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Islamic Civilization IDs:

Ulama: Travelled from place to place to educate the people about Islam. Played a critical social and political role, and were the closest thing to a political class representing interest of local muslims. They did this by having a lot of social functions. Main responsibility was to educate successors and transmit religious knowledge to the public. Represented a force promoting cultural unity of the politically fragmented Sunni world. Qadi: A preacher in a large congregational mosque was appointed to someone who showed prestigious professorship. Hakim: a doctor or a wise person who has knowledge about science related to Islam.title
for Muslim philosophers, title of honor, also can be a title for ruler of an area. A title of respect we suspect. Muslim ruler or governor or judge; Islamic doctor that operate using practical advice learned from the Qur'an, A Muslim ruler or judge

Maladroit patrimonialism: Neither the religious nor the political elite was able to exercise unchallenged control Madhahib: The four sunni groups (shafiI, Hanafi, Hanbali, and Maliki). Created rivalries between different muslim groups. Madhahib groups became associated with political factions and interests. Each Madhahib contained mukthasars which were certain rules pertaining to that specific school of thought. Grades of Permissibility: There are five of them and they are; 1. Required (zakat, salat), 2. Recommended (prayers at festivals), 3. Indifferent (eating rabbit meat), 4. Disapproved (divorces), and 5. Forbidden (shirk, alcohol). Ijtihad: Independent reasoning. The drawing of valid conclusions from the Koran, the sunna of the Prophet, and the consenus, by analogy or systematic reasoning. End of creative legal development. Historians say ijtihad continued both theoretically and practically in the middle period. Taqlid: Imitiation Islamic Lawyers of the Middle and later periods were expected to follow their intellectual forebears in their legal judgements. Qiyas: the deductive analogy of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with the Quran in order to apply an injunction or create a new injunction. Sunna vs. sunna: Al-Shafii: studied in Mecca, Medina (student of Malik). Spent years in Cairo and wrote Risala. Troubled by increasing diversity of doctrine. Established 4 sources of law, Usulal-fiqh, which were the Quran, Sunna/Hadith, Ijima, and Qiyas. The Great Synthesis: o Name of Shafis work
o Dont choose customs of anywhere over the hadith o There is no one else who had a better understanding of Gods will than Muhammad o Probably need more info for this one Suleyman the Magnificent: - Longest reigning sultan of the ottoman empire - Known - Completely restructured the legal system of the Ottoman Empire - Separated Ottoman law into 2 categories o 1. Civil o 2. Islamic Law - Responsible for greatest expansion of the Ottoman Empire - Known for art and articheture

- Helped developed bridges, known for large construction projects - Has a mosque built after him

Abdul-Hamid: - The servant of God (translation)

Wanted to modernize the empire 27th sultan Imprisoned for his beliefs Created a fire department Wanted to be a figure for the Muslims around the world Built Hijaz railway from Medina to Mecca

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: - Started modern Turkey

o Led the Turkish war of Independence - Founder of the republic of turkey - Surname means father of the Turks - Attempted to modernize/westernize Turkey - Under his leadership thousands of schools were built - Primary education was made free and compulsory - While the burden of taxation was reduced - Kemalism o 6 arrows of Kemalism (Alti Ok) 1. Republicanism: law-based constitutional republic 2. Nationalism: A Turkish nation state not a dynastic empire with sharia law 3. Populism: social revolution for the good of Turkish people 4. Secularity: separation of politics and religion, no more religios law 5. Statism: the state must help with technological and economic development 6. Revolutionism: to abandon traditional practices and institutions for the modern

Ottoman Decline Thesis Debate: Tahtawi: Wrote books that said that education was for girls and boys. He advocated womens education in his book. He also said that women should love their men during marriage. Al-Afghani: Nationalist intellectual who urged the importance of education as means of upward mobility. In response British tried to curb his demands. Wanted to reform and revive Islam from condition of ignoranceand helplessness Teacher of Mummad Abdu. Muhammad Abdu: Founded muslim benevolent societies and private committees for the purpose of establishing schools. This was during the British regime that was stopping education for women. The societies had more female students than the government and built more schools for the women. He argued for the promotion of widespread education, reforms in the intellectual and social fields, elevation of womens status and changed in marriage practices. He is the first to argue that it was Islam that first recognized the full and equal humanity for women, not the Europeans. Qasim Amin: considered to be one of Arabs first feminist. He wanted a social transformation of Egypt. Egypt should be more like the west, Europe, because Egypt was lacking not just in terms of science and technology to the west but their culture as well.

He was the first person to mention the womens veil to be an issue. It became a symbol as to what is not western. Short Essays: 1 One basic pattern was a persistent and constantly shifting diffusion of power away from the center and toward more local and limited regimes. Central idea was the decline in power and authority of the Abbasid caliphate. Profound consequences. Contributed to the relative ease with which the crusaders first established a presence in the Near East. The smaller, more localized military regimes dominated the political history of the Near East in the Middle Period until the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The second pattern was that the ruling elites were in various ways outsiders, bound to each other through ties of blood or comradeship but lacking organic bonds to the local people over whom they ruled. Because of this elites took different forms. In some cases, they represented entire tribes or tribal confederations. For example, power of Saljuq family rested on a confederation of Turkish tribes. At the other extreme Mamluks were in origin slaves imported into the muslim worlds. 2 k 3 He established the 4 sources; Quran, Sunna/Hadith, Ijma (consensus), and Qiyas (analogy). The four sources are a basic hierarchical status for when it comes to Islamic law. When consulting Islamic Law the order shall be The Quran as the first and foremost. The next to interpret law would be the Prophets Sunna/ Hadith no matter where you are in the world. The next level would be the Ijama, which is the consensus of the Muslim community or religious binding consensu. Lastly the Qiyas is the final interpretation of Islamic Law, which is the deductive analogy of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with the Quran in order to apply an injunction or create a new injunction. 4 Imam Shafi believes that the Quran and the Sunna/hadith are in harmony of one antoher, and that there is no contradictions. If a newer rule is placed then the previous is unruled. Shafiis ruling on Adultery is based off of the actions of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. He says that since the prophet abrogated the flogging of adulterers previous to the stoning, the new way will be to only stone adulterers, not flogging prior. The reason this proved to be a potential weakness in his philosophy is the possibility that other rulings in Islam may be contradictions. Since this one action of the Prophet may have seemed contradictory, other actions may as well. 5 Coffee was physically or chemically violation is Islamic law because it was either intoxicating or physically harmful, or roasting of the beans is beyond the carbonization point. Coffee was an innovation(bida). Coffeehouses grew too fast to the governmental elite. Patrons of coffeehouses gambled, be in sexual situations.Coffee has stimulating properties and has profound effects physically and mentally. Depends on if coffee falls under the same category as khamr (intoxicants). 6 Conservatives thinkers embrace and justify gender differences as its inscribed in parts of the sharia. Defend sharia from criticism of the west. Hold the idea that the law originated in the quran and the sunna, underwent a brief period of growth and development through interpretation by the founders of the various legal schools, and then settled into an ideal and enduring form. Islamic reformists have the idea that qualified Muslim jurists can and should undertake to interpret the law so as to make it a relevant and useful guide for life in the modern world. The reformer returns to the quranic text as

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the basis for the law so as to make it relevant and useful guide for life in the modern world. The Islamists call for a return to quranic principles. The original message about gender as divined by the various quranic verses and the practices of the early muslim community is what must serve as a guide for life at all times and places. Reformers and Islamists are similar as they want to change the sharia law such that it outlaws all the corrupt rules. The difference is that reformists have qualified jurists that interpret the law and Islamists give muslims and active role in construction of modern sharia. Reformists argue for equality rather than complementary of the sexes as opposed to islamists who interpret the quranic verses fairly whether against women or men. The closing of the gate of ijtihad means that there is no more interpretation of the quranic verses. Some people believe that whatever the law is, is what should be followed whereas some people argue that ijtihad is a responsibility of Muslims whereas some argue that whatever the law states is what should be followed. Tucker says thats jurists had no license to interpret the law in response to changing situations and had to follow taqlid (acceptance and application of the doctrines of established schools and jurists). Research had showed that ijtihad was clearly a widely accepted practice throughout Islamic centuries and no one ever argued that law couldnt be open to interpretation. Muslim thinkers like Shah Wali Allah said that it is not good to blindly accept one school of thought and it is the Muslims duty to practice ijtihad. Even a mufti of a certain school of thought can take knowledge from their forebears but when it comes to making decisions, the mufti must draw on his own knowledge of the texts and his capacity for interpretation. S S The orient, by definition is the east, usually affiliated with Asia and countries. However the meaning that Said has In his article is referring to the orient that signifies a system of representations framed by political forces that brought the Orient into Western learning, Western consciousness, and Western empire. The Orient exists for the West, and is constructed by and in relation to the West. It is a mirror image of what is inferior and alien to the west. The orient is more a distribution of geopolitical awareness into aesthetic, scholarly, economic, sociological, historical, and philological texts. It is a elaboration of the distinctions that exist geographically and also of the general interests by which means of scholarly discovery, philological analysis and landscape live. It is a discourse that is not directly affiliated with political power but is produced with Orientalism is anyone who teaches, writes about, or researches the orient. The second meaning is that orientalism is the style of thought based upon ontological and epistemological distinctions. The third meaning is orientalism as a western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the orient. Orientalism is "a manner of regularized (or Orientalized) writing, vision, and study, dominated by imperatives, perspectives, and ideological biases ostensibly suited to the Orient." It is the image of the 'Orient' expressed as an entire system of thought and scholarship. Orientalism as Said says began with him observing the British, French and American experiences of the orient, they all began seeking interest not in the usual Orient which is considered to be Japan china and India, but rather the middle eastern countries, the arabs, and Islam. The British and French were the pioneers of early Oriental study, and they are accountable for most of the scholarly doings related to Orientalism in the development.

12 Orientalism in essence is the western style of obtaining authority over the Orient. As Said

mentions in numerous accounts, Orientalism is a way of writing vision and study, which is supposedly in accordance with the Orient. Being that Orientalism is dominated by imperatives, opinions and beliefs of the western, it has no longer just a fantasy. It is a genuine belief of the Imperial nations that Orientalism is beneficial towards the Orient. And the opinions and bias which the Orientalists believe in is correct. Orientalism is not just a fantasy because it surely does exist. And it is harmful because it creates a idealogy that the western way of life is superior and ultimately better than the Orient. Orientalism exists, it no longer remains a fantasy. 13 Finances of the country improved.The british government expended their revenue on irrigation and other projects. Deliberately kept down expenditure on education for financial and political reasons Women education slowed down.Education went down as the demand for education was increasing and the british government in response started charging tuition. British made Egypt a more efficient producer of raw materials. The European settlers of Egypt, the Egyptian upper class, and the new middle class of rural notables. The ulamas were at a disadvantage as land reform measures led to loss of revenues. Artisans and merchants were not able to compete with Western products. Rural workers had their economic advancements blocked by British policies. 14 It was controversial due to the radicalness of his proposal. In his book, Amin advocated primary school education and reforming the laws on polygamy and divorce. Amin wanted the abolition of the veil and wanted cultural and social changes in society. Amins work has been regarded as marking the beginning of feminism in Arab culture. Members that supported the British administration like the Syrian Christians agreed with Amins idea of western outlook. There was opposition from groups, like the National Party, who wanted opposed western encroachment and they wanted to continue Islamic traditions in all areas. They believed that advancement of Egypt would begin with expulsion of British rule. The peoples party however, advocated acquisition of western technology and knowledge. They wanted to adopt the western political ways and then become independent. 15 Two elements that are universally Islamic: during the engagement ceremony the first surah of the Quran is recited to make it official (Surah Fatihah), after engagement no physical contact is allowed and hijab is still preserved, during the Islamic marriage ceremony a dowry is agreed upon and the Islamic contract of marriage also known as the Nikkah ceremony is the signing of the contract and for a marriage to be considered Islamic it requires the bride, groom, brides father, 2 witnesses, and an Imam. However, bride and groom do not live with each other until after the wedding ceremony. Two elements that are cultural- Many aspects that are cultural are the traditions and ceremonies performed in each wedding. For example, before the wedding a Palestinian wedding has a Sahra or a bachelor party and a Pakistani wedding hasHenna or a Mehndi. So many different traditional pre-wedding parties occur which is all cultural and not Islamic whatsoever. Also, the entrances of each wedding are culturally different. In a Palestinian wedding, you see the bride is wearing a white outfit and is brought into the hall with her husband. However, in a Pakistani wedding, the bride usually wears red and is brought into the wedding with her parents and handed to the husband.

16 Colonial feminism is still present due to many things. One large reason is the unchanging

mindset of the Americans and westerns who believe that Afghani and Middle eastern ways of culture are abusive and oppressive towards women. What they fail to understand is that just how Americans have their own culture, practices, and way of living so do the middle eastern. They practice the Burqa and scarf as a part of religion and culture. Colonial feminism still lives on because of the effort of Americans to reform the Afganis from their practice of the veil. However, the controversy does arise regarding the true intentions of Presidents and politicians trying to reform the middle east, and whether they truly mean well for the women of Afghan or whether they just want to take control of the countries and use their positive affects and reforms as a reason to penetrate the country. Abu-Lughod shows hows the Burqa has evolved into more modern Hijabs, and that westerners still persist to modernize and westernize the middle east, believing their way of living to be superior to that of the Afghani and middle eastern. In Buschs speech the Afghani lifestyle is portrayed as oppressive and harmful towards women. 17 Women were not allowed to go out without being accompanied by a father, uncle, or cousin. Women out alone risks insult or abduction. Leaving to buy something, a woman must be accompanied by two men. Before the war 50% of college students were females and over 50% were in the work force, lately there has been an increase in fundamentalism in Iraq. Women are not allowed to wear jeans or loose shirts anymore due to fundamentalist. Some women are being forced to wear a hijab. Extremists have taken over. Liquor stores are being threatened; women are being forced to marry under 14. Extremists of the religion were increasing. Because of the war, people were turning to religion because they were scared of death and the war. 18 Riverbends modern day fairytale is to live life. She wants women to be able to wear whatever they want; she wants them to be able to have an education. Also, she wants them to be able to work. After the war started, many of these things were not allowed due to fundamentalist. She wants to be able to live a westernized lifestyle, similar to the one described in the Discourse of the veil. She wanted Islam to be different than politics and wanted the people to choose whatever they wanted to do. This is what Qasim Amins goal was, to further women rights in Egypt.

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