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ABSTRACT

Nowadays there is a great interest for the use of microturbines as sources of distributed generation, particularly in areas where demand is both electricity and heat. In these areas microturbines reach very high efficiency rates. Microturbines can operate both stand-alone and grid connected. The second one of the mentioned possibilities is which deserves a much deeper study, to analyse the interaction of the microturbine with the distribution network it is connected to. This project deals with the theory, modeling, simulation, mathematical analyses and analysis of load following behavior of a micro turbine (MT) as a distributed energy resource (DER). In this project a dynamic model of a microturbine is developed with Matlab/Simulink/Sim power systems. The model has been included The model has been mathematical verified and several dynamic simulations have been performed to study the response to step changes in the power control references. Also, the performance of the microturbine to faults in the network has been analyzed. Index Terms: Distributed energy resources (DERs), load following Performance, micro turbine (MT), recuperator, speed control, Synchronous generator (SG), Dynamic model.

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

INTRODUCTION
DISTRIBUTED energy resources (DERs) are a variety of small-scale, modular distributed generation (DG) technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems. DERs have received significant attention as a means to improve the performance and reliability of electrical power system. They can provide low-cost energy and increase energy efficiency through combined heat and power (CHP) mode of operation. Moreover, their application can also reduce transmission and distribution (T&D) losses, relieve T&D assets, reduce constraints, and improve overall power quality and reliability. Literature review shows that there is extensive thrust on the application of MT for DG. Research areas include simulation, offline/real-time studies, and development of inverter interfaces for MT applications. Peirs et al. Report the development of a singlestage axial flow MT for power generation. Nichols and Loving highlight the facilities of MT technology through relevant test results.Suter reports the development of an active filter for MT operations.Jurado and Saenz describe an adaptive control mechanism of a hybrid power system with fuel cell and MT.Gaonkar and coworkers demonstrate a simulation model developed from the dynamics of each part of the MT and discuss its operation in islanded and grid-connected modes Most MTs use a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) or asynchronous generator for power generation. The system model in considers bidirectional power flow between the grid and MT system using PMSG.PMSG is also used in and the operation of MT is considered in islanded connected mode. However, very little is reported on development and load following performance analysis of MT models with a synchronous generator (SG) in islanded connected mode. This area needs to be extensively investigated to resolve the technical issues for integrated operation of an MT with the utility grid.

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

In this project, we describe the modeling and simulation of an MTgenerator (MTG) system consisting of an MT coupled with an SG followed by its load following performance analysis. We have analyzed the performance in islanded connected mode. Simulation is done in MATLABSimulink platform. Simulation results have been compared with other existing results as well as typical real MT data. The proposed model is also suitable for studying the dynamic behavior of the MTG system connected with other types of DG in micro grid and grid applications.

1.1

Background
Nowadays, the need of energy production to be used for either industrial or

several transportations is in great demand. The type of power generation has become the major concern because of its widespread need. For the concern of recent time needs, the suitable power generation type is one which achieves a relatively better efficiency, low in cost, and satisfied the demanding criteria. For those needs the gas turbine system is the answer. Gas turbines are internal combustion engines that they use a rotating shaft or rotor instead of "reciprocating" in cylinders. It has the advantages of small dimensions, light weight, easy to be serviced (resulting to low maintenance cost), and most of all it can produce more power (relative to the power produced-to-weight ratio) and faster speed spin. They became practical sixty years ago; today gas turbines are one of the keystone technologies of the civilization. Because of its critical role, it is understandable that innovation to a step further is needed. In a field where the major role needed and development costs both 2 are the major concerns, it was thought to build the smallest possible gas turbine, and to explore whether the device could be made into smaller size. The microturbine is actually the scale-down of the large ordinary gas turbine system.

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

This is what gave birth to this project since the advantages of gas turbines are already known compare to the others, in this thesis, I have simulated gas based microturbine and analyzed its performance for different loads. The behavior of torque and speed for slow dynamic conditions is care fully examined. Also I have connected the MT generator to low voltage and high voltage grids. Analysis is made for voltages and currents at different points in the networks in the event of faults.

1.3. Objective of Study


The objective of this study to simulated gas based microturbine and analyzed its performance for different loads. The behavior of torque and speed for slow dynamic conditions is care fully examined. Also I have connected the MT generator to low voltage grid with and with out fault. Analysis is made for voltages and currents in the networks in the event of faults.

1.4 Outline of Report


This project is divided into ten chapters. Chapter 1 presents the Introduction, the background of the study, which gave birth to this project. It also covers the objective of study, and this projects outline report. Chapter 2 describes the literature review of the project. Chapter 3 describes the Generally, the term Distributed or Distributed Generation refers to any electric power production technology that is integrated within distribution systems, close to the point of use. Distributed generators are connected to the high voltage or low voltage grid

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Chapter 4 discussed a number of micro turbines generators have recently been announced as currently commercially available for sale to customers, such as end users, utilities, and energy service providers. Manufacturers and others are reporting certain performance capabilities of the turbines; however, no consistent third-party independent testing as been done to confirm or discredit such performance claims

Chapter 5 discussed a gas turbine is a rotating engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gases that result from the ignition of compressed air and a fuel (either a gas or liquid, most commonly natural gas). It has an upstream compressor module coupled to a downstream turbine module, and a combustion chamber(s) module in between.

On chapter 6 discussed a Micro turbines are small high-speed gas turbines. The three main components of a micro turbine are compressor, combustor, and the turbine. The compressor is used to pressurize the air before entering the combustor. Injected fuel is mixed with the compressed air in the combustor and the mixture is ignited. Mechanical energy is produced when the hot combustion gases flow and expand through the turbine. The turbine drives a synchronous generator.

On chapter 7 discussed the microturbine model description. Usually, an MT consists of turbine, synchronous machine, power electronics, recuperator, control and communication. And also discussed mt, controller, turbine model and parameters of all models used in this project.

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

On chapter 8 discussed the simulation model for MT model and Simulation Results of Islanded mode and connected to fault. On chapter 9 discussed the Mathematical analysis of micro turbine. In this project, modeling and simulation of MT coupled with SG are performed and reported. Its load following performance is thoroughly tested and validated for different operating conditions, with and without speed controllers. The model has been simulated working in grid connected mode and different operation conditions have been analysed (Step change, fault,). The simulation results have showed that the microturbine works properly connected to a low voltage distribution grid.

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

LITERATURE REVIEW
Nowadays there is a great interest for the use of microturbines as sources of distributed generation, particularly in areas where demand is both electricity and heat. This project deals with the theory, modeling, simulation, and analysis of load following behavior of a micro turbine (MT) as a distributed energy resource (DER). In these areas microturbines reach very high efficiency rates. Also, the performance of the microturbine to faults in the network has been analysed. In this project a dynamic model of a microturbine is developed with Matlab/Simulink/Sim power systems. A Development of models for analyzing the load-following performance of microturbines and fuel cells, Y. Zhu, K. Tomsovic, [1] presents Deregulation has begun to allow for the provision of various ancillary services, such as load-following. This paper presents simplified slow dynamic models for microturbines and fuel cells. Their standalone dynamic performances are analyzed and evaluated. A distribution system embedded with a microturbine plant and an integrated fuel cell power plant is used as an example. The control strategy and load-following service in this distribution system are simulated. It is illustrated that microturbines and fuel cells are capable of providing load-following service, significantly enhancing their economic value. a simplified slow dynamic model of a split-shaft microturbines is developed. A Dynamic model of microturbine generation system for grid connected/islanding operation, D. N. Gaonkar, R. N. Patel, and G. N. Pillai. [2] presents the performance of microturbine generation systems their efficient modeling is required. This paper presents a dynamic model of a MTG system, suitable for grid connection/islanding operation. The presented model allows the bidirectional power flow between grid and MTG system. The components of the system are built from the dynamics of each part with their interconnections. At first the mathematical modeling of the microturbine along with the

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

control systems is given and following that the detailed simulation model of the MTG system is developed using MATLAB's SimPowerSystems library. The simulation results demonstrate that the established model provides a useful tool suitable to study and to perform accurate analysis of most electrical phenomena that occur when a micro turbine is connected to the grid or is operated in islanded mode. The simulation results show that the developed model of the MTG system has the ability to adjust the supply as per the power requirements of the load within MTG's rating. A Modeling and Performance Analysis of a Microturbine as a Distributed Energy Resource, A. K. Saha, [3] presents modeling, simulation, and analysis of load following behavior of a microturbine (MT) as a distributed energy resource (DER). The MTG model also incorporates a speed controller for maintaining constant speed at variable loads. Performance is studied both with and without the speed controller. The paper also compares the simulation results with already reported results and with real life load following data for a typical islanded MT of similar rating. modeling and simulation of MT coupled with SG are performed and reported for both islanded and gridconnected modes of operation. The results are compared with already reported results and with typical real life load following data for a similar system in islanded mode. This model is quite useful for studying the dynamic performances of MTs in microgrid and hybrid power system environment. A Novel Power Conversion System for Distributed Energy Resources, R. Esmaili et, al., [4] presents a novel approach to developing a power conversion system (PCS) for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Many DER require the use of a PCS to develop useable electricity from an energy source. The paper discusses various aspects of the design including inverter topology, power, control and power supply circuit designs, switching and protection equipment and thermal considerations. Experimental and analytical results indicate that losses associated with a three-level inverter topology are compatible with design concepts. Immersing the power circuit in transformer oil can dissipate the heat

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

generated by a three-level inverter, when utilizing a heat sink designed by Heat Technology Inc. to optimize heat transfer. A Modeling and Simulation of the Electric Part of a Grid Connected Micro Turbine, O. Fethi, L.-A. Dessaint, [5] presents a simulation model of the electric part of a grid connected micro turbine (MT). The simulation results obtained with the model using Sim Power Systems software were compared with experimental results obtained with a Capstone 30 kW micro turbine. The simulation results demonstrate that the established model provides a useful tool suitable to study and to perform accurate analysis of most electrical phenomenon that occurs when a micro turbine is connected to the grid. The model has been validated through several experiments preformed on a 30 kW Capstone unit. The simulation results obtained for utility voltage unbalances as well as for utility voltage distortions show the usefulness of the model and its accuracy. An Assessment of Microturbine Generators, D. K. Nichols and Kevin P. Loving, [6] discusses microturbine technology , those facilities and present test results. Microturbine generators hold promise to efficiently meet energy demand while lowering associated environmental impact. As with any new technology, application of the technology will occur only after thorough assessment and demonstration , To accomplish that assessment test facilities have heen developed to assess performance, system compatibility , and efiiciency and emission issues. Adaptive Control of a Fuel Cell-Microturbine Hybrid Power Plant, Francisco Jurado, and Jos Ramn Saenz, [7] presents The composition of natural gas may vary significantly, and load power varies randomly. Traditional control design approaches consider a fixed operating point in the hope that the resulting controller is robust enough to stabilize the system for different operating conditions. An adaptive minimum variance controller is developed in this paper. Conventional control depends on the mathematical model of the plant being controlled. This paper develops the control system with an

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

adaptive minimum variance controller and based on the simulation study, the resulting controller is robust enough to stabilize the system for different disturbances affecting the plant (load power variation) or a change in the plant model parameters (gas composition). Dynamic Performance of a Microturbine Connected to a Low Voltage Network, E. Torres1 et,al., [8] presents a dynamic model of a microturbine is developed with Matlab/Simulink/Simpowersystems. The model has been included within a low voltage network model and several dynamic simulations have been performed to study the response to step changes in the power control references. The model has been simulated working in grid connected mode and different operation conditions have been analysed (Step change, fault,). The simulation results have showed that the microturbine works properly connected to a low voltage distribution grid. Next developments in this field will be the improvement and optimization of the microturbine model as well as the analysis of multiple operation conditions, mainly related to different fault situations and the definition of the settings of protection relays. A Simulink-Based Microturbine Model for Distributed Generation Studies, Sreedhar R. Guda, C. Wang, [9] presents the modeling and simulation of a microturbine generation system suitable for isolated as well as grid-connected operation. The system comprises of a permanent magnet synchronous generator driven by a microturbine. Simulation studies have been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink under different load conditions. The modeling of a single-shaft microturbine generation system suitable for power management in DG applications is presented in this paper. Simulation results show that the developed model has the ability to meet the requirements of the load, maintaining prescribed values of voltage and frequency with the help of the power electronic controls. Modeling and Performance Analysis of a Microturbine as a Distributed Energy Resource, A. K. Saha, [10] presents modeling, simulation, and analysis of load following behavior of a microturbine (MT) as a distributed energy resource (DER). The MTG model

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

also incorporates a speed controller for maintaining constant speed at variable loads. Performance is studied both with and without the speed controller. The paper also compares the simulation results with already reported results and with real life load following data for a typical islanded MT of similar rating. The results are compared with already reported results and with typical real life load following data for a similar system in islanded mode. This model is quite useful for studying the dynamic performances of MTs in microgrid and hybrid power system environment. An Educational Guide to Extract the Parameters of Heavy Duty Gas Turbines Model in Dynamic Studies Based on Operational Data, Mohammad Reza Bank Tavakoli et, al., [11] presents of Rowens model for heavy duty gas turbines in dynamic studies are estimated by use of available operational and performance data. The way of obtaining the parameters and sole physical laws are explained to some extents to make it useful for students of electrical engineering and trainers who are involved in dynamic studies. The paper provides background knowledge for the students who want to know more about the building blocks of HDGT dynamic model. Among a lot of parameters and data which are provided by manufacturer, the useful and most straight forward ones for deriving the model parameters are used here which can be invoked in any similar case. Pwm inverters in decentralized generation systems: characterization of the dynamic behavior under utility fault conditions, S. Nguefeu et,al., [12] presents the concept of dispersed generation and its impact on the utility distribution network, focusing on four energy sources : solar energy, fuel cells, wind power and micro turbines. Specific models for each type of source as well as coupling interfaces are developed. Finally, an example of the utilization of the models is given : it shows the simulation results obtained in the micro turbine case for a few faults occurring on the utility low voltage grid.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

In this thesis, I have simulated gas based microturbine and analyzed its performance for different loads. The behavior of torque and speed for slow dynamic conditions is care fully examined. Also I have connected the MT generator to low voltage grid. Analysis is made for voltages and currents at different points in the networks in the event of faults.

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES (DER)

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

3.1Distributed Generation Background


Generally, the term Distributed or Distributed Generation refers to any electric power production technology that is integrated within distribution systems, close to the point of use. Distributed generators are connected to the medium or low voltage grid. They are not centrally planned and they are typically smaller than 30 MWe (DTI 2001). The concept of DG contrasts with the traditional centralised power generation concept, where the electricity is generated in large power stations and is transmitted to the end users through transmission and distributions lines (see figure 1.1). While central power systems remain critical to the global energy supply, their flexibility to adjust to changing energy needs is limited. Central power is composed of large capital-intensive plants and a transmission and distribution (T&D) grid to disperse electricity. A distributed electricity system is one in which small and micro generators are connected directly to factories, offices, and households and to lower voltage distribution networks. Electricity not demanded by the directly connected customers is fed into the active distribution network to meet demand elsewhere. Electricity storage systems may be utilised to store any excess generation.

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Figure 3-1. An electric power system

Large power stations and large-scale renewable, e.g. offshore wind remain connected to the high voltage transmission network providing national back up and ensure quality of supply. Again, storage may be utilised to accommodate the variable output of some forms of generation. Such a distributed electricity system is represented in figure 1-2 below.

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Figure 3-2. A Distributed Electricity System The non-traditional operating model of DG has drawn strong interest because of its potential to cost effectively increase system capacity while meeting the industry restructuring objective of market driven, customer-oriented solutions. These distributed generation systems, capable of operating on a broad range of gas fuels, offer clean, efficient, reliable, and flexible on-site power alternatives. This emerging portfolio of distributed generation options being offered by energy service companies and independent power producers is changing the way customers view energy. Both options require significant investments of time and money to increase capacity. Distributed generation complements central power by providing in many cases a

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

relatively low capital cost response to incremental increases in power demand, avoiding T&D capacity upgrades by where it is most needed, and having the flexibility to put power back into the grid at user sites. Significant technological advances through decades of intensive research have yielded major improvements in the economic, operational, and environmental performance of small, modular gas-fuelled power generation options. Forecasts predict a total 520GW from newly installed DG around the globe by 2030. 3.2 Advantages of DER: DERs have received significant attention as a means to improve the performance and reliability of electrical power system. They can provide low-cost energy and increase energy efficiency through combined heat and power (CHP) mode of operation. Moreover, their application can also reduce transmission and distribution (T&D) losses, relieve T&D assets, reduce constraints, and improve overall power quality and reliability.

Fig 3.3 distributed energy resources 3.2 Small Distributed Generation Technologies:

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Recent DER technologies include micro turbine (MT), fuel cells, photovoltaic, wind energy, Solar Thermal, Small Reciprocating Engines etc. Under the current electric utility restructuring and public environmental policy, there is ample scope for largescale integration of DERs into utility grid distribution system .

Micro turbines:
Micro turbines are composed of a generator and small gas turbine mounted on a single shaft. The turbine technology is based on a refinement of automotive turbo chargers and military engines. Micro turbines rotate at high speeds, some at nearly 100,000 rpm. A permanent magnet generator spinning at this high shaft speed produces the power in the form of high-frequency AC, which is converted to DC and then to standard 60-Hz AC using an inverter. Most micro turbines are fueled by natural gas but can also use liquid fuels such as diesel or jet fuel. These units currently range in size from 30 to about 100 kW; larger units are under development. Most micro turbines also have a recuperator to recycle some exhaust heat back to the combustor. A micro turbine with recuperator typically has 20-30 percent efficiency. Utilization of waste heat can increase overall system efficiency (electricity and heat) to 70- 80 percent. Because the combustion process is closely controlled and relies on relatively clean burning fuels, micro turbines typically produce few emissions

Fuel Cells:
A number of fuel cell technologies are either under development or currently being used to generate power. The attraction of fuel cells is their potential for highly efficient conversion to electrical power (35 to 55 percent without heat recovery). The only technology in general use today is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, which is available in the 200-kW size range. This fuel cell operates at about 40 percent conversion efficiency. Because this device operates at 400 degrees F, waste heat is available as steam,

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

which boosts the overall fuel conversion efficiency. A number of other fuel cell technologies are being developed. For the power industry, these include: proton exchange membrane (low-temperature, hydrogen fueled), molten carbonate (high- temperature), and solid oxide (high-temperature).

Photovoltaic Cells:
Photovoltaic (PV) devices have been in existence for many years since their early use in the U.S. space program. They rely on sunlight to produce DC voltage at cell terminals. The amounts of voltage and current that PV cells can produce depend on the intensity of sunlight and the design of the cell. PV systems use cell arrays that are either fixed or track the sun to capture additional energy. Because solar energy is a diffuse resource, it takes a large area of PV cells to produce significant power. At a typical cell conversion efficiency of 10 percent, about 10 m2 of panels are needed to provide a peak power of 1 kW. To reduce the number of costly PV devices used, mirrors or lenses can be used to concentrate sunlight on to the cells. This increases the PV cell output but requires tracking devices to insure that the array is aligned with the sun.

Solar Thermal:
Although there are a number of large-scale (several-megawatt) generation technologies in the solar thermal field, the main technology for small-scale generation is the sterling dish. This technology is being tested in the 10- to 25-kW range. In this system, light is concentrated on a small receiver by a sun-tracking array of mirrors. The heat collected by the receiver is transferred to the hot end of a sterling engine. The sterling engine uses working fluid in a closed cycle to push pistons and generate shaft rotation. In a sterling dish, shaft rotation is used to spin an induction generator that is connected to the electric grid.

Wind:

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Wind generation has been commercially available for many years. The main push has been in large wind farms where wind turbines from 700 kW to 1.5 MW are available and in use. Several smaller wind turbines (<250 kW) are available for use in MicroGrids. These machines typically use an induction generator driven by a rotor with blades. As is true for the solar options, the wind generators power output is determined by the availability of their energy source. When the turbine is operating in stand-alone mode, any power requirement in excess of the wind energy available must be supplied by storage systems or other generation. Small Reciprocating Engines: Reciprocating engines that run on various fuels are available in small sizes and up to several megawatts. Currently available engines are typically intended for stand-alone or back-up use. These engines, especially the larger ones, have good efficiencies (30 to 40 percent). They operate in stand-alone applications like scaled-down generation plants with synchronous generators capable of controlling voltage and frequency. Waste heat from these units can help boost overall system efficiencies.

MICRO TURBINE GENERATOR

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

A number of micro turbines generators have recently been announced as currently commercially available for sale to customers, such as end users, utilities, and energy service providers. Manufacturers and others are reporting certain performance capabilities of the turbines; however, no consistent third-party independent testing as been done to confirm or discredit such performance claims.

4.1 Overview
There are several manufacturers of Micro turbine generators (MTGs) announcing their products as currently commercially available. Their potential customers are end-users, utilities, and energy service providers. The chart shows some of the MTG Manufacturers and current MTG operating features. To be competitive with existing technology, most MTG manufacturers rely on enhanced reliability and lower maintenance costs. MTG manufacturers expect to achieve greater reliability and lower costs by using fewer moving parts and lower manufacturing costs. Manufacturers thus expect economy of manufacturing of microturbines to replace economics of scale for central plants. For MTGs to be competitive in the marketplace, minimum customers expectations are: _ 40,000 hour wheel life _ Heat rate of 12,000 to 16,000 BTU/kWh _ Good part load performance _ Emissions < 9ppm _ Noise < 70 dB _ Cheap and easy installation and maintenance There is a tremendous potential market for MTGs if the MTG manufacturers can make their products competitive with the other forms of energy available at the meter. Using turbo-charger technology, the cost of producing an MTG can become lower and lower -- depending on the manufacturers expertise in economy of manufacturing.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

This is especially true if the manufacturer can use a casting process versus a machined process. The MTG manufacturers realize that with an adequate volume of sales, relying on low cost economics of manufacturing, MTGs have a stronger potential to compete well at the meter with large central power plants. Additionally, on site power maybe able to pick off other markets within niches to provide for future product development. MTGs are intended to provide the energy industry with dispersed power generation assets that may be located close to the loads they serve. For utilities, interest in MTGs is based on deferred central power plant construction, deferred distribution line upgrades, and improved reliability. End use customers may view MTGs as an alternative to other small generators, an environmentally acceptable power generation device, and a reliability improvement mechanism. There is speculation that MTGs may be an integral part of the future utility infrastructure. In such as speculation, numerous, small generators are scattered throughout a utility's traditional distribution network working in parallel with central power plants. Some believe this will emulate what personal computers and local area networks did by working in parallel to mainframes. MTG manufacturers and others are reporting certain performance capabilities of the turbines; however, no consistent, independent, third party independent testing has been done to confirm or discredit such performance claims. However, MTGs will only be considered if they perform acceptably and meet customers requirements for power quality, reliability, availability, environmental considerations, cost effectiveness, usability and system efficiency. As a part of the overall testing program, MTGs are purchased, installed, operated and tested to assess their performance. Data was collected electronically and manually. Ultimately results, as applicable for each unit, include the following performance measures: _ Starts/stops _ Overall unit efficiency _ Net power output _ Operability _ Emissions level monitoring _ Power quality monitoring

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_ Endurance testing 4.2 Technical Backgrounds: MTGs are small, high-speed power plants that usually include the turbine, compressor, generator, and power electronics to deliver the power to the grid. These small power plants typically operate on natural gas. Future units may have the potential to use lower energy fuels such as gas produced from landfill or digester gas.

Figure 4.1. MTG Components MTGs have a high-speed gas turbine engine driving an integral electrical generator that produces 20-100 kW power while operating at a high speed, generally in the range of 50,000-120,000 rpm. Electric power is produced in the 10,000s of Hz, converted to high voltage DC, and then inverted back to 60 Hz, 480 VAC by an inverter. Most of MTG engine designs typically have one or several power producing sections, which include the turbine, compressor, and generator on a single shaft. During engine operation, engine air is drawn into the unit and passes through the recuperator where temperature is increased by hot exhaust gas. The air flows into the combustor where it is mixed with fuel, ignited and

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

burned. The ignitor is used only during startup, and then the flame is self-sustaining. The combusted gas passes through the turbine nozzle and turbine wheel, converting thermal energy of the hot expanding gases to rotating mechanical energy of the turbine. The turbine drives the compressor and generator. The gas exhausting from the turbine is directed back through the recuperator, and then out the stack.

4.3 MTG Testing Program


This MTG test program is expected to provide valuable insight, both qualitative and quantitative, into the installation, performance and maintenance requirements of units presently available to the market. Test results are based on actual operating conditions at the test site in Irvine, California. In addition to the results and experiences derived from installing and operating these units, performance data are collected to trend and profile operating characteristics via a Data Acquisition System and manually.

4.3.1 Data Acquisition System (DAS)


The Data Acquisition System (DAS) installed at the MTG test site provides interval sampling of MTGs in operation. Raw data is collected in 5-minute intervals from various measurement sensors that feed a datalogger with either pulse or analog signals. The raw data is collected nightly, and processed once a month. Each MTG is retrofitted with sensors at various locations. Additionally, environmental parameters are collected for the entire site. Data parameters collected are described in Table4.1.

Table 4.1. MTG DAS Monitoring Parameters

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Parameter Electrical Energy Produced

Instrument

3-phase electrical meter with pulse output module Gas flow meter

Fuel Consumed (Gas Flow)

Water Flow*

Water flow meter

Fuel Temperature Boiler Air Temperature Inlet and Outlet* Relative Humidity

RTD

Thermocouple

Solid State IC

Gas Pressure

Pressure transducer

Ambient Temperature Water Temperature Inlet and Outlet*

Temperature Probe

Resistance Thermal Detector (RTD)

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Power Quality Snapshots

BMI 7100 and BMI 8010 power quality meters

4.3.2 Test Procedures


To fully evaluate the MTGs, a series of tests were developed. Testing of MTGs is categorized into three phases: _ Installation and Startup _ Operation and Maintenance _ Performance

4.3.3 Installation and Startup


Each MTG delivered to the test site is inspected and noted to include operating instructions, repair parts or a recommended spare parts list, consumable supplies, troubleshooting and maintenance procedures/guides, and a drawings and diagrams to sufficient to support maintenance Once installed, the MTGs start and stop capabilities are tested. Units are expected to withstand the wear of daily starts and stops. Operators at the test site manually shut down the units several times per month. At other times, the units shut down (e.g. loss of grid) and/or were manually restarted.

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Figure4. 2. Bowman MTGs Bowman 60 kW rated MTG (left) and a Bowman 35 kW rated MTG (right) are shown installed at test location.

4.4. Machine Performance Test Criteria 4.4.1 Endurance


For the test program, MTGs will be operated for as long as practicable at nominal load. Daily operating parameters: fuel flow, ambient air pressure, temperature and humidity, energy (kWh), operating temperatures and pressures will be recorded. Critical MTG parameters will be recorded with the intent of correlating degradation with factors other than wear and tear.

4.4.2 Transient Response


MTGs should be able to respond adequately to load changes. Units that are not capable of isolated bus operation will operate in parallel with the system grid. Changes in

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system load will be picked up by the grid and not by MTG units. Load changes on these MTG units will be accomplished by manually setting load using the control system.

4.4.3 Harmonic Distortion


The power output will be measured with a BMI or equivalent recorder, which will measure total harmonic distortion (THD). The BMI will also be used to determine the power factor of the fully loaded unit during the endurance test. The measured power factor will be used to verify that the package achieves rated output when connected to the utility grid.

4.4.4 Noise Measurement


Ambient noise levels will be measured using a handheld noise meter. Each unit will be operated independently to acquire the noise measurements during operations.

4.4.5 Emissions Measurement


For each MTG type tested, one certified test will be conducted to determine compliance with South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 2005 for NOx emissions. Additionally, periodic measurements with available handheld equipment would be made to determine trends and any condition of degradation that may occur with operating hours.

4.4.6 Peak Load Gross and Net


Peak load gross and net measurements will be taken with a BMI meter or equivalent recorder that measures power. For units without compressors, or compressors that are externally powered, the net output must be determined by subtracting the external

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

power requirements to sustain MTG operation. Results of this test will yield performance characteristics such as efficiency, heat rate, fuel consumption and operating hours. Comparisons will be made to manufacturer specifications.

Figure 4.3.Capstone 28 kW MTG If current technology proves itself; the next hurdles are those of specific application such as power quality, standby power, and peak shaving. Advancing technology that proves itself in specific applications will grow in value by offering customers new options.

GAS TURBINE

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

5.1 Gas Turbine


A gas turbine is a rotating engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gases that result from the ignition of compressed air and a fuel (either a gas or liquid, most commonly natural gas). It has an upstream compressor module coupled to a downstream turbine module, and a combustion chamber(s) module in between. Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where air is mixed with fuel and ignited. Combustion increases the temperature, velocity, and volume of the gas flow. This is directed through a nozzle over the turbines blades, spinning the turbine and powering the compressor. Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air, and thrust, in any combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, and even tanks.

5.2 Types of Gas Turbine


There are different types of gas turbines. Some of them are named below: 1. Aero derivatives and jet engines 2. Amateur gas turbines 3. Industrial gas turbines for electrical generation 4. Radial gas turbines 5. Scale jet engines 6. Micro turbines The focus of this project is the modeling of micro turbine. 5.3 Gas Turbine Cycle

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

The simplest gas turbine follows the Brayton cycle (Figure 1.1). In a closed cycle (i.e., the working fluid is not released to the atmosphere), air is compressed isentropically, combustion occurs at constant pressure, and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure. As with all heat engine cycles, higher combustion temperature (the common idustry reference is turbine inlet temperature) means greater efficiency. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel, ceramic, or other materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure. Considerable design/manufacturing engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. Most turbines also try to recover exhaust heat, which otherwise is wasted energy. Recuperators are heat exchangers that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air, prior to combustion. Combined-cycle designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems, and combined heat and power (i.e., cogeneration) uses waste heat for hot water production. Mechanically, gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion piston engines. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the shaft/compressor/ turbine/alternator-rotor assembly, not counting the fuel system. More sophisticated turbines may have multiple shafts (spools), hundreds of turbine blades, movable stator blades, and a vast system of complex piping, combustors, and heat exchangers.

Figure 5.1- Idealized Brayton Cycle

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

The largest gas turbines operate at 3000 (50 hertz [Hz], European and Asian power supply) or 3600 (60 Hz, U.S. power supply) RPM to match the AC power grid. They require their own building and several more to house support and auxiliary equipment, such as cooling towers. Smaller turbines, with fewer compressor/turbine stages, spin faster. Jet engines operate around 10,000 RPM and micro turbines around 100,000 RPM. Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of the design. Traditionally, they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings or oil- cooled ball bearings. 5.4 Advantages of Gas Turbine 1. Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to reciprocating engines. 2. Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating. 3. Moves in one direction only, with far less vibration than a reciprocating engine. 4. Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines. 5. Low operating pressures. 6. High operation speeds. 7. Low lubricating oil cost and consumption.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

MICROTURBINE 6.1 Definition:


Micro turbines are small high-speed gas turbines. The three main components of a micro turbine are compressor, combustor, and the turbine. The compressor is used to pressurize the air before entering the combustor. Injected fuel is mixed with the compressed air in the combustor and the mixture is ignited. Mechanical energy is produced when the hot combustion gases flow and expand through the turbine. The turbine drives a synchronous generator. A portion of power produced in the turbine is utilized for driving the air compressor while the rest is converted to electric power in the generator. The outputs of the MTs range typically from around 25 to 300 kW. Performance improvement techniques incorporated in MTs include recuperation, low NOx emission technologies, and the use of advanced materials, such as ceramic for the hot section parts. MTs are available as single-shaft or split-shaft units. Single-shaft unit is a high-speed synchronous machine with the compressor and turbine mounted on the same shaft. For these machines, the turbine speed ranges from 50 000 to 120 000 r/min. On the contrary, the split-shaft design uses a power turbine rotating at 3000 r/min and a conventional generator connected via a gearbox for speed multiplication. Unlike traditional backup generators, MTs are designed to operate for extended periods of time and require little maintenance. They can supply a customers base-load requirements or can be used for standby, peak shaving, and cogeneration applications.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig 6.1 micro turbine The micro turbine took in place because of the emerging need of innovation to the existing large gas turbine power plant, especially for the application of remote and limited area to be placed. In 1994, when a MIT turbine engineer named Alan Epstein found himself sitting in a jury pool and started to think about what it would take to build the smallest possible jet engine. Then conclusion made that in theory the device could be shrunk a lot. The idea was then started to make realization for a humungous application to appear. By attaching a micro generator to the turbine, essentially creating a tiny power plant, the combination would act like a battery, making power of twenty to fifty times or even more to the rate of anything could be get on batteries (because there is much more energy per ounce in burning hydrocarbons than in the electrochemical that usually goes in batteries). For example: Current Li-ion batteries have energy densities up to 0.5 MJ/kg, but

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

fuel offers a much higher energy density of about 45 MJ/kg. It gives the insatiable appetite to our needs for batteries; the micro turbine project suddenly became very interesting. For comparison micro turbines are operated at lower pressure ratios (3 to 4) than larger gas turbines (10 to 15). Micro turbine usually implemented the recuperated system, which function is as the air-to-air heat exchanger (regenerator). The heat collected from the turbine exhaust gas temperature. In a recuperated system, pressure ratio is in direct proportion to temperature spread between inlet and exhaust. This allows heat (from exhaust) to be introduced to the recuperator, increasing net cycle efficiency to as much as 30%. Unrecuperated micro turbines average to 17% net cycle efficiency. So it is clear that the non-recuperated cycle micro turbine configuration would have difficulty competing on an operating cost basis unless coupled with some form of waste heat recovery. Micro turbine costs include the heat engine assembly itself, the recuperator, and the generator. On the other hand, micro turbine engine accessory and control costs tend to remain nearly constant, i.e., independent of size. Engine control costs also do not follow scalar relationships, since control dynamic relationships (apart from inertial effects) are relatively independent of size. Typical micro turbine system cost percentages are of the order: Power head 25% Recuperator 30% Electronics 25% Generator 5% Accessories 5% Package 10% Micro turbine efficiency and electrical (and thermal) output are basically functions of peak cycle temperature (turbine inlet temperature, TIT), recuperator inlet temperature (i.e., turbine exhaust gas temperature, EGT), compressor pressure ratio, and component efficiencies and size effects (recuperator effectiveness, turbine isentropic efficiency, compressor isentropic efficiency) . The TIT is essentially determined by the limits of

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

turbine rotor alloy stress rupture and low cycle fatigue strengths, duty cycle, and rotor cooling options. Likewise, the recuperator inlet temperature, i.e., EGT, is also determined by recuperator matrix material life limitations. The pressure ratio is dictated by the compressor type and material.

6.2 single-shaft configuration:


Single shaft design typically employs metallic radial turbo machinery components. They operate using one stage of compression and one turbine stage attached in one shaft. The shaft connects the compressor, the turbine, and the unit generator (figure 2.2). Those components thus have the same rotational speed. The air flowing into the compressor, essential to the mass flow through the engine depends on the power turbine condition; the turbine delivers more torque as it spins faster.

Fig 6.2 single shaft configuration

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

The main advantage of using single-shaft configuration with a PMSG or asynchronous generator is that it is simpler in design. Moreover, there is no need for a gear reducer as power electronics rectifierinverter is used to supply standard voltage/frequency power to the load A bidirectional inverter can be used to facilitate power flow from electric grid to drive the generator at the start-up. The system is also small and light. The disadvantage of the method is that the power electronics system causes some conversion loss. Also, the complex conversion system is not robust enough. Moreover, the disadvantages of using high-speed PMSG are thermal stress, demagnetization phenomena, centrifugal forces, rotor losses because of fringing effects, high cost, etc. Rare earth permanent magnets are more expensive than the electrical steel used in electromagnets. They also need to be contained using additional supporting rings. PMSG requires special machining operations. Handling of recharged permanent magnets is generally difficult in production shops. These requirements increase the cost of labor for PMSG. The PMSG produces raw ac power with unregulated voltage. Depending upon the changes in load and speed, the voltage variation can be wide. When an internal failure occurs in a PMSG, the failed winding will continue to draw energy until the generator is stopped. For high-speed generators, this may lead to a long-enough duration during which further damage to electrical and mechanical components may occur. It could also lead to safety hazards for the operating personnel. Zhu and Tomsovic used an induction generator with GAST model. Though induction generators are cheaper and robust, their speed is load-dependent and they have to be interfaced to the grid only through expensive power converter systems. For induction generators, self-excitation capacitance is of great concern. The output voltage and frequency vary with the self-excitation capacitance when all other parameters are constant. The value of this capacitance should lie between a minimum and a maximum limit depending upon the combination of load, rotor speed, and magnetizing reactance. If this capacitance value is not chosen properly, the machine fails to self-excite.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

6.3 Split-shaft configuration:


Split-shaft micro turbines follow an industrial equipment design philosophy. They are built to meet utility grade reliability and durability standards while producing electricity as efficiently as central generation and distribution technologies currently in use. Split-shaft micro turbines are designed exclusively for rugged, industrial quality stationary applications; they fit right in on the plant floor or utility room and include no design compromises inherited from vehicle or aerospace ancestries. Like single-shaft micro turbine engines, two-shaft designs typically employ metallic radial Like single-shaft micro turbine engines, two-shaft designs typically employ metallic radial turbo machinery components. They use strengthened turbocharger components featuring pressurized lubeoil systems consistent with industrial best practice. They operate at relatively low pressure ratios in the 3:1 range using one stage of compression and two turbine stages. The first turbine (the gasifier turbine) drives the compressor and the second free-power turbine drives the load generator.

Fig 6.3 Split-shaft configuration

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Split-shaft configuration is more suitable for machine drive applications because it does not require an inverter to convert the frequency of the ac power. The main advantage of coupling an SG with a split-shaft MT is that it eliminates the use of the rectifier and power converter. In this case, the generator is connected to the turbine via a gearbox to generate standard 50/60 Hz power. These generators are robust and less costly as compared to PMSG, and all other problems with high-speed PMSG are eliminated. The use of power electronic interfaces for power conversion introduces harmonics in the system to reduce the output power quality. These harmonics are eliminated if SG is used with a gearbox. Also, there are less chances of failure as the gearbox is much robust as compared to complex power electronics devices. However, the main drawback of a gearbox is that it requires maintenance along with its supporting lubricating system. The dimension and weight of the system increase with respect to the single-shaft configuration. Some manufacturing companies like Ingersoll Rand Energy Systems, Ballard, Bowman, and Elliott are using synchronous machines with their MT for both stand-alone and grid-connected operations

6.4 Synchronous Machine:


Model the dynamics of a three-phase round-rotor or salient-pole synchronous machine. The Synchronous Machine block operates in generator or motor modes. The operating mode is dictated by the sign of the mechanical power (positive for generator mode, negative for motor mode). The electrical part of the machine is represented by a sixth-order state-space model and the mechanical part is the same as in the Simplified Synchronous Machine block. The model takes into account the dynamics of the stator, field, and damper windings. The equivalent circuit of the model is represented in the rotor reference frame (qd frame).

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

All rotor parameters and electrical quantities are viewed from the stator. They are identified by primed variables. The subscripts used are defined as follows: d,q: d and q axis quantity R,s: Rotor and stator quantity l,m: Leakage and magnetizing inductance f,k: Field and damper winding quantity

The electrical model of the machine is

Note that this model assumes currents flowing into the stator windings. The measured stator currents returned by the Synchronous Machine block (Ia, Ib, Ic, Id, Iq) are the currents flowing out of the machine.

6.5 Necessity of Micro Turbine:


Under the current electric utility restructuring and public environmental policy, there is ample scope for large-scale integration of DERs into utility grid distribution system . Nowadays, there is growing interest in deploying MTs in DG application, because of their quick start capability and easy controllability useful for efficient peak shaving.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

6.6 SPECIFICATIONS: The current generation MTs have the following specifications. 1) Size: relatively smaller in size as compared to other DERs. 2) High efficiency: fuel-to-electricity conversion can reach the range of 25%30%. However, if the waste heat recovery is used for CHP applications, energy efficiency levels are greater than 80%. 3) Environmental superiority: NOx emissions are lower than 7 ppm for natural gas machines in practical operating ranges. 4) Durability: designed for 11 000 h of operation between major overhauls with a service life of at least 45 000 h. 5) Economy of operation: system costs lower than $500/kW. Cost of electricity is

competitive with alternatives including grid power for market applications. 6) Fuel flexibility: capable of using alternative fuels like natural gas, diesel, ethanol, landfill gas, and/or other biomass-derived liquids and gases. 7) Noise level: reduced noise and vibrations. 8) Installation: simpler installation.

MODEL DESCRIPTION

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

7.1 MICROTURBINE MODEL


Usually, an MT consists of the following parts as listed next 1) Turbine: High-speed single-shaft or split-shaft gas turbines. 2) Alternator: In single-shaft units, the alternator is directly coupled to the turbine. The rotor is either two-pole or four-pole permanent design. The stator is of conventional copper wound design. In split-shaft units, a conventional induction machine or synchronous machine is mounted on the turbine through the gearbox. 3) Power electronics: In single-shaft machines, the high- frequency (15004000 Hz) ac voltage generated by the alternator is converted to standard power frequency voltage through the power electronic interfaces. However, in the split-shaft design, these are not required due to the presence of the gearbox. 4) Recuperator: The recuperator recovers the waste heat to improve the energy efficiency of the MT. It transfers heat from the exhaust gas to the discharge air before it enters the combustor. This reduces the amount of fuel needed to raise the discharge air temperature to that required value. 5) Control and communication: Control and communication systems include the entire turbine control mechanism, Inverter interface, start-up electronics, instrumentation and signal conditioning, data logging, and diagnostics and user control communications.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig. 7.1.MT model. In this I focused their attention on slow dynamic performance of the system and not on the transient behaviors. MT Modeling is based on the following assumptions. 1) System operation under normal conditions: This paper considers normal operating conditions of the system. Hence, start-up and dynamics (faults, loss of shut down of MT along with fast power, etc.) are omitted from the model as they do not

affect the operating conditions under normal load. The we would like to work in future for developing an advanced MT model to include the aforesaid fast dynamics. 2) Omission of the recuperator model: The electromechanical behavior of MT is of main interest, and hence, the recuperator model is not included as it is only a heat exchanger to raise engine efficiency. Also, due to the recuperators very slow response time, it has little influence in the timescale of dynamic simulations. 3) Omission of temperature and acceleration control models: The temperature and

acceleration controls have no impact on the normal operating conditions. Temperature control acts as an upper output power limit. At normal operating conditions, the turbine temperature remains steady, and hence, it is omitted from the model. Acceleration control is used primarily during turbine start-up to limit the rate of the rotor acceleration prior to reaching operating speed. If the operating speed of the system is closer to its rated speed,

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

the acceleration control is of no significance in the modeling. However, without the temperature control block, the model does not represent turbine operations accurately at higher load levels when the control is to be done based on exhaust gas temperature rather than machine speed to prevent the damage of the turbine blades. Besides, if a load rejection occurs, the speed accelerates at a higher rate than the normal as the acceleration control block is omitted. The nonlinearities appearing due to this could not be taken care of. In this respect, the we would include these blocks in the advanced MT model. 4) Omission of governor model: The governor model is omitted as the MT does not use any governor. Instead, a speed controller is incorporated in the model to keep the speed constant. The simplified MT model is shown in Fig 3.1

7.2 CONTROLLER MODEL As the main emphasis is on active power control, therefore the entire control system is simplified as an active power proportionalintegral (PI) control function.

The controlled active power is applied to the turbine. Active power control is represented as a conventional PI controller, as illustrated in fig 7.2

Fig. 7.2 Controller model.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

The controller model variables are: Pin Pde m Pre f Kp Ki active power control variable applied to the input of MT; actual load demand; preset power reference; proportional gain of PI controller; integral gain of PI controller. As MTs work on the similar principle as gas turbines, their dynamic models are evolved from the concept of gas turbine dynamics. Gaonkar and Patel used an MT model that consists of fuel control, turbine dynamics, temperature control, speed governor, and acceleration control blocks. Speed control acts when there is a difference between the reference speed and rotor speed. It is the primary method of speed control when the turbine is operating under part-load conditions. Temperature control sets the upper limit of the output power. Acceleration control is used primarily during turbine start-up to limit the rate of the rotor acceleration prior to reaching operating speed. Gaonkar et al. also used the same model but excluded the temperature and acceleration control blocks as they have no impact in normal operating conditions. Recuperator was not included in the both the models as only electromechanical behavior was of interest. The model used in consists of transfer function representing fuel system with actuator, turbine, and compressor dynamics along with heat recovery exchanger. Zhu and Tomsovic sed GAST model for simulation of a split-shaft MT system. The single-shaft MT model in consists of turbine, PMSG, rectifier, and inverter with their dynamics and interconnections.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

7.3 TURBINE MODEL


The turbine or prime mover model for GAST model consists of two fuel systems and a temperature control feedback. However, the temperature control feedback has been eliminated in this project.

Fig. 7.3 Block diagram of prime-moverlturbine model The prime mover model in Fig. 7.3 shows that there are two fuel system lag time constants to represent the turbine of the GAST model as a prime mover. The first fuel system lag time constant, Tfl characterizes the k e l valve position time constant. Whilst the second fuel system lag time constant, Tn describes the fuel injection before being burned in order to produce hot gas at high pressure and high velocity that go through the turbine blades for spinning. The model also includes the limiter due to the fact that there is a maximum and minimum limit of fuel to be injected in the combustion chamber. This will affect the mechanical power output from the turbine in terms of its maximum and minimum limit. The input of the turbine model is the change in valve position from nominal value, APVa,,,. The turbine model takes into account the turbine damping to obtain the mechanical power output performance of the turbine. Thus, mechanical power output from the prime mover is expressed by:

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

(7.1) The MT does not use any speed regulator. In this project, we have used the widely accepted GAST turbine model, as shown in Fig. 3.3 for representing the dynamic behavior of a gas turbine. The advantages of GAST model are that it is simple and follows typical modeling guidelines. The following swing equation describes the machine speed and power relationship of the GAST model:

(7.1) It is a Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) compliant model that can directly be used in specific commercial simulation programs. The model does not represent turbine operations accurately at higher load levels when the control is to be done based on exhaust gas temperature rather than machine speed to prevent the damage of the turbine blades. Hence, the model cannot provide adequate representation of the temperature control loop. The GAST model also does not account for the nonlinearities that play a major role in over speed conditions following a sudden load rejection. Moreover, the model parameters could not be adjusted accurately to reproduce the hunting phenomena around the final settling frequency.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig 7.4 Turbine model.

The alternator coupled to the MT is modeled as a standard MATLABSimulink synchronous machine block. The parameters used for simulation of the MT, the alternator are based on work reported by Zhu and Tomsovic and are illustrated in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 respectively.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

7.4 Synchronous Machine:


Model the dynamics of a three-phase round-rotor or simplified synchronous machine.The Simplified Synchronous Machine block models both the electrical and mechanical characteristics of a simple synchronous machine. The electrical system for each phase consists of a voltage source in series with an RL impedance, which implements the internal impedance of the machine. The value of R can be zero but the value of L must be positive. The Simplified Synchronous Machine block implements the mechanical system described by

Where

Although the parameters can be entered in either SI units or per unit in the dialog box, the internal calculations are done in per unit. The following block diagram illustrates how the mechanical part of the model is implemented. Notice that the model computes a deviation with respect to the speed of operation, and not the absolute speed itself These expressions represent, in summary, the electrical component of the model implemented in Matlab/Simulink[MathWorks,2007]. The mechanical equations, significantly simpler than previous ones, are represented by:

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

MODEL PARAMETERS
7.1 MT PARAMETERS

7.2 ALTERNATOR PARAMETERS

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

7.2 THREE-PHASE SOURCE PARAMETERS Parameter Phase to phase voltage Frequency 3-phase short-circuit level at base voltage Base voltage x/r ratio Value 440 60hz 3.73e3 440 5

SIMULATION AND RESULTS


8.1 ISLANDED MODE

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Following cases have been simulated in MATLABSimulink environment. Total simulation time for this case is 120s.The output powers and loads are expressed as per units with 3.73 kw and the rated line voltage is 440V. the parameters of this microturbine modal are listed in above table.
1 Pref 0.1 Gain 1 Gain1 1 1 3.0s+1 Transfer Fcn3 2 Constant2 1.2 Wr -KGain2 2 Tm Divide min MinMax 1 10s+1 Transfer Fcn1 Saturation 1 0.1s+1 Transfer Fcn2 1 Pm

1.0

s Gain3 Transfer Fcn

Fig 8(A) Turbine MATLABSimulink model.

Fig 8(B) MICROTURBINE MATLABSimulink model.

Case 1:

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

In this case, the islanded MTG system is running with a load of 3.73 kW (1 p.u.) applied to the generator bus up to t = 120 s. The load on the MTG system is shown in Fig. 8.1, Fig 8.2 shows the mechanical power output of MT. It is observed that MT power output takes about 55 s to match the load demand. Which shows that the MTG system takes almost the same time to reach the new steady-state speed at the constant load. The electrical power output of the generator is shown in Fig. 8.4 .It is seen to closely follow change in load demand.

Fig. 8.1 Load on the MT (Islanded mode).

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig. 8.2 Mechanical power output of MT.

Fig 8.4 Generator electrical power output (Islanded mode).

Case 2:

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

In this case there is a step increase of the power demand from 0.7 p.u.(2.6 kW) to 1 p.u. (3.73 kW) as shows in figure 8.5. Figure 8.7 shows the dynamic response of the mechanical power, Pm, and the total three-phase electrical power output, Pe Figure 8.8 shows .

Fig. 8.5 Load on the MT (Islanded mode).

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig. 8.6 Mechanical power output of MT.

Fig 8.7 Generator electrical power output (Islanded mode).

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Case 3:
In this case there is a step decreasing of the power demand from 0.7 p.u. (2.6 kW) to 0.4 p.u.(1.5 kW) as shows in figure 8.8. Figure 8.9 shows the dynamic response of the mechanical power, Pm, and the total three-phase electrical power output, Pe Figure 8.10 shows .

Fig. 8.8 Load on the MT (Islanded mode).

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig. 8.9 Mechanical power output of MT.

Fig 8.10 Generator electrical power output (Islanded mode).

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Simulation results analysis


From simulation results, the following points are observed: The initial response time for the step change is around 10 sec; this delay mainly due to the turbine response time. The oscillations in Pm and Pe is significant with a time period around 20 sec; this is mainly due to the small inertia and damping of the Micro Turbine.

A Micro Turbine is the most suitable micro source for dealing with the load changing in the micro grid. This microturbine model appears suitable for the time scale to be used in our dynamic simulation.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Case 4:

MICROTURBINE WITH OUT FAULT

Following cases have been simulated in MATLABSimulink environment. Total simulation time for this case is 120s.The output powers and loads are expressed as per units with 3.73 kw and the rated line voltage is 440V.

Fig 8.11 MICROTURBINE WITH OUT FAULT MATLABSimulink model. In this case, the islanded MTG system is running with a load of 3.73 kW (1 p.u.) applied to the generator bus up to t = 120 s. The load on the MTG system is shown in Fig. 8.11, Fig 8.12 shows the mechanical power output of MT. It is observed that MT power output takes about 55 s to match the load demand. Which shows that the MTG system takes almost the same time to reach the new steady-state speed at the constant load. The electrical power output of the generator is shown in Fig. 8.13 .It is seen to closely follow change in load demand. The voltage and current output wave forms as shown in fig 8.14&8.15.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig. 8.11 Load on the MT .

Fig. 8.12 Mechanical power output of MT.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig 8.13 Generator electrical power output .

Fig 8.14 Generator voltage output

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig 8.15 Generator current output

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Case 5:

MICROTURBINE WITH FAULT

Following cases have been simulated in MATLABSimulink environment. Total simulation time for this case is 120s.The output powers and loads are expressed as per units with 3.73 kw and the rated line voltage is 440V.

Fig 8.16 MICROTURBINE WITH FAULT MATLABSimulink model. In this case, the islanded MTG system is running with a load of 3.73 kW (1 p.u.) applied to the generator bus up to t = 120 s and connected with a three phase fault. This fault of duration of 60 to 90 s of duration of run time. The load on the MTG system is shown in Fig. 8.17, Fig 8.18 shows the mechanical power output of MT. The electrical power output of the generator is shown in Fig. 8.19 .It is seen to closely follow change in load demand. The voltage and current output wave forms as shown in fig 8.20&8.21.

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig. 8.17 Load on the MT

Fig. 8.18 Mechanical power output of MT.

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Fig 8.19 Generator electrical power output

Fig 8.20 Generator voltage output

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

Fig 8.21 Generator current output

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Simulation results analysis


From simulation results, the following points are observed: The initial response time for the step change is around 10 sec; this delay mainly due to the turbine response time. The oscillation in Pm and Pe is significant with a time period around 20 sec; this is mainly due to the small inertia and damping of the Micro Turbine. A Micro Turbine is the most suitable micro source for dealing with the load following in the micro grid. When fault period of 60 to 100 sec of duration the power is decreased, when fault period is over again power will reaches its original values. These are observed from the above wave forms.

When fault occurs voltage becomes zero and current will be increased as shone in the wave forms. This microturbine model appears suitable for the time scale to be used in our dynamic simulation

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MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
Introduction Gas turbine plants are used for isolated and standalone operations. They are mainly used in oil fields, desert areas, off shore installations and bio gas plants. An effective control strategy is required to keep the system stable under disturbance. The Transfer function model of heavy duty gas turbine has been developed by Rowen [37] based upon his field experience and the tests he conducted in the gas turbine plants. This model has been used in many works such as, the dynamic analysis of combined cycle plant [38], twin shaft gas turbine model [39], and combustion turbine model [40] and even in micro turbine power generation [41]. The transfer function simplification has been validated [42]. After tuning the parameters, the response of the gas turbine plant shows steady state error. To improve the transient and steady state response, PID controller is required. Mathematical Model of Micro Turbine : The Transfer function model developed by Rowen [1] with the following implifications is considered for the simulation of the response of an isolated micro turbine.
1 P f re 0 .1 G in a 1 s Ta s r F n r n fe c G in a 1 1 1 3 s1 .0 + T n fe F n ra s r c 3 2 C n ta t2 os n 1 .2 W r - K G in a 2 2 T m D id iv e m in M Mx in a 1 1 s1 0+ T n fe F n ra s r c 1 S tu tio a ra n 1 0 s1 .1 + Ta s r F n r n fe c 2 1 P m

1 .0 G in a 3

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i. If the frequency variation is not greater than [+ or -]1%, the acceleration control will become inactive. It can be eliminated. ii. The turbine output is predominantly controlled by the set point so the need for temperature control is significantly diminished, thereby allowing elimination of temperature control. iii. The multiplier used in the transfer function can be neglected for small speed variations The simplified block diagram of micro turbine is shown

A unit step load disturbance has been given to the gas turbine using MATLAB Simulink and the response is obtained. The response shows that there is a steady state error. An appropriate secondary controller has to be included to improve both the steady state and transient response. Let the PID controller be implemented as PID Controller: Proportional--Integral--Derivative (PID) controllers are widely used in many control applications because of their simplicity and robustness [10]. It is well known that if the control law employs integral control, the system has no steady state error. However, it increases the type of the system by one. Therefore the response with integral control is slow during the transient period. In the absence of the integral control, the gain of the closed loop system can be increased significantly thereby improving the transient response.

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Similarly the closed loop system stability can be improved by the differential control, and therefore PID controller will improve the static and dynamic accuracy. PID controller consists of Proportional Action, Integral Action and Derivative action. It is commonly refer to Ziegler-Nichols PID tuning parameters.PID controllers algorithm are mostly used in feedback loops. PID controllers can be implemented in many forms. It can be implemented as a stand-alone controller or as part of Direct Digital Control (DDC) package or even Distributed Control System (DCS). The latter is a hierarchical distributed process control system which is widely used in process plants such as pharceumatical or oil refining industries. It is interesting to note that more than half of the industrial controllers in use today utilize PID or modified PID control schemes. Below is a simple diagram illustrating the schematic of the PID controller. Such set up is known as non-interacting form or parallel form.

Figure 11.1. Schematic of The PID Controller Non-Interacting Form

PID Controller In proportional control,

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Pterm = KP X Error It uses proportion of the system error to control the system. In this action an offset is introduced in the system. In Integral control,

It is proportional to the amount of error in the system. In this action, the I-action will introduce a lag in the system. This will eliminate the offset that was introduced earlier on by the P-action. In Derivative control,

It is proportional to the rate of change of the error. In this action, the D-action will introduce a lead in the system. This will eliminate the lag in the system that was introduced by the I-action earlier on. 3.3 Continuous PID The three controllers when combined together can be represented by the following transfer function.

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This can be illustrated below in the following block diagram

Figure11.2. Block diagram of Continuous PID Controller. What the PID controller does is basically is to act on the variable to be manipulated through a proper combination of the three control actions that is the P control action, I control action and D control action. The P action is the control action that is proportional to the actuating error signal, which is the difference between the input and the feedback signal. The I action is the control action which is proportional to the integral of the actuating error signal. Finally the D action is the control action which is proportional to the derivative of the actuating error signal. With the integration of all the three actions, the continuous PID can be realized. This type of controller is widely used in industries all over the world. In fact a lot of research, studies and application have been discovered in the recent years. Optimizing Of PID Controller

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For the system under study, Zieger-Nichols tuning rule based on critical gain Ker and critical period Per will be used. In this method, the integral time Ti will be set to infinity and the derivative time Td to zero. This is used to get the initial PID setting of the system. This PID setting will then be further optimized using the steepest descent gradient method. In this method, only the proportional control action will be used. The Kp will be increase to a critical value Ker at which the system output will exhibit sustained oscillations. In this method, if the system output does not exhibit the sustained oscillations hence this method does not apply. it will be shown that the inefficiency of designing PID controller using the classical method. This design will be further improved by the optimization method such as steepest descent gradient method as mentioned earlier. Designing PID Parameters From the response below, the system under study is indeed oscillatory and hence the Z-N tuning rule based on critical gain Ker and critical period Per can be applied.

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Figure 11.3. Illustration of Sustained Oscillation with Period Per.

The transfer function of the PID controller is Gc(s) = Kp(1 + Ti S + T ds ) In this project there was only PI controller so there was no D block in the controller, so the block diagram is
1

Figure 11.4. Schematic of The PI Controller Non-Interacting Form The transfer function of the PI controller is Gc(s) = Kp(1 + Ti S ) The objective is to achieve a unit-step response curve of the designed system that exhibits a maximum overshoot of 25 %. If the maximum overshoot is excessive says about greater than 40%, fine tuning should be done to reduce it to less than 25%.
1

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

The system under study above has a following block diagram

Figure 10.4. Block Diagram Of Controller And Plant. Since the Ti = and Td = 0, this can be reduced to the transfer function of

The value of Kp that makes the system marginally stable so that sustained oscillation occurs can be obtained by using the Rouths stability citerion. Sincethe characteristic equation for the closed-loop system is S2 + 10.1s + 1 + K p = 0 From the Rouths Stability Criterion, the value of Kp that makes the system marginally stable can be determined. The table below illustrates the Routh array.

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s s s

1 10.1 10.1-Kp/10.1 Table11.1. Routh Array

1 Kp 0

By observing the coefficient of the first column, the sustained oscillation will occur if Kp=10.1. Hence the critical gain Ker is Ker = 10.1 Thus with Kp set equal to Ker, the characteristic equation becomes S2 + 10.1s + 11.1 = 0

The frequency of the sustained oscillation can be determined by substituting the s terms with j term. Hence the new equation becomes ( j ) + 10.1 ) + 11.1=0 This can be simplified to 11.1 ( j 1) + j ( j 1 ) = 0 From the above simplification, the sustained oscillation can be reduced to = 1 Or = 1 The period of the sustained oscillation can be calculated as Per = 2/1

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

= 2.8099

The transfer function of the PID controller with all the parameters is given as Gc(s) = Kp(1 + Ti S ) From the above transfer function, we can see that the PID controller has pole at the origin and double zero at s = -1.4235. The block diagram of the control system with PID controller is as follows.
1

Figure 11.5. Illustrated the Close Loop Transfer Function. Using the MATLAB function, the following system can be easily calculated. The above system can be reduced to single block by using the following MATLAB function. Below is the Matlab codes that will calculate the two blocks in series % calculation of series system response using matlab num1=[0 1.08 1]; den1=[0 1.08 0]; num2=[0 0 1]; den2=[1 10.1 1]; [num,den]=series(num1,den1,num2,den2);

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printsys(num,den)

This will gives the following answer num/den = 1.08 s + 1 -----------------------------1.08 s^3 + 10.908 s^2 + 1.08 s Hence the above block diagram is reduced to

Figure 11.6. Simplified System. Using another MATLAB function, the overall function with its feedback can be calculated as follow % calculation of feedback system response using matlab num1=[0 0 1.08 1]; den1=[1.08 10.908 1.08 0]; num2=[0 0 0 0 1]; den2=[0 0 0 0 1];

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[num,den]=feedback(num1,den1,num2,den2); printsys(num,den)

Hence the above block diagram is reduced to

This will result to num/den = 1.08 s + 1 ---------------------------------1.08 s^3 + 10.908 s^2 + 2.16 s + 1 Therefore the overall close loop system response of

The unit step response of this system can be obtained with MATLAB. %MATLAB script of the Designed PID Controller System. num=[0 0 1.08 1]; den=[1.08 10.908 2.16 1];

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

step(num,den); grid; title('Unit Step Response of The Design System');

The unit step response is


UitS pRs o s o TeDs nSs m n te e p n e f h e ig y te 1 .4

1 .2

A plitude m

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

0 0

1 0

2 0

3 0 T e( e ) im s c

4 0

5 0

6 0

Figure 11.7. Unit Step Response Of The Designed System The figure above is the system response of the designed system. From the above response it is obvious that the system can be further improved

Justification
From simulation and mathematical results, the following points are observed:

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DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MICROTURBINE BASED DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE

The initial response time for the step change is around 10 sec; this delay mainly due to the turbine response time. The oscillations in Pm and Pe is significant with a time period around 20 sec; this is mainly due to the small inertia and damping of the Micro Turbine. This microturbine model appears suitable for the time scale to be used in our dynamic simulation.

CONCLUSION In this project, modeling, simulation and mathematical analysis of MT coupled with SG are performed and reported. Its load following performance is thoroughly tested and validated for different operating conditions, with and without speed controllers. It has been observed that the MTG system can be effectively used to supply fixed and time-varying load demands. This model is quite useful for studying the dynamic performance. A microturbine simplified model has been developed by using Matlab/ Simulink/ Sim power systems software. The model has been mathematically analysis and different operation conditions have been analyzed (Step change, fault,). The simulation results have showed that the microturbine works properly connected to a low voltage distribution grid. Next developments in this field will be the improvement and optimization of the microturbine model as well as the analysis of multiple operation conditions, mainly related to different fault situations and the definition of the settings of protection relays.

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