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Mandriva

Linux

Mandriva
http://www.mandriva.com

-
-
2006

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
23
23

Mandriva Linux. . .:
-, 2006. 544 : .
ISBN 5-94157-866-0
Mandriva Linux Linux Windows/Mac OS X.
GNU/Linux, Mandriva Linux ,
GNU/Linux, Linux : , , -. Linux , Linux,
, .

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2

Lafox.Net:
,

,

02429 24.07.00. 30.11.05.


70x100'/,. . . . . 43,86.
3000 . 1489
"-", 194354, -, . , 5.
-
Ns 77.99.02.953..006421.11.04 11.11.2004 .
.

" ""
199034, -, 9 , 12

ISBN 5-94157-866-0

2003-2006 Mandriva
, , 206
"--", 2006

Mandriva Linux:
2005
Copyright 2005 Mandrakesoft SA dba Mandriva
NeoDoc (http: //www. neodoc. biz)Camille Begnis, Christian Roy, Fabian Mandelbaum,
Roberto Rosselli del Turco, Marco De Vitis, Alice Lafox, John Rye, Wolfgang Bornath,
Funda Wang, Patricia Pichardo Begnis, Debora Rejnharc Mandelbaum, Mickael Scherer,
Jean-Michel Dault, Lunas Moon, Celine Harrand, Fred Lepied, Pascal Rigaux, Thierry
Vignaud, Giuseppe Ghib6, Stew Benedict, Francine Suzon, Indrek Madedog Triipus,
Nicolas Berdugo, Thorsten Kamp, Fabrice Facorat, Xiao Ming, Snature, Guylhem Aznar,
Pavel Maryanov, Annie Tetrault, Aurelio Marinho Jargas, Felipe Arruda, Marcia Gawlak
Hoshi, Bob Rye, Jean-Luc Borie, Roberto Patriarca


( , )
, Open Publication License, 1.0
( opencontent.org
(http: //www. opencontent. org/openpub/)).


.

() ,
.
Alice Lafox (mailto: aliceeiafox.net)
(mailto:jackaiafox.net). ,
.
"Mandriva" "DrakX" /
. "Star logo" . .
, ,
.

Lafox.Net (http://lafox.net).
2002 . ,
(mailto: doct eamQlaf ox. net).


NeoDoc (http://www.neodoc .biz).
NeoDoc, Mandriva .

DocBook XML.
Borges
(C3S) (http://sourceforge.net/projects/borges-dms). XML-
xsltproc jadetex ( )
(Norman Walsh). xwd GIMP
convert ( ImageMagick).

Mandriva Linux.

1. Mandriva Linux
1.1. Mandriva Linux
1.2. !
1.3. Mandriva Online
1.4. Mandriva
1.5. Mandriva Linux
2. Mandriva Linux
3.
4. ,
4.1.
4.2.
1.
2.
2.1. BIOS
2.2.
3. DrakX
3.1. Mandriva Linux
3.1.1.
3.1.2.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3.9.1.
3.9.2.
3.9.3.
3.9.4.
3.10. root
3.11.
3.12.
3.13.
3.13.1.
3.13.2.
3.13.3. X,
3.13.4. ,
3.14.
3.15. !

1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
6
9
11
11
12
13
13
14
14
16
18
18
20
21
22
24
25
25
26
27
29
30
32
33
34
34
36
37
39
40
41

3.15.1.
3.16. Linux
I. Mandriva Linux
4. Linux Windows Mac OSX
4.1. ...?
4.2. !
5. Linux
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6. ( )
6.
6.1. Mandriva Linux
6.2. GNU/Linux
7. KDE
7.1. Desktop Environment
7.2.
7.3.
7.4. KDE
7.5. KDE
8. GNOME
8.1. GNOME
8.2. GNOME
8.3.
II.
9.
9.1.
10. - Firefox
10.1. Firefox
10.2. -
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.
10.6.
10.7.
10.8.
10.9.
11. IRC
11.1.
11.2. IRC C-Chat
III. Linux

VI

41
42
45
45
45
48
51
51
51
51
52
53
56
57
57
58
63
63
65
67
69
71
73
73
76
81
83
83
83
97
97
98
99
101
101
102
103
103
103
107
107
109
117

12. OpenOffice.org
117
12.1.
117
12.2.
125
12.3.
132
13.
141
13.1.
141
IV.
147
14.
147
14.1.
147
14.2.
152
14.3. -
155
15.
163
15.1.
163
15.2.
175
15.3.
180
15.4.
189
15.5. CD
197
V.
209
16. Mandriva Linux
209
16.1.
209
16.2.
212
16.3. Drakbug
214
17. Rpmdrake
217
17.1.
217
17.2.
222
17.3. Mandriva Linux
222
17.4.
223
18.
229
18.1.
229
18.2.
231
18.3. - DrakxTV
236
18.4.
238
18.5.
239
18.6. PrinterDrake
240
18.7.
255
19.
259
19.1.
259
19.2.
269
20. ,
275
20.1. MenuDrake
275
20.2. ,
279
20.3. , ,
DrakFont
281
20.4.
282

VII

20.5.
284
20.6.
289
20.7.
290
20.8.
293
21.
305
21.1. DiskDrake
305
21.2.
310
21.3. SMB-
312
21.4. NFS-
314
21.5.

314
21.6. WebDAV
316
22.
319
22.1. DrakSec
319
22.2. DrakPerm:
322
22.3.
DrakFirewall
324
23.
327
23.1.
327
23.2.
328
23.3.
329
24. Mandriva Online
331
24.1.
331
24.2. -
334
24.3. Mandriva Online
337
25.
341
25.1.
341
25.2.
341
25.3. Windows
344
25.4.
345
25.5.
346
26.
347
26.1.
347
26.2.
347
26.3.
348
26.4.
351
26.5. ,
353
26.6. ,
355
26.7. ,
357
26.8.
358
26.9.
360
26.10.
361
26.11.
362
26.12. Mandriva Linux

363

vin

26.13. Mandriva Linux


363
26.14.
366
VI. Linux
367
27. UNIX
367
27.1.
367
27.2.
369
27.3.
372
27.4.
373
28.
381
28.1.
381
28.2.
384
28.3.
387
28.4.
388
28.5.
390
28.6. : ... .392
28.7.
393
29.
395
29.1.
395
29.2.
398
30. : Emacs VI
401
30.1. Emacs
401
30.2. Vi:
406
30.3.
411
31.
-.
413
31.1.
413
31.2. find:
421
31.3.
424
31.4.
427
31.5. ,
430
32.
431
32.1.
431
32.2. : ps pstree
432
32.3. : kill, killall top
433
32.4. : nice, renice
434
VII. Linux
437
33.
437
33.1. /, / ... 437
33.2. : /
437
33.3. /usr:
439
33.4. /var:
440
33.5. /etc:
440
34.
443
34.1.
444
34.2. ,
446

IX

34.3. mount umount


35. Linux
35.1.
35.2.
35.3.
35.4. ""
35.5. :
35.6. . ""
35.7.
36. /
36.1.
36.2.
36.3.
37. : init sysv
37.1. init
37.2.
A. GNU (GPL)
.
.2. ,

B.

446
451
451
455
457
458
460
461
463
465
465
467
472
473
473
474
479
479
480
487
517


8-1. GNOME
8-2. GNOME
9-1. KMail
9-2.
10-1. - Firefox
12-1.
12-2.
13-1. Konqueror
14-1. GnomeMeeting
15-1.
15-2.
16-1.
35-1.

74
75
88
90
98
120
137
141
157
197
199
210
453

XI


1. Mandriva Linux
Mandriva Linux - GNU/Linux, Mandriva
S.A., 1998 .
GNU/Linux.
Mandriva -
7 2005 Mandrakesoft Mandriva,
Conectiva . Mandriva - Mandrakelinux - Mandriva Linux.

1.1. Mandriva Linux


- , Mandriva Linux. Mandriva, - (http://www.mandriva.com/).
- Mandriva Linux (http://www.mandrivalinux.com/) ,
.
Mandriva Expert (http://www.mandrivaexpert.com/) -
Mandriva. ,
.
(http: //www.
mandriva. com/en/community/resources/newsgroups), Mandriva
Linux .
(http://www.mandriva.
com/security). , Mandriva Linux. ,
, , , Mandriva Online (https://online.mandriva.com) (CM.
" Mandriva Online", . 331). , ,
.

1.2. !
Mandriva Mandriva Club
(http://club.mandriva.com):


, , , ,
freeware -;

;
50 000 RPM- Mandriva Linux;
Mandriva Store (http: //store .mandriva.
com);
, ;
;
(https://club.mandriva.com/xwiki/bin/view/KB) Mandriva
- wiki-, : , , ;
Mandriva Linux Club Chat (https://www.mandrivaclub.com/
user.php?op=clubchat);
GNU/Linux
Mandriva (http: //etraining. mandriva. com)
Mandriva Mandriva Club,
Mandriva Linux GNU/Linux-.

1.3. Mandriva Online


Mandriva ,
. " Mandriva Online", . 331.

1.4. Mandriva
Mandriva Linux Mandriva Store (http: //store.mandriva. com/).
Mandriva Linux, "live"
CD ( Move), , , , , , GNU/Linux, Mandriva.

1.5. Mandriva Linux


, Mandriva Linux,
Mandriva Linux:
. GNU/Linux , . .
. ,
Mandriva'oM: .
. -, .
(http: //qa. mandriva. com/),
, Mandriva Linux.

2. Mandriva Linux
, Mandriva Linux.
, , ,
(. " ", . 9 " ", . 11).
(. " DrakX", .
13), ,
Mandriva Linux.
Mandriva Linux - Linux.
.
Mandriva Linux
.
Linux ,
OpenOffice.org .
, Mandriva Linux. , , ,
, , CD/DVD-.


Mandriva Linux Mandriva Linux.
( Linux)
GNU/Linux. ,
Linux G N U / Li n , , , .
, GNU/Linux:
.
Mandriva Linux. !

3.
open-source ! Mandriva Linux - . . ,
:
;
;
;
XML/XSLT-.
, .
, .
, - .
Borges (C3S) (http://sourceforge.net/projects/
borges-dms) - . ,
, !
Mandriva Linux , , (mailto:documentationQmandriva.com) - Mandriva Linux (http: //www.mandrivalinux.
com/en/doc/project/).


, , 2004 Mandriva Linux Borges
NeoDoc (http://www.neodoc.biz).

4. ,
4.1.
,
. .

inode

Is -lta

(.
" "', . 6).

a_file

.
RPM-.

ls(l)

(man).
,
man I I s .

$ Is *.pid

,
, ,
,
..

localhost

,
. ,
,

OpenOffice.org

.
,
, . ,
,

.


. (
) ""
,

.

he petit chaperon

,
. .

. .

. ,
, ,
.
. ,
.

4.2.
4.2.1.
,
:
< >

[ o p t i o n = { a p r l , 2, )]

[ . . . . ]

, , .
"<" () ">" () ,
, . , <_>
. f oo. txt, f oo. t x t ,
<f . t x t > <_>.


("[ ]") ,
.
("...") .
("{ }") , .
.

4.2.2.
, , Ctrl-R,
, , Ctrl, R.
Alt Shift.
;
, .
, R - .
.
, , > (Ctrl-R) : ,
( ). . ,
Ctrl-R
( ).

4.2.3.
, , :
Queen Pingusa

queen

Peter Pingus

peter

,

.


,
.

1.
. Windows, GNU/Linux
(
), , ,
Windows GNU/Linux. Windows GNU/Linux, DrakX
Mandriva Linux Windows.
.
:
chkdsk Windows.
, chkdsk .
chkdsk .

chkdsk ,
, .
chkdsk Windows " ".

defrag, Windows 9x'. . , , ..
.
! ,
, , ..
, GNU/Linux.
1. NT .

1.

NTFS. Windows 2000, NT : , DiskDrake (


ntfsresize) NTFS, ,
. , the LinuxNTFS (http://linux-ntfs.sourceforge.net/info/ntfs.html#2.6), NTFS Resize FAQ (http://mlf.linux.rulez.org/mlf/ezaz/
ntfsresize.html) .

Windows Norton
PartitionMagic NTFS.
, ! (. :
).
DiskDrake Mandriva Linux. , FAQ.

10

2.
, Mandriva Linux. , ..
. (
, , ),
(, , ,
..).

2.1. BIOS
BIOS {Basic Input/Output System, /) , , .
.
plug'n'play , BIOS . Linux plug'n'play, BIOS .
BIOS Del ( BIOS F2, F10 Esc)
POST-. ,
BIOS. .
Plug'n'Play OS installed. No, BIOS plug'n'play, Linux .
CD-ROM. Boot
sequence First boot device BIOS CD-ROM . CD-ROM,
.

, , , + ( ), SPP,
.
, , , ,
,
. ,
.

11

2.

2.2.
Mandriva Linux ,
, .


- Mandrakelinux ( h t t p : //www.
mandrakelinux.com/ru/hardware.php3).

: Mandriva Linux
, / Mandriva Linux. Mandriva ,
.
USB: USB 1.x USB
2.0.
Linux-USB device
overview (http://www.qbik.ch/usb/devices/). - Linux USB ( h t t p : //www. l i n u x - u s b . org).

12

3. DrakX
3.1. Mandriva Linux
DrakX, , GNU/Linux:
. DrakX
Mandriva Linux.

DrakX ,

. , , -
, DrakX
Mandriva Linux.

'

: /

'.:.. / .

>

'

Press <*
X > for more options

Press <i

to install of upgrade

Cre Mandriva Linux

3-1.
,
. . - , ,
" ", . 14.

3. DrakX

3.1.1.

(. . 3-3). , . : ,
.
, . ,
. , !

3.1.2.
- , F1
(. . 3-1). (. 3-2). , :
Ueic

t M a mIrlva

Linux

inst 11 help

In Most casas, the best way to (jot st art e d is to s irij)ly press the <Enter> key.
I f you experience probletis with si aridard insta11, try one of t he to 1 iowing
ext and pres s <Enter>):
insta 11 types (type the high 1 i girted t

vgalo for low reso lut ion graphica 1 in s t a l l a t i o n


text for text inst u1 let ion i nstead of t h e jjre phica1 one.
I inux for st andrtrit raphtea I i nstalia 1 ion at i tor1 resoIut ion.

To repair an a 1 ready insttt1led s;js l typ a rescue! f 1 lowed


by <Enter>.
Yuu can also pass S U M H <spHci f ic kernel opt ions> to the Linux kernel,
Knr 1, try linux noapic it' s y s t e H has t r o u b l e opera ting
your network adapter r.orrectly.
HOTK: Yuu cannot pass opt ions Io M o d u l e s (SCSI,*theinet u a r d ) 0 deui r.es;
such as f'D-HUH (frizes in th is w<\ij. If y o u need to do s o , u s e n Oiutt nod .
IFl-Help] [F2-flduanced Hlpl EF3 M.t inj
boot : __

3-2.

14

3. DrakX
vgalo: (. . 3-3), . . Mandriva
Linux , . ,
vgalo.
t e x t : , .. , " ".
: .
noauto: PC "" . , noauto ,
. DrakX
. , , . noauto
,
: vgalo noauto DrakX'oM.
:
BIOS ,
.
RAM, PC, mem=xxxM. , 256 ,
l i n u x mem=256M.

15

3. DrakX

3.2.

Nederlands
Norsk, Bokmal
Norsk, Nynorsk
Occrtan
PlatduUtsch
Polski
Portugues
Romana

3-3.
, , . ,
.
, Multi languages,
, ,
, . ,
, , - .

16

3. DrakX
UTF-8 (unicode, ): Unicode - ,
.
GNU/Linux .
UTF-8 Mandriva Linux
:
1. ( latinl, , , , , , , iso-8859-2), .
2. Unicode.
3. ,
,
Unicode.
4. , ,
Unicode
Unicode, ,
.
, . ,
. , , , .. ,
, , .. , ,
.

,
, l o c a l e d r a k e root.
.

17

3. DrakX

3.3.

* , * t * MandtlVo LinUX
' 1
^ , , ,


, i* . MMixetco .
MandriVB S.A., i ,
/

- cThD , ^ , 1

[
..

* . * nonwiKM ,
* *, . . ;

3-4.
, .
Mandriva Linux.
, .
.
,
,
.

3.4.
, GNU/Lin .

18

3. DrakX

; [* Mendrtva Linux release 2006.0 (Cooker)]


'"'

3-5.
DrakX , - Mandriva Linux:

,
Mandriva Linux.
.
.

, , ( , /home).
,
.

"" Mandriva Linux 10 .1 .


.

19

3. DrakX

3.5.
,
- .
.

3-6.
(. . " ", . 16) DrakX ,
, .
, : , , -,
. , -, ,
,
. ,
.
, .

20

3. DrakX
, ,
.

3.6.

, * * >> 6w

: ,
# / -

; > *
. .

:
.

3-7.
DrakX . , , .

.
, .
draksec Mandriva Linux.
, . , .

2 3, 1489

22

3. DrakX

3.7.

:
)

we

! Windows

.
^

;
'

3-8.
,
Mandriva Linux. , .. , Mandriva Linux.


, . , DrakX , .
, , ,
, .
, :


, .

22

3. DrakX


Linux. - .

. ,
.
Windows
Windows,
GNU/Linux. Windows (. "
") FAT NTFS. , Windows. .
,
Mandriva Linux Windows.
, , , Windows , ..
.

, ,
.
.
,
.

Windows(TM)
, Windows.
" ".
, .

23

3. DrakX

,
: , . ,

GNU/Linux. , DiskDrake, " DiskDrake", . 305.

3.8.
, Linux.

3-9.

GNU/Linux,

24

3. DrakX
. , ,
.
, ,
. , ( /, /usr /var), ,
, ( /home).
, .
.
, .
, Mandriva Linux.
, , .

3.9.
. ,
.

3.9.1.
CD, , .
,
, , ..
.

25

3. DrakX

3.9.2.

Maodriva Linux

* . : Installation Free C01. Installatio


:
Free CD2, Installation Free CD3.

3-10.
CD
Mandriva Club, . ,
1.


, .
.

2.


(URL NFS ) .

26

3. DrakX

3.9.3.

**

. \

> ()

'

'

L S B

4>

Capap
Web/FTP

KDE
G n o m e
I c e W m

tt MowTQ no Linux \*

* Z834.'975 MB

3-11.
, . Mandriva Linux ,
.
Mandriva Linux . ,
.
1. : , .
LSB , Linux Standard Base (http: //www.
linuxbase. org/).
2. : , , .
3. : . ,
.

27

3. DrakX
.
, ,
,
.
,
, - .


( ), ,
:
X: ,
.
:
.
: , Linux.
.

28

3. DrakX

3.9.4.
'"

- andriva

Pafio-

^ -^

if

ImageMagick

&

2pl

dia

dump

enscript

foomatic-db

riokajunaib

' OpenOffic

: ^

OpenOffice.org is an Open Source.


community-developed, multi-plntfotm office i
productivity si^ite It includes tlip k^y desktop i
applications, such as a word processor,
spreadsheet, presentation manager.
forumula editing and drawing program, with a '
office suites. Sophisticated and flexible,
OpenOffice org also works transparently ith
a variety of file formats, including Microsoft
Office Languages available in
: 339/675 MB

3-12.
, , ,
. , .
, , ,

(
),
, ,
. Mandriva Linux
()
. , ,
Mandriva Linux.
, ,
, .

29

3. DrakX

. , .
,
. ,
, .

. , , . ,
,
.

3.10. root

(root)

3-13. root
GNU/Linux:
r o o t . Root - ,
, ,
, .. , r o o t -

30

3. DrakX
! , :
DrakX , .
, . ,
GNU/Linux . .. root , , root .
- 8
. r o o t - .
: ,
!

, .
, . :
.
. .
LDAP. LDAP . LDAP
.
NIS. NIS.
NIS
.
-. SmartCard .
Windows. Windows
Active Directory, LDAP Microsoft.
, ,
, .
, .

31

3. DrakX

3.11.
CP**M[antJriv3 ;-


* turn
*

* fc* arias noct (,


* P*>f

* I Queen Pingusa
Login name


* ,

jqueen

* iowpai! ;

3Hflt

* 1*
* *

) ]

; ].

3-14.
GNU/Linux - , , , .. ,
root, , ,
, -,
, , .
,
r o o t , !
, . , ,
, - ,
.
. DrakX ( ),
, . . -
. (-

32

3. DrakX
) , r o o t , ,
, :
.
. , , ..


( bash) (ID) .

3.12.

> [ iMBRJj

) **
) !.
4

3-15.
- , . . DrakX
, :

33

3. DrakX
Windows,
GRUB/LILO. , GNU/Linux, .
, .
(MBR).
. , , .

3.13.
3.13.1.

!
: |

>
'.

' - '

! / -

- Europe/Kiev

- PS/2 & USB

| . j

1 : ;

* 1024x766 24

':

* - ethemet

I : ;

3-16.
DrakX . ,
,
.
- .

34

3. DrakX
: , , .
/ : .
, DrakX, .
, ,
.
: DrakX
. , .
: , , .
:
" PrinterDrake", . 240,
, . , , ,
.
: ,
. , ,
, .
-: -, . ,
, ,
.
: DrakX ,
. , DrakX ( ),
.
: ,
. Mandriva Linux
: HTTP FTP, ,
, -.
: , (. " ",
. 21).
: , , . "

35

3. DrakX
DrakFirewall", . 324,
.
: . Mandriva Linux .
: , . ,
.

3.13.2.
, .
,
.
GMT. GNU/Linux (GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) .
, , GMT, GNU/Linux'y ,

,
. ,
, . , ,
. , .

36

3. DrakX

3.13.3. X,
1 fry

ilci

* **

Intel 945

1280x1024 @ 76 Hz

* !t-a

1024?6624

pHGimm
* Ft^poAb tpotope

* .

3-17. X,
X (. X Window) - GNU/Linux,
(KDE, GNOME, AfterStep, WindowMaker
..), Mandriva Linux.
, .

, , .
, .

,
, .

37

3. DrakX

, .
( ).
.

, DrakX
. , ,
12 , .
, .


, , .

38

3. DrakX

3.13.4. ,
inn '/>

,
*

""
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Kpl
dm

*!

1 c"ctinj(NFS .SMB(LanManegefy
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NCP (NetWare).

mdadm
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netplugd
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>
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18 19 HI

3-18. ,
,
.
DrakX , . , .

.
, , ,
.

,
:
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, , .

39

3. DrakX

3.14.

___

>.

e c u JMO *.

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- -

,. - ,6 | 0 . 1 ..
.

3-19.
Mandriva Linux , . ,
. , ,
, , .
-,
. .

.

40

3. DrakX

3.15. !

. .

'^
* tuuui

>1*, 11 ~1. )!

*
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(Errata>. ;

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nstall

1 Man-driva Linux.

* *

*
*

* * /;

Cnpaim

j 1 .

! j :

3-20. !
. GNU/Linux .

(CD-ROM ). , , , .

3.15.1.
:
1. :
, ,
, .
,
:
.

41

3. DrakX
. , .
. . -
Auto install (http://qa.mand.riva. com/twiki/bin/view/Main/AutoInstall)
1

2. : ,
.
:
, .
,
, . . ,
. , , : .

3.16. Linux
- Mandriva Linux,
. Mandriva Linux :


. , ,
,
.
1.

( - LILO)
(MBR). root'oM l i l o -U.
LILO,
, .
, , , , .

2.

, Mandriva
Linux ( ext3 swap),
() f d i s k

1. , FAT.
GNU/Linux mformat : root'oM fdformat /dev/fdO, a
mkfs.vfat /dev/fdO.

42

a.

3. DmkX
root.

b.

f disk /dev/hda (
Mandriva Linux I IDE-, /dev/hda).

c.

, ,
d, .

d.

, ,
1 , , , L, , ,
. : FAT32 (Windows 9x), 7 NTFS
(Windows NT/Windows 2000/XP), 83 GNU/Linux. w.

,
" ".

43

4. Linux Windows Mac OSX


, Windows Mac OSX.

,
Windows Mac OSX.

4.1. ...?
Windows Mac OSX / , GNU/Linux .

4.1.1.
Windows
; - ,
, : ,
, Mac OSX, Mandriva Linux'a
Apple,
, , Finder.

4.1.2.
GNU/Linux
Windows. Mandriva Linux ,
, .
: PNG, Rich Text, PostScript-
. , ..
,
/ .
, Microsoft Excel Microsoft Word. OpenOffice.org - ,
(. " ", . 117, " ", . 125).

45

4. Linux Window^ Mac OS&X


, . .. ,

Windows GNU/Linux. , GNU/Linux-
, Windows Mac OSX. GIMU/Linux-
Windows, , ,
(http://linuxshop.ru/linuxbegin/win-lin-soft/table.shtml).
Mac OSX Mac OSX
GNU/Linux, Mac OSX BSD- UN IX- ,
GNU/Linux. , -,
Mac OSX.

RpmDrake (, "
Rpmdmke", . 217).

4.1.3. /
Windows Mac OSX
Mandriva Linux Mandriva Linux.
+^
> . , .

4.1.4.
GNU/Linux . Windows , Mac OS.
Mandriva Linux bash -
. , ++.

DOS Linux.
,
.

46

4. Linux Windows? Mac OSX

4.1.5.
GNU/Linux TCP/IP, SMB (
Windows), , . LinNeighborhood.
Konqueror . smb: /
, Windows .
. " ",
. 144.

4.1.6. :
" " - , Windows.
UNIX ( :, D :, ..., Z :) " ". .

, "" , ,
, /mnt/.
, Mac OSX, - . , GNU/Linux /mnt, Mac OSX /Volumes,
Finder'e " ".

4.1.7. CD/DVD
, :. CD-ROM'bi
/mnt/cdrom/. CD-ROM
CD-ROM'a.

CD : CD
CD . " ", . 147.

4.1.8. (, USB- ..)


CD-ROM'aMH , USB
/mnt.
, ; media .

47

4. Linux Windows Mac OS&X

4.1.9.
Mandriva Linux , : . , Peter /home/peter.
Windows Mydocuments.
C:\Winnt\Profiles\
user_name\ : \Documents and Settings\user_name\ Windows, " KDE", . 63.
Mac OSX . - /Users/user_name,
Documents.

4.2. !
, GNU/Linux, ,
GNU/Linux.

4.2.1.
GNU/Linux, Mac OSX, UNIX.
- , . ,
. ,
, ( ) , ( )
.

4.2.2.
GNU/Linux - .

4.2.3.

. ,
, ,
.

48

4. Linux Windows Mac OSX

4.2.4.
GNU/Linux !
,
.
: , , -
,
.
Freshmeat (http://
themes. freshmeat. net/).

4.2.5.
, GNU/Linux . , , ! Mandriva Linux
, .
, GNU/Linux.
GNU/Linux ,
- " ".

4.2.6. !
Windows Mac OS ( Mac OSX)
, . GNU/Linux
, . "",
. : .
, GNU/Linux.
Windows (
)
IBM's RedBook: Linux Client Migration Cookbook (http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/
abstracts/sg246380. html). He !

49

5. Linux
5.1.
GNU/Linux.
, , KDE, ,
Mandriva Linux , . - !
.

Windows Mac OS,


" Linux Window^ Mac OSX", . 45,
GNU/Linux.

5.2.
, Mandriva Linux,
. GN U/Linux , .
. linux Mandriva
Linux, ,
-. Enter, Mandriva Linux. ,
Enter.

5.3.
GNU/Linux . ,

. .
, .
" " " ".
. ,

51

5. Linux
, 1 .
2. ,
"".
, , . ,
, .

, . ,
.

5.4.
, Mandriva
Linux,
. , ,
- :
Mandriva Linux release 2006.0 for i586
Kernel 2.6.12-8mdk on an i686 / ttyl
_ login:

; , .
" ". s t a r t x , ( KDE, . " KDE", . 63).
, , " -",
. 354. , " ", . 231.
, (. . 5-1).

1. - - ;
/ (. ).
2. .. (. ).

52

5. Linux

localhost
:^
"

1
UC*Mandrive Linux ;

10 19:54

5-1.
Mandriva Linux , .
(. " ", . 327).
, .. , ,
, , ,
.

5.5.
5.5.1. Mandriva Linux
, , .. , .

3 . 1489

53

5. Linux

5-2. KDE

1. .
( ).
.
.
2. .
, , -, .
( ).
3. , - , , . (.. , ). ,
,
.

5.5.2.
V> , , .
, .

54

5. Linux

5.5.3.
,
:

;| > : j &/home/jack
) i>New^I&Translate.iUiLinux^ BjForumz, iWarez^&Hack,BJjjlMuzic,^-,,!^Web Dezign^

U J *&kooker
.:- f-lg'5dccuments
j +!Downloads
' f & i m g z
| fQtmp
Si fulTranslate
ii t-Svmware

Desktop

Downloa
ds

Translate

larchl

documen
ts

imgz

tmp

vmware

get_
cooker.sh

mdk_
mirrors

mdk_
mirrors.,.

iK

cooker

webZ

P
|0|13 - 3 ( 18.9 ) 10

5-3. KDE
Konqueror
,
root.

5.5.4.
,
. .
,
,
. " .", .
65.
, 2.
1, .

55

5. Linux
, , .
.
.
. ,
, , 2, - ..

. ,
.

5.6. ( )
,
.
,
.
.
.
: ( ) ( ).
Reset, ..

56

6.
, Mandriva Linux,
. ,
.

6.1. Mandriva Linux


6.1.1. Mandriva
, , .

(http://www.mandrivalinux.com/ru/fdoc.php3).

Mandriva Linux mandriva-doc-ru.
: +-> Mandriva
Linux .

6.1.2. -
;
-, GNU/Linux, .
- .
-
Mandriva Linux (http://www.mandrivalinux.com/).
(http: //mandrivaexpert. com).

- Mandrake Community Twiki (http://mandrake.vmlinuz.ca/bin/view/Main/
WebHome). , Mandriva Linux.
6.1.2.1. Mandriva Club
- Mandriva Linux, , ,
Mandriva Club (http://mandrivaclub.com/). Mandriva Linux. , , Mandriva Linux GNU/Linux.
Mandriva Linux. ,
.

57

6.
, :
Mandriva Club (http://kb.mcindrivaclub.com/) -
Mandriva Linux. , , , Mandriva Linux.
, Mandriva Linux. .
,
.
,
shell, X - GNU/Linux.

6.1.2.2. Mandriva
- Mandriva (http: //www .mandriva. com/security/) Mandriva, .

6.1.2.3. Mandriva
- Mandriva GNU/Linux Open
Source. - (http: //campus .mandriva. com),
Mandriva Club. Samba.

6.2. GNU/Linux
, Mandriva Linux,
.

6.2.1. /usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc, .
Mandriva Linux ( ) /usr/share/
doc/mandriva/.

58

6.

6.2.2. -
6.2.2.1. -,
Security Focus (http: //www. securityf ocus. com/)

, Mandriva Linux.
Linux Security (http: //www. linuxsecurity. com/)
Linux'y , , : , , ..
(http: //www. linuxsecurity. com/docs) .
Linux dot com (http: //www. linux. com)
, . , , . HOWTO (http://howtos.linux. com/).

6.2.2.2. - Linux
- ,
:
Linux Online! (http: //www. linux. org/)
, Linux,
.
Freshmeat (http: //f reshmeat. net/)
, , Linux.
Linux Weekly News (http://www.lwn.net/)
Linux. :
,
, ( ).
, , . , .
, . Google -

59

6.

GNU/Linux- , Linux ( h t t p :
//www.google.com/linux).

6.2.3.
( "man pages") - , GNU/Linux.
" "
(. " ", . 381).
,
, .

shell. .
,
.
.
: , (2) fstab(5) open 2 f s t a b 5.

\ I ^
~~~~~ . Konqueror man: /man

man.
, fstab(5),
: man: /fstab (5).
( shell'e), man. :
man [] [] < >

man , man
man. ,
l e s s .

. ( . SEE ALSO).
, ,
Linux: ls(l), chmod(l) .

60

6.
(, mknod , mknod), , . : man
2 mknod. , man -a mknod mknod.

6.2.4. Info
info , .
info info.
Info ,
dir. info.
info : , ;
, ( ). :
info emacs

info :
Buffers::

. (
/ ) Enter
info.
:
: . Up (), ;
: . Next (), info
;
: . Prev (), info;
q: . Quit (), info.
, ?.
I info Konqueror,
~~" URL info: /. , info make,
* N : info: /make.
info.

61

6.

6.2.5. HOWTO
HOWTO, Linux (TLDP, The
Linux Documentation Project), . (
howto-html-en), HOWTO
.
/usr/share/doc/HOWTO/HTML/en/. HTML-, -.
. ,
: > Howtos .
, HOWTO ( ). , . :
(NET-3-H0WT0), (Sound-HOWTO), CD (CD-Writing-HOWTO), NIS NFS .

HOWTO
(.. , ), . . HOWTO, : Linux .
- , :
", " , IT
:
!

HOWTO - TLDP (http://www.tldp.org/)


, , - . : H0WT0, (http://www.tldp.
org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/categories.html) FAQ'n (http://www.tldp.
org/docs ,html#f aq).

62

7. KDE
7.1. Desktop Environment
( Desktop Environment, KDE)
. ,
, KDE .
KDE ,
,
.

7.1.1.

7-1. KDE
KDE
,
. , Windows: (.
" ", . 65).

63

7. KDE
KDE.

GNU/Linux.
, , , ,
- .. "",
.
, ,
.
. . UN IX (Mandriva Linux ) , /home/user_name.
. ( Windows). , , ,
("" ),
.
' ! .
, , , .
media ,
: , , ZIP/JAZ,
USB- .
.

7.1.2.

7-2. KDE
- , 1 :
1. ,
.

64

7. KDE
^ . ,
. Windows. , .
.
.
. , ,
, , .

.
", , ". .
" ", . 65.
Kat. . , " ",
. 67 .

7.1.3.
. ,
- , , ,
.
KDE, ,
.
!

7.2.
7.2.1.
++KDE+LookNFeel>. -

65

7. KDE
. , , .

! '

"
IKDE 1

IKDE2

iBiKeramik Emerald
,.

...

KDE

7-3. KDE
; ,
(, ), , .
; . , .

.
.

66

7. KDE
: '.
-
:

i Blue-bend

-:

. ,.

"<

: |
... j
:

: i

' [

QK

i : !

7-4. KDE
++KDE+LookNFeel, . ,
, .
, , .

,
.
, .

7.3.
Kat - , , , , ,
. ,

67

7. KDE
PDF, . Kat : ,
,

Kat, ++>
Kat.

f *

2.957 16.07 201

02:09:27

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html

text/htm I

4,348 16.07.2004

02:08:27

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html

text/html

2.944 16.07.2004

02:08:27

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hi ml

texl;html

3,049 tS.07.2004

02:08:27

\ -'^copyright, html

html

text/html

2.369 16.07 2004

02:08:27

html

text-Tit ml

.4,86) 16.07,2004.

02:00:28

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text/hi ml

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'

7-5. Kat
1.


(Launch Wizard), . Helper Programs. , Mandriva Linux (. " Rpmdrake"', . 217).

2.


> Kat , .

&

/usr/share/
doc, ,
, .

3.

,
Kat.
4.

68

7. KDE
Kat,
.

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[-


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bash history ext plain

35.853 28 09 2005

14:07:59

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7.4. KDE
KDE KDE. ,
-* KDE.

69

7. KDE

| _

t\

.Si

-: --


KDE


^

[jKioslaves
^ Konqueror

.
[.^ Unix
|. .^ Info
DE:
[.^


KDE
:
3.2 (2003-10-19)
Copyright 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 KDE
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it 1
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or fat your

option) any later version.

KDE
^ KDE

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but |


WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of R

7-7. KDE
KDE - :
,
.
, Konqueror:
. ,
, .. "" . : CtrlHome.
. "" .
: 1<:-_.
. "" KDE . : 11-_.
. . : Ctrl-P.

70

7. KDE
- KDE (http:
//kde.org/documentation/), ,
Desktop Environment.

7.5. KDE
KDE .
,
, ,
.

, , KDE
KDE'uiHbie .

, .
KDE ,
. ,
( +++^ ), , , .
KDE.

71

8. GNOME
GNOME,
. KDE,
, , , . GNOME KDE (
, ). ,
GNOME KDE . ,
( , , GNOME).

8.1. GNOME
GNOME, , , . 8-1.

8-1. GNOME
, ( ).
, .

73

8. GNOME

. Nautilus
(/home/queen).
CD-ROM. Nautilus CD-ROM,
CD-ROM . ,
-CD . ,
: Nautilus
-CD.
Floppy . Nautilus ,
. ,
.
Trash ( ). ,
. ,
, Nautilus.
(, GNOME),
, .

8-1. GNOME
, , -
. , , :
, ;
, ;
, ;
-, GNOME Mozilla (- ).
,
. ,
, , (
).

8.1.1. GNOME
, 9 .

74

8. GNOME

Or MandrakeLinux

Mandriva ,
. GNOME. ,

Mandriva GNOME.
,
,
GNOME.
,
GNOME.

.
Help GNOME Help Browser,
GNOME Desktop,
,
Info.
- Galeon, ,
Tab,
-
Mandriva Linux Control Center,
Mandriva Linux.
Evolution, ,
,
.

16:08

,
. .
, ,
.

(. " ", . 80),
, .

8-2. GNOME

75

8. GNOME
: .
,

8-2. GNOME
, , GNOME The GIMP,
. 4
(workspace). , , - . "" , , . "
", . 80.

8.1.2.
, "" , : Desktop Background ( ). - ( , ) CD-ROM,
. ( Nautilus), ( ), (. "
GNOME", . 74, . GNOME). , ..

8.2. GNOME
8.2.1.
, GNOME,
, , , ( ) ,
.
, .

76

8. GNOME

:
:
:
: /home/peter/Documents
:

* ...

:
*

8-3.
, Desktop Background, -
, , (New Launcher). ,
. , ,
. , , (Icon).
:
;
;

8.2.2.
: , , .
GNOME Panel Manual (
).
:

77

8. GNOME
,
.
, ,
- ,
, , .
, .
,
. , (
) .
, . , .. .
( (Corner), (Edge),
(Floating) (Sliding) ) ! ,
, 1. :
I
:

: (24 )


G

I * |

8-4.
, (Autohide) , .
1. , , ... :
,
.

78

8. GNOME
. , .
8.2.2.1.
,
GNOME, , , , .
,
" ", . 77.

GNOME , , ( !). ,
Mandrake.

, ,
... ,
, ,
. ,
, , .
, GNOME . , GNOME
( , ).

,
. ,
. , -
, .

79

8. GNOME

S-l

ru

GKB Keyboard Switcher


, . , ,
, ,
. ( ) , . .
, .
, ,
, (,
). , ,
,
. ,
-, , .
, / u s r / s b i n / l o c a l e d r a k e .

, , ,
... , , .
,
+ .

Xkill , . Xkill (+).


.

8.2.3.
,
(,

80

8. GNOME
" ", " ",
. 65). , , , , , , .. 4
, , .
( / ). 8-,
.

Q

,

|l

i i
1
2

| ] '[ :

8-5.
:
N, " N " - .
, .
, , GNOME Help Browser.

8.3.
GNOME. , GNOME , GNOME Desktop. - , .
GNOME Help Browser
GNOME, (man pages) info. man
pages. , . Info
, GNU, () Emacs.

81

8.

GNOME

, , GNOME . - GNOME
( h t t p : //www. gnome. org/) !

82

9.

9.1.

KMail
Kontact, Akregator - RSS.
,
.

83

9.

9.1.1. KMail
9.1.1.1. KMail
(>

| |
<

KMail 1.8.2
KMail - KDE,
, MIME.
5MTP.PQP3nlMAP,
KMail

KMail
KMai

KMail (no KMail 1.7.
KDE 3 3):
:
, ..
*

/ "osdn-list"

9-1. KMail
KMail >> Mail.
KMail Kontact
. > KMail, . 1 . KMail
,
(, ..).
, e-mail.
,
: "Reply-To", GPG
.. , , .
1. , (, ).

84

9.
" .
, 2.
: POP

: "

8:

PeterPingusWorkMail

[peter

:
:
:

j""**
jpop.pingusland.com
1110

ix POP

*
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: i
:

_Snpaeica j

. __ QK

| _ OIHOHS

9-2.
, -
IP- -.
, ISP.
POP,
(. . 9-2)3.
-, . , ,
, .
2. , .. ISP
. , , IMAP
(Internet Mail Access Protocol), .
3. , ,
.

4 3. 1489

85

9.
(., DSL
), ,
KMail .

: SMTP
. i
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jsmtp.myisp.net

|25

"

'

QK

9-3.
SMTP . , - SMTP
IP- (. . 9-3).

. , ISP
.

86

9.
9.1.1.2. KMail
$. ||

: Peter Pingus <peteK>pingus.net>


: dxtearn@iefox.nel
:

2O05-0S-27 17 27

, .
. Peter PinguB.
- Mandnva Linux,
Mandriva - Queen Pingusa.

, , .

Windows ,
,
, Peter Pingus.

9-4. KMail
. . . . 9-1.
. (, ,
..) , .
.
.
. . ( ), ( ), (
), ( ) ( ).
Kontact. Kontact (. "Akregator"', . 93).
,
KMail, .

87

9.

US'

0
0
0

Ctrl-N

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. ,
;
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.

.

.

( )
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9-1. KMail
.
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182

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185

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188

15.
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189

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204

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208

16. Mandriva
Linux
16.1. MCC
Mandriva Linux (MCC) , .
Mandriva Linux (+>
).

Mandriva Linux drakconf.

} Mandriva Linux

,

|


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209

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. . " ", . 212.
^. .
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. ,

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. 238

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240
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" ", . 255

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"
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210

" MenuDmke", .
275

16. Mandriva Linux


:
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.
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.
" ,
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" ,
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" ", .
282
"
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"
", .293
DrakAuth
,
.
Mandriva Linux.

"
DiskDrake", . 305
" ", . 310
" NFS-", . 314
" SMB-", . 311
" WebDAV", . 316.

WebDAV.
"
", . 314

"
DrakSec", . 319.
Mandriva Linux.

222

16. Mandriva Linux


"DrakPerm: ",
. 322.
Mandriva Linux.
"
DrakFirewall", . 324

" ", . 327


" ", . 328
" ", . 329

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drakwizard, . ,
.
,
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. , : , , ..
(. " , ", . 279).

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212

16. Mandriva Linux

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213

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jlinux

i/boot/vmlinuz

iresume=dev/sda5 splash=silent
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Initrd

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j/boot/initrd.img

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drakboot. ,
.

16.3. Drakbug
Mandriva Linux, Drakbug .

Drakbug, , Drakbug
(http://qa.mandriva.com/createaccount.cgi).
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Mandriva Linux. Drakbug Mandriva
Linux.

214

16. Mandriva Linux


Mandriva Linux release 2006.0 (Cooker) for i586

Mandriva: j Mandriva Unux



,
.
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215

17. Rpmdrake
Mandriva Linux RPM
,
. urpmi .
Rpmdrake - Mandriva Linux
.
Rpmdrake , ++
Mandriva Linux (. . 17-1).

^gPPJ Mandriva Linux


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Rpmdrake Mandriva Linux.

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Rpmdrake .
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217

17. Rpmdrake


: :

Mandriva Linux
,

'

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D crack-attack-music-l-3mdk
crack-attack-sounds-l-3mdk

: frozen-bubble
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: i586
: 11824
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: 14 / : 3987

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. , .
.

17.1.1.
, . 17-2.
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, (Frozen Bubble
arcade game) (Full-featured, colorful animated penguin eyecandy...).

218

17. Rpmdrake
( synthesis, hdlist,
Mandriva Linux), , .
, , .
,
, . , ,
,

Rpmdrake ,
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( , , ,
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).
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229

17. Rpmdrake

:
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libSDL_netl .2-1.2.5-4mdk, libSDLJtf2.0-2.0 7-lmdk,
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php-cli-4.3 B-3mdk

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,

17.1.2.
- , - , ,
.
: ( ) . ,

220

17. Rpmdrake
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). ( ), , Rpmdrake'oM
.
:
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, , Mandriva Linux.
, ,
,
, .
,
, (., , , ..).
,
, ( , - ).
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,
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Mandriva ;
" Mandriva Online", . 331.

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.
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17. Rpmdrake
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223

17. Rpmdrake
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224

17. Rpmdrake
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Installation CD3 (cdrom3)

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17-7. Rpmdrake

225

17. Rpmdrake
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.

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226

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.
,
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,
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.
,
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, , ,
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,
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227

18.

18.1.
18.1.1.
HardDrake GNU/Linux .

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, GNU/Linux.
. HardDrake
.
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HardDrake "ldetect", ,
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: root'oM harddrake2.
HardDrake'y ( harddrake2 -h ).
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229

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(. 18-1).
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18.1.2. /
, , HardDrake,
Mandriva Linux {"
Drakbug", . 214).
HardDrake - ISA. ISA -, s n d c o n f i g a l s a c o n f .
sndconf ig a l s a - u t i l s .

18.2.
. , .
, .


( ), root'
XFdrake. , ,
" ", . 234,
.
Mandriva Linux:

231

18.

18.2.1.

?

1

! j

Piug'tiPlay

1024x768 @ 60 Hz
1024x768 @ 70 Hz
1280x1024 @ 60 Hz
1280x1024 @ 74 Hz
1280x1024 @ 76 Hz
1400x1050

18-2.
I
. , ,^~;~J
(. . 18-2).
, Plug'n'Play
.
, .
,
, .

232

18.

18.2.2.

'


(: NVIDIA GeForce FX (generic))

1280x1024
16 (24 )

,|

OK .

18-3. 1
(800x600,
1024x768 ..) . . ,
SS2H
(. . 18-3). , .

, .

. , . ,
4 : 3
.

233

18.

18.2.3.

NVIDIA GeForce FX (...


Hansol Electronics M...
1152x864 24bpp

18-4. XFdrake
,
root'oM XFdrake. , . 18-4.
. :

, .
: - . , .
, , ,
, Xorg.

, .
18-2.

234

18.


. 18-3.
KDE,
, ++vKRandRTray.
GNOME'OM, Screen Resolution Preferences,
++GNOME>
.
, .
.
:
. , . , ,
, . ,
XFdrake.
,
. . ,
,
" ", . 347, XFdrake.
. .
, .
.
. - , , a XFdrake ,
. . , . , .
,
.

235

18.

18.3. - DrakxTV
-,

,
Mandriva Linux, Hardware Compatibility ( h t t p :
//www.mandrivalinux.com/ru/hardware.php3) BTTV ( h t t p :
//linux.bytesex.org/v412/bttv.html/).

.
DrakxTV , xawtv
- btxxx saa71xx.

,
, .

236

18.
<

Cj

- bttv ApaGNU/Linux * ^
| , >
| . , -

>

SKNet

[> Terrata:
:

. ' .

'

'

. -

>

Tevion

>

Philips

|> SHARP
t> Samsung

> Tfemic

' ;

OK

18-5. -
, -,
(. 18-5).
. ,
, DrakxTV .

237

18.
Qtvtm

.
?
8 :

j SEC AM

: ; jack

18-6.
DrakxTV
, . ,
xawtv, .
OK, DrakxTV . ,
xawtv. ,
Mandriva Linux: kdetv, tvtime zapping.

18.4.

, ,
, .

238

18.

*
, .
| (QWERTZ)

()
()
()
Internet Keyboard Pro, Swedish
Natural
Natural Keyboard Pro OEM
Natural Keyboard Pro USB / Microsoft Internet Keyboard Pro

18-7.
,
. 18-7. , , . Generic.
.

,

.

18.5.
, ,
, .

Synaptics . Wacom.

239

18.

, .
> PS/2
> USB
busmouse

Synaptics Tcxichpad
PS/2 USB
i>
i>

OK

18-8.

(. . 18-8). .
.

PS/2 & USB .

18.6. PrinterDrake
:

;
,
;
, ( GNU/Linux, Windows).

240

18.
I ^ ,
Mandriva Linux, , , ,
.

18.6.1.
PrinterDrake :
18.6.1.1. .

I There are no printers found which are directly connected to


| your machine (Make sure that all your printers are connected
I and turned on).
j Do you want to enable printing on printers in the local
j network?
NOTE: Depending on the printer model and the printing
system up to 80 MB of additional software will be installed.

II

Quit

jj

Yfes

18-9.

, . .

242

18. o6opxjdoeaHua
1 CUPS :
1 . CUPS .
, CUPS
. .
: ,
CUPS ,
1 tPP ( 6 3 1 ) .
| 2 . CUPS.
; . CUPS
\ ,
\ , .

! ,

CUPS

, IP :

18-10.

CUPS,
,
, , .
, (. . 18-12).
.
,
, CUPS. ,
. IP-
( ).
(. . 18-12). .

18.6.1.2.
PrinterDrake , .

242

18.
The following new printer was found and printerdrake can automatically set it up for you. If
you do not want to have it set up, unselect it, or click "Cancel".
Note that for certain printer models additional packages need to be installed. So keep your
installation media handy,

x hp psc 1300 series on /dev/usb/lpl


!"" [Do not do automatic printer setup againj

Ok

I Cancel

18-11.
(. . 18-12). , (. " ", . 252).

18.6.1.3.
(. . 18-12). , (. "
", . 252).

18.6.2.
(. . 18-12) . - ( ), - , ( ).
, . ,
.

243

18.

CUPS
I

. .
j Def,
X

Color_printer HP DeskJet 990C #0 HP DeskJet 990C My desk

18-12.

: ,
" ", . 247.
: , .
Def .
: , " "', . 252.
:
:
, .
CUPS: ( )
.

. , , .
.

244

18.

> . " ", . 253.

18.6.3.
CUPS , .

; , , ,
| . ,
; .

^
/:

'

CUPS CUPS:

OK

j!

18-13. CUPS

, - CUPS
CUPS.

9 . 1489

245

18.
18.6.3.1.

CUPS
. ,

, .


, IP
iprlnt.enterprlse.net

OK

18-14.
., .
IP- .
, , ,

(. . 18-12).

18.6.3.2.
, ( USB-), ,
. (. . 18-13).
:

.
, /

246

18.
(. ).


, ,
, "" .
, , ,
CUPS (.
).
/
, .
CUPS
CUPS,
.
IP- CUPS-.

,
, . ,

18.6.4.
, .
18.6.4.1.
,
, SMB- (Windows).
, ( ,
, Ipd ..).

247

18.


, ,
Windows.
, , ,
, .
Windows- .
, ,
, .
/ Windows-, .
"", , "",
.

I* , Microsoft Windows
>

Ipd ( -)

18-15.
, . , (. . 18-17). ,
, .
HP
Sony,
(. "ScannerDrake", . 181). .
PrinterDrake
, .
(. . 18-16), .

248

18.


?
, Prlnterdrake
. ,
" ".
, ( ]
.

Deskjet 980C

DeskJet 990C
DeskJet 995C
PPD

18-16.
, , PPD- , PPD, .
, PPD-.

249

18.


(, "printer").
.
.

jColor_Printer
| DeskJet 990C

My desk

18-17.

, "_". 12
, \/1\/5-
Samba.

,
,
. No,
.
,
.

18.6.4.2.
(.
. 18-18). , (
, ..), .
, , .

250

18.


General
Page Size

j A4

Printout Mode

Media Source

\ Printer default

Normal (auto-detect paper type)

Double-Sided Printing | Off

18-18.
,
.

18.6.4.3.
(. . 18-19).
, , - .
.

252

18.


, , .
:
,
.
.

|{

18-19.

18.6.4.4.
,
No (. . 18-20) . .
(. . 18-12).

18.6.5.
, ,
(. . 18-20). (. " ", . 247), . , .

252

18.
Colorprinter: HP DeskJet 990C
#0 ( ), Oescr.; HP DeskJet 990C, L o c : My desk
?

, ,
,


...
,

! [

i ! I

18-20.
:
1. . , . , . , .
2. , . ,

HP,
.
3. . .
, !.

18.6.6.
:
.

253

18.
(.
. 18-16). .

. LPD,
Windows-cepBepoB, , .

PrinterDrake , .
. ,
.
, .

?
CUPS
;
.

Ipd
(TCP/Socket)
. SMB/Windows
URI
>"* (. TCP/Socket, SMB-, URI )

if

18-21.
:
.
USB- . .

254

18.
Ipd.
Ipd.
(TCP/socket). . , .
SMB/Windows 95/98/NT. , ,
SMB-, Samba- ( Samba ).
, .
URI .
(Universal Resource Identifier, URI)
. . , URI .
,
(4000 4 ) . , , -,
.
.

18.7.
(Uninterruptable Power Supply, UPS)
- , . ,
, UPS ( 10 ),
,
, .
DrakUPS, Mandriva Linux .
nut-server ("nut" Network UPS
Tool).

255

18.

UPS

UPS.
UPS .

.;

18-22. DrakUPS
DrakUPS'y UPS.
, . .
U PS .

256

18.

- * S

UPS

"

'

"

UPS
UPS.
/ : j Back-UPS ES/CyberFort 350

18-23.
, 1 .

1. . , , , .

257

18.

UPS

UPS
"Back-UPS ES/Cyberfort 350* UPS '""
, , .
: jmyups
: Ihidups
:

IttySO / COM1

' . . ' . . '

i I

18-24. ,
, UPS
.

258

19.

19.1.

, , .
, DrakFirewall. , , " DrakFirewall",
. 324.
drakconnect , .
drakconnect, Mandriva Linux
. . 19-1. ,
, " ", . 269.

! Mandriva Linux
?\ *
W *

^
jit'


(LAN. ISDN. AC

*<

( j - j ,

19-1. DrakConnect

19.1.1.

259

19.
. -.
gj* , "*"
. , ISP , .

19.1.1.1.
.
(network interface card, NIC) ;
, , .
NIC.
,
( IP (BOOTP/DHCP)) ( ): , ISP . IP . 19-2.


! etho ( via-rtiine)

, IP .
\ IP-
, (. 1.2.3.4).
IP-

92.16.0.100

255 255 255 0


I

id ( )

* Network Hutplugging

| |

.,

ij j ;

19-2.

Network Hotplugging, . .
IP
, : , IP- DNS- IP- , (. . 19-3).

260

19.


; ,,
!
! , "mybox.mylab.myco.com".
IP- ,
[ DNS IP .

cookerbox

DNS 1

!51..

DNS 2

152..

DNS 3

(. 192.168.0.1) 192.168.0.1

19-3. IP- DNS


DHCP,
. zeroconf: ,
, .
, " ", . 268. ,
, .
I ~ , :
~^~" (
g^ ) (
(JL ). , ,

.

19.1.1.2.
WiFi- PCMCIA PCI.
1.

, . ,
Windows.
CD .

262

19.
2.

(. " ", . 260).

3.

. ,
.

19.1.1.3. ADSL
, ADSL-,
.
/ISP. , :
.
, - ,
, ISP.
. :
DSL CAPI. CAPI
ISDN (Common ISDN Applications Programming Interface). API ISDN, ADSL.
(DHCP). , ADSL.
, " ", . 260 ( ).
TCP/IP. ,
. ,
" ", . 260 ( ).
ATM (PPPoA). , ATM (AAL5). ADSL, USB ADSL-.
Ethernet (PPPoE). ,
Ethernet. ADSL. , .
(). Microsoft, ADSL.
, RFC.

262

19.


,

DNS () Johti..
DNS () dns2 .
( )

pe4er.pingus@entenyise.net

' '

:h

19-4. ADSL
.
DNS (. . 19-4). .

, , VPI (Virtual Path


ID) VCI (Virtual Circuit ID), .

, . .. ADSL " ",


. ,
.

19.1.1.4.

BPALogin. , , .
NIC . , , .
NIC.
, "
", . 260. , ,
ISP.

263

19.

19.1.1.5. ISDN
, ,
.

. , .

19.1.1.6.
. , , , , , . .
/ISP. ,
: ( , ) .
, .
, - ,
, ISP (. . 19-5).

Dialup:

[540000

ID

i
:

j PAP/CHAP

i
. . .

'

i l l
l

i':::::--

19-5.

264

19.
, .
, :
( ,
ISP, "expect" "send");
(
); PAP, CHAP / ( , CHAP ,
, / ).
IP, DNS . ISP ,
. ,
. ,
. , .
,
: . : ,
. , :
+ >.

19.1.1.7. DVB
.
1,

, , .

2.

(. " ", . 260).

265

19.

19.1.2.



;
:

modem

'

'

"

()

cookerbox

DNS () J213.179.244.18
DNS ()
DNS ()

195 5 6 10
J213.179.244.18

||

19-6.
, . , ,
.

266

19.

19.1.3.

Qnuvw

: ethO; Advanced Devioss|?9c970 [PCnet LANCE] * '


|: :
IP

; | DHCP

. DNS

11

172.16.1.1

IP-

: !

'

rJ

....'

: !

- ...

...

,..

. . ..

tocaktomain

| :

OK

19-7.
,
. , ,
.

.

267

19.

19.1.4.

ethO pppO

! : modem
: -

03 : 38KB i ; |

i :
: 12
! :

246's

1.6KB/S

2.3KB/S

1.5KB/S

|| :

' modem |

19-8.
. : , . (. . 19-8). ,
.

19.1.5.
.

. , , .

268

19.

19.1.6.
IP- FTP- HTTP- .
.
- - , ,
-.
, -. " -", .
. - ,
. , -. " -".
- - ,
.

19.1.7.
, .

19.2.

, .
, , , ,

269

19.

19-9.
:
1.

(" ", . 259). ,


, ,
Ethernet.

2.

3.

(" ", . 272).



.
, {'
DrakFirewall", . 324).

. , DHCP,
, , - Squid.

19.2.1.
, :
1. -

270

19.
, .
, : .
2.
Ethernet, ,
-,
, . ,
. ,
, , "", .. ,
, .
3.


IP

192.168 1 1

;255 255 255.0

fig warn, lafox net

< :.

I [[_

19-10.
, , . , ,
.
,
.
. .
4. DNS

272

19.
,
.
. ,
.
5.

DHCP
DHCP .
: IP-, ,
DNS.

6.

- (SQUID)
, . , ,
,
.
Squid.

19.2.2.
,
DHCP . DHCP, Mandriva Linux
-. Windows, GNU/Linux , DHCP.
DHCP,
, .
DHCP: Mandriva Linux ,
DHCP , . 19-11.

272

19.

; ethO:Advanced Micra Devices|79c970 [PCnet LANCE] j :


TCBIP DHCP
, IP
| ; DHCP

172.16.1.1

| |

IT:
|

(-

DNScepeepa

localdomain

', .'

OK

19-11. DHCP

273

20. ,

20.1. MenuDrake
, Mandriva Linux ,
( KDE GNOME).

( ), . MenuDrake Mandriva Linux
Control Center ++Menudrake.

root1 .
:

'.....:

| I

'

roof a

20-1. MenuDrake

- root MenuDrake :
root. , :
, ;
root, r o o t .
MenuDrake,
. (. . 20-2)
: , - ,
.

275

20. ,
']
!
--'_-"
J

rttrfl

"

"pi

*]

:
=>>

'

U'

^%

: kde

"
"
* J

"_. root1 a

|
<$
^

ip LocaleDrake ()
LocaleDrake ()

Menudrake

:
:

i /usr/bin/menudrake
'

|
J|b
)
[ ^

^ *

20-2. MenuDrake
[+], , [-], .

,
. , ,
, ,
, .

20.1.1.
, .. Mandriva
Linux . ,
, , , . , t op
>.
^
. ,
.

276

20. ,
:;
:

jtop

; ...

]:

20-3.
( " "), . ,
: top. , .
, . . 20-4.
, .

|"" '"'"''" ,
' " "
' *~
j
Hfid
>
Jk
j
rnm
4EB

"]

*
V

'

' root'a

: kde
1 "

"

"""'"'

Gkrellm
i
)

:
: .
: \ :

} X OfficeJet

top
x

XLoad
Xconsole

Xkill

f ) Xrefresh
Xtraceroute

{ \

20-4. MenuDrake
" "... ,
,
Ctrl-R ( > ). ,
.

.1489

277

20. ,
, , . ! ,
.

, .
,
.

20.1.2.
20.1.2.1.
, ,
. Mandriva Linux , .
.


:
" "

" ?" ( )
( / Gnome, )
1

20-5.
:

MenuDrake , , , .
. , Mandriva Linux ,
.

278

20. ,
?. ,
,
, , , ..
. ,
KDE GNOME. , , .
, .
, .

20.1.2.2.

.
, .
, , .

20.1.2.3.
MenuDrake drag-and-drop. , , ,
"", .. . ,
.

20.2. ,

(, , ).
.
. " : init sysv", . 473).

279

20. ,

alsa

; '\ '

atd

bluetooth

| '

crond

cups

I cups-lpd

CVS

20-6. ,
,
:
.
: , .
: ,
.
: , ,
1
. , xinetd xinetd,
.
xinetd. , xinetd.
: , .
: .
,
.
1. 3 5.

280

20. ,

20.3. ,
, DrakFont
, . .

(. . 20-7) .

DrakFont

:
malayalarn

mdk_teams

:
Regular Italic

Monospace

I Bold

New Century Schoolbook

Bold Italic

Newspaper

gj J12.0
Ji

A.

10

I11

i13

Nimbus Mono L

14

Nimbus Roman No9 L

16
18

Nimbus Sans L Condensed

i 20

Raghlndl

22

j Sans

J ; 24

| Serif

1 abcde ABCDE
!

20-7. DrakFont
drakfont , .

( ),
. , .

282

20. ,

, , . , .. . ,
.

, Mandriva Linux,
, , Windows . : t t f , p f a , pfb, pcf, pfm, gsf. ,
. ,
, .

, , . ,
. , . ,
.

20.4.
.

282

20. ,

< 2005 >

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

27

28

29

30

"

/.

>,
'

-Network Time Protocol


I


, NTP


Europe/Kiev

'; ' * Network Time Protocol



j : jntp.colocall.net

;:|.. . j | .

'

| j

20-8.
, - :
, ; . ,
, .

.
.
, , ,
, (GMT). ,
GNU/Linux, .
, ,
, .
, ,
Network Time Protocol
. , IP , .

283

20. ,
NTP (Network Time Protocol).
, .

p o o l . n t p . o r g , NTP
, .

.
, .

20.5.

""7"*"\
v ^


-, .

284

20. ,

20.5.1.

rpm

II
i

Mandriva Linux

.
^ 4-'

1.

1U

Syslog

13

14

,1

19

ill

L_.T. '^,


1 Sep 26 14:21:53 filibuster
11058 running- /bin/rpm q -qf %{name} alsa-utils
! Sep 26 14.21.56 filibuster ha;; jk^2[ 11058] atnning: /bin/rpm -q --qf %{name) gstreamer-alsa

20-9.
:
1. , (
) / , (
). .
2. ,
. .

Mandrakelinux
Mandriva Linux , Mandriva Linux Control
Center. , ,
-.

285

20. ,
3. .
.
4. .

, (*. txt).

20,5.2.
, Mandriva Linux , ,
- .

LogDrake (.
. 20-9) . . .

286

20. ,

R~t\


,

httpd

World Wide Web Apache

postfix I* Postfix
sshd

SSH

xlnetd !* Xlnetd

20-10. :
(. . 20-10) , , . .
, . :
Postfix;
Webmin;
FTP;
BIND;
World Wide Web Apache Apache;
SSH;
Samba;
Xinetd.

287

20. ,

^ ,

, , ..

. , . , . . .

20-11. :
, , (. . 20-11). ,
- ,
. , "". ,
3- .

288

20. ,

;
j
| , email
j ( IP) SMTP ,

Email address jpeter@p|ngus.net


Email server

jsmtp.myisp.net

20-12. :

, (. . 20-12). (
) .

.
.

20.6.

root.
, ! r o o t
, .
, , "
", . 381. e x i t Ctrl-D.

289

20. ,

20.7.
UserDrake
, .

. .

20.7.1.
UserDrake (. 20-13),
, .
, ,
.
<&

, _2_

j i
I D w j

20-13. UserDrake
, , .

, , ,
.

:

.
" ", . 291.

290

20. ,

.

. , , , (/home)
(mailbox).

20.7.2.
Queen Pingusa. ,
Peter Pingus. f i l e s h a r e ,
(. " ", . 314,
).
(. . 20-14).
,
.
. ,
.

292

20. ,
:

j Peter Plngus

| peter

)***

]*****

/bin/bash

*
: !/home/peter
'*
'* ID
UID:
-.,
.

J502

AS

I
I
20-14.

. . , .
20-15. .
- I
, :
j D cdrom

| cdwtiter
ctools
Q daemon
: D disk

aames
: queen

*^

20-15.
:

292

20. ,

, .

, . . , . ,
.

, .

, , .
f i l e s h a r e . , .

20.8.

,
,
. , , .
, - .

293

20. ,

20.8.1.

I i

20-16.
, Mandriva Linux. ,
.
.

294

20. ,
20.8.1.1. :

, ,
*

( )

'

20-17.
, /etc,

"" , :
, .

"" (.. , ..). , ,


,

.
, /home .
:
.

295

20. ,
/ .
. ,
.
, ( "" ). , ,
" " ,
.

20.8.1.2. :

"I

, ,

,

HaCD-R

:
.;
___

j ,

20-18.
, :


NFS .
-

296

20. ,
,

'
. ,
.

,
. ,
( ). , ,
NFS , .

( ) : , , .
(CD-R)
, , (.
. 20-19).

297

20. ,

CD-R/DVD-R

CD/DVD

i ATAPI:/dev/hdc

CD/DVD

I TOO M8

CDRW

RW- (1- ) j j

CD

DVD+RW

.-1

DVD-R

DVDRAM

"

20-19.
, CD/DVD CD/DVD. , .
, ,
I . , ( 20 30 ) ,
" "
.

298

20. ,
20.8.1.3. :


Drakbackup

:
- :
/etc
: - :
root

- : /var/llb/drakbackup
1000 MB
- CDRW : ATAPI:/dev/hdc

| - :
tar gzlp

'

20-20.
: . , ,
. , . .

299

20. ,
20.8.1.4.

>

,- ||11

.:

...


...

^........

... . . ^ . . . . - .

...


Running cdrecord

Starting to write CD/DVD at speed 24.0 In real TAO mode for single session.

OK

20-21.
, ,
( CD),
, .

, "". . , ,
, .
(. . 20-21) , : , , , , . :

300

20. ,
, .

20.8.2.

<2

'

"|

' i

"

I " "

" ' 'I

20-22.
, , ,
, .
, (. 20-22) , , .

"\

( ,
) .

301

20. ,

20.8.3.
, .
(. . 20-23) , .

setup/crontab:

145

! 23,,..

45 23 * 5 export USER-peter; /usr/sbin/drakbackup --d

1 I

"II*

j cd

' j

.
, anaci
, '' ,
j

'

20-23.
( ) . ( ), 23:45
CD. ( 1 ), ( 4:02),
( 4:22) ( 4:42).

20.8.4.
, ,
(. . 20-24).

302

20. ,

. ;

'.-,'


tar,bz2 |

.backupignore

:
SMTP :

| admin
ismtp.myisp.net

tar- .

20-24.
, : t a r ( ), t a r . gz ( g z i p ) H t a r . b z 2
(bzip2 : , ).
.backupignore,
. .backupignore , . :
.

.backupignore (* = " ") (? = "


, , "), . , -_*
, -_, a imageOO?. jpg
image001.jpg, image009.jpg,
imageOOa.jpg, imageOOh.jpg ..
, ,
. , , (, Mail Transport Agent).

303

20. ,
I ^ , ~"^

.
tar- ,
.

304

21.
21.1.
DiskDrake
. DiskDrake , , , .. DiskDrake RAID-
LVM, . , ,

DiskDrake - .
.

DiskDrake:
1. . , ZIP- ..
2. (, ) (.
" DiskDrake", . 307).

305

21.

21.1.1.

hdal

|!

:/
: h d a l
: Journalised FS: XFS
: 7.4GB (19%)

' '[

( 1i

1 :

10

21-1. DiskDrake
DiskDrake
IDE-, hda
. -
, '
. DiskDrake .
(. . 21-1) :
. . DiskDrake DiskDrake
.
. , .
. .
. . .
, , .

306

22.

21.1.2. DiskDrake

.

, :
. (, ).
(, ).
. , ,
,
.
.
, .



. , , DiskDrake ,
. , .

( , , ). .

DiskDrake.

307

21.

21.1.3.


DiskDrake. , FTP
/var/f t p , FTP. ,
.

/home (. . 21-2) . ,
.


, root'.
/home,
.

hJa
:

hda


q'--.---^.---::.::.-.:.:..

; hda6
: Journalised FS: .3

: 23GB (63%)


[,

<;

\ ' ;

21-2. /home

308

21.
, ,
. (. . 21-3),
/home. , .

MB.

21-3.
, , . /home ,
. (. . 21-4) , , (
J o u r n a l i z e d FS : ext3), ,
/var/f tp.

:
* :

* i

Journalised FS ReiserFS
Vvaptlp

OK

j .

21-4.
. 21-5 ,

11 . 1489

309

21.

Laal

hda!

;|]
~

'


.jr-:.v
-

|1|-----

/
: hda7
: Journalised FS: RelserFS
: 4.2GB (11%)

. .

21-5.
( ) .
. , /etc/f stab. , , , .
hda !

21-6.

21.2.

,
, , CD DVD. , ,

310

0
1=3

21.

CD/DVD
MOHTnpoBaHHS:/mnt/cdrom
; hdc
: auto
: user,unhide,iocharset=koi8-u,users,ro.mode=0644,noauto

.


#'! []
~

OK

- -

21-7.
:
. , .
.
, .
. , (supermount). , supermount, (user
noauto).
. . , Linux'y ,
.
, . , .
. ,
/etc/f stab. ,
: .

311

21.

21.3. SMB-


SMB- (
Windows).
,
,
,
. , Windows .

Samba
0 | | _

a filibuster
Stabletpc
user

21-8.
( ).
. t e s t o s t e r o n .

.
, , .

312

21.
, ,
,
j peter

|*
IMDVGROUP

21-9. Samba
, .
.
, .
, , ,
,
- ,
.

- filibuster
$ public (Public Stuff)
21-10.
, .
,
, .
:
. . , -

313

21.
, , .
. SMB.

, . , ,
/etc/f stab ( ). ,
. , .

21.4. NFS-
, " SMB-", . 312, ,
NFS,
SMB. NFS-. ,
, " SMB", . 312. : UNIX NFS,
a Windows SMB.
, NFS . .

21.5.


.
, GNU/Linux Windows.

324

21.

, , , . 3 , .



? " "
| konqueror nautilus.
" .



;#'

|:: !

.,.

~_J

21-11.
,
. :
.
.
.
.
.
f i l e s h a r e . , , ( 3 ) UserDrake,
(. . "
", . 290).

315

21.


NFS
SMB. , ,
.

SMB; ,
Windows, Mac OS X Unux.

;g NFS: Unix ,
Windows.

21-12.
, . :
SMB. ,
Windows-CHCTeM.
NFS. ,
1\11- ( GNU/Linux).
, . . ,
,
(. . " ", . 144).

21.6. WebDAV
WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) - -

HTTP, , ,
-.
WebDAV
,

316

22.

WebDAV (http://www.webdav.org/),
.

g^

WebDAV

WebDAV ,
-, ( , WebDAV).
WebDAV, '".

21-13. WebDAV
( ) .
, - - . ,
, . (. .
21-14).
, URL -. URL -, h t t p : // h t t p s : //, .

327

21.

g^

WebDAV

: https;//www.enterprlse.net



'"$'

[|

OK, i[

21-14. WebDAV
, -.
.
. , .
, username password
. , -
, .
,
, -.
, /etc/f stab .

318

22.
22.1.
DrakSec
draksec - msec (Mandriva Linux Security
Tool, Mandriva Linux).
msec.
msec : . ,
.

22.1.1. "
.
+ ,
Mandriva Linux.

329

22.



' : , .
,
.
: ,
, .

:
:
:

peter

22-1.
. , , , .
, , : , . , . ,
. "
", . 321.
, ,
msec'oM, ,
.

320

22.
,
,
. .

22.1.2.
( ) msec'a.
, .


'
1-

'

IPv4

IPv4

- icmp

- Icmp

promiscuity ethernet-

": '>-

:.'"./-

. .->-""'>?/--

, . " : .

,;.. -

'..;

.'-',

',:

*. . .S',<-

OK

22-2.
:
1. . .

321

22.
2. . 1 :
. , .
. , .
. .
. , , .
, , . . , , ,
.

, .

22.2. DrakPerm:
. " DrakSec", . 319
, , .
drakperm ,
:
, , ..
, msec ( Mandriva Linux Security Tool) , .
""
.

.
, Mandriva Linux.

1. .

322

22.



, msec.
,
.
: 2.
/
| |-

root

//

root

/bin/ping

root

root
root
root

4755

/bln/rpm

rpm

rpm

755

"

755
755

22-3.

, msec'oM.
/ . () (),
() .
msec ( ), ( )
, . 22-3.

,
"" . ,
.
, .

323

22.
] j/home/queen

| !

: !I

: : queen

: I queen

* I

i
;

*
'*

'

Set-GID

'

IS

Set-UID

j i

!|

OK

22-4.
, - 3 (). ,
Queen'a ,
/home/queen/.

msec ,
, .
,
.
Konqueror,
.
, ,
:

22.3.
DrakFirewall

324

22.
.
.
, .

~j^i

?
!

( )

** SSH
" FTP
'

POP IMAP

'

CUPS

Echo (ping)

j[

OK

22-5. DrakFirewall
, ( ),
,
, ,

v I > ,
""~)~- .
*
, .
:, 24300 : 24350/udp.
,
.
. -
( ), .

325

22.
, , ( ).
, , , , .
, , ,
, .

, , .
:
+ DSL-,
ethO e t h l ,
ippp-t- ISDN-.

jethO: Realtek| RTL-8139


ethO: Ftealtekl RTL-8139

||lppp+
JJPPP+

22-6. -
, -.
, (. . " ", . 266). , ,
.

326

23.

23.1.
.

,
^~ , (,
)
j peter

23-1.
:
1. : , X
Window System ( ), .
.
2. : , , , . , (, ). ,
, .

327

23.

23.2.

,
, ..
.

./J?

LILO

/dev/sda

12
!
I

APIC
Local APIC

i[

23-2.

23.2.1.
1

GRUB LILO.
Mandriva Linux, .
, , , , .. .
, 5 ,
.
, .

328

23.

ACPI
, ACPI-. ACPI , .
APIC
IO-APIC ( h t t p : //www. wlug. org. nz/APIC)
. .
Local APIC
Local APIC Linux'oM
.
.
-
Linux. . , .
, /tmp ( , , ,
) Linux,
.

23.2.2.
,
. , , (*).
, .

23.3.
,
, .
(. 23-3).

329

23.
,
"" . ,
Ctrl-Alt-Fn.

'"

|;

23-3. DrakBoot
, , . " ", . 328
.
, , .
bootsplash-themes, c o n t r i b .
.
.
. .

330

24. Mandriva Online


Mandriva
.
,
.

:
(. , . 329)
.
- (. "- ", . 334)
-
, .
(. " Mandriva Online", . 337)
.
Mandriva Online FAQ (https://online.mandriva.com/page.
php?page=inf ) Mandriva Online.

24.1.
Mandriva Online .
, Mandriva Online .
root.

331

24. Mandriva Online

Mandrakeonline


./

24-1. Mandriva Online


(
) .

332

24. Mandriva Online

Mandriva Online
Mandriva Online
;

lpeter_pingus

:
: *********
: lpeter@pingus.net

24-2. Mandriva Online


, . ,
Mandriva Online.
, . .

333

24. Mandriva Online

Mandriva Online
j , Mandriva Online,
.
Mandriva:
1) , ,
2) .

, , ''. '',
{

.
,
www.mandrivaexpert.com.

24-3.
, ,
. , .


Mandriva Online.

24.2. -
- Mandriva Online (https: //online.
mandriva. com/page .php?page=inf ),
, Mandriva Online. -, , e-mail
Mandriva Online.
, (https://my.mandriva.
com) - My Mandriva.

334

24. Mandriva Online

24.2.1.
. Registered hosts

linuxbox

i586

2006.0

Permanent

no

>

Iinuxbox64

X86_64

10.2

Permanent

no

101

I586

10.1

Permanent

no

24-4. Mandriva Online

24.2.2.
,
, details.
Registered hosts > linuxbox
:

User: fabman@mandriva.com
Host: linuxbox
Architecture: 1386

Mandriva Linux Version: 2006.0


Service Activated on: Sep 09,2005

Status:

ty

Installed packages: .See


Automatic scheduled updates: no
If you set your system to automatically schedule
updates, you wit! not be abie to exclude
packages from being updated.

Active Service until: Permanent


E-mail Alert: no
Send Alert to: fabman@mandrlva.com

Remove from Mandriva Online |


24-5. Mandriva Online
,
, , ,
:
e-mail
yes ( ),
.

335

24. Mandriva Online



yes ( ), (. " Mandriva Online", . 337), .

See Installed packages Errata(s).

24.2.3.
(. "
Mandriva Online", . 337). - , .
Registered hosts > 101
tabman@mandriva.com
101

Installed packages:

See

i566

Outdated packages:

144

Architecture:
Mandrt

User:
Host:

wiT

Activated on:
Active Service
until:

1W

S e p

Status:

schedule all outdated packages to be updated |


5

2 0 0 5

P e r m a n e r |

Automatic scheduled updates: no


' s e t system to automatically schedule updates, you will not
be able to exclude packages from being updated.

E-mail Alert: no
Send Alert to: fabman@mandrlva.com

Remove from Mandriva Online I


24-6. Mandriva Online
. , schedule all outdated packages to be updated
See Outdated packages.

336

24. Mandriva Online


Registered hosts > "101" > Erratas
bugfix
Advisory / Date
Sep 5, 2005
MDKA-2005:037

Package Mama
rpmdrake-2.1.5-13,2.101mdk.i586.rpm
fixes package rprodrak.e-2.1.3-: imak
Due to the changeover or the Mandriva domain names and theunavailablllty of the old
Mandrake Linux domains, rpmdrakeneeded an update In order to update the mirrors
list file.

Dec29,2004
MDKA-2Q04:Oao

udev-030-24.1.101mdk.iS8S.rpm
fixes package
Updated udev packages fix problem with firewlre cameras

Dec 17.2004
MDKA-2004:059

urpmi-4.5-29.1.101rndk.noareh,rpm
fixes package
Updated urprni packages fix ssh parallel support

Schedule Packages|

24-7.
( MDKA-: MDKSA-: ),
. , - . Schedule Packages.
, Mandriva Online,
.

24.3. Mandriva Online



:

. .


.

.

337

24. Mandriva Online


.
, .
, .
.
- (. " ", . 334).
.
.

. (. "
", . 331), Mandriva Online.
, ,
.

_
:
: Wed Sep 28 15:59:56
^llibuster
: four system is up-to-date

2005

24-8. Mandriva Online



Rpmdrake (. " Mandriva Linux", . 222).

(. " ", . 331).


,
, .

338

24, Mandriva Online



.
, ,
, .

339

25.

. Rfbdrake - Mandriva Linux.

25.1.
:
(Virtual Network Computing, VNC)
, ",
".
,
: TCP/IP.

, . .
"".

,
() . "" (viewer).

25.2.
, rfbdrake, Rfbdrake Mandriva Linux: ,
(Linux/Unix, Windows)1.
1. Rfbdrake + .

12 3. 1489

341

25.

25.2.1.
, Rfbdrake. ( ) :
1. , t i g h t v n c - s e r v e r .
2. ssh.
3. VNC , ,
vncserver. v n c s e r v e r
, , . , . v n c s e r v e r - k i l l :_,
VNC.
(. " ", . 343).
, (),
(linux-).
. , Rfbdrake . , , / .

(Linux/Unix, Windows)


I (linux-)
| ' (linux-)
< Windows

[ ]'

25-1.

342

25.

_1 , , ,
VNC.
VNC. ,
.
, , , tcp/5900+N, N -
VNC.

25.2.2.
, (),
(linux-).
IP- .
( 0)
, ( : 0).

(Linux/Unix, Windows)

j (llnux-)
(llnux-cepaep)
| Windows

192.168.0.200

( 0)

'


; |

25-2.

343

25.
VNC,
. ,

.
, .

25.3. Windows

If (Linux/Unix, Windows)


I.C (-)
:

(llnux-)
'S Windows
Windows

'

Windows
. '

"1""

""

jxp-test
i

''

~~~

11024x768

jru

^: i

25-3. Windows
Windows-MauraHe, Windows.
Windows IP- Windows-xocTa.
.

344

25.

25.4.
,
, .

Man: X TlghtVNC: ajice.ligwann,


peter@bcalhost: /hom&p

25-4.
, , "" . ,
.
. ( 100 Mbps) ,
.
( 56 Kpbs 1-2 Mbps)
"" .
, , VNC. , F8

345

25.

25.5.
, VNC . , , - TightVNC (http:
//www.tightvnc.com/docs.html) VNC (http://www.realvnc.
com/documentation.html).

346

26.
: , - , ; , , , - , .

26.1.
, , , - GNU/Linux.
,
. , , .

, , . . , .
, , ...

26.2.
, ,
. ,
.

Rescue Mode ( )
CD-ROM- Mandriva Linux, , ,
, (, CD-ROM).

347

26.

26.2.1.
( root'oM):
# mkbootdisk d e v i c e /dev/fdO

unarae - r '

Enter. .
, mkbootdisk - d e v i c e [], mkbootdisk, .
/dev/f dO, . 99.9% .
.
[-], mkbootdi sk,
. 'uname
- \ ,
, .
, ,
.

26.2.2.
, , . , ,
, - . , ... !

26.3.
26.3.1. ?
,
, , -
.
( , , , , ..) .
. , ,
. - , . , ,

348

26.
, , .

26.3.2.
, , . ( , ?).
t a r () , gzip bzip2. "
tar", . 350.
, Taper, Time Navigator, Arkeia, Mandriva Linux - Drakbackup (, " ", . 293).

26.3.3. ?
, , ,
, : , ? ?
/
?
, ,
, ,
. , , .
, :
/etc, /home, /root /var. ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, , , . , (
). "" / .
, , .
, ( )
. .

349

26.

26.3.4. ?
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
, , .
, .
, : CD-R/DVD+RW,
, CD-R/DVD+RW .., , , .

26.3.5. ?

. , , ,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
-
( ).
,
- :
CD-R/DVD+RW .

26.3.6. tar
, t a r bzip2 . , .
, .
.

350

26.

#!/bin/bash
#
# .
$_0="$ /etc /var"
$_00_= 4 date '+%b%d%Y'
$__=" /backups"
# ,
# GZip'oM, , BZip'oM.
#tar cvzf $0__0/$_00_.1. $_0
# BZip'oM...
# ,
# GZip'oM, , BZip'oM.
tar cvjf $__0/$_-^.2 $_0
_0 ,
, __
, . : chmod 7 00 b a c k u p . sh.
, t a r .bz2 t a r .
gz .
,
__. ,
.
, , , , , " tar", . 352.

26.4.
, : , . , ,
, , /
, .

352

26.

26.4.1. tar
, t a r ,
" ", . 350.
,
.
.
# ! /bin/bash
#
# .
__= " /backups "
_00_=$ I
# , ,
# GZip'OM
#tar xvzf

$0__0/$_00_

# , BZip'oM...
tar xvjf

$0__0/$_00_

, . , , -
,
( , ), . , :
chmod 700 r e s t o r e , sh.

26.4.2. CD-ROM
" ", ,
. , mkCDrec,
, . - mkCDrec (http: //mkcdrec. ota. be).
mkCDrec CD-ROM'ax,
( , , ) .
mkCDrec, CD-ROM , CD-ROM,
.

352

26.

26.5. ,
, . - , .

- .

26.5.1.
RPM
, Ctrl-C.
. root'oM rpm
rebuilddb, RPM. ,
, . ,
/boot /lib/modules (..
). , , ,
, ,
.
RAMDISK: Compressed image found
a t block 0, i n i t r d . l i l o . conf
i n i t r d = /etc/lilo.conf.

26.5.2.
ext2 ext3. , , .
- ,
, root
. e2fsck -py [], [] - , . -
e2f sck , , , ; - , yes .
Ctrl-D, . .

353

26.
, . , e2f sck - []. , ,
. e2f sck
,
, . , -f.
.

26.5.3. -
X - X, X,
XFdrake'oM X. , X XFdrake
X.
26.5.3.1.
, GNU/Linux,
/etc/inittab. i d : 5 : i n i t d e f a u l t : .
3 (), . LILO Esc l i n u x
i n i t 3. GRUB , i n i t 3, Enter, a
, .
, , " : init sysv", . 473.

26.5.3.2. -
X XFdrake, r o o t
XFdrake.
XFdrake , , , .
; Tab /.
/ .
Enter, .

354

26.
, " ", .
231 , .

26.6. ,
26.6.1.
- MBR (Master Boot Record)
, - ,
Windows ,
. , , ,
? !
, .
-
1.
, : LILO GRUB.
, , , root'a.
26.6.1.1. LILO
LILO,
: / s b i n / l i l o . LILO
.

26.6.1.2. GRUB
GRUB,
LILO.
, GRUB
MBR IDE-, stagel
/boot/grub/.
GRUB, grub. : r o o t (hdO, 0) GRUB. GRUB'y,
(0) (hdO). 1. MBR.

355

26.
: s e t u p (hdO). GRUB MBR
. !
-install /dev/hda,
GRUB MBR ,
.

26.6.1.3.
Windows 9x, NT, 2000 .
,
GNU/Linux () Windows ( ). .. Windows
MBR, , , GNU/Linux Windows.

26.6.2. MBR
(MBR, Master Boot
Record) , :
# dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/fdO/mbr.bin bs=512 count=l

MBR ,
:
# dd if=/dev/fdO/mbr.bin of=/dev/hda bs=512

, MBR
IDE- (/dev/hda) mbr.
bin (/dev/fdO),
root.

356

26.

26.7. ,
26.7.1.
ext2 ext3. , , .
- ext2FS/ext3FS. , ,
.. ( , FAT). . , ext2FS/ext3FS
, .

. 1 8- (8192 ) ,
2 16 (16384 ) .. mke2f s
- [___], ,
. , - 1 ,
8193. ,
e 2 f s c k -b 8193 / d e v / h d a 4 ; hda4, ,
. , , 16385 ,
. ,
.

26.7.2.

, ,
, , .

, .
GNU/Linux ext2 , . , .
, "", . -

357

26.
.
, , ,

r e i s e r f s , ( ) .
ReiserFS (http://www.neunesys.com),
.
- Recover. .
Mandriva Linux PowerPack Edition,
CD-ROM c o n t r i b s . - Rpmfind
(http: //www. rpmfind. net). RPM. RPM, . recover .
, 2.
, ,
. , . ,
, , , , .
, .
-HOWTO " " ext2, Ext2fs-Undeletion (http: //www.
tldp.org/H0WT0/mini/Ext2fs-Undeletion.html) (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/mini/
Ext2fs-Undeletion-Dir-Struct/index.html).

26.8.
"" , ,
, .
, , ,
,
.

2. , -,
...

358

26.

. , X. :

1. -, Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
2. , Alt-Ctrl-Fn (
- 1 6). , root'oM k i l l -15 $ ( p i d o f X) k i l l
-9 $ ( p i d o f X), .
t o p , X.
3. , s s h ,
s s h , su, root'oM.
4. , SysRq (System Request). SysRq
: Alt, SysRq
(PrintScreen ) .
a. Alt-SysRq-R "" (raw). Alt-Ctrl-Backspace, X. ,
.
b. Alt-SysRq-S (
"sync").
c. Alt-SysRq-E termination ( ) , i n i t .
d. Alt-SysRq-I kill () , i n i t .
e. Alt-SysRq-U , . " dirty",

f. Alt-SysRq-B . "reset".

, , ..
: Raw, Sync, tErm, kill,
Umount, reBoot3. .
5. , "reset"
, GNU/Linux .

359

26.
, , ,
. , Mandriva
Linux: ext3, r e i s e r f s ., .
ext2FS r e i s e r f s . tune2f s - j /dev/hdaN, IDE- ext2FS ext3FS.

26.9.

, , . .
, PID , ,
, k i l l .
x k i l l
, .

26.9.1.
,
PID ID . : ps aux
I grep m o z i l i a , , - Mozilla. -
:
peter

3505

7.7 23.1 24816 15076 pts/2

21:29

0:02 /usr/lib/mozilla

, , , Mozilla peter PID - 3505.


, PID , k i l l ,
. : k i l l -9 3505,
! Mozilla . , , .
.
, , - KILL
3505. KILL k i l l ,
. kill(l), " ", . 431.

360

26.

26.9.2.
( , KSySGuard GTOP),
era

- KDE, Ctrl-Alt-Esc:
, .

26.10.
, legacyfree, nVidia ATI 3D ,
...

Legacy-Free. " legacy-free"4, 5, legacy-free. ,


BIOS , ,
. Mandriva Linux .
- nVidia ATI. nVidia
ATI ,
- OpenGL OpenGL- . Mandriva Linux Power Pack Edition, DrakX
. , , . - nVidia (http://www.nvidia.com) - ATI
( h t t p : //www. a t i . com) , RPM Mandriva Club (http://www.mandrivaclub.com). Mandriva Linux X.
" " . ,
, 4. legacy systems - .
(, , , ) - , , - ,
.. .
2000- (. ).
5. - Linux on Laptops (http: //www. linux-laptop.net) .

361

26.
GNU/Linux, "", ACPI.
/ e t c / l i l o . conf:
append="acpi=off"

append=, acpi=of f. root l i l o -v ,


.

26.11.

26.11.1.
. GNU/Linux
, , ,
..
Mandriva Linux (http://
www.mandrivalinux.com/ru/flists.php3).
, , . :
, (). , , ,
. (http://www.iwillfollow.com/email.htm), (netiquette), .
,
RFC (http://www.rfc-editor.org/).

: ,
, ..
, .
: ,
HTML-, .
: !
, .

362

26.

26.11.2.
, ,
( ) Google Groups
(http://groups.google.com/). ,
, Mandriva Linux'y (news: a l t . os. linux.
mandrake). ""
.os.linux.*:
comp.os.linux.setup (news: comp. os. linux. setup): Linux (, ) ;
.os.linux.misc (news: . os. linux.misc): , ;
...
, , ,
.
RTFM. !

26.12. Mandriva Linux



(,
Mandriva Linux) .
,
,
Mandriva .
, , ,
Drakbug -
, " Drakbug", . 214.

26.13.
Mandriva Linux

. , , ,
.

363

26.

26.13.1.

.
. , ,
, , Google , , Google, Linux. He ( h t t p : //www. google. com. ua/advanced_sear ch)
, .

26.13.2.
,
. ,
.

, ,

GRUB'a minix.
"grub mailing list"
Google GRUB (http://mail.gnu.org/
archive/html/bug-grub/). ,
"Minix" .

_^ . ,
\ V\ Google" , ' ^ domain, .
, .
, Google Groups ( h t t p :
//groups.google.com/) .

364

26.

26.13.3.

: " ", . 362 " ", . 363. How To Ask Questions The Smart Way
(http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html) .

26.13.4.

- ! , cd ... !
,
.
: LUG (Linux Users Group, Linux). , , . ,
...

26.13.5. Mandriva
, , ( ) Mandriva.

, ! , ,
, , .
, Linux . , Mandriva Linux . Mandriva (http://www.mandriva.com/products/
business).

365

26.

26.14.
,
, 6. , ,
, , , . , ... . ,
.
!

6. ..

366

27. UNIX
"UNIX" , , . ,
UNIX , , ,
, , . , ,
, GNU/Linux.
, .

27.1.
, ,
.
Linux
, GNU/Linux, .
,
. , :
" " ( );
;
.
- ( )
.
, . , ,
. , ,
. , , . :
. , ,
, .
, ,
.
(X) , (. 27-1).

367

27. UNIX

local host
:!
:!

?t"*MandrJva

Uotsx

10 19:54

27-1.
, .
, .
, , ,
, (*). ( ). , .
"" , :
Mandriva Linux release 2006.0 (CodeName) for i586
Kernel 2.6.12-6mdk on an i686 / ttyl
[_] login:

Login: Enter. (login) Password:


. ;,
, .
,
X.
, X ( , .. ).
Mandriva Linux

, -

368

27, UNIX
, Ctrl-Alt-F<n>, <> -
, .
7- . , ,
Ctrl, Alt F2.
DrakX : r o o t . , , , .
, root !
root'ou, , : -
. , r o o t ,
( !). ,
.
, . , : (User ID, UID). (Group ID, GID), .

27.2.
Windows ,,
GNU/Linux -. .
, , " Linux", . 451.

, Linux - :
. ,
, , ( ).
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
. , . ; , ,
( ), -

360

27. UNIX
; , ,
, .
:
1. (Read, r): . ,
(.. ).
2. (Write, w): .
, .
3. (execute, x): ( ).
, . ,
: , !
. ,
, (
).
I s -1 :
$
Is -1
total I
-rw-r
drwxr-xr
$

1 queen
2 peter

users
users

0 Jul
1024 Jul

8 14:11 a_file
8 14:11 a_directory/

I s -1 ( ):

- : , (-). , d. ,
.
.
. ; , ;
. (-) ,
.

370

27. UNIX
. , - , ( inode),

, .
- .
, , ( ), .
: , ,
a_f i l e : rw-r
. :
(rw-) - ,
queen. , queen (), (w),
(-);
(--) , queen, u s e r s . (),
, ();
(
) , queen
u s e r s .
.
a_directory rwxr-xr, :
peter, , (),
(w) ();
, peter, u s e r s , (),
(-), ();
(). wx,
.
- root, root ( , ) , ,
1 root , , , ,
, .. r o o t ,
. r o o t ,
, .

371

27. UNIX
, -
UNIX Windows. - UNIX -
.
, , ASCII- , , /, . , UNIX
readme Readme , R
UNIX .
, ,
. GNU/Linux
, .
, " " . UNIX
(.) - , .
UNIX , , "" 1 ;
, .

- , ( , ..) - .
- , .

27.3.

.

GNU/Linux Windows (
, , . "
", . 431).
:
, . , PID (proccess ID). PID , (.. ) , ,
a_f i l e . peter 1. ,
. I s -,
, . . .mozilla . openof f ice
home/.

372

27. UMX
, -, ..
. , root.
, GNU/Linux .
. ,
, , .
, UNIX.
Linux, ,
. : root.
, GNU/Linux
, DOS/Windows! , GNU/Linux, DOS/Windows?
GNU/Linux, Windows Samba (. . ).
Linux . - "", . .
root'a, Linux UNIX , . . " ",
. 431 , PID .

27.4.
-
GNU/Linux, ,
, . ,
X,
( ), , ,
.
, , ,
. , . +.
, Konsole RXvt. ,
(. 27-2).

13 3. 1489

27. UNIX!

27-2. KDE
, shell.
, . :
[queen@localhost queen]$

, - queen, l o c a l h o s t ( ,
). , root, $ # (
, GNU/Linux
). r o o t , su shell.
[queenSlocalhost queen]$ su
# r o o t ' ; ( )
Password:
# e x i t ( Ctrl+D)
[root@localhost queen]# e x i t
[queen@localhost queen]$

shell , home/. ,
, pwd ( (Print
Working Directory)):
$ pwd
/home/queen

27.4.1. cd:
cd , DOS'e, . , - . . .., . cd . cd - . , , peter, cd - p e t e r (~
home/). , , , , home/
( , ),
r o o t , root'oM :

374

27. UNIX
$ SU
Password:
# pwd
/root
# cd /usr/share/doc/HOWTO
# pwd
/usr/share/doc/HOWTO
# cd ../FAQ-Linux
# pwd
/usr/share/doc/FAQ-Linux
# cd ../../../lib
# pwd
/usr/lib
# cd -peter
# pwd
/home/peter
# cd
# pwd
/root

, e x i t (
Ctrl-D).

27.4.2. echo
, a shell
echo. :
1. : ,
.
2. PATH: , shell , . ,
DOS, shell !
3. USERNAME: .
4. UID: ID .
5. PS1: , ,
.
bash(l) ( ),
man bash.
shell , $.
echo:
$ echo Hello
Hello
$ echo $HOME
/home/queen

375

27.
$ e c h o $USERNAME
queen
$ echo Hello $USERNAME
Hello queen
$ cd /usr
$ pwd
/usr
$ cd $HOME
$ pwd
/home/queen

, shell
cd $HOME . $ (/home/queen),
cd /home / q u e e n , . e c h o
$USERNAME.

, , export __=.
, :
S export USERNAME=queen $ echo $USERNAME queen

27.4.3. cat:

, :
, :
$ cat /etc/fstab
/dev/hda5 / ext2 defaults 1 1
/dev/hda6 /home ext2 defaults 1 2
/dev/hda7 swap swap defaults 0 0
/dev/hda8 /usr ext2 defaults 1 2
/dev/fdO /mnt/floppy auto sync,user,noauto, nosuid,nodev 0 0
none /proc proc defaults 0 0
none /dev/pts devpts mode=0620 0 0
/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto user,noauto,nosuid,exec,nodev,ro 0 0
$ cd /etc
$ cat modules.conf shells
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
pre-install plip modprobe parport_pc ; echo 7 > /proc/parport/O/irq
#pre-install pcmcia_core /etc/rc.d/init.d/pcmcia start
#alias char-major-14 sound
alias sound esssolol
keep
/bin/zsh
/bin/bash

376

27. UNIX
/bin/sh
/bin/tcsh
/bin/csh
/bin/ash
/bin/bsh
/usr/bin/zsh

27.4.4. less:
, - UNIX more (more - ; less - ).
(page - ) - ,
(, ). , l e s s , more, , l e s s
. l e s s ,
. :
less /etc/termcap

. Q. l e s s :
.

27.4.5. Is:
I s (LiSt) d i r DOS, ,
. ,
. I s :
Is [] [|] [|...]

, I s
. ,
:
-: , . , UNIX
- , .; - "" , .. , - "." ".."
-R: , .. ,
.
-h: . , "", ""

377

27.
"G", , "234" "132". , , 2, 10. , 1
1024 , 1000 .
- 1 : : ,
,
- i : inode ( , . . " Linux", . 451).
-d: , ,
, .
:
I s -R:
I s - i s images/ . . : inode
images/,
.
I s - I images/* .png: images/,
., .png, .

27.4.6.

, . , shell'oM,
Mandriva Linux - bash,
.
-, , bash ,
.
, HISTSIZE. ,
, ,
.

, . : Ctrl-A Ctrl-E, ,
. Backspace Del , . Backspace Ctrl-H . Del Ctrl-D
. Ctrl-K , a Ctrl-W ( , Alt-Backspace).
Ctrl-D ,
, e x i t . Ctrl-C

378

27. UNIX
, ,
. Ctrl-L . Ctrl-Z , .. . ,
"&" . :
$ xpdf MyDocument.pdf

, .. xpdf.
, Ctrl-Z bg.
, Ctrl-S Ctrl-Q, . ,
Ctrl-S ( , S D
). , , - , ' , Ctrl-Q.
, , Ctrl-S Ctrl-Q, .

379

28.
" LZN/X", . 367 shell.
.
shell - : ,
. .
UNIX - ,
.

28.1.
, .
(, ).

28.1.1. mkdir, touch:


mkdir (MaKe DIRectory - ) . :
mkdir [] <> [ ...]

-.
:
1. , .
mkdir , .
2. , , , . , -, mkdir
, , .
:
mkdir foo: f ;
mkdir -p images/misc docs: misc images.
, (-); docs .

381

28.
touch , 1. touch
, . :
touch

[]

[...]

, :
touch filel

images/file2

f i l e l f ile2 images, .

28.1.2. rm:
rm (ReMove - ) DOS d e l d e l t r e e , . :
rm

[] <|>

[|...]

:
- -R: .
, .
rmdir.
- i : . ,
Mandriva Linux, rm - rm - i ( mv).
. , "/.alias, .
"/.bashrc
: u n a l i a s rm cp mv.
-f, - i , ,
2.
:
1. UNIX : (atime), .. ,
; inode (ctime); , , (mtime).
2. ,
, .

382

28.
rm - i i m a g e s / * , j p g f i l e i : ,
.jpg, images f i l e l , .
.
rm -Rf i m a g e s / m i s c / f i l e * :
misc/ images/ ,
f i l e .

rm .
! (, - -
,
.)
- i , , -

28.1.3. mv:
mv (MoVe - ) :
mv [] <|> [| ...] <>
, , . ,
.
:
-f: .
, .
- i : .
.
-v:

, .

:
mv - i / t m p / p i c s / * . p n g .: /tmp/pics/,
.png, (.), .
mv f b a r : f bar. bar ,
f ( , )
bar.

383

28.
mv -vf f i l e * images/ t r a s h / :
, file, images/ trash/, .

28.1.4. :
{ - ) DOS copy , . :
[] <|> [| ...] <>

:
-R: ; ,
.
- i : ,
.
-f: - i , .
-: , , .
:
- i /timages/* images/: /timages/ images/, . ,
.
-vR docs/ /shared/mp3s/* mystuff/: docs
/shared/mp3s mystuff.
foo bar: f bar .

28.2.

. " UNIX", . 367.

384

28.

28.2.1. drawn, chgrp:



chown (CHange OWNer - ) :
chown

[] <[:]> <1 > [| ...]

:
-R: . .
-v: . , chown; ,

.
- : -v, , .
:
chown nobody /shared/book.tex: /shared/book,
tex nobody.
chown -Re queen:music *.mid ^/:
, .mid,
concerts/ queen music,
, .
chgrp (CHange GRouP - ) ( ); chown:
chgrp [] <> <|> [| ...]

, chown,
. , : chgrp di sk /dev/hd* /dev/ , hd, di sk.

28.2.2. chmod:
chmod (CHange MODe - ) . :
chmod

[]

< >

<|>

[|...]

, .
:

385

28.
1. .
<>00, <> : 4 , 2 1 . <>0
"" <>. , , -
, . , rwxr-xr- 400+200+100 ( , rwx) +40+10 ( , -) +4
( , --) = 754; . , .
2. . , . : [category] <+ | - | =><>.
:
u (User - ), ;
g (Group - ), ;
(Others - ), "".
, , +
, - = ,
. :
(Read - );
w (Write - );
(eXecute - ).
chown chgrp:
-R: .
-v: .
-: -v, ,
.
:
chmod -R o-w /!11/1:
/shared/docs/.
chmod -R og-w, o-x p r i v a t e / :
private/
.
chmod - 644 misc/f i l e * : misc/,
f i l e r w - r ( , -

386

28.
), , .

28.3.
, , , , . Windows , *
. , * . t x t
, . t x t .
. * .
I s * . t x t Enter, , * . t x t , I s ,
shell'oM. ,
shell'oM. :
$ Is *.txt
readme.txt

recipes.txt

(Is * . t x t ).
*, , , I s
readme . t x t r e c i p e . t x t , .
:
?: , ,
;
[ . . . ] : , .
(.. 1-9), , . : [a-zBE5-7] z, , , 5, 7;
[ ! . . . ] : , . [! a - z ] , , ,
3;
{ 1, 2 }: c l 2, 1 2 . , , , { [ 0-9 ] *, [ ] }.
:
3. ! ,
(). .
[ a-z ] , , , , (...), z. He
, ..;

387

28.

/ e t c / * c o n f : / e t c , conf.
/ e t c / i n e t d . c o n f , /etc/conf .linuxconf, ,
/etc/conf , . , * .
i m a g e / { c a r s , s p a c e [ 0 - 9 ] } / * . j p g : ,
. jpg, image/cars, image/spaceO, (...), image/space9,
.
/ u s r / s h a r e / d o c / * / R E A D M E : README ,
/ u s r / s h a r e / d o c . , , /usr/share/doc/mandriva/README, /usr/share/doc/myprog/doc/
README.
* [! a - z ] : ,
.

28.4.
28.4.1.
,
, .
UNIX ( , ) ; ,
. - 0,1
2. ,
,
- .
.

28.4.2.
, , -png4
images. , , .
:
$ Is images/*.png l>file_list

4. , ", . png",
"PNG-". , UNIX : . ,
. png, JPEG, ,
. , Windows!

388

28.
, (1) (>)
f i l e _ l i s t . > -
, , , . ,
, , . , :
$ Is images/*.png >file_list

.
, , l e s s .
, , .
, ,
we (Word Count ) - 1 ,
. :
$ we -I 0<file_list

. < -
, , ,
, .. , :
$ we -I <file_list

, ""
. sed (Stream
EDitor - ). sed
f i l e _ l i s t , , .. the_list:
$ sed -e 's/\.png$//g' <file_list >the_list

, .
. , , /shared :
, :
$ Is -R /shared >/dev/null 2>errors

, (>)
/dev/null, , (.. ), (2) (>)
errors.

389

28.

28.4.3.
(pipes) - , , . , :
,
. - | .
. , , ,
. :
$ I s images/*.png | we -1

, I s (.. ) we. .
" ",
:
$ Is images/*.png | sed -e 's/\.png$//g'

>the_list

, , :
$ Is images/*.png | sed -e 's/\.png$//g'

I less

, . , , ':
$ xwd -root I convert - ~/my_desktop.png

my_desktop. png 5 .

28.5.
- , shell' ( bash)
. , . - .
5. , PNG (
ImageMagick).

390

28.

28.5.1.
,
, . ,
__. ,
:
$ l e s s <>

(.. l e s s , Tab). shell :


$ l e s s __

( ,
). :
$ less

__<>

shell :
$ less

________

, , Enter
.

q .

28.5.2.
Tab - , . ,
( nsl<TAB> n s l o o k u p ) ,
- , "" ~, @ $. shell ,
6. (/)
(!).
- Esc-<x>
nCtrl-X-<x>, <> - . Esc-<x> 6. : UNIX .
home - .

392

28.
. . (beep)
, , . Ctrl-X-<x>
- . Tab - , Esc-<x> Ctrl-X-<x>,
, Ctrl-X-$. :
man nslookup, man
n s l , Esc-!, man
nslookup.

28.6. :

, , , , ', , shell .
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
/dev/null:
-R images/ /shared/ 2>/dev/null

,
. : - ,
() , , . Ctrl-C: , . , !
.
, , , - . . Ctrl-Z,
:
$ -R images/ /shared/
2>/dev/null
# C-z
[1]+ Stopped
$

cp -R images/ /shared/ 2>/dev/null

. , (

392

28.
Stopped). , , .
bg (BackGround - ) ;
$ bg
[1]+ -R images/ /shared/ 2>/dev/null &
$

, , & () . . ,
, , .
, , &
. ,
, :
$ -R images/ /shared/ 2>/dev/null &

,
, f g (ForeGround - ).
, Ctrl-Z, bg.
: . shell'a jobs , shell'oM. +,
, .
fg <n>, <> - ,
, fg 5.
, , l e s s Vi,
, .

28.7.
, shell .
: Mandriva Linux ,
.
: ( convert, GIMP pixtnap), ( Ogg Vorbis, CD), CD, e-mail, FTP ( lynx links), .

393

28.
, , . , : CD
, ( man
nohup(l) man screen(l)).

394

29.
, .
PC. , ,

29.1.
. . , , ,
67 (3 1 , 64
): .

29.1.1.
, 512 . "" "" "-1".

29.1.2.
. :
( ): Windows GNU/Linux.
.

, .
GNU/Linux, , swap'oM. .

395

29.
,

. : , . , , .
,
, ,

.
.
, . , , . " ", . 443 "
Linux", . 451.

29.1.3.
29.1.3.1.
: swap, - 1, : >@=5< (root) /.

,
(RAM, Random
Access Memory), .. 128 , 256 . (>512
) , . , ,
. , 2 8, PowerPC 6800; 512MB
MIPS; 128 Alpha Ultrasparc. ,
, (
RAM) .

1. , Mandriva Linux , ext3.

396

29.
29.1.3.2.
. , .
, .
, 1

(swap),
.
: /
. ,
, (. " ",
. 443).
- 400
. , , /opt,
/opt.
: /usr

/usr. ,
.
, , 100
. 2-3 (
).
: /home
.
, /usr: /usr
(/).

, swap r o o t (/) ,
, .

397

29.
/home, /usr
.

29.1.3.3.
,
- , ,
. , FTP /var/f tp, /usr
.
, .



- . , . "
DiskDrake", . 305.

29.2.
GNU/Linux . -,
,
. -, ,
. :
(primary master) (primary slave) IDE ( , CD-ROM - )
/dev/hda /dev/hdb.
/dev/hdc, /dev/hdd.
IDE ( IDE, , Soundblaster),
/dev/hde, /dev/hdf .. IDE-,
RAID-.
SCSI- /dev/sda, /dev/sdb ..,
SCSI ( ID). SCSI CD-ROM /dev/
scdO, /dev/scdl SCSI.

398

29,
SATA IDE-,
SCSI.

, , (
IDE,
):
( ) /dev/hdal /dev/hda4.
, , /dev/hda5, /dev/hda6 .. .
, GNU/Linux :

/dev/hdai
IDE- (/dev/hda)


/dev/hdbi


/dev/hdb2

IDE- (/dev/hdb)
29-1. GNU/Linux

399

29. ,

/dev/hdai

(/dev/hda2)
/dev/hdaS

/dev/hda6

1- 2-

IDE- (/dev/hda)


/dev/hdbi


/dev/hdb2

IDE- (/dev/hdb)
29-2. GNU/Linux
,
. , GNU/Linux ,
, ( ,
GNU/Linux).

Mandriva Linux udev ( udev FAQ (http: //www.kernel. org/pub/


linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev-FAQ.)). Linux Standards
Base Project (http://www.linuxbase.org/). .

400

30. : Emacs VI
, ' - UNIX. ,
, ,
, , . , , ,
(perl, C++, XML .).

30.1. Emacs
Emacs - , , .
, , lisp. Emacs
, , Usenet, ..
, , , , Emacs,
, Emacs.
Emacs,
: Tutorial Introduction to GNU Emacs (http: //www. l i b . uchicago. edu/
keith/tcl-course/emacs-tutorial.html).

30.1.1.
Emacs :
emacs [1] [2...]

Emacs , , .
, , , . Emacs -
, * s c r a t c h * . X, , ,
F10,
.
1. " " ,
, . ,
, .

402

30. : Emacs VI

30.1.2.
. , : f i l e l f ile2. , ,
- :
$ emacs filel

file2

30-1.
, . (
(New f i l e ) ) . -.
.
Emacs'oM . Ctrl-. "", Del Backspace.

: Ctrl-A , Ctrl-E
, -< Ctrl-Home Alt-> Ctrl-End
. ,
2.
, Ctrl-X Ctrl-S, ,
, Ctrl-X Ctrl-W.
2. Emacs , . Vi.

402

30. : Eniacs VI
Emacs , . ,
Tab, bash.

30.1.3.
.
:
, , Ctrl-X 0.
, , Ctrl-X 1.
*
Ctrl-X ,
Ctrl-X Ctrl-B. *Buffer
L i s t * ( ). Ctrl-X ,
Enter, - .
, *Buf f er L i s t * .

Ctrl-X . Emacs , . , . , TAB: Emacs
*Completions* (),
. Enter.
Ctrl-X 2.
(, ,
"").
.
Ctrl-X Ctrl-F. Emacs
, ,
.

30.1.4. , , ,
, . 30-2.

403

30. : Emacs VI

30-2. Emacs,
, . .
. , ,
. 30-2, : Ctrl-Space (Control
+ ). Emacs - Mark s e t ( ). , Ctrl-A. ,
-
, ,
: Alt-W ( ) Ctrl-W ( ). , Emacs ,
.
, , ,
Ctrl-Y. :

404

30. Emacs VI
File Edit Options Buffers Tools Help
This is the text I want to copal

111.
this is the text I want to

uext

Fill;LI--fill--

30-3. emacs
, , kill
ring. kill ring , Emacs.
kill ring. Ctrl-Y "" .
, Ctrl-Y,
Alt-Y , .
Ctrl-S. Emacs ,
.
Ctrl-S. Emacs
, Ctrl-S ,
. Enter .
Alt-%. Emacs , ,
, .
Ctrl-X U Ctrl-Shift,
. , .

30.1.5. emacs
- Ctrl-X Ctrl-C. , Emacs , .

14 3. 1489

405

30. : htnacs /I

30.2. Vi:
Vi .
, UNIX
Vi
, , .
Vi " ", , Emacs, .

, Mandriva Linux - Vim ( VI iMproved, VI), Vi.


Vi, :
Hands-On Introduction to the Vi Editor (http: //www. library. yale. edu/wsg/docs/vi_
hands_on/) Vim home page (http: //www. vim. org/).

30.2.1. , , ex...
Vi, , Emacs. :
$ v i 1 2

30-4. VIM

406

30. : Einacs VI
..
. .

.
:

, ,
, , Vi , - ,
.

i: ( I
);
: .
INSERT (
, ). , . ,
Esc.
Backspace DEL
.
.
, .
:. : . , Enter, Vi ex.
:, ,

: Tab, .
: w.
, : w <_>.

30.2.2.
, , : n e x t : p r e v
. :

407

30. : Emacs VI
<_>, , , .
.
Emacs, . : s p l i t .
, Ctrl-w j Ctrl-w k
. j . : c l o s e , : q
.
,
, , a Vi :
No w r i t e s i n c e l a s t change (use! t o o v e r r i d e ) ( ( ! ))
, , : q! : c l o s e ! .

30.2.3.
Vi Backspace DEL
, , .
:
. :
: (Change).
.
d: (Delete),
: (Yank). .
.: .
, .
h, j , k, 1: , , 3.
, b, w: ,
, 0, $: , .
f <>: <>. , f e .
3. dl ( ) - ; dh ( ) - X; dd .

408

30. : Emacs VI
/<>, ?<>:
<>. , /lafox
lafox.
{,}: .
G, : , .
"" . G ("Go") . ,
.
:
6: 6 ;
c8fk: ,
;
91G: 91- ;
d3$: .
, . , , "
" .

30.2.4. , ,
Vi , - . d.
27 : 26
.
" ". , yl2w 12 4. dl2w,
.
26 , "<>, <> . ,
12 ,
"kyl2w "kdl2w, .
, ( Paste)
, "<>
"<> (, "dp d).
4. , !

409

30. > VI

30-5. VIM,
, :
6 ( ):
"ry6w5;
f ile2, : Ctrl-w j ;
: ".
, . 30-6.
5. y6w : " 6 ".

420

30. : Emacs VI

30-6. VIM,
: /,
Enter. , /kyiv kyiv . ,
,
/ ?.

30.2.5. Vi
- : q ( , ,
, , Vi). , ..
. :
: wq : ( Z
Z),
: q! .
, ,
: wq .

30.3. ...
, , ( , -, ), -

411

30. : Emacs VI
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, ,
. , ,
.

422

31.
- ,
.
GNU/Lin
. , (. . " ", . 388).
,
,
.
.
"SEE ALSO" (". "), .
GNU/Linux!

31.1.
. , ,

31.1.1. cat, tail, head, tee:

_ [] [ () ] ,
.
.
c a t ,

. , :
# cat

/var/log/mail/info

1.
c a t (~), .
1.
(, ). , syslogd ( ) ( Postfix), root. .

413

31.
, ( ), 2 .
, t a i l . ( ) 10
/var/log/mail/inf :
# tail

/var/log/raail/info

, .. . - -f:
# t a i l -f

/var/log/mail/info

/var/log/mail/info . t a i l -f ,
, . ,
/var/log/messages, .
t a i l ,
. -f
, .
- . ,
2- :
# t a i l -n2 /var/log/mail/info

, . , -2 -f .
head t a i l ,
( ) 10 /var/log/mail/info:
# head /var/log/raail/info

t a i l , -
. , 2- :
# head -n2 /var/log/mail/info

2. , /var/log/mail/info , POP ..

414

31.
. ,
9 10, , head
10 t a i l .
# head /var/log/mail/info

I t a i l -n2

2 .
20- :
# t a i l -n20 /var/log/mail/info

|head -nl

t a i l 20
head. head
.
,
r e s u l t s . txt. t e e . :
tee

[] []

:
# tail -n20 /var/log/mail/info Ihead -nlltee results.txt

. 20 , results .txt, .
:
# tail -n20 /var/log/mail/info Itee results.txt Ihead -nl

t e e (-),
.
, grep
Postfix .

31.1.2. grep:
, ("General Regular Expression Parser" - ) ,
: grep , . :
grep [] <> [ ]

, . -h - 1

425

31.
. - , - .
:
- i : (..
);
-v: . , ;
-: ;
-w: grep'y, .
, - . /var/log/mail/inf , "postfix".
:
# grep postfix

/var/log/mail/info

, ^ f ix,
-v:
# grep -v postfix

/var/log/mail/info

grep .
,
,
( postfix),
( s t a t u s = s e n t ) 3 :
# grep postfix /var/log/mail/info

Igrep status=sent

grep . ,
. f grep.
f grep - grep -F.
, , .
( patterns. txt
):
# echo - 'status=sent\npostfix'

>./patterns.txt

c a t . \n - , " ".
, patterns.
txt f grep " " grep:
3. , , .

416

31.
# fgrep -f ./patterns.txt

/var/log/raail/info

. /patterns. t x t . , , peter@mandriva . com,


./patterns.txt, :
# echo 'peter@mandriva.com'

>>./patterns.txt

, grep t a i l head.
,
peterdmandriva . com, :
# fgrep -f ./patterns.txt

/var/log/mail/info

I tail -n2 I head -nl


t a i l head.

31.1.3. egrep:
grep .
, "ABC Company"?
, ..
-, .
fgrep, grep grep -E: egrep.
egrep ,
'^'" .
, . " ", . 387 , :
[ : alnum: ], [ : alpha : ] [ : d i g i t : ] , :
, ( ) . -
.
[: p r i n t : ] , .
[: lower: ] [: upper : ]
.
Begrep(l).
.

417

31.
:

, ..
, .

0 .
+

{}
.

.
{}
,
.
, . , [ : a l p h a : ] +.
. , \ 1 ,
. 9 "".
$ echo -e "abc def\nabc abc def\nabcl abcl\nabcdef\nabcdabcd\nabcdef
$ egrep "([[:alpha:]]+) \ 1 " t
abc abc def
$

abcef" > t

[ ] ,
, . [
, ,
, ].
,
, . .

418

31.
I,
|
. t e s t f i l e ,
, :
$ egrep " ( [ [ : a l p h a : ] ] + ) \ 1 | ( [ [ : a l p h a : ] [ : d i g i t : ] ] + ) \2" t e s t f i l e
abc abc def
abcl abcl
$

, , , \2, ,
.
$ egrep " ( [ [ : a l n u m : ] ] + ) \ 1 " t e s t f i l e
abc abc def
abcl abcl
$

, , "", . : ? , + , { , ! , ( , )
\. : \ ?, \ + ,
\ { , \ 1 , \ ( \) \ \ .
""
.
( )
. ,
, seel, s e d - ,

.

31.1.4. we:
we (Word Count - ) ,
. .
:
we [] [()]

:
- 1 : ;
-w: ;
- ;

419

31.
-: ;
-L: .
we , .
:
, :
$ we -I /etc/passwd

CPU , :
$ grep "model name" /proc/cpuinf I we -1


, ./patterns.txt.
,
we:
fgrep -f ./patterns.txt /var/log/mail/inf I we -1

31.1.5. sort:
4:
sort

[] [())

/etc/passwd. , :
$ cat /etc/passwd

login, :
$ sort /etc/passwd

s o r t ( login).
, -:
$ sort -r /etc/passwd

UID, /etc/
passwd. nojnoUID:
$ sort /etc/passwd -t":" -k3 -n

4. s o r t .
.

420

31.
s o r t :
- t " if sort'y, " : ";
-: , ;
-: , , .
:
$ s o r t /etc/passwd - t " : " -k3 -n - r

, s o r t :
-: : ;
-f: ( , ).
, UID, :
$ s o r t /etc/passwd - t " : " -k3 -n I t a i l

-nl

/etc/passwd UID t a i l .
.

31.2. find:
find- U NIX. ,
.
, :
find

[]

[]

[].]

...

[!)]

[]

, find . , "", .. . , ,
. :
-xdev: , .
-mindepth <n>:
.

421

31.
-maxdepth <n>: .
-follow: , .
f i n d .
- d a y s t a r t : , (. ), (24 )
.
.
:
- t y p e <_>: . <_> : f
( ), d (), 1 ( ), s (), b (
), ( ) ( ).
-name <>: , .
(. .
" ", . 387).
-iname <>: -name, .
- a t i m e <n>, -amin <n>: ,
(-atime) (-amin).
+<> -<>, ,
, / .
-anewer
.

<>: , ,

- c t i m e <n>,-cmin <n>,-cnewer <>: -atime, -amin -anewer,



- r e g e x <>: -name, .
- i r e g e x <>: -regex, .
. find(l).
:
<cl> - <2>: , c l 2; -
, , c l , 2 ,
<cl> <2> <>.
<cl> - <2>: , c l 2.
, - , -, ,
, c l 2
, ( <cl> - <2> )

422

31.
- <>. () ,
shell'oM!
-not <cl>: c l , -not <cl> ,
<cl> -.
:
- p r i n t :
.
- I s : I s - i l d s .
-exec <>: <>. <>
;, , shell
. {}.
.
-ok <>: -exec,
.
. /usr/share.
:
find /usr/share -type d

, HTTP-, HTML- /var /www/html, .


,
, html, - htm.
/var/www/obsolete.
5
:
find \( -name "*.htra" - -name "*.html" \) -a -ctime -30 \
-exec In (} /var/www/obsolete \;

.
:

\( -name "*.htm" - -name "*.htral" \) -a -ctime -30


, - ,
. .html " \ ( -name " * . h t m " - -name " * . h t m l " \) ", (-) ,
5. , , /var/www /var/www/
obsolete !

423

31.
30 , , (-ctime -30). : ,
- . , , . htm, , . html,
, , . , shell'a: ( . . )
\ ( . . \ ) , -name " * . h t m " - -name "* .html" sub-shell'e... - ,
, .. .
, , , :
-exec In {} /var/www/obsolete \;

;. . ,
find , -exec .
: (/shared/images), . touch
stamp, .
JPEG , stamp,
,
jpg, jpeg, JPG JPEG. old. , ,
- peter:
find /shared/images -cnewer
\
/shared/images/stamp
\
-a -iregex " . * \ . j p e ? g "
\
-a -not -regex " . * / o l d / . + " \
I mail p e t e r -s " "

, , ,
, . , .

31.3.
31.3.1. crontab:
crontab
c r o n t a b , .

424

31.
Crontab .
, , . , c r o n t a b -:
- 1 : crontab;
-: crontab;
-: crontab;
-u <user>: <user>. root.
crontab'a. c r o n t a b -e,
, EDITOR VISUAL, Vi.
crontab .
, , , .
. , # ,
crond (, crontab). crontab'a (
/etc/crontab). ,
.
, (
).
crontab:

, .
. \,
, .
Makefile, shell'e, .
# ,
#

#MAI LTO= "__ "

# 2 14:00,
#
- , "retouch"
#
"stamp". "%"
#
,
#
.

0 14 */2 * * find /shared/images


-cnewer /shared/images/stamp

-a - i r e g e x " . * \ . j p e ? g "
\
-a -not -regex
" . * / o l d / . * " % t o u c h /shared/images/Stamp
#
# :)

\
\
\

425

31.
0 25 12 * rapgl23 $HOME/sounds/merryxmas.mp3
#
# 17:00 ...
0 17 * * 2 l p r $HOME/shopping-list.txt

, ,
. ,
(1,14,23), (1-15), (1-10,12-20),
(1-12,20-27/2).
!

31.3.2. at: ,

, - ,
. , 18:00.
X, XllR6-contrib
, , 17:30 , . a t - ,
:
$ a t 17:30
# " a t "
a t > x m e s s a g e " ! 1 8 : 0 0 "
# CTRL-d
a t > <EOT>
job I a t 2005-02-23 17:30
$

:
now +<>: + . : <>
(minutes I hours I days I weeks I months). . . minutes - , hours , days - , weeks - months - . ,
now + 1 hour ( ), now + 3 days ( ) .
<time> <day>: . <time> () . a t : , , 0100,
04:20,2am, 0530 pm, 18 0 0 : (),
t e a t i m e ( 16:00) midnight (). <day>
() . : , 12/20/2004, 2004 , ,
, 20.12.2004. ,
: 2 0.12.
: Dec 2 0, 2 0 Dec .
a t :

426

31.
- 1 : , . . atq.
-d <n>: <>.
atq. atrm <n>.

31.4.
31.4.1. tar:
( ARchiver)
t a r , find, - UNIX, . :
tar

[] [...]

. ,
, tar(l), ..
.
t a r (-) , .

: .
:
t :
v: . , , , t (. ),
.
f <_>: _,
_ _. , /dev/rmtO, , . - (),
( ,
)
.

427

31.
z: tar'y, g z i p
, , gzip'oM.
j : z, bzip2.
: ,
, . .
: ,
. , , , !
: ,
f. , , .
,
tar(l). , ,
d.
. , /shared/images, bzip2'oM, images .tar .bz2
/home. :
#
# : ,
# !
#
$ cd /shared
$ tar cjf -/images.tar.bz2 images/

, : tar'y, , j bzip2, a f -/images . t a r .bz2


images. t a r . bz2. .
:
#
#
#
$ cd
$ t a r tjvf images.tar.bz2

t a r ' y (t) images.tar.bz2 (f


images . t a r .bz2), , bzip2 (j), , (v). , . ,
, /shared. .. find
, :

428

31.
#
# ,
#
$ cd /shared
$ tar jxpf -/images.tar.bz2

!
,
images/cars. :
$ tar jxf -/images.tar.bz2 images/cars

, t a r
" ", . /dev/mem. t a r
, . h .

31.4.2. bzip2 gzip:


, t a r .
WinZip Windows,
: t a r bzip2 gzip, .
, zip, ar j ,
GIMU/Linux ( ).
, bzip2 gzip.
,
. , gzip
.
:
g z i p []

[()]

, gzip, bzip2
. . :
-1,..., -9: . ,
.
-d: . gunzip
bunzip2.

429

31.
-: / , .

'|\

gzip, bzip2 ( ) , -. bzip2


, -. gzip .

. , , .txt,
bzip2 . :
$ b z i p 2 -9

*.txt

- , bzip2, gzip. ,
. , , ,
: , :
bzip2 -de images.tar,bz2

I gzip -9 >iraages.tar.gz

b z c a t bzip2 -de. gzip, zcat, gzcat. b z l e s s 12-


z l e s s gzip, , .
, b z l e s s z l e s s .

31.5. , ...
, , , . , .
: sort(l), sed(l)
zip(lL) (, , : .zip GNU/Linux), convert(l) . . , ,
, . !

430

32.
, . "", . 372. , .

32.1.
, ,
, .. , , .

32.1.1.
, , GNU/Linux,
. i n i t - , . (PID,
Process ID, ), . (PPID, Parent
Process ID, ), i n i t PID PPID 1.

32.1.2.
UNIX . 64 , ( 1)
(SIGx, - ). 32 "" ( 33
64) - , .
, : 9 (KILL) 19
(STOP).
9 ,
. , .
k i l l -1.

432

32.

32.2. : ps pstree
, , , p s t r e e
s - f.

32.2.1. ps
ps , ,
:
$ ps
PID TTY
18614 pts/3
20173 pts/3

TIME CMD
00:00:00 bash
00:00:00 ps

UNIX, ps ,
:
: , ;
: ,
;
:
.
. ps(l).
ps : PID,
CMD .
ps :
$ ps ax

I less

,

.

32.2.2. pstree
p s t r e e . , , ,
. -
PID - ,

432

32.
. .. , p s t r e e
:
$ p s t r e e -up I more

32.3. : kill, killall top


32.3.1. kill, killall
. k i l l
, k i l l a l l .
, .
15 (TERM). , PID 785, :
$ kill

785

19 (STOP), :
$ kill

-19 785

, .. , . , ps,
. "mozilla", :
$ killall -9 mozilla

( root),
,
, .

32.3.2. ps kill: top


t op - , p s H k i l l , a , , ..,
. 32-1.

433

32.

PID USER

PR

NI

VIRT

RES , SHR S %CPU

1+

COMMAND

32-1. top
t o p . , h. :
: . t o p
PID , (
TERM 15);
: ( %);
: ( %CPU). ;
: , t o p
. , UID.
, ;
i: , .
(,
STAT R, Running). .
:

32.4. : nice, renice


, " nice", -20 ( ) 19
( ). , - 0 ("" -

434

32.
). (
nice, -20) ( 19),
. 0 19. (root)

32.4.1. renice

, .
r e n i c e . :
renice

[[-]

pid

...]

[[-g]

pgrp

...]

[[-]

...]

- , pid - ( - ), pgrp -
( , -) - ,
(- ).
, PID 785, , , ,
. :
$ renice +15 785

,
, -
, ,
:
# renice +20 -u peter

peter .

32.4.2. nice
, , ,
. n i c e .

435

32.
nice. - n i c e 10.
, ISO- CD-ROM'a Mandriva Linux:
$ dd if=/dev/cdrom of=~/mandrival.iso

IDE CD-ROM
- ,
$ nice -n 19 dd if=/dev/cdrom of=~/mandrival.iso

436

33.
UNIX , .
GNU/Linux: ,
FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard -
), 2004
2.3. , ,
- Pathname (http://www.pathname, com/fhs/).
, , ,
, .

33.1. /,
/
UNIX : ,
.
, .
.
. ,
. , /
, .
, , , /usr, "" .

33.2. : /
, .. ( ) .
/bin: . ,
: I s , cp, l o g i n . , .

15 . 1489

37

33.
/boot: , GNU/Linux (GRUB
LILO Intel, yaboot ..). ( )
, ,
. , .
/dev: (dev . DEVices). , /dev, , , /dev/null, /dev/zero
/dev/tty. , .
/etc:
. , .
/home: .
(
NFS). ( )
(".") , Mozilla .mozilla.
, .
/lib: , ; /lib/modules/KERNEL_VERSION.
, /bin /sbin.
:
Id*,
libc. so. , .
/mnt: ,
/mnt/cdrom, /mnt/f loppy .. /mnt
( USB, ,
/mnt/removable). , .
/opt: .
; Adobe Acrobat Reader /opt. FHS , (, ,
..), /opt, /opt/package_name, - /etc/opt.
/root: root'. , .
/sbin: ,
. root'oM.
, . , .
/tmp: , . , .
/usr: "/usr: ", . 439.
, .

438

33.
/var: ,
(, , ,
.)- . .

33.3. /usr:
/usr .
, /usr , , . () , /usr
. :
/usr/XHR6: X Window System . ,
X ( -), . /usr/XHR6/lib/Xll X, .
/etc/Xll;
/usr/bin: , ,
. , : /usr/local;
/usr/lib: , , /usr/bin /usr/sbin. /usr/lib/Xll,
/usr/XHR6/lib - , X Window
System ( , X)1.
/usr/local: , , .
;
/usr/share: - , /usr.
() (zoneinf
locale).
/usr/share/doc /usr/share/man, .
1. , , X Window
Mandriva Linux X Window System Xorg.

439

33.

33.4. /var:
/var .
/tmp,
. ,
:
/var/log: ,
( : /var/log/messages
/var/log/kernel/errors).
/var/run: , ,
(. " : init sysv",
. 473).
/var/spool: ,
. , /var/spool/cups , a /var/spool/mail (,
).

33.5. /etc:
/etc - UNIX, ,
! ,
, ,
/etc :

:
passwd shadow: , . shadow
, ,
.
inittab: i n i t ,
. , " ", . 354.
services: .
profile: shell'a.
shell'oB. , . bashrc
shell'a bash.

440

33.
crontab: - , .
, , . , , X Window System,
/etc/Xll.

441

34.
" ", . 395, , ,
CD-ROM
, "" .

/mnt/remova /

34-1.
. 34-1 : - GNU/Linux - /home/, Windows, (Windows UNIX) USB-. GNU/Linux, , WebDAV
, Google""...
- . ,
. Mandriva Linux , , 1
. ,
: /usr.
"
, ", . 445, .
1. , .

443

34.

34.1.
, . , Windows
( , ),
GNU/Linux ,
.
, Windows " :", GNU/Linux
(/) ,
. ,
.
, .
. , -,
, . , - /var/www.
/home, . ,
, . 34-2 . 34-3.

/cgi-bin/html /icons


( )

,
"/var/www"
( )

34-2.

444

34.

/ home

/USX

/vax

/VU/MVU

/var/www/cgi~bi n

/va r/wvw/html

/var/wwx/icons

34-3.
, : ,
.
, , .
, :
1. , .
2. , : ,
, ,
"" . ,
, .

- "" . --bind. , -
/hidden/directory/ /new/directory, :
mount bind /hidden/directory/ /new/directory

445

34.

34.2. ,

: , .
, , .
, root'a.
"" (.. ). ,
IDE. /dev/hdb2. ,
" DiskDrake",
. 305, . DiskDrake
, , , .

34.3. mount umount


, , . , .. ,
. - mount ,
:
mount [] <t > [- ] <> < >

, /mnt/new (
; , ).
:
$ mount -t ext3 /dev/hdbl /rant/new

- t , . , : ext2FS ( GNU/Linux) ext3FS ( ext2FS ), VFAT ( DOS/Windows: FAT 12, 16 32), NTFS ( Windows)
ISO9660 ( CD-ROM'OB). , mount
, ,

- . , , 2. " ", . 398.

446

34.
.
mount(8).
, ,
/usr:
$ (cd /usr && tar cf - .) I (cd /mnt/new && tar xpvf -)

, .
umount. :
umount < |

, , :
$ umount /mnt/new

:
$ umount /dev/hdbl

, ( CD-ROM) . . , umount
/dev/hdc , "" umount.
:
umount

-1 < ! ^

(handle) . eject <


|>. , eject , , .
"" /usr,
. /etc/f stab. ,
. , . :
/dev/hda2 / ext3 defaults 1 1
/dev/hdd /mnt/odrom auto umask=0022,user,iocharset=utf8,noauto,ro,exec,users 0 0
/dev/hdal /mnt/windows ntfs umask=0,nls=utf8,ro 0 0
none /proc proc defaults 0 0
/dev/hda3 swap swap defaults 0 0

447

34.
, ;
;
;
;
dump;
f sck (FileSystem ChecK).
. swap
, , swap. /, "
/", . 465. /dev/pts.
, ,
- f s t a b - s y n c ,

(HAL, Hardware Abstraction Layer) /etc/f stab.
fstab-sync(8).
,
/usr /dev/hdbl, , /usr .
/etc/f stab:
/dev/hdbl /usr ext3 defaults 1 2

, .
ext3FS,
. ext2 r e i s e r f s.
, 2. , 1,
, /etc/f stab. (/)
1.
: noauto u s e r s . noauto
, ,
. u s e r s ,
.
CD-ROM . ,
/etc/f stab man (fstab(5)), .

448

34.
/etc/f stab mount. , , , :
$ mount /mnt/floppy

:
$ mount /dev/fdO

, ,
. /usr /etc/f stab, . , ,
/usr ,
, ( ).
,
t e l i n i t 1.
.
/usr. ,
"" , .. ( ) . rm -Rf
/usr/*.
, , /usr: mount /usr/.
. ( t e l i n i t 3
t e l i n i t 5 ), ,
, r o o t .

449

35. Linux
GNU/Linux . , GNU/Linux,
, .

35.1.
, .
, .
, Mandriva Linux.

35.1.1.
35.1.1.1. Ext2
Second Extended Filesystem ( ext2FS ext2)
GNU/Linux . Extended File System
( "Second"). ext2
.
ext2 UNIX-THna. ,

: .

35.1.1.2. Ext3
, Third Extended File System ext2. ,
"" ext2
(
). ,

451

35. Linux
, . .
.
, (, ) ,
. , ,
. .
,
. , , , .
, ext3 ext2, . ext2 ext3 .

ext2, ,
.

35.1.1.3. ReiserFS
ext3 r e i s e r f s . ext3, , ..
,
, ,
( ) . ,
.

" ", .

35.1.1.4. JFS
JFS - , IBM. , IBM
r e i s e r f s .

452

35. Linux
GNU/Linux .

35.1.1.5. XFS
XFS - , SGI Irix. ,
SGI . , ,
( ,
) ( ).

GNU/Linux
. .
.

35.1.2.
Ext2
!

()

Ext3

ReiserFS

JFS

XFS

()

- ,

453

35. Linux
Ext2

Ext3

,
,

ACL

ReiserFS

XFS

JFS

:
.
,
data=journal /etc/f stab.
35-1.
(..
ext2/ext3), , .
2.6. , Large Block Device
(CONFIG_LBD=y). Adding
Support for Arbitrary File Sizes to the Single UNIX Specification (http://www.unix.
org/version2/whatsnew/lfs.html), Large File Support in Linux (http://www.suse.
com/~aj/linux_lfs.html) Large Block Devices (http://www.gelato.unsw.edu.au/
IA64wiki/LargeBlockDevices). ""
, JFS .

35.1.3. ?

, . , , . , (
) .
. , .
ext2. ext3. r e i s e r f s , - ,

454

35. Linux
. JFS ,
. XFS , . ""
. ,
.

35.2.
, ,
UNIX (
Linux), , " ".
"" . , ,
, -, Ethernet - . . Linux
. ,
: GNU/Linux, UNIX, , PNG, -
. .

35.2.1.
I s - 1 ,
. : (-) (d).
,
:
1. : ( /dev/null, ), ( ), , ( )
(.. ). .
2. : ,
, , .
, , , , , CD-ROM .
: /dev/hda, /dev/sda5. .
3. : Mandriva Linux (. "-

455

35. Linux
: init sysv", . 473). , -
. , , . .
" ",
"1".
4. : , . ,
, shell'a, ,
. ,
. . """ ",
. 458.
5. : ,
. , ,
,
. s.
:
$ Is -I /dev/null /dev/sda /etc/rc.d/.d/S20random /proc/554/maps \
/tmp/ssh-queen/ssh-510-agent
crw-rw-rw1 root
root
1,
3 May 5 1998 /dev/null
brw-rw
0 May 5 1998 /dev/sda
1 root
disk
8,
16 Dec 9 19:12 /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/
lrwxrwxrwx
1 root
root
S20random -> . ./init.d/random*
prrr
1 queen queen
0 Dec 10
10 20:23 /proc/554/maps|
10 20:08 /tmp/ssh-queen/
1 queen queen
0 Dec 10
srwx
ssh-510-agent =
$

35.2.2. Inode'bi
Inode'bi - UNIX " ". "inode" - Information NODE
( ).
Inode'bi inode. ,
, , , . :
"Inode - ". inode'oB UNIX
.
, : UNIX ,
inode1. ,
1. : , inode
, .. inode .
inode'oB inode'oB " ".

456

35. Linux
. UNIX -
inode. .
.

35.3.
, , .
() :
$ pwd
/home/queen/example
$ Is
$ touch a
$ Is -il a
32555 - r w - r r 1 queen queen 0 Aug

6 19:26 a

- i Is inode .
, , .
,
(... inode).
touch :
inode'a, 32555
;
inode /home/queen/
example. , /home/queen/example/a - inode 32555, : 1.
:
$ In a b
$ Is -il a b
32555 - r w - r
32555 - r w - r r
$

2 queen queen 0 Aug


2 queen queen 0 Aug

6 19:26 a
6 19:26 b

inode. ,
. Hainode 32555
. , ,
I s - 1 , inode'a 2, 1.
inode'a ,
, inode'bi " " , . ,
- inode'a
.

457

35. Linux
:
$ rm a
$ Is - i l

32555 - r w - r
$

1 queen queen 0 Aug

6 19:26 b

, , " ", inode


. inode -
/home/que en/example/b.
, UNIX ; .
inode'ax. . ,
: ( .) ( . .). : ., .. .
(.. )
. ,
- Mandriva Linux (www.mandrivalinux.com), ,
. , shell'e, inode,
, , .
inode'oB .
, , . , , (.. ).
, , .

35.4. ""
, ,
. , shell ,
, .
, ( , shell'ax) ( ), FIFO (First In,
First Out, " - "). shell'e,
:
$ Is -d /proc/[0-9] I head -5
/proc/1/
/proc/2/
/proc/3/
/proc/4/

458

35. Linux
//5/

, ( ), . , I s , ,
. ,
, , , shell'aMH,
(.. , shell'a - )2.
- mkf i f :
$ mkfifo a_pipe
$ Is - i l
total 0
169 prw-rw-r
1 queen queen 0 Aug
6 19:37 a_pipeI
#
# , 1,
# ( ' ' ) .
#
# I n :
#
# You can a l s o use In h e r e :
#
$ In a_pipe the_same_pipe
$ Is - i l
total 0
169 prw-rw-r
2 queen queen 0 Aug
6 19:37 a_pipeI
169 prw-rw-r
2 queen queen 0 Aug
6 19:37 the_sarne_pipe I
$ I s -d /proc/[0-9] >a_pipe
#
# , . . .
# Control Z, ...
#
[1]+
Stopped I s -F - - s h o w - c o n t r o l - c h a r s c o l o r = a u t o -d /proc/[0-9] >a__pipe
#
# ... :
#
$ bg
[1]+ I s -F s h o w - c o n t r o l - c h a r s c o l o r = a u t o -d /proc/[0-9] >a_pipe &
#
# ...
#
$ head -5 <the_same_pipe
#
# ...
#
//1/
//2/
//3/
//4/
//5/

2. ,
.

459

35. Linux
[1]+
$

Done

Is -F show-control-chars

color=auto -d /proc/[0-9]

>a_pipe

. , , head , ,
- - :
$ head -5 <a_pipe
#.
# , : C-z
#
[1]+ Stopped
head -5 <a_pipe
#
# .. .
#
$ bg
[1]+ head -5 <a_pipe &
#
# . . . - :)
#
$ I s -d /proc/[0-9] >the_sarae_pipe
/proc/1/
/proc/2/
/proc/3/
/proc/4/
/proc/5/
[1]+
Done
head -5 <a_pipe
$

1 s
, head. , a head ,
.

35.5. :

, ,
. , , .
,
:
$ dd if=/dev/fdO

of=/dev/null

:
.
. ,

460

35. Linux

.
, (,
):
$ cat

//////- >/dev/lpO

, ,
, : , . ,
/dev/lpO - .
: , . : , . , Linux
. , , sync async mount(8), a
" ", . 463 .
, .
, I s -1 ,
.. :
$ Is -I /dev/hdc /dev/lpO
brw-rw
1 queen cdrom 22, 0 Feb 23 19:18 /dev/hdc
crw-rw
1 root root 6, 0 Feb 23 19:17 /dev/lpO

/dev/hdc 22 0,
/dev/lpO 6 0. , . ,
.

35.6. . ""

(
UNIX), , , ( "" ),
( , ""). , , (
"" "").
- , , ( )
.

461

35. Linux
, , , . :
5 echo Hello >myfile
$ In -s myfile raylink
$ Is - i l
total 4
169 -rw-rw-r
1 queen
416 lrwxrwxrwx
1 queen
$ cat myfile
Hello
$ cat mylink
Hello

queen
queen

6 Dec 10 21:30 myfile


6 Dec 10 21:30 mylink -> myfile

, mylink - ' 1' ( Link), ..


. rwxrwxrwx. , myfile -
, .. inode . , , c a t mylink,
myfile. , , :
$ I n - s " "
$ I s - i l
418 lrwxrwxrwx
I queen
queen
->
$ c a t
c a t : : No such f i l e or d i r e c t o r y
$

20 Dec 10 21:43

, , ("") :
inode , . : inode'e,
.
, . , , , .
,
,
.
, , "".
, , , .

462

35. Linux

35.7.
FAT, (, ,
, ), GNU/Linux , .
, . , - .

: l s a t t r c h a t t . ,
, , l s a t t r ("LiSt") , c h a t t r ("CHange") .
. , chattr(l):
1. A ("no Access time"): , ,
, , ,
, , - ,
inode,
.
2. a ("append only"): ,
,
. ,
, . r o o t .
3. d ("no dump"): dump - UNIX . ,
1 /etc/f stab (. " ", .
443). , ,
, . ,
, .
4. i ("immutable"): : , 3
. r o o t .
,
, ,
i.
5. s ("secure deletion"): , ,
, .
3. , , " " !

463

35. Linux
6. S ("Synchronous mode"): ,

, i ,
. : , ,
, .

464

36. /
/ Linux. , , ,
.
, - , (, ). /,
, . , (top, ps ), / - , , , ,
, /.
/proc/sys.
.

36.1.
/, ,
. , :
$ Is -d /proc/[0-9]*
//1/
//302/
//127/ //317/
//2/
//339/
//250/ //385/
//260/ //4/
//275/ //402/
//290/ //433/
//3/
//450/

//451/
//452/
//453/
//454/
//455/
//463/
//487/
//491/

//496/
//497/
//5/
//501/
//504/
//505/
//509/
//554/

//556/
//557/
//558/
//559/
//565/
//569/
//594/
//595/

//633/
//718/
//755/
//760/
//761/
//769/
//774/

, ( )
, . root'oM ,
1, in it
:
$ SU
Password:
# cd /proc/1
# Is -1
total 0

-rrr
lrwxrwxrwx
lrwxrwxrwx

1
1
1
1
1

root
root
root
root
root

root
root
root
root
root

0
0
0
0
0

Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug

15
15
15
15
15

18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14

auxv
cmdline
cwd -> II
environ
exe -> /sbin/init

465

36. /proc
dr-x
-rw-rr
-r--rr
-rw
-rrr
-rw-rr
-rrr
lrwxrwxrwx
-rw
-rrr
-rrr
-rrr
dr-xr-xr-x
-rrr
#

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1

root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root

root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14
18:14

fd/
loginuid
maps
mem
mounts
oom_adj
oora_score
root -> //
seccomp
stat
statm
status
task/
wchan

.
:
1. cmdline: () ,
. :
, .
, : p e r l - p i e ' s , \ 0 0 , , g' cmdline.
2. cwd:
( ).
3. environ: , , =. cmdline, :
. : p e r l
- p i e ' s , \ 0 0 , \ n , g ' environ.
4. exe: ,
.
5. f d: ,
. .
6. maps: ( cat, ), , ( ): , ; ,
; , ; ( ) ,
; inode ; , ,
. 0 inode
- . mmap(2).
7. root: ,
. /, chroot(2).

466

36. /
8. status: , , PID PPID,
UID GID, . ,
s t a t statm . , ,
status.
f d ,
:
# Is -I /proc/8141/fd/
total 4
lrwx
1 peter peter
lrwx
1 peter peter
lrwx
1 peter peter
1-wx
1 peter peter
#

64
64
64
64

Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug

4
4
4
4

09:05
09:05
09:05
09:05

0
1
2
3

->
->
->
->

/dev/ttyl
/dev/ttyl
/dev/ttyl
/horae/peter/seti32/lock.sah

, . , - , , 1. : - , ,
, , .

36.2.
, , /
/ :
$ I s -d [ a - z ] *
acpi/
diskstats
draa
asound/
driver/
buddyinfo
bus/
execdomains
fb
cmdline
config.gz
filesystems
cpuinfo
fs/
crypto
ide/
devices
interrupts
$

ioraem
ioports
irq/
kallsyras
kcore
keys
key-users
krasg
loadavg

locks
mdstat
meminf
misc
modules
mounts@
mtrr
net/
partitions

pci
scsi/
self@
slabinf
splash
stat
swaps
sys/
sysrq-trigger

sysvipc/
tty/
uptime
version
vrastat

, /proc/interrupts, , , , , . 1. , " ", . 388,


, 0, 1 2. 0 - ,
1 - 2 - .

467

36. /proc

, ioports /, , , dma DMA. , , :


$ cat interrupts
CPU0
0:
543481
2:
0
5:
109
7:
1
8:
0
3432
9:
10:
52855
11:
7538
12:
1386
14:
20
15:
5908
NMI:
0
LOC:
0
ERR:
0
0
MIS:

XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC
XT-PIC

$ cat ioports
0000-OOlf
dmal
0020-0021
picl
timerO
0040-0043
0050-0053
timerl
keyboard
0060-006f
0070-0077
rtc
0080-008f
dma page reg
00a0-00al
pic2
dma2
00c0-00df
OOfO-OOff
fpu
0170-0177
idel
01f0-01f7
ideO
0376-0376
idel
parportO
0378-037a
037b-037f
parportO
03c0-03df
vesafb
ideO
03f6-03f6
03f8-03ff
serial
parportO
0778-077a
0970-0977
0000-.00: 0b. 0
0970-0977
sata_nv
09f0-09f7
0000:00:0b.0
09f0-09f7 sata_nv
0b70-0b73 : 0000:00:0b.0
070-073 sata_nv
0bf0-0bf3 : 0000:00:0b.0
0bf0-0bf3 : sata_nv
0cf8-0cff : PCI confl
4000-407f : motherboard
4000-4003 . PMla_EVT_BLK
4004-4005 : PMla_CNT_BLK
4008-400b : PM TMR

468

timer
cascade
ohci_hcd:usb2, ethl
parportO
rtc
acpi, NVidia CK8
ehci_hcd:usb3, ethO
libata, ohci_hcd:usbl
i8042
ideO
idel

36. /
4020-4027
4080-40ff
4080-40ff
4200-427f
4200-427f
4280-42ff
4280-42ff
4400-447f
4400-447f
4480-44ff
44aO-44af
5000-503f
5000-503f
5100-513f
5100-513f
9000-9fff
9000-907f
9000-907f
acOO-acOf
acOO-acOf
b000-b07f
bOOO-bO7f
b800-b8ff
b800-b8ff
bc00-bc7f
bcOO-bc7f
C000-C007
c000-c007
c400-c41f
fOOO-fOOf
f000-f007
f008-f00f

GPEO_BLK
motherboard
pnp 00:00
motherboard
pnp 00:00
motherboard
pnp 00:00
motherboard
pnp 00:00
motherboard
GPE1_BLK
motherboard
pnp 00:01
motherboard
pnp 00:01
PCI Bus #02
0000:02:07.0
0000:02:07.0
0000:00:0b.0
sata_nv
0000:00:0b.0
sata_nv
0000:00:06.0
NVidia CK8
0000:00:06.0
NVidia CK8
0000:00:04.0
forcedeth
0000:00:01.1
0000:00:09.0
ideO
idel

Scat dma
3: parportO
4: cascade
$

, , l s d e v ,
, , ,
2
:
$ lsdev
Device
0000:00:01 .1
0000:00:04 .0
0000:00:06.0
0000:00:09.0
0000:00:0b.0
0000:02:07.0
cascade
CK8

2.

DMA

IRQ

I/O Ports
c400-c41f
c000-c007
b800-b8ff bc00-bc7f
fOOO-fOOf
0970-0977 09f0-09f7 0b70-0b73 0bf0-0bf3 acOO-acOf
9000-907f
9000-907f

lsdev procinf .

16 3 1489

469

36. /proc
dm a
dmal
dma2
ethO
ethl
forcedeth
fpu
GPE0_BLK
GPE1_BLK
i8042
ideO
idel
keyboard
motherboard
NVidia
ohci_hcd:usbl
parportO
PCI
picl
pic2
PMla__CNT_BLK
PMla_EVT_BLK
PM_TMR
pnp
rtc
sata_nv
serial
timer
timerO
timerl
vesafb
$

0080-008f
0000-OOlf
OOcO-OOdf
10
5
c000-c007
OOfO-OOff
4020-4027
44a0-44af
12
14
15

11
7

01f0-01f7 03f6-03f6
f000-f007
0170-0177 0376-0376
f008-f00f
0060-006f
4000-407f 4080-40ff 4200-427f 4280-42ff 4400bc00-bc7f
b800-b8ff
0378-037a 037b-037f 0778-077a
0cf8-0cff 9000-9fff
0020-0021
00a0-00al
4004-4005
4000-4003
4008-400b
4200-427f
4280-42ff
4080-40ff
0070-0077
0970-0977
09fO-09f7
0b70-0b73
03f8-03ff

4400-447f
0bf0-0bf3

0
0040-0043
0050-0053
03c0-03df

,
:
cpuinf : , ,
.
modules: , , . lsmod,
.
meminf :
. f r e e ,
.
: , ,
, , BIOS ( , ), ""

470

36. /
.. , ,

, ACPI . .
bus: ,
. , :
l s p c i d r a k e , l s p n p .
acpi: , , , . , , , acpid kapacity.
:
battery
,
, ,
..
button
, "" : , , .
fan
-
, / . .
processor
CPU .
. , :
, ;

.
, , .

472

36. /
thermal_zone
/.

36.3.
/proc/sys - , .
/,
, root'.

- , ,
. ,
;
1. : Mandriva Linux
, .
root'oM :
$ echo I >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

1 0, .
2. 1-: IP- , IP- , ,
, .
3. ,
. :
$ echo I

>/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/rp_filter

.
, .
-, ,
, ,
/etc/rc.d/rc.local.
. /etc/sysctl. conf. sysctl.conf(5) sysctl(8).

3. !

472

37. : init sysv


System V UNIX AT&T
UNIX.
.
.

37.1. init
,
, / s b i n / i n i t 1 . i n i t . (. . " ", . 474).
i n i t ' a /etc/inittab
(inittab(5)),
.
, , :
si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

i n i t ' y , / e t c / r c . s y s i n i t
(si System Init). ,
, i n i t ,
initdefault:
id:5:initdefault:

i n i t , 5. , 5, :
15:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5

, .
i n i t (respawn) ,
. , login, 1. /sbin .
/ s b i n / i n i t .

473

37. : init sysv


6- , init'oM 2 .
:
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2

37.2.
, , / e t c / r e d . :
$ Is /etc/red
init.d/ rcO.d/
re*
rcl.d/

rc2.d/
rc3.d/

rc4.d/
rc5.d/

rc6.d/
re.alsa_default*

re.local*
re.modules*

rc.sysinit*

, r e . sysinit - , . : , , ..
. , - ,
<>
rc<x>.d. Mandriva Linux ,
:
0: ;
1: . .
2:

3: .
4: .
5: 3- ,
.
6: .
. d:
$ Is /etc/red/rc3.d/
K09dm@
S12syslog@
S01udev@
S13partmon@

S24messagebus@
S25haldaemon@

S40atd@
S55sshd@

S91dictd-server@
S921isa@

2. 6 , ,
. , 64. , X ,
.

474

37. : init sysv


S03iptables@
S05harddrake@
S10network@
Sllshorewalig
$

S15cups@
S17alsa@
S18sound@
S20xfs@

S25netfs3
S29numlock@
S33nifd@
S34mDNSResponder@

S56ntpd@
S56rawdevices@
S75keytable@
S90crond@

S95kheader@
S991ocal@

, ,
. :
<S|><><_6>

S {Start) , (Kill) . , , . ,
, / e t c / r e d / i n i t . d ( l o c a l ,
).
, ,
: , , stop.
S, , , s t a r t .
, , , 3- , 9dm (..
/ e t c / r c . d / i n i t . d / d m stop). S: SO ludev,
/ e t c / r c . d / i n i t . d/udev s t a r t , S 0 3 i p t a b l e s .
, (, , 4-) , .

37.2.1.
chkeonfig , , chkeonfig add _ () 3
_ chkeonfig d e l
_ () .
3. "" , , , 2- , .

475

37. : init sysv


chkconfig - - l i s t , ,
.
chkconfig - - l e v e l s 35 sshd on SSH
3- 5- , chkconfig - - l e v e l s 3 sound off 3- . l e v e l s _,
,
,
.

37.2.2.
s e r v i c e ,
,
. :
s e r v i c e _
_ - , chkconfig l i s t , a
:
start
. , ,
, , : r e s t a r t , .
stop
. , ,
,
.
restart
, . s e r v i c e _ s t o p && s e r v i c e _ s t a r t .
, , , .

(
). , r e l o a d -

476

37. : init sysv

; f o r c e - s t o p ; s t a t u s . s e r v i c e
_ , .

477

.
GNU (GPL)
GPL, , Mandriva Linux.

2, 1991 Copyright () 1989,1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple


Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
, , .

.
() ,
.
, GNU ,
,
.. .
,
( GNU .)
.
, , .
, , ( );
, ;
; .
, , . ,
era
, , ,
. ,
. , ,
.
:

479

. GNU (GPL)
1. ,
2. , , / .
, , , ,
, . - , , , ,
, - , , ,
.
, . ,
, . , ,
,
.
,
.

.2. ,

0. , ,
, , . ""
, ",
" ,
, , , /
. ( "".) "".
, , , ; .
,
, , ( ,
). , , .
1. , ,

;

480

. GNU (GPL)
, - ;
.

.
2. , , , 1, , , :
1. ,
, , .
2. , , , -
, , .
3.
, ,

,
, (, ,
, ), , ,
. (: , ,
, , .)
.
, ,
. , , ,
, , , ,
.
, , , ;
, , .
, , , ( , -

481

. GNU (GPL)
)
3. ( , ) 2) 1 2, , ,
:
1. ,
1 2, , , ; ,
2. ,
, ,
, , 1 2, ; ,
3. , . (
,
) .)
, .
, ,
, , , , ( , ) (, ) ,
, ,


, , .
4. , ,
, . ,
, . , , , .

482

. JIuv,eH3uaGNU (GPL)
5. , . , , ,
. ,
. , ( , ),
, .
6. , ( , ),
, , . -
, .
.
7. ,
( ),
, ( ,
), .
, , ,
. ,
, , ,

- , ,
, .
- ,
, ; -
, . ,
, ; ,
- ,
.
, ,
.
8. / , , , ,
, ,

483

. GNU (GPL)
, . ,
.
9.
/ .
, ,
. ,
" ",
, , .
,
, - .
10. , . ,
,
; . :


11. , , . ,
,
/ " "
- , , , ,
. . ,
, .
12. ,
, ,
,
/ , ,
, , ,

484

. GNU (GPL)
, (, , ,
, , -
, ),

.

485

.
account
, ; UNIX , , , shell'a, .
alias
, ; , shell'e
.
, a l i a s .

ACPI
(Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, ) , . , BIOS, ACPI , . ACPI

(Advanced Power Management, ) ,


' standby
("") . (laptop)
( ) . ACPI, .
. ACPI.
ARP
(Address Resolution Protocol, ) -, - ( ) . ,
(hardware broadcasting).
ASCII
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange,
) ,
, . 8-
( ISO 8859-1 - Linux,
, UTF-8) ASCII .
. : ISO 8859, UTF-8.
assembly language
; , ,
"" . -

487

.
, .:
. - ( ).
. , , .
ATAPI

(AT Attachment Packet Interface,


AT- ) ATA (Advanced
Technology Attachment, IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics, ), CD-ROM .
IDE, , EIDE (Enhanced IDE).
. : IDE.
ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode, )
, () . ATM
(53 : 48 5 ),
.
atomic
, ; ,
" ":
, .
,
.
background
; shell'a, ,
,
.
. : job, foreground.
backup
, , ; , ( : /etc, /home /usr/local).
t a r g z i p bzip2.
dump r e s t o r e ,

488

.
batch
; ,
, .
beep
, ; , , ; , , . , ,
.
beta testing
-; - .
"-", "-" "release candidate"
binary
() , ; , .
bit
(Binary digiT, ) ; ,
1,
.
block mode files
; , . / , , , .
. : buffer, buffer cache, character mode files.
boot
; , ,
.
boot disk
; (, CD, DVD ), ,
( ).
bootloader
, ; , .
, .

489

.
GRUB LILO,
.
BSD
(Berkeley Software Distribution, ) UNIX, , .
, ,
UNIX .
buffer
; ,
, , .. .
. : buffer cache.
buffer cache
; , , , .
. : buffer.
bug
, ; ,
.
. , : ( . bug - ) ,
. (Grace Hopper), , " !" ("It's a bug!"), .
, , bug.
byte
; , , 0
255. " " , ,
, .
. : bit.
case
; , - () () .

CHAP
(Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol, ) ,

490

.
. ,
( ) , (hash).
, . ,
, .
. : .
character mode files
; , . , / . (/dev/zero,
/dev/null ), .
. : block mode files.
CIFS

(Common Internet FileSystem, ;) SMB, DOS.


. : SMB.
client
; ,
.
(peer-to-peer), SLIP , , , , , .
-.
. : server.
client/server system
-; ,
.
command line
; .
" " ("flame war") .
command mode
; Vi , ,
,
, ( ).
, " ": i, I, a, A, s,
S, , , , ...

492

.
compilation
; , (, )
(, ), , .
completion
; ( Tab) ,
, .
compression
, , ;
, . : compress, zip, g z i p bzip2.
console
; , . ( ), (
). PC, -
.
. : virtual console.
cookies
, :); ,
-. ,
.
datagram
, ; ,
IP-.
- "".
dependencies
; ,

, , , , . , " ".
desktop
, ; X Window System,
, (). ,
, .
. : virtual desktops.

492

.
DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, ) , IP-
directory
, , ; .
( ). . ,
. ,
.
, , . . .. , , .
.
discrete values
; , . .. "".
distribution
, ; , GNU/Linux . : Linux , ,
, ()
.
DLCI
(Data Link Connection Identifier, )
-
(Frame Relay). DLCI
Frame Relay.
DMA
(Direct Memory Access, ) , PC,
, CPU. PCI- (bus mastering) DMA. CPU.
DNS
(Domain Name System, ) , . IP-,
. DNS IP- .

493

.
DPMS
(Display Power Management System, ) , . "green''- ( ).
echo

; , , , , .
. , * ( )
.
editor
; , , ( ). GNU/Linux
- GNU Emacs (Emacs) UNIX Vi.
ELF
(Executable and Linking Format, ) , GNU/Linux.
email
electronic mail, , "";
. ()
. "@.",
"@.". - , .
, ,
pine mutt ( ), KMail.
environment
, ; , .
, , ,
.
. : process.
environment variables
; .
.
. : process.

494

.
escape
, ; shell'a,
. ,

,
\ ( "escape"),
shell
extl
("Extended 2 file system", )
GNU/Linux, UNIX: ( ,
..),
.
FAQ
(Frequently Asked Questions, , "") , , FAQ'H
(newsgroup). -,
FAQ. .
FAT
(File Allocation Table, ) , DOS Windows.
FDDI
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface,
- ) , . ,
, , - .
FHS
(File system Hierarchy Standard, ) ,
UNIX. Mandriva Linux
.
FIFO

(First In, First Out, " - ")


, .
FIFO UNIX.

filesystem
; , ( , ).

495

.
: FAT, ext2fs GNU/Linux, ISO9660 ( CD-ROM-) .. - /.
firewall
, , ; , , , .

fl*g
; ( ),
. , , ,
, , . ,
, , - .
focus
; , ( ),
.
foreground
; shell'a,

. , .
. : job, background.
Frame Relay
; ,
Frame Relay, ,
,
.
framebuffer
, , ; . . .
FTP

(File Transfer Protocol, ) -


496

.
full-screen
; ,
.

gateway
, ; ,
.
GFDL
(GNU Free Documentation License, GNU ) , Mandriva Linux.
GIF
(Graphics Interchange Format, )
, . GIF
. - , , , ,
PNG.
. : PNG.
globbing
() shell, .
. : globbing pattern.
globbing pattern

, ; , . shell'oM.
GNU
(GNU's Not Unix, GNU - UNIX) GNU (Richard Stallman) 80- . ("" " ").
, ... .
GNU - Hurd - . Linux GNU,
, : - - - GPL.
. : GPL.
GPL
(General Public License, ) GNU/Linux,
() ,
, ,
, ,
. , , , .

497

.
GUI
(Graphical User Interface, )
, , , .. GUI CLI
(Command Line Interface, ), - , , .
guru

; . - ,
.
hardware address
; ,
. - Ethernet .25.
hidden file
; , ""
I s . . . , bash
.bash_history.
home directory
, ""; "home", .
. : account.
host
, , ; ,
.
HTML
(HyperText Markup Language, ) , -.

HTTP
(HyperText Transfer Protocol, ) , - HTML-
.
icon
, , ; ( 16x16,32x32,48x48, 64x64 ), , .
IDE

(Integrated Drive Electronics, .)


. IDE

498

.
,
( !).
. : ATAPI, SATA, S-ATA.

IMAP
(Internet Message Access Protocol, )
,
; POP.
. : POP.
inode
, ; , 1- .
, , , , ,
!
insert mode
; Vi , ,
(
,
...). Esc (
CtrH).
Internet
; , .
1-04@5
, ( 4 IPv4) , IP-
: , ,
. IP- - 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 1 .
. IP- , .. . IP- ,
. IP-, IP-.
IP masquerading
IP-; , ,
IP- . , ,
IP-. , IP-, .

499

.
IRC
(Internet Relay Chat, , "")
- .
, . ,
IRC: Undernet, DALnet, EFnet .
IRC-:0=0;K
"" IRC-, . IRC- , . , .
"" , .
#.
ISA
(Industry Standard Architecture, )
, PC. ISA SCSI-,
, CD- .
ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network, ) , .
,
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network, ) POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service, ). ISDN
ISO
(International Standards Organization, ) , , , , . , , . ,
iso9660 , CD-ROM.
ISO 8859
, 8-
ASCII. ISO 8859-1 - "Latin Alphabet No. 1" (
1), - - ASCII.
ISO 8859-1 : , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
, ISO 8859-1 256 ISO 10646 (Unicode). EURO -

500

.
. ISO 8859-15
ISO 8859-1 .
. ASCII, UTF-8.
ISP
(Internet Service Provider, ) ,
, -1, DSL
.

JPEG
(Joint Photographic Experts Group, ) . JPEG

.
job
; shell'a, - , . ,
.
. : foreground, background.
journaling
; ,
. ,
, "" ,
, , ,
.
kernel
; .
. , , .
kill ring
Emacs ,
. , .
LAN
(Local Area Network, ) ,
,
,
. : WAN.

17 3. 1489

501

.
launch
; , .
library
; ,
(
). , , .
link
, ; , ()
. , ( , ): ( ),
( ), ..
linkage
, , ; ,
, ( ,
).
Linux
; 1\11- , . . Linux (Linus
Torvalds).

login
, ; UNIX ,
.
lookup table
, ; ,
( ) . ,
.
, HardDrake .
, CTL00 01
"CTL0001" "sb" "Creative Labs|SB16" "sound"

"HAS_OPL3IHAS_MPU401|HAS_DMA16"

loopback
, , ;
, ,
.

502

.
major
. , ; .
manual page
; ,
man. ,
, .
MBR
(Master Boot Record, ) . ,
, (, LILO), .
MIME
(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, ) /,
, . MIME ,
.
minor
, ; , , .
MPEG
(Moving Pictures Experts Group,
) ISO,
. MPEG - . ,
, ,
MPEG-, Open Source...
mount point
; GNU/Linux, . , CD-ROM /mnt/cdrom,
-.
mounted
; ,
GNU/Linux. , .
"" ("supermount"), , .
. : mount point.

503

.
MSS
(Maximum Segment Size, ) , .
, MSS MTU IP.
MTU
(Maximum Transmission Unit, ) , , IP- .
MTU ,
. ,
,
MTU . :
1500 Ethernet- 576 -.
multitasking
; . . , , , , .
, ,
. : .
.
() . ( GNU/Linux), ,
,
. (
).
multiuser
; ,
,
.
. GNU/Linux, UNIX, ,
.
named pipe
; UNIX, ,
, .
. : pipe, link.

504

.
naming
, ; , .
" " , ..
NCP
(NetWare Core Protocol, NetWare) ,
Novell'oM Novell NetWare.
NFS
(Network FileSystem, ) ,
Sun Microsystems, .
newsgroups
, ; ,
USENET,

. , a l t .os . linux.mandrake (alt), (os) GNU/Linux
(linux), - Mandriva Linux (mandrake). , .
NIC
(Network Interface Card, ) , ,
Ethernet-.
NIS
(Network Information System, ) NIS " " ("Yellow Pages"),
British Telecom. NIS - , Sun
Microsystems NIS,

, ,
.
null, character
, ; 0,
.
object code
; , , . .
. : compilation, linkage.

505

.
on the fly
; - " ", - ,

open source
, ; ,
,
. , : Apache, sendmail
GNU/Linux.
operating system
; ,
. . GNU/Linux
.
: AmigaOS, Mac OS, FreeBSD, OS/2, UNIX, Windows NT
.
owner
; ,
, .
owner group
-, ; , ,
, , , .

(Password Authentication Protocol, ) ,


- (
!) . () /, . CHAP ( , ) .
. : CHAP.
pager
; , ,

l e s s .
password
; , -. , -, FTP- ..

506

.
. ,
.
patch, to patch
, ; ,
, - .
( "").
path
; .
"" ( '/') GNU/Linux
. - . ( ) -
PCI
(Peripheral Components Interconnect,
) , Intel,
PC . ISA- : , , IRQ, .

PCMCIA
(Personal Computer Memory Card International Association,
)
"PC Card", , : , , ,
Ethernet- .
People Cannot Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms ( )...
pipe
, , , ; UNIX. , .
UNIX FIFO, ..
, . . .
pixmap
(pixel map, ) .
plugin
, ; ,
,

507

.
-.
.
PNG
Portable Network Graphics ( ). , GIF, , .

(Plug'N'Play, " ") ISA,


. , ,
. PCI- Plug'N'Play.
POP
(Post Office Protocol, ) , ISP. IMAP
.
. : IMAP.
porting
, ; , , Windows GNU/Linux ( ),
GNU/Linux.

(Point to Point Protocol, "-") , .


IP- ,
, 11 IPX.
precedence
, ; .
: 4 + 3 * 2 10, ..
, . , : (4 + 3) * 2.
14, .. , , .
preprocessors
; ,
, .
: # i n c l u d e , # d e f i n e ..

508

.
process
; , -
.
prompt
, ; shell'a, .
, .
protocol
; . , .. : HTTP, FTP, TCP UDP.
proxy
; , ,
(, HTTP FTP). , , -, ,
, . ( ).
,
.
pulldown menu
; , ""
. , "" , .
quota
; .
,
.
RAID
(Redundant Array of Independent Disks, ) ,
, .

. ,
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
( ).
RAM
(Random Access Memory, ) , . "Random" ("")

509

.
, .
read-only mode
" "; ,
. ,
.
. : read-write mode.
read-write mode
"-"; , . .
. : read-only mode.
regular expression
; ,
. ,
. UNIX : sed, awk, grep, perl .
RFC
{Request For Comments) -, IETF'OM (Internet Engineering Task Force, ). , , . , , RFC.
root
; UNIX. (
) ,
UNIX. ,
.
root directory
; . , '..' .
'/'.
root filesystem
; ,
GNU/Linux
, .
.
route
; , , . .

510

.
RPM
(RPM Package Manager, RPM) , Red Hat .
GNU/Linux, Mandriva Linux.
run level
; ,
.
/etc/inittab. : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 - i n i t n t e l i n i t .
SATA, S-ATA
(Serial ATA) ATA. SATA 1.5 /, , 1133.
. : ATAPI, IDE.
script
, ; ,
. Shell- UNIX () DOS.
SCSI

(Small Computers System Interface, ) , . IDE SCSI-


. "high-end''- SCSI-
, PC
.
security levels
; Mandriva Linux,
, . 6
0 5, 5- .
.
segmentation fault
; , , .
.

511

.
server
; ,
. , SLIP , ,

-.
. : client, client/server system.
shadow passwords
;
UNIX, " ", , . , , .
shell
, , ; , , .
,
shell- DOS,
. : bash, sh tcsh.
single user
;
, .
site dependent
; , ,
, imake make , , , ..
SMB
(Server Message Block, ) , Windows
. : CIFS.
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, ) . SMTP
(), sendmail postfix. SMTP.
socket
; , .

512

.
soft links
.: symbolic links
standard error
; 2,
; , .
.
. : standard input, standard output.
standard input
; 0, ; ,
.
. : standard error, standard output.
standard output
; 1, ; ,
. .
. : standard error, standard input.
streamer
; , "" (
) .
- .
SVGA
(Super Video Graphics Array, ) ,
VESA PC-. 800x600x16
, 1024x768x16 .
switch
, ; . ,
, man- h e l p (.. program help).
symbolic links
; , ,
. ,
. , .
target
; , .. , .

523

.
TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol, ) , - (IP)
. TCP IP,
. UDP , ,
telnet
telnet, ;
, . -
, , ssh.
- (. ).
theme-able
; ,
. .
TLDP
(The Linux Documentation Project, Linux)
, GNU/Lin . HOWTO,
FAQ'H .
- : FAQ.
traverse
; UNIX ,
, , .
,
.
URL
(Uniform Resource Locator, ) ,
. , - .
URL:
: //:@. [ :] ///.
h t t p : //, , , index.html.
username
; ( - ),
.
UID'OM ( ).
. : login.

514

.
UTF-8
(Unicode Transformation Format 8; Unicode, 8) (8-) Unicode. UTF-8 Unicode 1 4 ,
, Unicode. Unicode,
US-ASCII, U+0000
U+007F . UTF-8 - XML.
. : ISO 8859, ASCII.
variables
; , Makefile
. Makefile.
Makefile .
, - ,
(, , ..), .
verbose
, ; , (, ,
) .
" ", , .
VESA
(Video Electronics Standards Association,
)
PC. , SVGA.
virtual console
; , .
GNU/Lin ,

. , ALT-F1 ALT-F6.
- ALT-F7, X Window System. X
CTRL-ALT-F1 CTRL-ALTF6.
. : console.
virtual desktops
; X Window System
.
,
. , .

515

.
,
. : window manager, desktop.
WAN
(Wide Area Network, ) , LAN,
,
.
. : LAN.
wildcard
, ; '*' '?' . '*' , . '?'
. .
window
; - ,
.
, - , , , , .
window manager
; , " "
, , , ,
,
, ...
workspace switcher
; , . .
. : virtual desktops.

526


.bashrc, 382
-
, , 234
, 235

Firefox, 97
Konqueror, 144
- Linux, 57
, 103
, 362
, 363
, 107,109
X Window, 37

, 236
-
, 35
Mandriva Linux, 209
, 347
, 51

, 384

Active Directory, 31
LDAP, 31
MS, 31
PDC, 31

, 320
, 35
, 21
, 143
-, 155
, 152
Kaffeine, 153
, 155
, 373
, 101
, 384
, 385

ctime, 381

atime, 381
mtime, 381

, 282
, 52, 56
, 42
, 174

GIMP, 163
- ATI
OpenGL, 361
- nVidia
OpenGL, 361

, 35
, 367
, 385

, 282

, 41
, 395
, 310

Mandriva Linux, 4
, 57
, 60

, 397

, 29

, 9
, 41
, 354
, 353
, 39
, 353

, 356
, 347
, 101

, 35

517

, 387
, 3
, 390
, 458
, 458
, 456

, 384
, 383
, 383
, 381
, 382
, 20
, 238
, 35
IM, 107

, 289

, 390

, 381
, 413

, 387
, 381

at, 426
bzip2, 429
cat, 376
cd, 374
chgrp, 385
chkdsk, 9
chmod, 385
chown, 385
cp, 384
crontab, 424
defrag, 9
DrakConf, 209
grep, 415
gzip, 429
init, 473
kill, killall, 433
less, 377,389
lilo, 42

518

Is, 377
mkdir, 381
mount, 446
mv, 383
ps, 432
pwd, 374
rm, 382
rmdir, 382
scandisk, 9
sed, 389
tar, 350,427
touch, 381
umount, 447
we, 389
, 421
, 368
, 289
,289
, 359

, 437, 466
, 396

, 6
, 18
, 51
, 51
, 470

, 152,155
, 163
, 176
, 177

, 35, 239
, 34

, 356

, 51
, 328
, 355

GRUB, 33
LILO, 33


, 42
, 19
, 40

, 229
, 12
, 231

, 56

, 375
, 466
, 45

, 398
, 398
, 12

Open Office, 132


OpenOffice.org, 117,125

, 214

, 27
, 27
, 28
, 27
, 217,217
, 27, 226

noauto, 15
text, 15
vgalo, 15
, 15
, 368
root, 30
, 103
, 389
, 189

Java, 103

, 387

, 231

Mandriva Linux, 363
, 363
, 361
, 357
, 347
, 367
Peter Pingus, 291
Queen Pingusa, 291
, 32, 292
, 7
, 290
, 387
, 385
, 368, 374

DiskDrake, 305
Drakbug, 214
DrakPerm, 322
DrakSec, 319
Firefox, 97
GIMP, 166
GnomeMeeting, 155
HardDrake, 229
ImageMagick, 390
K3b, 197
Kaffeine, 153
Kat, 67
Konqueror, 141
Kopete, 107
KPrinter, 189
lpd, 255
MenuDrake, 275
MPlayer, 155
msec, 319,322
Open Office, 132
OpenOffice.org, 117,125
PrinterDrake, 241
Rfbdrake, 341
Rpmdrake, 217
ScannerDrake, 181
Totem, 155
UserDrake, 290
X-Chat, 110

529

Xine, 155
Mandriva Linux, 209,
217, 259
, 54
, 390
, 361
, 360
, 363
, 11
SMB, 255
URI, 255
, 241
, 244
, 254
, 248
, 35, 240
, 244
, 244
, 250
, 244, 250
, 244
, 245
, 255
, 251
, 254
, 244
lpd, 255
, 254
, 3

Open Office, 132

OpenOffice.org, 125

, 224

, 214
, 372, 392,465
, 431

, 55

520

, 54
, 63
, 395,444
DrakX, 22
NTFS, 10
, 24
, 399
, 399
, 25
, 399
, 25
, 305
, 24, 310
, 3

, 231

, 362

, 327
, 327

, 327

tar, 350,352
, 352
, 356
, 348

, 301

, 293
, 3
, 395
, 396
, 51
,395
, 362

, 35
, 259
, 35

, 387
, 391

, 359
, 180
(OCR),
188
, 39
, 36
, 279

, 63

, 462
, 461

, 388
, 388
, 388

, 35
, 60

, 357
, 305

Emacs, 401
vi, 406

OpenOffice.org, 117
, 23
, 42
, 341
, 474

, 42
,40
,41
, 42
, 19

, 310

, 381
, 367

, 324
, 35

, 384, 463
, 455
, 460 .
, 357
, 384
, 314
, 383
, 383
, 421
, 322
, 455
, 460
, 381
, 456
, 455, 457
, 382

, 357

Konqueror, 141

, 284
, 54
, 175

, 35

, 283
, 107,109

, 269

, 281

, 362
, 363
, 16
, 20, 238
applications
FLPhoto, 175
BIOS, 11
Plug'n'Play, 11
Borges, ??

521

CD, 310
, 197
chkdsk, 9
CPU
load average, 80
defrag, 9
desktop
GNOME, 73
DHCP, 272
DiskDrake
hda, 306
NFS, 314
Samba, 312
, 310
DocBook, ??
drag'n'drop, 143
Drakbug, 214
DrakConf, 209
DrakPerm, 322
DrakSec, 319
DrakX, 13
DVD, 310
fax, 194
FHS, 437
GID, 369
GIMP, 166
GNOME
desktop, 73
lock screen, 79
logout button, 79
main menu, 79
panel, 74
GPL, 479
GRUB, 33
, 355
HardDrake, 229
, 230
IDE
, 398
inode, 456
, 456
IRC, 109
KDE, 63
, 53
keyboard

522

GKB, 80
Konqueror, 141
, 144
, 143
, 143
, 144
, , 143
LDAP, 31
legacy-free
, 361
, 361
LILO, 33
, 355
Linux, 45
lock screen
GNOME, 79
logout button
GNOME, 79
lpd, 255
Mandriva Linux
, 19
Mandriva Club, 1
Mandriva Expert, 1
Mandriva Linux
, 1
, 1
Mandriva Store, 2
Mandriva Linux
, 57
, 42
Mandriva Linux, 363
, 222
MBR, 42
menu, main
GNOME, 79
MenuDrake, 275
, 276
, 279
msec, 319,322
NFS
, 314
NIS, 31
OpenGL
- nVidia, 361
- ATI, 361

panel
GNOME, 74
Peter Pingus, 7
PID, 372
Plug'n'Play
OC,11
PnP , 11
PrinterDrake, 241
Queen Pingusa, 7
RAM memory, 396
root, 51
, 54
, 30
, 369
Samba, 312
, , 312
scandisk, 9
ScannerDrake, 181
SCSI
, 398
shell, 374
Soundblaster, 398
swap
, 396
udev, 400
UID, 369
UNIX, 367
USB, 12
UserDrake, 290
usr
, 397
WebDAV
, 316
Windows, 45
, 312
, 314
,354
, 354
X-Chat, 110
-
, 359

523

. .
Linux. 2-

www.bhv.ru

" "
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E-mail: opt@bhv.spb.su

Linux
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Linux
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. , Linux
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CHIP, "", "
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. .
OpenOffice.org - Linux
Windows (+Cd-ROM)

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? OpenOffice.org,
Micro!
Windows soft Office, ,
,
MS Office
.


, , . , , , .

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. MS Agent Speech API Delphi (+CD-ROM)

448 .

. OpenGL

736 .

C++ (+CD-ROM)
. DirectX 9. C++ (+CD-ROM)

400 .

A. MS Agent. (+CD-ROM)

352 .

. (+CD-ROM)

272 .

. MS Office Delphi
(+CD-ROM)
. C++

496 .
496 .

(+CD-ROM)
.

384 .

. 1: 7.7/8.0:

336 .

. Windows

880 .

(+CD-ROM)
A. HTML Web-

400 .

. MS SQL Server 2000:

608 .

. STL C++
., . : GD1+ DirectX
(+CD-ROM)
. C++

656 .
368 .
496 .


. USB.
(+CD-ROM)

576 .


. : ,
. Linux (+CD-ROM)

1200 .
480 .

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Mandrakesoft. Mandrakelinux 10.0 (+CD-ROM)

144 .

., . .

272 .

- .

224 .

. .

129 .

. :
, 2- .
. . ADEM CAD/CAM/TDM. , ,
(+CD-ROM)

480 .
320 .

. ,

654 .

., . Unix , 3- .

848 .

. 7. ISUP.

480 .

. V5.1 V5.2.

288 .

. , 2- .

318 .

. Call-

372 .

. .
., . ,
3- .

320 .
608 .

. QNX Momentics: (+CD-R0M)

256 .

. QNX:
, 2- . (+CD-ROM)
. ,
4- .
., . , 4- .
. MS Windows XP Professional.

192 .
352 .
816 .
528 .

70-270
., . , 3- .

448 .

. -
2003
. -
2004
. Visual Basic. (+CD-ROM)

224 .
224 .
288 .

. . , 2- .
. : , ,
., . .
, 2- .

624 .
512 .
240 .

192 .
1056 .
. . . 2- .
. MS Windows XP Home Edition:
768 .
. AutoCAD 2005
400 .
, . 320 .
. Windows WMI WMIC (+CD-ROM)
752 .
400 .
. . PC
496 .
. , 2- .
280 .
. :
. : , , 5- . 299 .
1200 .
. : ,
528 .
. UNIX
320 .
. , 3- .
288 .
.
448 .
., . :
.


., .
., . 2004
., . Delphi.
., . TCP/IP. (+CD-ROM)
. : , ,
. Delphi (+CD-ROM)
. Delphi (+CD-ROM)
. C++ (+CD-ROM)
. AutoCAD AutoCAD LT
.
.
(+CD-ROM)

126 .
368 .
576 .
976 .
360 .
880 .
368 .
336 .
680 .
384 .
270 .