. the the

disability if upon
or

of
a

partners,

rights

ies

the

Architect,
or

firm, firm

shall
as

devolve
may
be
as

upon established the


by
the

remainin by

tner

partners
he, they and
so

such shall the

him

m,

and Architect,

it

be

recognized covered

"successor"

on

until

service

agreement

performed.
limitation

The
as

Owner
to

shall
vocation

have of

the those

same

rights,
to

but

in

hi

no

the

admitted

partnership

sed.
as

xcept
or

above,
his

neither interest

the

Owner
this

nor

the

Architect without the

shall
written

assign,

transfer
the other.

in

agreement

consent

of

3.

Arbitration. submitted

"

^AIl be
to

questions
at to

in
the

dispite choice
laws

under
of the

this either State law the effect.

Agreement party.
in

arbitration
conform and
wherever

The

procedure
is
to be

shall

the

of

which decision

th

erected,
may may named arbitrators,
be chosen

permitted
to

by
it

bitrators

be

filed

in upon

court
one

carry

into

he

parties
one

agree in

arbitrator; each

otherwise and
a

there third

shall
chosen

ee,

writing
or

by
if they

party
to

the third Bar party of

se

two

fail

select of

within
Association demanding his

te

he

shall
to

by
of
an

the the

presiding
work.

officer Should

the

the

location
to
name

the
ten

on
to
an

fail

arbitrator

within Should
ten

days
other

demand, fail presiding


refuse

ight

arbitration

shall

lapse.
the

the days,

party
such

arbitrator
appoint supply in
ew

within
such

said

then either papers by

shall
to

arbitrator. arbitrators with


are

Should
any

party
or

the
the

information

writing,

arbitrators

empowered

both

parties

parte.

there

be

one

arbitrator
two

his
be

decision
binding legal and

shall
such

be

binding;
decisior.
arbitrators

if shall

three, be

ecision

of

any

shall

n
own

precedent
compensation, the
The shall

to

any

right
unless

of

action.

The

shall

otherwise
of
the

provided
arbitration
must
on

by

agreement, upon either

and

assess

costs

and

charges

parties.
writing, proceedings Owner
covenants

award
not
or

of
be

the open

arbitrators
to

be
account

in

writing
of
the

and,
form

objection

the

award. Architect hereby

he

and

the

agree

to

the

full

performance

contained WHEREOF
and

herein.
they
first
above

WITNESS
the

have
written.

hereunto

set

their

hands

and

day

year

Certain
which

percentages

have

been
should
in

standardised
accept,

as

mini-

the
are

architect

and

these,

cases,

not to

included
the

the

estimate,
cost

which
materials

tood
and

represent

total to

in
a

labour, given

equipment with

required

erect

building

ll

specifications

and

drawings

pre-

red

for

that
or

building.

No

travelling
are

expenses

for

chitect

his

superintendent
as no

included well
to

in
consume

the

p c

commission^
proportion
is
at

these

might
whatever

due

profit
as

the

architect

giving

his

time

well,

in

accordance

with

ntract.

The

minimum of

percentage
to

required
be

by

the

American

stitute for

Architects

charged
work is

by
6

Institute
per
cent., any

member

general

residential
city
country,

wh

ctories,

loft-buildings, in
cent,

buildings
are

of
usually

type,

terations,
10
per

city

or

undertaken
work.

of

the

estimated

cost

of

the
a

Advice

regarding definite
is
terms,

supervision because erected


has is

is

little

difficult
vary.

ve

in

circumstances

building
whom

being

by had

reliable
previous
than

contractor,

th

the
less the

architect supervision
architect
too
many

satisfactory in
a

alings, which
to

necessary

does

not

feel details

it

to

be
a

entire

fe

entrust

delicate is

to

contractor

th

whose

work
types
on

he of

unfamiliar.
require

Also,

simp

standard'' supervision

building
the
can

comparatively
architect,

ttle

part
*'go

of

the

becaus

ere

is

little

which

wrong,''

and
well

travelling
prove

penses

(if

any)
addition

to

the
to the

work,
total

might
cost.

necessary

There

are

buildings,
almost
"

however,

which

call
on

for
the

minute
part

reful

and

constant
as

supervision
the

architect

especially
are

work

progresses out.

finished
the the

portions

being
well be

carried

For asking

rk

architect minimum
expect to
or a

may

justified
and
is the

in

mor

an

commission,
pay

client

shou

ightly

it.

He

requiring
than
more

something
the

ttle

better,

great

deal
to
pay

better,
a

ordinary,

nd

should

be

prepared

little

for

it,

ARCHITECT

AND

CLIENT

259

would
one. or an

in
A
man

any

transaction
who has
an

other

than law

an

tural architecmatter
on
or

important
will

important
high
so

operation, and
that he

seek

lawyer

of

standing

high will

reputation, be
upon

and
to
pay

will

se,

in fee.

doing,
he

asked

This
into

should

reckon
with the
average

beforehand,

and

fully

advisement for

himself.
client whether
a

It

is very

difficult
intelligently

to

be
or

able
riot

to

mine,

and

fairly,
progress The

the

tect

is giving

work

in

sufficient

amount

ersonal

supervision.

architect,

often
his

openly

ed

of
of

neglect,

is

in

reality
for
an

saving
travelling

client
expense,

e if he

unnecessary is in
all other
it
amount

charge
respects

architect
that

of

integrity
the best

reliability, of
the

is

safe

to

assume

he work

is

of it

supervision

the

will
that

requi

After

all, reputation

should is at

be
stake,

remembered
not

the

tect's
house,

only

in

the

design

he

for

which
part

he

is of

directly the
work,
to

responsible,
for
reason,

but he

the

contractor's

which

ectly
the
a

responsible. architect
monument

It
not

stands

therefore,
a

will

wittingly will of
the

allow
upon

contractor

rect

which and much

reflect

his

sional profes-

ability,

client's
may

apprehension
well

ding

insufficient
reflection. entering of
to

supervision

be

allayed

this

Before

into drawings
exactly

more

or

less

detailed it

conside

the

and
what

specifications, relation
the

may

ell

ascertain

contractor

to

the
bears

whole
to

building
the

transaction,

and

what

tion rela-

he

client.
the
to

In

usual

procedure,

architect

invites
or
on

two,

three
on

more

contractors

tender bids
to

estimates,

bids,

sed

building,

these

be

based

absolutely

iform

data

given

to

each

bidder duplicate
of

in

the

form

of

cat dup

specifications
may
are

and
nothing of the

blue-prints.
contractors
"

ient

know
contractors

these

usual
in
or

hey

good

local is
to

reputation

cinity

in
the

which

building has had

be

erected,

om

architect

previous

satisfactory

alings. When the bids have


perhaps

been
in

received, the
presence

sealed, of in it is be

they
the

ormally
the
case

opened,
of

cli

important of
money

public
are

buildings,

which obvious

la

penditures
greatest
no

involved,
impartiality

formality
be all of
house
aware

and
of

observed,
'

hat

bidder
before

any

of

his
have

competitors

m e

the

sealed
to

bids be be

been
in the

handed
bids

he

degree

formality
may

observed left
to

fo

rivate

well

the

discretion

chitect

and

client.

Several
wise,

bids,
will who
accept

then,

are

placed
estimate

before

the

client, by

the in
a

recommended
position
to

rchitect,

is

far of

better
the

judge

of

ility
the

and
client.
to

integrity By the
no

competing

contractors

t feel

means

should bid,
for

the
reasons

client

accept

lowest

which

shou

obvious. If
one

bid
several
It
may
man,

is

far things be who

lower

than
are

all

others, detrimental

it is

safe
to

sume

which
that he

dder.

is

an

inexperienced
*Mow'*
costs,
on

practical lack
to

has

figured

everything
an a

hrough

of

familiarity

with

or cases,

undu

sire bid

secure

the
in by

work.
an

Or,
unscrupulous
securing

in

some

is

put

contractor

so

unduly
profit

desirous
through
or

of
the

the

work,

is

figuri
of

fraudulent
employment

substitution of cheap

i r

materials,

the

labour,

And,
is dear

in
at

any any

building,
price.

cheap The

and

poor

workmanship

client,
pays

therefore,
little
the
or no

should
attention

be
to

surprised
the
or

if the
low

architect but high who

very

bids,

weighs

merits

of

the

the

medium
contractor,

bid.
is

cautious
the

figuring
to

on

carrying and naturally

architect's
only
a

specifications the
most

the

letter,

on

ying

skilled
a

labour,
very

will

fairly afford
to
once,

high, it, he

perhaps
may

high
to

bid,

and

if the ence prefer-

can
even

do low

well

accept

it in

the

medium
and
In

bid.
years

He of

is

building,

perhaps

but

will
any

find
case,

satisfaction
again,
one

in

uilt

house. best
it

the
may

architect
point to

client's

advisor.
in preference

He

bid

and

mend
from

to

all the

others,
contractor

because
who
turn
over

he

past

dealings

that reliable, house,

submitt

it

is

thoroughly

and
honestly

will

ctly

satisfactory

and

carefully

. relationship
a

The

between
one,

owner

and concluded
when

contractor

business
as

and

is

(excepting
both
parties

payments

the
'*

work

progresses)
Form
"

signed

the and the

Standard

of
a

Agreement

twe Be-

Owner
like

Contractor"
Standard Institute

form

carefully
agreement,

prepare

Owner-Architect
of

the

American

Architects.
a

Under
*
*

no
on

stances,

however,
give

should
instructions
or

client
to

go

out

the

and
of

direct foremen

the

contractor,

his

superintendents.
which architect,
not

At
he

most,

mention
to

certain
take
up

things
the

wishes
even

the

contrac

with

though

this

and

is much
client
sees

better
any

done.
which

If

the

work

he
or

considers
sees

not

dance

with

the

specifications,

anything

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

ich

he
notes

wishes
on

altered
it, and take

or

done
these
up

differently,
with
over

let

ke

the
the

architect

structions

to

the

contractor,
the

given

architect's
are

ad,

and
on

without his
The

architect's

knowledge, confusion would the architect


a sure

flection

ability
contractor

and

grievous himself

to

ncerned. his
no

far

rath

ceive

instructions else,

direct

from

architect,
to

om

one

because

it is the Only in

whom

directly
one

responsible. in which
for him the
to

most

serious his
on

cas

d
it

client

is very
work

of

knowledge,
all
or
on

well of the

order
until

stopped
can

rt

building

the

architect

appear

ene.

Usually seriously and


the

this

procedure

is the

only
work,

oificious and

fer int

hampering the
the

greatl
in

noying

affronting lacks
the

architect,

because knowledge
respect,
or

mo

ses

client

professional

whi

ould

command intelligent
always
a

contractor's

woul

nsure

interference
however,

with officious brick


tell If
a

the

work. who be

Ther

ill

be,

the how
who

botanist should
veteran

ell

veteran

bricklayer
doctor

layed,
carpenter

he

successful
a

will

ow

plank

should

be

ripped. realised
as

these
they

(possibly)
appear
to

we

eaning

individuals
as

that they
confine

skil

orkmen

ridiculous
perhaps,
were

imagine
their in.

they

appea to

se,

they
as

would,
they

advices

ubjects

more
or

versed
workmanship

Regarding

material

which and duly in


set

is

to

ondemned,
is

and
the with

ordered final the


of word,

removed
as

replaced, forth
written with

rchitect

is

in

reement

contractor,

and

the

g e

provisions

the
a

specifications,
most

which,

awings,
of
a

constitute
the agreement.

important architect
to

and
will be

bindin glad

rt

Any opportunity

fford

client

the

read

carefully

som

us

set

of

specifications,
details
contractor
to

in

which

he

may

perceive and
of

at

minute

of

workmanship,
is

materials Every
**

ent

the

bound.
in
a

part

the

is

specified

be
a

done preceding
to

thoroughly
states

manlike workthat

manner/'
is
architect.

and

clause
or

al

nship

subject
The nails the floors
no

approval

condemnation
even

the

specifications
shall
"

may

state
cross-

how under indeed,

many

be

driven

in written

the

ng

carefully

cation, specificareless the

leaving

loophole
on

whatever
the
part

for of

nconscientious
or

execution
workmen.
cases

contract

his

In
to

many

there

are

sub-contracts,
the architect. A

which
' '

it
general

have

let

directly
on

by
the

ctor''

bidding
in

average

dwelling,
work and
"

usually excavation, while


are

es

his

estimate

the plastering

entire

y,

carpentry,

painting,
contracts

g,

plumbing
let

and
by

electric
the

wiring

ly

separately being of of

architect,
on

his

selection based drawings,


the
clause

b-contractor
sets
case

determined

estimates and
If
a

pecial
the

duplicate
the general
the

specifications
contract.

general in

ctor

is

letting

sub-contracts,
that

the

al
power

specifications
to
reason

stipulates
any
or

the
so

architect

has

reject
to

all

bids

received,

should

ave

believe

that

any

of
the

the

sub-contractors

undesirable.
the
general

Occasionally
contractor,

architect
direct

dispenses
all

and work

sub-lets
to

contract

from of paint,
of the

the

excavation
this

the is not

last
usual.

finished The it
a

though

procedure is

general
to
to

contractor

saved,
to

but

is

vio ob-

necessary

the
the

architect work
a

appoint
closer

superintenden

and

give
case

much

attention contractor

would

be

the

if

reliable

general

responsible
A client
up

for

the

work
to

of

all

the

sub-contractors.
contracts

who

undertakes trouble

sublet
himself class

himsel

storing

untold
fact,
lawyer,

for
same

and
the

his
man
' *

arc

cty

and
his
It has
manner

is, in
own

in

the
*
*

with
for
of
a

wh

ing

has

fool

client.
contractor,
a

been

shown,
the

in

speaking
acts

the
as

at

specification
one

detailed

c t

It

is, in

fact,

of

the

most

important
and

ments instr

in

the

whole

transaction,
written,
will

if the

skilfully building

mprehensively

insure the

use

in

exact
owner

conformity

with

plans

and

intentions

both The

and

architect.
commence

specifications
stating architect the

with which
the progress

certain

genera

ovisions,
the

authority

will

be of

exercised
the

throughout
the The

wor

stipulating

quality body
of

of
the

workmanship
document
of

which will

required.
to

be

divide
into

cording

the
in

several

divisions
with

the

work,
masonry,

dealing
work,
not

detail

excavation,
and
so

c p

plastering,
what

painting shall

forth,
but

ing specify in

only It

materials
to

be

used, and
making with
a
a

wh

ner.

is well
names

specify and

materials numbers,

equipment
assurance

actual
sure

trade by

ubly

requiring the

conformity
' '

sample

furnished
be

by
specified and should

architect.
by
name,

Thus, all

certain

bri

ould

and

such

equipment radiators number.


no

umbing

lighting

fixtures, by
there

steam catalogue is

rdware
way

be be
or

specified
seen

is

it will
mistake
regard makes
or

that

virtually

bili poss

of

fraudulent the

substitution. recommendation
or

With

to

architect's of material of

rtain

qualities be
made

equipment,

rrection

should
of

here

serious is

misconceptio

the

architect's

function

which

sometimes

ntered.

There either
from
openly

are
or

people

who

suppose

that

an

tect,

surreptitiously,

receives

commissi

manufacturers
use

for
or

the

recommendation
Nothing

subsequent could be
on

of

materials
or

equipment.
a
more

more
a

erroneous,

unfounded
The

ction

high-standing

profession. advisor. and

tect archi-

is

only
are

professional
impartial,

His
of
an

recommendations

entirely
character,

entirely in

ssional
work
on

his

only

remuneration by
his the
percentage

the

being
the

represented estimated
cost

commissi

of

entire of
a

building. building
to

The
vary

drawings

required
and but

in

the

erection

in
of

number

complexity

according

th6

the

building,
of
:

will

consist,

in

general,

for

buildings, The
The
a.

1.

preliminary

drawings. drawings.

2.

working The
The

i/4-inch

scale

plans

and

elevations.
scale

6.
c.

%-inch
full-size

(or

li/^-inch)

details.

The

details. mention
was

Of

the

preliminaries, The
or

made will
consist

earlier be
in

chapter.

perspective pen-and-ink,
be it said,
a

drawing

pencil,
a

colour

and
trifle

will
'*

of

ure pictof

(sometimes,
house.

idealised")
may

the
part

ed

The
blocked

preliminary in
in

plans

be

his

drawing, of
the

miniature of will
the
rooms.

merely
In

to

give
some

idea

arrangement

preliminary and
save

drawings
the

include
re-studying
subsequent lavish
an

i/4-inch
of

scale

elevations, much
changing English

careful

which

of architects effort

the

''working interesting

gs.'* of making real

artistic charming of

upon

their

preliminaries,
of
as

colour-sketches

several

differe
as

aspects

the

proposed

house^

well

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OF

ARCHITECTURE

ny

of

the

rooms.

Exigencies

of

practice

in

this

country

however,
such
average

combined elaboration American


or

with
of

American
rare

impatience,
"

ke

preliminaries

^indee
see

client would
preliminary be

would
seeking

expect

to

use

completed,
the

another
were

architec

fore
The
the

English
of
the

drawings

finished

first

working

drawings
so

to

be

considered

14-inch

scale laid
foot

drawings,
out

called
in

because
the

th

accurately
one

with
actual

i/4 inch
building.
of

drawing

ualling

in
as

the

Each

quarter

ch

is

regarded
so

being
exact

composed

twelve be

minute
shown

inches,'^

that

proportions
scale
as

may

ese

drawin/ars.
plans,

The
cellar
the
or

i/4-inch
to

drawings
well and
as
one

include
or

from through
"

attic,

more

ctions elevations,

building,
as

all

four each
architect

of

aspects
*'

viewed
"

from
the
as

of

ur

sides.
do

These
not
as

elevations,

plain,

depict it
must

the

house

it for

will
the
are

actuall

pear,

but

be
working

laid

out

builder

ofs,
many

particularly,
clients
may to

in

elevations,
"

diflSc

comprehend
that

^but

here,

if he

is a able

ss,

he

be

assured

the

architect

is

sualise
The

the working

finished
plans,

building.
perhaps, walls,
for
are

more

able, understanddoors

and
as

show
well and
as

all

the

partitions,

and location

d w

outlets

lighting

fixtures, and

tchen

bath-room

equipment,
to

all
are

other

essen tial

In

addition
a

the

fact

that

these
one

accurately

awn

at
are

scale minutely

of

l^

inch

equalling
to
are

foot,
any

all

the

ans

''figured"
materials

avoid

danger by

ror.

Different

''indicated*'
notes

ent diff

kinds
etc.,

of

shading,
may appear

and

many
as

regarding supplementing

mat ria

well,

pecifications.

REDUCED
Mr

REPRODUCTION,
e

OF

AN

ACTUAL

"l-INCH

WORKING

DRAWING"

approv^ Hrliona.''sK"'"u'nlely dnwn Bad

RbukiI

to

jiaeb

scale

REDUCED

REPRODUCTION

OF

AN

ACTUAL

'l-INCH

SCALE

WORKING

PORTION

OF

AN

ACTUAL

'"J-INCH

SCALE

WORKING

DRAWING"

PORTION AfUr
"quAUiD|

OF
upprovil
one

AN

ACTUAL of
foot the

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pnliminaiy^

SCALE nkctcbci. buildiDg

WORKING

DRAWING" and "elevitiniig"

the

nlj

plant

acluaJ

jn

Ibe

propoeed

ARCHITECT

AND

CLIENT

267

These
on

working
semi-transparent

drawings
linen

are

usually tracing
will

done
cloth, sustain

in

black

both
many

cau be-

the

durability

of

this and

substance

and
of
a

changes,

because

its

transparency

clear

blue-print.
much
the the

Obviously,
time

these

inal origmust

drawings,
for

representing safety
contractor,

and office,

study,

in

architect's sub-contractors, will

while

the

the

and copies.
the
so

possibly

al

building
copies

department
are

require
exactly

These
a

printed
negative

in
is

same

way

photographic
lines
paper

printed, while
* *

that ground

the

in

thd tones

tracing
blue
"

print

white,

the

he

and
or

produces damage
the

blue-print. befall
a

whatever

mischance
**on

may

set

lue-prints cloth be

the
are

job,'*

original
in the

ink

drawings

racing
to

safely

filed
any

architect's

office, of

reprinted
may

in

number

of

sets

prints blue-

which
the

be

required.

From

dimensions scale details,


drawings,
which

worked there
show

out
are

and

determined developed
times equalling the

he

i/4-inch
scale

the

ch

(at three
%-inch

size
one

the

1/4-inch
su(di

drawings,
as

with

details
the
like.

mantel-pieces,
scale in

stairways,

ling panel-

and
at

These scale,

details

are

sometimes
equals
any
one

larger

which

1^^
to
these
progress,
as

inches show

especially elaborate proceeds,


out

if

it is

necessary

carving

woodwork.
and during

With
its details
respect
an

drawings, the be
vague

the

architect required. in
even

such

full-size in
this

may

obligation but vestige accord for


in

is

rather who work, details work

tha

act,

practice
pride all in the

architect

has will which

of make

his

finished

of

hi
are

full-size
of

sary

the

execution

the

according

to

hi

THE

PRACTICAL

BOOK

OP

ARCHITECTURE

tentions.

These
at actual

drawings size,
a

show and
are

mouldings,
often
the most

profile

carving

esti inte

drawings,
come

from
an

draughtsman's
's

point
They
are

of

vie

ich heavy

from brown

architect

office.

drawn
sent

paper,

and

though

occasionally prefers
the
to

the

job,'*

the

careful

architect
so

have

aughtsman
in his

make office. the


very

tracings,

that

originals

ma

main

Obviously depend
drawings
are

merit
largely

of

building,
on

in number

point
of

of

deta

ll

the the

full-si

tail

prepared
as

by
as

architect,
can

since
at

the

awings

nearly

he
own

arrive

actuall

ecuting

the will

work

with
be

his

hands.
that

It

readily
such
a

appreciated
as
a

the library of
the

full-size
or

for

building
an

public
amount

a on

st

pitol
of

must

entail
architect has
even
never

enormous

work lay

rt

the

"

labour
^a

which
to
upon

observer
when

turally

paused

reflect
some

upon,

gazed,
or

intelligently, interior.

great

elaborate

gade

imposing in brief,

Such,

is

the of
or

architect's
interest,

procedure, admiration,

oft

ewed

with

fluctuations

bewi derm

misgiving

plain

uncomprehension

by

ient.

Some

architects,

perhaps, drawings
are

trained
a

for little the


them
see

years

*read''

architectural
clients
who

impatient

th

entirely
see

fail

to

follow Let they of

carefully
remember, are

esigned

lines

they that

before
lines and

them. which
days
years

however,

these

esult

of
and

many

hours

many

painstaking

tudy

re-study

backed does
not

by

of the
is

experience, by
which

hat

their

doctor
at
a

outline

steps

as

arrived be

diagnosis.

This

professional

wor

thoroughly

understood

and

appreciated

only

fellow-professional.

PORTION for the

OF

AN architect

ACTUAL
to

"FULL-SIZE

DETAIL"

DRAWING
for

customary

prepare
either

full-sise
exterior

detail
or

drawings

all

work

of

special

character,

interior

Nor

do

the and

drawings
study

show,

to
gone
or

the

lay
into
into

inspection,
the

thought
easy,

which

have

devising

comfortable
to

staircase,
of
an

adding
or

teen eighworking

inches
extra

the

width

upstairs
things

hall
are

guest-room.

These

worked
other

out

the

draughting and
unappreciated
plan
more more

table,

these

and

many

things,
to

because convenient,
abode.

they

only

go

make

whole
a

the

whole

finished

agreeable

Some
at

unfortunate
once, some or

ure, featenlarged
insistence

however,

is
it may
upon

usually have
a

noticed resulted

and

albeit
client

from

he

room-arrangement the
architect

disposition
pled in

the

stairway

which

had

vain

hange.
foregoing paragraphs architect"
paragons
to

The

may
assume,

seem

to

have
fact,

ignored
that

incompetent
are

in

al

tects

of

wisdom by
*'

and
a

ability, and
It

vers uniunap-

abused
idiot
saying,

and

maltreated
a

stupid

ative

designated
however,
as are

client.'^
there
are

should

go

ut

that
are

incompetent doctors

tects,

just
They

there
to

incompetent
and accredited such

and

rs.
properly

be

avoided,
or

seldom

come

recommended,
The
a

by

previous

work.
as

selection
upon

of
the for

should

certainly of
the

be

reflection
as

judgment
commiserating

client,
"

at

least

occasion misrepresent
to say,

him
not

the

sions It is

they

should
any rate,
or
rare

be

discredited.
who

safe

at

that

the

client
than
can

more

about is
an

architecture
so so one

building
that

his
no

tect in

individual

he

find
to

a as

discussion
the
present

necessarily
"

confined

the

^he
a

would of

make,

indeed,

interesting word

character

for

work

fiction.
a

might

be

interposed

here

about

breach

of

houghtlessly)
opinion
the No
hands

by
of of
a

client
of

in

asking
or

another
an

architec

set

plans,

of

unfinished

hous

his
of
to
any

acting

architect.

architect

professional

standing,
ethics,
any
more

or

with

ightest

regard

professional
opinion,
without

would
than

drea
would

expressing
or a

ctor

lawyer,

cognisance

and is

consent

acting

professional.
Ethics
a

This American
amount
a

point

covered of

in

non

of

of

the

Institute of

Architects.

Unless

certain
the

diplomacy professional

and

tact

ercised

by

client,

little

clash
and

ise

between

architect
cause.

and

interior

decorator,

tirely
The

without
architect is
a

recognises

the

fact
distinct

that

landscape

chitect

specialist
working
a

with

status,

like

ructural

engineer,

with

architects
nature.

in The

profes sional

channels
decorator,
an

of

non-conflicting the
architect

in ri

however, especially
out

naturally decorator

regards

interloper,
to carry

if the

is

commissioned

important
the

interiors
It
to

calling
natural

for
that

or el

panelling

and
feel

like.

is only be
as

chitect
anyone

should
on

himself
of

good in
a

an

authority

the

treatment

interiors
is willing

house

whic for
and is

has

designed
to

himself.
select

He

enough tapestries

corator

furniture,
but

fabrics, his
at

corative and
that

accessories,

disappointment
all
mercenary,

oft

ute

genuine,
all

and
most

not

when

nds

the

important
had hands
for

and

interesting

ri in

(for
taken
The

which
out

he

definite and the


out

architectural of

idea

of

his

his

contract.

only

procedure relation

client

who

is desirous and
decorator

harmonious
to

between
at

architect
very start
a

tell
are

the
to

architect

the
out

that

certai

ms

be

carried

by

certain

decorator.

no

time
He
the

or

expense

in

studies
resent
may

or

drawings implied
real the
or

rooms.

may

secretly

the

superiorit

of

decorator will
not

(which
feel
as

be about

imaginary)

but

he it
were

badly
to

intrusion advanced be
remembered,

ough of

suddenly
on

broken house. architects

him

at

an

his

work
that

the

It

should

too,

many
as

have

attained

conspicu

reputations furniture,

interior antiques,

decorators,

designing
proving themselves

al

selecting
of

and
and

connoisseurs

tapestries,

the

like,

all

for

client

's

benefit appreciation bearing


upon

With
chapter,

due

of
the it might

the

points

presented between be
asserted

relationship

the

tect

and if of
to

his
a

client,

safely
may

that
over

reader,
shoals

prospective indecision
a

builder,
and
course
on

be

piloted and
may

misgiving, between
undue

be

ed

steer

nice

ignorance undue
on

is

architect's

work

the

one

hand,
and

and

suspici

of hand. remains

his

ardiitect's

ability

motives

the

It

only

to

mention
architects
the outset,

few with
the
on

points

of

procedure

he

relationship

of
at

large

building

under

Here,
and

relationship
a
or

begins,
basis.

eds client

terminates
a

strictly business

business

is

powerful
a

man, a

is represented
or a

corporation, committee.
to step

municipality,

railroad the

ing build-

Here,

if
client

anything,

architect

is

put

it

outdo of
the

his

in

business-like the publication


to

procedure. of
the the

work,
to

from
the last

competit

program

payment

selected

tect

goes

forward

with
the form

the of
wheels

utmost

formality.

lity,

indeed,
often

in

endless
of

meetings
progress,

and and

ences,
the

clogs

the

architect
'*

impatiently

awaiting

the

word

rk.

The
for formality, The

issuance
instance,

of

invitations
a

to

bid

on

Sta

pitol,

is
the work

serious

matter, of
a

attended bid
no

eat

and

acceptance

less in

architect's
to

is

lar^e

and of

complex

the

size
to

and

complexity

the

building

been
The
* '

selected

design.
' '

preliminaries,
are

in

the
the

case

of

the

large

com pe

usually

called
days where

^'projeV^
ateliers

drawings,
the
Ecole

mory

of
Arts

student in
These

in

the

of

aux

Paris,

each

elaborate
are

problem
often

projet.

competition
and

drawings

unb lie

elaborate
to

enormously

expensive

for

chitect
actual

produce.

Usually
in
most

he
cases

is

remunerated he expends

cost,
more

though
than

c s

he

receives, however,

if unsuccessful.
and
makes
an

He

aying

for

big

stakes,

eff

oportionally. As
stated in of weighty
an

earlier

chapter,

the

subject

of

oper

conduct
given

large
and
of

and

important

competitions
consideration

en

detailed

by conclusions
by

erican duly

Institute
set

Architects,
a

and
document

their

forth

in

special

issued

dy. His

projet
staff
of

accepted,
good

the

architect
to

must
carry
a

maintain the

rge

draughtsmen
He
must

out competent

endles

awings

required.

have

supe inte

and

other small

assistants
country

in
house,

the

work.

As

in

the
to

work

proceeds
or

rough

the

l^-inch
sections, reached.

scale
until

drawings,
the
stage

%-

1^^-in

tails

and is

of

full-size

det

awing Here, do

however,
not

the
to

full-size
workmen

details
''on

of
the
'

all

carve but

rk

go
* *

the

job,*'
who

'

professional

architectural

modeller,

prepares

ented and
by and
no

mouldings
these
the

and size

all

other after

detail
change

of and

like

full

models,
go to

final
stone-

val

architect, founders,
may
occur

wood-carvers,

metal mistakes of

together

with
execution.
on as
a

the

drawings, Owing

hat

in

importance

the

work

involved
such

large

building, workers,
men

various

sub-contractors,

marble

workers
own

and
to take

bronze-casters, minute
so

send

reliable of
the

measurements

building, of

it

progresses, to to

that they

they
are

may

be

positive
the

the

sions

which
them, and

working
are

several
executed the

parts

sted

and
stone

which yards

being
from

i ing build-

rent itself.

mills

miles

And

it of

is

marvellous and various

tribute artisans members


assembled
the

to

the
to
see

painstaking
with what wood,

acy

draughtsmen

ct

exactitude and will other

of

marble, from

materials,
' *

different

fit together

on

job,

'

'

each

in its designed

.
too,

Here,

in

the
be

carrying remembered
**

out

of that

plans the

for

great

ing, simply fee.


the
as

it

must
a

architect
an

i
mous enor-

free-lance
is

designer,^*

netting
expense

He

under
and

tremendous providing the


have pay-roll,

in

getting

drawings

adequate steward
an

supervision,
of

he

is,

in
he

sense,

considerable
accountant
to

ditures, bills,
and
he
may

must

expert

handle

his

and

render

his

client
at
any

ate

businesslike
be

financial

statements

required.
which,
that there
are a

Notwithstanding would
say

many

architects capitol
or

they far

could less

build personal

state

library
than

with
they

harassment

and

ance

would

experience

in

building

an

CHAPTER
MATERIALS
OF

in
CONSTRUCTION
AND

AND
PHYSICAL

SIDERATION

i"STH"TIC

PROPERTIES SUITABILITY,
MATERIALS.

BUILDING

MATERIALS.

NATURES,
ETC., TEXTURE. STYLES

P C

COSTS,
IMPORTANCE MATERIALS OF
AND

OF

BUILDING ASSOCIATED

SUITABILITY

COMMON
'

observation
there the is

has
quite

acquainted
a

ns

with

fact

that

variety is

of naturally in
a

buildin

terials,
to

but
compare

prospective them
one

builder
with another he

ss

knowing
have

mer.

All

building

materials,
and
he knows
as

knows,

physical,

architectural of
any
one

aesthetic there
well.

properties,
are

in

the

choice

involved

rtain The

economic
question

considerations
of

choice,
actually
results

happily,

is

not

untram-

led,

but

is

in

fact

limited.
from

The
not

greates

nfusion,

perhaps, and

ideas
ultimate

clear

sualised,

satisfaction
certain each by
the

in the
attainment with
of

choice the

shoul

reasonably
saw

of

if
its

prospective
properties,
mystery

ilder

material, veil

exact

shrouded

complexity,

familiarity. It
is the
purpose

of
premises,

this

chapter,

then,

to

establis

rtain

specific
tjrpes

and

to

tabulate
in
a
maimer

materials

with

of
once

construction

involved)
and clear.

whi

all

be The

at

definite

following

materials,

involving with
in
a

differing
necessarily

methods

construction,
yet

will
with
a

be degree

dealt
of

br

ner,

lucidity

which
his

may

aid in

ospective

builder

in

defining

ideas

nnection.

MATERIALS

AND

CONSTRUCTION

275

Table

1.

The The

frame frame
frame

house: house: house: tile house. house

Shingle-covered. Clapboard-covered. With


house
stucco
on

2.

3.

The
The
The

wire-lath.

4.

hollow

(stucco-covered).

5.

brick
stone

6.

The

(rough-dressed
-timber

stone).

7.

The

actual

half

house.

In end

discussing
of

these
to

several
show in

types

of

house,
form

it may
the
may
more

aid

clearness
aspects

tabulated
any

tant

under

which

material

well

onsidered.
are,
we

There

in

the will

first

place,

certain

restrictions

e,

which

tabulate.

Table

triction

of

inherent
due to

cost.

restriction
to

locality:

material

locally

unobtainable,

and

xpensive

transport. due
to

le

restriction, of

unsuitability

of

given

material

for

th

expression

style

desired.

The

several tabulated

considerations
are

under

which
and

building
closely
:

als

interdependent

in te

will

be

seen

in

the

following

table

Tabue

P~P"rt'eB

_x.

of

"""*"

"

r"'
6.

Character

Durability
Adaptability
Texture

rillT^
both physical and

(^
f

c.

perties

a-

Bsthetic

'{b.

Colour

\
or
-

*"

etic

architectural
X
"

prop"

f^",""
*

^*
o.

Local
^

suitability

_^, erties

of

materials

.""l^^"'*^
^

Expressiveness
Inherent

o.

cost

nomic

propertie. '^ *^

of

mate-

)
/

*"
0.

Local

?*"'f'*"'" !^
availability
or

^,

A
e.

Workability,

structural

cos

Upkeep

BOOK

ARCHITECTURE

If

the

properties
to

listed
any

above

be

applied
it

carefull
is safe

thoughtfully
that
all

building

project,
governing

essential have
come

conditions
under study will the

choice

terial

will
to

due
of

consideration.
materials
as

Wi
clear
basis

view

keeping
the above discussion of

the

ssible,
detailed
The
in

tables
in

be

used

as

the

following
with

paragraphs.

types

construction,
A,

associated
to
cover

material, virtually
to stone

sted

Table

will

be

found
omitting carved
or
or

pical

country

residences,
for
much

reference
dressed
a

ing bui

which in

call

wor

ther

the

entire trim.
highly
in B
never

fabric,
Such
expensive
**

in

brick is and

house

wi

rved class spoken The

stone

houses, work,
averages.*'

it

obvious,
cannot

fall

of
of Table
are

safe

terms

of

will

illustrate equally

the

fact

that,
any
one

since

terials
that

available
are

in
not

plac
for

since

all

materials
of the

suitable
style,
a

chitectural of for
well

expression

every

certai

ount

selection
us

in

matter

is

automatically

p f

by

natural
the

elimination.
factor.

Initial

cost,

ght
After

prove

decisive the several


to

defining it will
each

properties
apply

listed
table,

ble

C,
to

be
of

possible
the
types

this

ually, individ

of

building
and

enumerated construction

ble

A,

considering

material

ally

inseparable.

Physical

Pbopebties in

of

Materials

By

character certain such


or

building

material,
"

it
^to
a

is

intended

denote
to

general
as

properties

direct
given
or

atte tion

questions heavy,

whether

or

not

mate rial

is,
a

appears, purpose;

massive, whether

ponderous

clumsy

given

it

is,

or

appears,

lig

CHARMING

STUDY

IN

THE

EXPRESSIVE MATERIALS

POSSIBILITIES

OF

BUILDING

It ii tnwresliDi

to

obKrve

the

decorative

quaiiiy

of the

brick

irork,

regulUug

from

the

lua

h
his
"a"|
sll
oil

si:

MATERIALS

AND

CONSTRUCrTION

277

ure,

unstable.
taste

Decision architectural
require
to
a or

here

is

matter

of

tectura archi-

and should

judgment.
no

Durability

definition,
with

but
reference

is

an

tant

question It upkeep, is

bear

in

mind
closely
as

tion. of

consideration maintenance,
is
a

associated
economic
cognate

with
question.

an

AdaptdbUity
and

property

closely

with

cter,

is

intended

to

direct
a

thought
material
it

toward
for should of

the
use

ion

of given

the

suitability In
a

of
this

^ven

design.
that

connection
is
same

be

bered
the

skilful

architect
the

capable

renderi

same

set

of

plans,

house,
the

in

fact,

ntirely two

different
houses

materials.
built from

One the
the
same same

of

illustrations

set
other

of in

plans,

one

ough-dressed
over

ledge-stone,
stone.

rough-cast, be
or

tucco,

This

house

could

rendere

with

equal

charm

and but if

propriety
not
as

in

brick
in

-timber

construction,

agreeably
with

frame

ruction,
of

especially Materials
most

covered

clapboards.
and

ties

Both

Phtsioal
as

jSsthetio
as

One

of

the

important,
of
any

well
is
or

the
its

least

ciated,
is
a or

properties
property

material

texture,

both
regarded
years ago

physical,
as
a

inherent, in design
of

and

etic,

to
many
were

be

factor textures

and

Not

the

building but
were

ials

not

only

unappreciated,

dly

and

unnecessarily
of

disguised architecture,
of

or

simulated.
the
good,

At est, hon-

rk

period

American
texture

interesting of paint.
stone,
common

brick

was

disguised
*'

beneath sanded**
marble

at

Wood
plaster

and
was
were

cast-iron painted
' *

were

esemble

to
' *

resemble
to

and

woods

grained

counterfeit

woods.

The

importance further

of
apparent

texture
as

in this

building chapter
is

materials proceeds.

come Colour
texture,
may

in and

building
keen

materials
taste

of

importance

equ

and

judgment
may

in

this
of
a

tio dir

attain

results

which
a

make,

sm In

inexpensive of
colour,

house,
an

true
**

work
paints''

of
a
a

art.

tter

architect
as
an

picture

ilding

materials
"

just

artist of
as

paints artistic the

picture ability
itself,

gments

nsider
a

the ^and landscape the


whole

architect
as

well

house

eate

of

true

harmony,

oe

Abchitectural

Pbopbbties
as a

op

Materials
is

jSthetic

Stylistic

suitability,

consideration,
very

largel

lf-explanatory.
in

Success
a

has

seldom
style

been
a

building

house

of

given

in
styles

materia
are

characteristic
associated
houses
are

of

that

style.

Certain
materials.

d n

with
of

certain
stucco

Spanish with
houses
slate, styles
or

alian

and

tile,
French

incidental
of

tails

of
type

wrought
are

iron
of
cut
so

work:
stone

rmal
cut

and
many
uses

of there
In

br

stone

"

and

through

found

certain

associated
discussion

of
of the
given

material.
types

bsequent
in

detailed Table
may

of
the

building kinds

sted

A,

lists
properly

will be

be

of

use

which

built

in

the

materials

ructural
Local

methods

there
as

enumerated.

suitability,
always

emphasised
a

elsewhere governing
up

in

ok,

should
will

be
to

strong

factor

choic

be

found

be
as

inseparably colour.
to

bound
Local preferred
on a

with

oth

nsiderations,
speaking,
alien.
are

such

materials,
to

gener ally

always

be

those

whic

red

brick

house

grey

New and

England

acoast

is

unpleasantly

conspicuous,

noticeably

AS

AMERICAN

EXPRESSION

OF

THE

MODERN

ENGLISH

COUNTRY

HOUSE

THE

SAME

HOUSE

CARRIED
CO

fl

HFldom
In

Ihal IhiB

biiilriinii

d"i|intc1 both

lu

lulhvr.

".Hfe.htiwrvi'i.

lyp""

ol

of

key'*

with

its

neighbouring

houses

and

with

the

landscape. expressiveness aesthetic


term

In

there

are

involved
and

all

tions, considera-

and
suggest

architectural,
the

it is
of

intended
proper

by

to to

importance
or

giving

ht

all

the

qualifications make given

properties
or

of

any

ial
choice

which
for

might
any

it building.

suitable

unsuitable

Expressiveness

as

aesthetic
as
a

property

is

closely

cognate though the

with

adaptabUr might

physical

property"

second first.

exist

without
Economic

the

full

existence

of

the

Pbopebties

of

Matebials
the

Under

this

head material

we

find
may

that

inherent
factor for

cost

of

building
or

be

the

dictating
costs

it

rejection.
amount of

Common
money

brick,
per

example, in
any

in
in

thousand in
a

locality
cost

"

some

localities
at
once

than

others,
house then,
may

but
of

this

per

and

may

involve

greater

expenditure

than

is

possible.
Local

Brick,

will

be

out

o
with

question.
cost

availability the selection


in of
a

combine

ent

to

prohibit available
cost

of

given
a

material. material,

If
the

not

easily

given
in be

locality,
another

inherent

which

locality
the

be

within
the

the other the

cost

limit,
ready

might
local

beyond

cost

On

hand,
use a case,

availability in spite
a

might
of

possible
cost
"

of for

material
example,
on

it

ent

^in

where
a

material
added from

ess

inherent

cost

would

take

considerable

(due

to

local

scarcity)

in

transportation

nt

point.
or

Workability
architect.
than

str%ictural

cost

is

best is
one

known

by

Here
material,

the

cost

question
the
expense

of

labour

though

in

labour

cost

of

erecting
and

an

actual
in" the

half -timber brickwork,


regarded

honse,
far

wi

wn

frame
cost

**nogged
or

exceeds

of

lumber

brick

merely

terials.
In upkeep,
as a

cost

consideration, low
is maintenance desired, by for
reason

are

involved
and

estions
If house

of
low

permanence,

impercost

ty.

maintenance

the

initial
of

is naturally
the

greater,

the

inherent

st

of

materials
cost

making

low

maintenance,
to

a of
walls
or

involved

of

labour

incident
to stone,

the

use

su

terials.
house
must

To
be

be
of

impervious brick
''

weather, its roof


about of

the tile

or

sla

he

fittings
at the

(called

flashings")
roofs, be
as

the all
at

chimneys

nd

junction
the the

of
must

well

as

gutters,

rai of

ipes

and

like,

of

lead be frames

(or

least metal

co p

and
set

windows

should metal

leaded

case men

in Here

leaded
would

imbedded
no

in

sonry.

be

structure

exposed centuries,
houses the
same so

pa

which
severe

could
weather

possibly

deteriorate

in

eve

conditions.
of
years

English still have

bu

ny

hundreds
gutters,

ago

fla ing

rain-pipes, Into
even

and

casement

windows is initial
a

re

buil'

them.

Such

construction
from

naturally
cost

xpensive, item

subtracting

the
over

early
years,

of

maintenance
at

saved
must

long
our

perio minds

and

best,

we

reconcile
house

he

inevitable
average

fact

that,

in

the

contemplated
even

he

prospective
by
the

builder,
millionaire,

and

in will

the
be

hous

ontemplated and
or

there will require

som

aterials

finishes
constant

which

occasional

eplacement

protection.

At

this
to

point

we

may

apply

Table
the

to

Table
types

A, of

wi

view

comparing

in

detail

like

c s

MATERIALS

AND

CONSTRUCTION

281

tanding

of

the
has

properties
been acquired

of

materials by the above

(in

general

terms)
C.
this
A,

which

study

able

In

close

discussion
as

of

the
in under

types

involved

in

studied
cost

subdivided

Table

C,

the

item
properties

of

ative

(appearing
is best

economic from
here
as

of materials)
and

segregated be
at

so
a

broad
separate

will

therefore

given

Its
cost

consideration
is
one a

the

beginning

is

logical, in Table

in

of

the

first The

questions figures
as
an

involved
given
an

the

ng

of
can

house.
only

in

D,

r,

be

regarded
out

approximation, practical
In the basis this
of

been

worked
for
purposes

by
of

experienced

ctor,

comparison.
taken
as

table,

it

of

cost

of

$10,000
is
are
no

is

compariso

and

it

hypothetically of
more

assumed

that This, and


or

the it

ials

listed
can

equal

availability.
an

us,

be

than be

assumption,
one

the

wing

figures conditions, in
the

would
not

affected,
in
the

way

another,

ocal
also

only

matter

of

material
of
these
a

matter

of

labour. is with

levelling
in

eous

questions, which deals


plus
the

however,

necessary

comparis

simply labour by
the

the

inhertlt
in that
the

cost
type

material

involved
use

ruction

called

for

of

materiid.

Table
Cost

D
of

Per

Type

of

Constraetion

Outer WaU

Total

Cent. Ineieaae

me,

ahingle-covered
clapboard-covered
stucco tile
on
....

$945
985 wire-lath... 1,171 1,626 2,217
2,991

$10,000
10,040

me,

.004
10,226

me,

.0226 10,681

low

and

stucco

.0681 11,272

ck

(ordinary) (rough-dresaed)
half-timber

.1272
12,046
12,546

ne

.2046' 3,491

ual

In

assuming the
outer

the
wall

$10,000
is the

unit
only

above,
part

the
the
"

assmnption
house
^that
we

s that

of

whid

changed

in
seven

the

seven

types

tabulated
all
the

nsidering
floors,

houses

in

which

interior lighting
that
outer

wor

fireplaces,
etc.,

plumbing
are

fixtures,
same, so

hardware,
the
first column

the
the
most

the wall

figur

show
the

cost

of

the

on

his

method
costs.

offers
It
costs

definite
seen

comparison
a

ilding
that
are

will
of
a

be

at

glance,

in

ble,

the
very

shingle
same,

house

and
that which

clapboard
is

use
great

nearly

the the

and
house

there

advance

in

frame

is

covered

th

wire-lath
appears

and with
to
we

stucco.

marked
house,

advance,
the

ev ho
next

the

hollow-tile
until
the

pes

continue house

advance,

in

the

actual

ha

mber

find

that

original and solely

$10,000
equipment,
reason

hous

entical

in

its
in

interior
cost to

construction

creased

$12,546,
represented
a
are

by
the

of
walls.
that

terial It
must

and

labour
not

by be
be

outer

for

moment to

supposed
as

gures

in

this
Any

table

regarded
on

of

genera

plication.
be readily
stone
reason

definite
merely
as

figures
a

building guide,
example, might

costs

mu

ways

taken

general
fact,

for

anyone

ll

appreciate
house, of

the

for

that
cost

ugh

in

certain

localities, of
although

by

ready
that

availability

material),
the
other

than

ick

house

in

locality,
the work

relation

actly

opposite saved brick be


on

in
mason

table. in

In

words,
in
a

ney

laying
from
up

brick
a

locali

ere

must
more

be
than

transported taken

great

distance, of

ght

by

the

cost

ansportation.

Ordinary
every

building locality,

lumber and

is

equally

available in

arly

the

labour

involved

MATERIALS is standardised^
frame than be house
the
may

AND

CONSTRUCTION
that the
as

so

figures

dealing
exact

with

be

taken

of

wider

cation appli-

others.

It will however,

well

for

the

prospective will
occur

builder in the
the

to cost

remember,

that
to

increases
the

of

the

according house, trim


expensive

character will
than

of

outer

wall. better and

for and

example,

usually
the

contain
house,
way.

ior

detail

frame
every

be

proposition
of

in
cost

Having
of by

disposed
a

the the

consideration
may
now

in

the best

tion

material,
the
to

discussion

ed

noting

properties

which
these
seven

appear types

as

applied

each

of

ing.
frame
as

The
well

house, certain

in

general,

has

much

to

commend
these mitigate

disadvantages. though
much
may

Chief be done

among

he

fire

hazard,
use

to

by

the

of

fire-resisting
impregnate

paints
wood,

and making

chemical it almost

rations

which

ombustible.
small

The
house, and
partly

character

of

wood the

adapts

it

because
and

small

house

tentious of
point

simple,
house.

because

it expresses

this

ty

the of

small

In

durability,

wood excepting

need

not

be

regarded

distinctly
or

perishable
clay

in

comparison
Even
are

with
in

burnt
climate

building
New

materials.

the

ous

of

England
the heat
are

there

wooden
storms

which
three

have

withstood
and It

and still

the
in

centuries,

which

excellently
to

ceable in

condition.
detail such
as
more

is

not

possible,
each of

here,
the

cus dis

the

properties
pine,

of redwood,
used

building
and

white

cypress

the work.

woods
is detailed

generally
data

for the

exposed
is

with

which

architect

more

nversant,

or

with

which

the

prospective
or

builder of
most

miliarise library.

himself Of
is

by

reading
perhaps

study
the

books
comprehensive
' '

fr

these,
' '

and
Gibson.*
Wood

concise

American

Forest

Trees,

by

Henry

is

by

all

means

an

adaptable the
structural
may

building and be

mate rial

being
parts

suited of
a

for

both

orna men

building.
or

It in
of with

readily

carved

in

mouldings
nor

turned
working

columns, such
parts

balusters
an

indles,

is
as

the

expensive
stone.
use

eration,

compared

the

working
may

of be
made

Of

the

texture

of
on

woods,

little of
the

of

terior
of

work, paint.
amount to

account

necessary

protective stains itself,

at

Semi-transparent
of
the
more

creosote to types assert

all

certain

wood-texture informal
the

addition
bungalows

of

building,
timber-work
The

su

and

cottages,
may

exposed
so

half
-timber
true

house

be the
upon

treated. of
the
an

same

of

colour.
to

While
reckoned

colour in

exterior
of
a

woo

much
colour
the

be
is

design
foreign

house

is

either
the

that

of of of

some

substance, in

result

of

action
colour

weather,

excepting

of
*'

the

natural
''

California
house
may
so

redwood.

Thus

colour

of

wooden

be
painted,

white,
and

wi

een

blinds, roof for


a

because
may

it
be

has

been
grey

ingled

silver length

because
time
to

it

has

be

posed Many

certain

of
may

the
by

weather.

attractive

effects
which
not

be
add

obtained
to

the

shingle-stains,
colour,

only
preserve

the A
the

shingle shingle
shingles

some

teresting wall,
but
In
*

but

also

it.

roo

should
each

never

be
be

stained
separately

after

id,

should of

dipped wood

in

the

sta

point
by

stylistic
"Hardwood

suitability,
Record"

construction
Chicago,
1913.

Published

the

Magazine,

be

found and

appropriate

especially

for

houses

ial

Georgian
farm

Colonial
houses,
manors

styles. too,
as

Dutch

Colonial
large

well

as

many

the

Sout