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Camelia CHIRIL



Piteti, 2012

English for Business Studies Camelia Chiril, Mihaela Bursugiu Contribuia autorilor: Camelia Chiril: Unit 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Mihaela Bursugiu: Unit 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24


Editura Independena Economic 2012 Piteti, Calea Bascovului nr. 2A Tel./Fax: 0248/21.64.27 Nici un fragment nu poate fi reprodus fr permisiunea scris a Editurii.

Tehnoredactare computerizat n laboratoarele de informatic ale Universitii Constantin Brncoveanu Lucia Negril


INTRODUCTION...............................................................4 UNIT 1 ...........................................................................6

THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC STUDIES........................................6

Vocabulary & grammar practice.............................................6 UNIT 2 ...........................................................................8

THE EUROPEAN UNION............................................................................8

UNIT 3 .........................................................................12

BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS..................................................................12
UNIT 4 .........................................................................16

BUSINESS MANNERS & ETIQUETTE....................................................16

Introduction The purpose of this book is to assist students in improving their business English communication. In many ways, the book looks like a general course book, but, as the title suggests, with a particular focus on business communication. It gives clear practical tips per each topic that might be applicable to their daily communication, especially in business. The layout of the book is very simple focusing on reading, speaking, listening, and writing skills. The book is organized into twenty-four units where reading texts are used as contexts to develop the students communication skills. Each unit has two different sections. The first section is based on interaction, word associations, comprehension, oral and written communication and language activities. The topics approached in the book encourage students to think and communicate on the themes discussed. The second section focuses on grammar and it aims to help students know the basic grammar rules and use grammatical structures accurately when communicating in real language tasks. This book is primarily a learner-centered and task-based course book. It reflects some of the approaches in English language teaching and learning currently in practice around the

world. Overall, the book provides students with an interesting and practical tool for intensifying communication in the English language while studying and practising grammar. We believe students will find this book a refreshing change and we advise them to keep it on the work desk for an easy reach when needed.

The authors


What is Economics? Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek oikonomia = management of a household, administration (oikos = house, and nomos = custom or law, hence rules of the household). Economics aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Economic analysis is applied in the entire society, in business, finance and government, but also in education, the family, health, law, politics, religion, social institutions and science. Why to study Economics? Because economics teaches students how to understand and spot secondary effects and to detect possible economic consequences. For instance, a government creates a tax to pay for some needed social program, but the secondary effect of that tax is that it changes peoples behaviour, causing economic growth to slow. By learning more about economics and working on hundreds of economics problems, you learn the skill of being able to spot secondary effects and unintended consequences in other areas. This can help you make better decisions about your personal life and make you more valuable to business; what are the possible secondary effects from the proposed marketing campaign? It likely wont help you get a job, but being able to spot and understand the importance of secondary effects, it may help you keep a job or earn a promotion that much faster. Another reason for studying economics is that you will learn more about how the world works. You will discover the impact that some decisions have on the firm, industry, and national level. You will learn more about the impact of international trade, both good and bad. You will discover the effect government policies have on the economy and on employment; again both good and bad. It will help you make more informed decisions as both a consumer and as a voter. Furthermore, some people believe that having a more economically literate set of bureaucrats, politicians, and journalists would be great for society - so long as they always keep an open mind about what theyve been exposed to. Economics, when done properly, shouldnt so much tell people what to think, rather it should give them tools about how to think of things more clearly and realizing the assumptions they may be making. Vocabulary & grammar practice I. Answer the questions: 1. What is economics? 2. In what fields of activity is the economic analysis applied? 3. Give some reasons for which people should study economics. 4. Economic studies offer many career opportunities for young people. Give examples in point and describe some of your examples. 5. Express your point of view on: Economic knowledge is useful at a personal level: you get a lot of skills that you can apply to various jobs or to

your personal life. Learning about interest rates, exchange rates, economic indicators and capital markets can help you make better economic decisions. 6. Describe the economic environment in Romania and its consequences. II. Find synonyms for: to spot, term, entire, to apply, likely, behaviour, to earn, to learn about, to cause, to think. III. Complete the table below with the correct plural forms: Singular job economy custom business 1. The economic activity is nowadays c knowledge society company 2. The importance of economic service studies is due to a firm 3. The importance of economic consequence studies has hastened e decision consumer 4. Some people consider that b economist 5. The worlds main concern today d 6. Peoples character and their thinking represent f Plural jobs economies customs businesses evolution a. the and development of production knowledges strategies, and the expansion societies of economic activity. companies b. the present world problems services are caused by the emergence of the world economic powers. firms c. the product of the economic consequences conditions and circumstances decisions of society. consumers d. remains the economic development. economists e. the fact that mans essential and predominant activity is economic. f. mans predominant and essential activity. IV. Match the beginning of the sentences with the suitable endings:

V. Translate the following text into English: Economia Romniei este o economie de pia, conform Constituiei din 1991. n conformitate cu aceasta, statul este obligat s asigure libertatea comerului i protecia concurenei loiale. n anii trecui, ramurile cele mai importante ale industriei erau industria petrolifer i cea a gazelor naturale. De asemenea, Romnia era una dintre cele mai importante ri din sud-estul Europei pentru exportul de gru. ntregul sistem economic romnesc a trecut prin schimbri radicale ncepnd cu anul 1989. Astzi, specialitii au elaborat un nou plan naional unic al ntregii activiti economice i sociale care vrea s pun bazele strategiei generale de dezvoltare economico-social. n aceste condiii, activitatea economic i, n general, macroeconomia, se va desfura potrivit normelor i reglementrilor stabilite de noul guvern, innd seama de indicatorii economico-financiari. VI. Translate the following text into Romanian: Economists study how society distributes resources, such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery, to produce goods and services. They conduct research, collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends, and develop forecasts on a wide

variety of issues, including energy costs, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates, business cycles, taxes, and employment levels, among others. Many economists specialize in a particular area of economics, although general knowledge of basic economic principles is essential. Microeconomists study the supply and demand decisions of individuals and firms, such as how profits can be maximized and the quantity of a good or service that consumers will demand at a certain price. Industrial economists and organizational economists study the market structure of particular industries in terms of the number of competitors within those industries and examine the market decisions of competitive firms and monopolies. These economists also may be concerned with antitrust policy and its impact on market structure. Macroeconomists study the economy and forecast future trends in areas such as unemployment, inflation, economic growth, productivity, and investment. Monetary economists and financial economists study the money and banking system and the effects of changing the interest rates. International economists study global financial markets, currencies and exchange rates, and the effects of various trade policies such as tariffs. Labor economists and demographic economists study the supply and demand for labor and the determination of wages. These economists also try to explain the reasons for unemployment and the effects of changing demographic trends, such as an aging population and increasing immigration, on labor markets. Public finance economists are involved primarily in studying the role of the government in the economy and the effects of tax cuts, budget deficits, and various economic policies. VII. Write an article about your ideas of improving economy and suggest ways of achieving this goal.Think of various measures that need to be taken for our countrys economic stability.


The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 European countries. Its mission is to keep stability and prosperity, raise living standards, launch a single European currency, and progressively build a single Europe-wide market in which people, goods, services and capital move among member states as freely as within one country. The European Union (with a population of over 500 million inhabitants) is not a federation like the United States or an organization for cooperation between governments, like the United Nations. It is, in fact, unique. The countries that make up the EU remain independent sovereign nations but together they gain a strength and world influence that none of them could have on their own. EU member states The EU member states are currently the following: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom. EU symbols

The EU is recognizable by several symbols, the most well-known being: The European flag (a circle of 12 yellow stars on a blue background, which symbolize the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of Europe). Another symbol is the European anthem. The melody used to symbolize the EU comes from the Ninth Symphony composed in 1823 by Ludwig Van Beethoven. The EU motto: United in diversity signifies how Europeans have come together to work for peace and prosperity, while at the same time being enriched by many different cultures, traditions and languages. Europe Day is celebrated on 9 May every year. The first ideas to build the European Union were put forward on 9 May 1950 by French foreign minister Robert Schuman. Money in the EU The EU budget is funded from sources including a percentage of each member country's gross domestic product. It is spent on diverse efforts such as raising the standard of living in poorer regions and ensuring food safety. The EU obtains revenue not only from the contributions of its member countries but also from import duties on products from outside the EU and a percentage of the value-added tax levied by each country. The euro is the common currency of most EU countries and it symbolizes the monetary union. The euro is used every day by approximately 327 million Europeans and it is a proof of cooperation between the EU countries. Romania in the EU To be accepted in the EU, the EU officials - who monitorized Romania - ordered the government in Bucharest to fight corruption, clean up the justice system and combat the possible misuse of farm subsidies. Consequently, during the 2000s, Romania implemented a number of reforms to prepare for the EU accession, including the consolidation of its democratic systems, of the law system, the importance of respect for human rights, the personal freedom of expression, and the implementation of a functioning free-market economy. As a result, Romania joined the EU on 1 January 2007. The main benefits of Romanias integration in the European Union were: the increase of the populations welfare, increase of the stability of the democratic system and safety of the state, no boundaries or visas necessary, easy travelling, possibility to move to any member country and find a job everywhere in a member country, respect of the ecological norms that improve the environment and the quality of life, free transfer of goods, freedom to provide services, free transfer of capital, health, education, information and a higher quality of life in general. I. Answer the questions: 1. What is the European Union? Enumerate the EU member states. 2. What EU symbols can you mention? When do people celebrate Europe Day? What is the euro and what does it signify? 3. What are the measures that Romania was imposed to take in order to be accepted in the EU? 4. When did Romania join the EU and what are Romanias benefits in joining the EU? 5. Express your personal opinion about the following statement: The intention of the European Union was and is... the political union. The reason was and is... economic.

II. Give the corresponding verbs to the following nouns: Noun Verb Noun Verb union To unite import To import influence To consolidatio To influence n consolida te symbol To cleaning To clean symbolize strength To celebration To celebrate strengthen harmony To improveme To improve harmonize nt III. Find synonyms for the following terms: prosperity, single, to make up, inhabitants, countries, to raise, duties, currencies, diverse, possibility. IV. Choose one word and fill in the blanks: commercial, inspired, contracts, conversion, letter, effect, while, automatically The Euro was introduced on 1 January 1999, .. its name was decided at the European Council in Madrid in December 1995. Euro banknotes and coins were launched on 1 January 2002. One euro is divided into one hundred cents. The introduction of the euro did not have the .. of changing or modifying .. and does not provide a legal excuse for trying to do so. Any financial amounts expressed in national currency units in mortgage, insurance or any other contracts should be .. changed into euros at the fixed .. rate. The graphic symbol for the euro was .. by the Greek letter epsilon and refers to the first .. of the word "Europe". The parallel lines represent the stability of the euro. It is registered with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 10036) for business, financial and .. purposes. V. Translate the following text into English: Romnia are nevoie de Europa, fiindc numai n cadrul european ara noastr i poate gsi stabilitatea i dezvoltarea. n acelai timp, i Europa are nevoie de Romnia, pentru c o construcie european fr Romania ar lsa un spaiu gol i periculos la porile orientale ale continentului. Pe de alt parte, Romnia ofer frumuseile ei naturale, valoarea monumentelor istorice i de art, un folclor bogat i original, dar i un potenial economic foarte important. Romnia are n prezent o economie deschis, inclus n circuitul economic european i mondial. ara noastr este un stat care, prin suprafaa i numrul de locuitori, prin bogiile sale materiale i spirituale, prin tradiia sa istoric, are reale perspective de a reconstrui o societate deschis, odat cu dezvoltarea Europei i a lumii in secolul al XXI-lea. Prin urmare, putem afirma c: Uniunea European are nevoie de Romnia i, n aceeai msur, Romnia are nevoie de Uniunea European. VI. Translate the following text into Romanian: The European Union was established on 1 November 1993, when the Treaty on European Union, or Treaty of Maastricht, was ratified by the 12 members of the European Community (EC) - Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain,


Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. According to the treaty, the countries of the EC became members of the EU, and the EC became the policy-making body of the EU. Under the Treaty on European Union, European citizenship was granted to citizens of each member state. The agreements offered the European citizens a greater freedom to live, work, or study in any of the member states, and border controls were relaxed. A goal of establishing a common European currency (European monetary union) was set for 1997. Prior to November 1993, the European Union was called the European Community. The EC was composed of what originally were three separate organizations: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), created in 1951; the European Economic Community (EEC, often referred to as the Common Market) and the European Atomic Energy Commission (Euratom), both set up in 1957. The three institutions merged in 1967, creating the EC and establishing headquarters in Brussels. VII. Debate on the importance of speaking foreign languages within the European Union (Give examples of EU countries that recognize more official languages, talk about a persons advantages when speaking more foreign languages. Support your ideas with clear examples and personal views).



The etymology of business refers to the state of being busy doing some profitable work. The usages of the term business may refer either to a particular company or corporation, or to a particular market sector, such as the computer business. There are different kinds of business forms with different structures and rules. The three major types of business organisations are: the sole proprietorship, the partnership, and the corporation. Sole Proprietorships - A sole proprietorship is a business structure in which one person is the owner. The owner has full control/authority of its business and owns all the assets, suffers all losses or enjoys all the profits. A sole proprietorship must apply for a Business Name and be registered with the Department of Trade and Industry. The business may employ few or many people, but there is only one owner, who runs the business and makes the profits or losses. A major advantage of a sole proprietorship is that a business may begin under this form of organisation with little cost and legal work. Although sole proprietorships are relatively small businesses, some of todays great businesses began as individually owned enterprises. For example, companies such as the Ford Motor Company, Levi Strauss and Co., and McDonalds originally were founded and owned by one individual. Partnerships - A partnership is a business entity that consists of two or more partners and has a separate legal personality from that of its members. Partnerships may either be general partnerships, where the partners have unlimited liability for the debts and obligation of the partnership, or limited partnerships, where one or more general partners have unlimited liability and the limited partners have liability only up to the amount of their capital contributions. Some partnerships such as the large international firms have hundreds or even thousands of partners. There are different types of partnership agreements. Individuals may be equal partners or have unequal interests in the partnerships profits and losses. There are silent partners, who contribute funds to the enterprise but do not engage actively in the business, and active partners, who run the business. Organisation of a partnership does not require the formal approval of a state or other governmental agency. A partnership requires merely an oral or written agreement among the people who are to be partners. The partnership agreement should specify the distributions of profits and losses and settlements in the event of illness, incapacity, or death of a member. Corporations - A corporation is a business entity that is viewed legally as separate and distinct from its owners, who are termed stockholders. The liability of the shareholders of a corporation is limited to the amount of their share capital. The documents include the corporations name, principal location of business, and the number of shares that is authorised for sale to the public. Ownership in a corporation is designated by stock certificates. Ownership of stock is equivalent to ownership of a proportionate share of the corporation. State laws govern the sale or transfer of corporate stock from one person to another. In contrast with a sole proprietorship, a corporation is a separate legal entity. As a result, the owners of the corporation have limited liabilities. However, the amount


that they have invested in the corporation is available to satisfy corporate debts. This limited liability of corporations enables them to obtain funds from many owners who want to invest for the opportunity of increasing the value of their stock. These owners may not wish to participate actively in the operations of the enterprise. Therefore, corporations usually have a separation of ownership from management. The stockholders elect a board of directors, who may not be owners. The board, in turn, appoints the officers of the corporation (president, vice-president, treasurer, secretary) to manage the business. Many large corporations are publicly owned, which means that the corporations stock is bought and sold by the public on the Stock Exchange. Thus individuals can easily buy or sell shares of stock of corporations. As a result, large publicly held corporations have hundreds of thousands and, in some cases, over a million shareholders. A corporation can either be stock or non-stock company. Stock Corporation - This is a corporation with capital stock divided into shares and authorized to give the holders dividends or allotments for the surplus profits on the basis of the number of shares held. Non-stock Corporation - It is a corporation organized principally for public purposes such as charitable, educational, cultural or similar purposes and does not issue shares of stock to its members. I. Answer the questions: 1. Enumerate three major types of business organisations. 2. What is a sole proprietorship? What major advantage does a sole proprietorship have? 3. What is a partnership? What are the characteristics of general partnerships and limited partnerships? 4. What is a corporation? Who are the owners and who are the managers in a corporation? 5. Should you start your own business, what field of activity would you choose and why? 6. Speak about a successful company in Romania or abroad. II. Give synonyms for: company, profitable, requirement, to apply for, unlimited, owner. III. Write the word family of TO EMPLOY. IV. Choose words from the box to complete the sentences that follow: Reason = because, as, so, since, therefore, consequently Contrast = although, in spite of, but, however, yet, nevertheless 1. Brand-stretching can be very risky it can also be very lucrative. 2. The value of promotions is questionable, most consumers switch back to their usual brand when the promotion ends. 3. Companies have to keep their shareholders happy. , brand managers are under pressure to find ways of boosting sales. 4. a brand may sell well in one country, it may not sell at all in another. 5. Price is a signal of quality, consumers will often pay more for premium brands.


6. In 1991, advertising accounted for around a third of all marketing outlay, , in 1980, the picture was very different. 7. their disappearance from the market, Mac food blenders continued to rank second with consumers 20 years later. 8. 85% of small businesses fail within the first 5 years fail . they run out of money. V. Give the corresponding nouns: to account, to own, to employ, to lose, to agree, to contribute, to venture, to require, to approve, to withdraw, to settle, to apply, to sell, to invest. VI. Find the appropriate definitions for the terms below: 1. transaction 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a. business activity begun by two or more people or companies working together corporation b. someone who is in charge of the money for an organisation, club, political party treasurer c. a big company, or a group of companies acting together as a simple organisation joint venture d. d. someone who owns shares in a business owner a business deal shareholder someone who owns something

VII. Put the verbs into the Present Simple or Present Continuous according to the case: a. State laws generally .. the sale or transfer of corporate stock from one person to another. (to govern) b. The manager is busy at the moment as a new customer .. to him. (to talk) c. They .. us the price lists this week. (to send) d. A partnership .. an oral or written agreement among the people who are to be partners. (to require) e. The stockholders .. a new board of directors at the moment. (to elect) f. Corporations often .. partners in joint ventures. (to become) g. The liability of the shareholders of a corporation .. limited to the amount of their share capital. (to be) h. All employees .. actively in the operations of this enterprise. (to participate) i. In general, corporations a separation of ownership from management. (to have) j. These owners their shares now as they want to start another business. (to sell) VIII. Translate into English: Dezvoltarea unei afaceri n Romnia n general, nu este necesar nici o autorizaie legal special pentru nfiinarea unei afaceri n Romnia. Procedura general de nfiinare presupune ndeplinirea anumitor formaliti legale: obinerea unei decizii judectoresti, nregistrare la Registrul Comerului i la Autoritatea Financiar. O persoan fizic sau juridic poate face investiii n Romnia sub o varietate de forme legale. n concordan cu practica i


legislaia international, societile comerciale, se clasific astfel: societi cu rspundere limitat (SRL), societi pe aciuni (SA), parteneriate. IX. Translate into Romanian: Starting a business in todays environment brings opportunities and challenges. New lifestyles demand greater choice of products and services. New technologies and greater access to global markets have provided increased business opportunities. At the same time increased competition, insistence on quality and unremitting pressure for lower costs, just to mention some issues, represent major challenges for business. For Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) the challenge is greater. They lack resources and the capacity to handle complex business management. Typically, less than half survive more than five years and only a small proportion go on to become large companies. How to ensure the growth of the Romanian SME sector a fundamental feature of all developed and growing economies is a major economic challenge. SMEs are a vital source of new jobs, exports and economic contribution to our country. The economic revitalisation of South East Europe is primarily dependent on private sector investment. The environment for creating and sustaining businesses is still underdeveloped in Romania. Reforming and improving the environment for entrepreneurship is a priority nowadays. X. Express your opinion on our countrys economic opportunities and challenges.



Business experts have continuously debated on the value of business etiquette, including practicing good manners. Business etiquette refers to more than just eating with the right fork. Business manners are considered to be an important ingredient to success. Having good manners will help you regardless of the business you are in. Any time you make contact with a client or a potential client, you are making a mini-presentation of yourself, ultimately representing] your company, services or products. We keep hearing more and more from top executives that personal skills are very important, in many cases even more important than technical skills. But how can you mind your manners if you do not know the rules? It is never too late to take the initiative to begin your own professional development. Here are some hints to keep your manners sharp. 1. Address individuals by their title: There is much informality in the workplace today. Still, the proper way to address a client or a superior is to greet them using their title followed by their last name. It is up to the other persons to ask you to call them by their first name. 2. Make contact: There are few physical contacts that are appropriate in business; the most important and acceptable is your handshake. If your handshake is firm and strong it suggests that you are decisive, in control. Now think of the impression you had after shaking hands with someone that presented a weak, slippery or lifeless handshake. 3. Smile: This seems very simple, but its amazing how peoples moods and words are misjudged because their expressions are often overly-serious. A smile shows that you like yourself; you like your place in the world and youre happy with the people youre interacting with. A smile says, Im approachable and confident. 4. Dress properly: It can be insulting to your coworkers or clients to show a lack of concern about your appearance. Being unshaven, messy or wearing filthy clothes communicates (intentionally or not) that you dont care enough about the situation or the company to present yourself respectably. If in doubt, always keep a conservative style. 5. Be punctual: Imagine you have arranged a business meeting at four oclock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they are German, they will get in time. If they are Americans, they will probably be 15 minutes early. If they are British, theyll be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians. There is an international etiquette concerning how to behave with foreign business partners. If you want not to behave badly abroad you should know something about the customs of your business partners country: The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink during the meal, while the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime. American executives sometimes show their feelings of importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk. In Japan, people would be shocked because showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manner.


The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behaviour. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is always a mark of respect. The American sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be less formal, as illustrated by the universal Have a nice day!. The British are cool and reserved. The frequent topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather. In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. Oh, you live there? I have a friend who once worked there. Learning the rules of business etiquette is not hard to do, it is not costly, and it is the best professional development tool that any business person can use to increase their chances of success. People truly desire to do business with those that make them comfortable and know how to best handle themselves in a variety of situations. Practicing good business etiquette is well worth the investment and brings benefits all the time. 1. 2. 3. 4. I. Answer the questions: What is the importance of business manners and etiquette nowadays? What do you understand by good business etiquette is well worth the investment? What good manners can business people employ to succeed? Which nationalities are the most and least punctual? 5. Think of three examples of bad manners in business. For example, in Britain it is considered impolite to ask people how much they earn. Comment on: Etiquette is not for special occasions; it is for everyday use. II. Make up sentences with the following terms: business, success, business meeting, business partner. III. Complete the table below with the missing words: Nouns Verbs Adjectives value To value valuable consideration to consider considerative development To develop developed cost To cost costly increase to increase Increasing\ increased investment To invest invested IV. Fill in the text with the missing words: influence, to remember, disrespectful, chances, questions, before, to be, him, prosperity. China is considered . one of the biggest economic powers in the world. Chinese have a rich culture and they are extremely proud of their historical background. These factors have a huge . on the way Chinese conduct their business.



The first thing that you have . while doing business in China is that Chinese are more comfortable in conducting business with someone they trust, so dont be surprised if your Chinese partner asks you some . about your family, children, or marriage, things that are considered personal in western countries. Although the general way of greeting in China is a nod and a slight bow, Chinese businessmen are also comfortable with a handshake. While addressing a Chinese businessman, you should remember that, in China, the family name comes . the given name. Calling someone by his name is considered disrespectful unless you are really close to the person. So, if someone is named Teng Zhang, it would be appropriate for you to address . as Mr Teng. The art of addressing correctly is more important as you have to use the title of the person along with his name. So, if Teng Zhang is the chairman of the organization, you have to address him as Chairman Teng. The Chinese are very sensitive to the issue of seniority. If your Chinese partner has hosted a lunch for you and your personal assistant enters the room before you, . are that you would be mistaken for being the personal assistant! You have to keep this in mind even while buying gifts for the Chinese. It is important that the senior most person gets the most precious gift. Chinese love to be gifted and consider this as a mark of respect and consideration. You should never wrap your gift in black or white color as these are the colors of mourning in China. Red is the most preferred color as it is the color of wealth and . . Some other things that you should remember are that Chinese value punctuality immensely and turning up late for a meeting is considered . . In the end, we would advise you to be yourself as the Chinese wouldnt expect you to be perfect with Chinese business etiquette. V. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. El nu ar fi fost angajat dac nu ar fi dat dovad c are experien n domeniu. 2. Dac a ntlni un japonez a face o plecciune pentru a-l saluta. 3. Dac se va purta nepoliticos va pierde muli prieteni de ncredere. 4. Vei ajunge la rezultatul dorit dac ii cont de tradiiile i obiceiurile acestei ri. 5. Poi s ne nsoeti n aceast cltorie de afaceri dac nu vorbeti prea mult i nu te pori urt cu partenerii notri. 6. Cnd vei avea ntlnire cu un american, trebuie s tii c el va veni cu 15 minute mai devreme. 7. Trezete-te mai devreme pentru a realiza ceea ce i-ai propus s faci azi. 8. Voi plecai mine diminea deci luai-v rmas bun de la prietenii votri italieni acum. VI. Write some basic business etiquette ideas that foreigners need to know when doing business with a Romanian partner.