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Roslyakov

and L.A.

Chudov,

Editors

NUMERICAL IN

METHODS

GAS DYNAMICS

(Chislennye metody OF v gazovoi PAPERS dinamike) OF THE STATE UNIVER_SITY

OF THE MOSCOW II

Izdalel'

Universiteta

Translated

from

Russian

Israel

Program

Translations

NASA F-360 TT TT 65-50138 Published Pursuanto anAgreement ith t w THENATIONAL AERONAUTICS ANDSPACE ADMINISTRATION, U.S.A. and THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, WASHINGTON, D.C.

_)

Translated

by Z. Lerman

Printed

in Jerusalem Binding: K.

by S. Wiener

Monson

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

I.

STEADY

GAS

FLOW

G, S.

Roslyakov

and G.F.

Telenin. CENTER

SURVEY GAS

WORK AT THE

OF MOSCOW

UNIVERSITY

L.A.

Chudov

and V.P.

ROUND-OFF ..............

SOLUTIONS EQUATIONS

OF BOUNDARY-VALUE

PROBLEMS

U.G.

Pirumov,

V.A.

Rubtsov,

and V.N.

Suvorova. WITH

EXHAUST

NOZZLES

PHYSICOCHEMICAL

REACTIONS

G.S.

Roslyakov

and N.V.

Drozdova.

NUMERICAL CONE

COMPUTATION

OF 41 /

FLOW PAST

A SCALARIFORM

............

T.G.

Volkonskaya. JETS

OF SUPERSONIC

AXISYMMETRIC 51 _J

BOUNDARY

LAYER

L.A.

Chudov.

REVIEW

OF BOUNDARY-LAYER CENTER

STUDIES

AT THE . 57 J

OF MOSCOW

STATE

SHORTCOMINGS

OF CLASSICAL

BOUNDARY-LAYER 6,5 /

..................

74

V.M.

Paskonov WAVY

BOUNDARY

V.M.

Paskonov

and Yu. V.

MELTING ...........

OF VISCOUS 85

/

Starova.

BOUNDARY

LAYER 94

/_

CRITICAL

iii

Bulatskaya, and F.P. Vasil'ev. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF A BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM FOR THE SYSTEM OF NONLINEAR INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BOUNDARY LAYER .................. OF A HYPERSONIC I0_ f _..J

III.

VISCOUS

FLOW

A.L.

MODELS ...............

FOR EQUATIONS

OF

.// 114 , (J

A.L.

OF FLOW

BETWEEN 121%1

A.L.

Krylov and A.F. Misnik. STABILITY OF VISCOUS TWO ROTATING CYLINDERS ...............

FLOW

BETWEEN 123

/

L.A.

Chudov

and T.V.

Kuskova. FLUID

APPLICATION ................

OF DIFFERENCE FLOW

SCHEMES . 132 /

TO COMPUTATION INCOMPRESSIBLE

OF NONSTATIONARY

OF VISCOUS

IV.

SEEPAGE

PROBLEMS

B.M.

Budak and F.P. Vasil' ev. IN THE RAY METHOD PROBLEMS .....................

CONVERGENCE AND ERROR ESTIMATES FOR THE SOLUTION OF SOME SEEPAGE 145

EXPLANATORY PERIODICALS

LIST

OF ABBREVIATED IN THIS

NAMES

OF INSTITUTIONS

AND 166

APPEARING

BOOK

..............

iv

I.

STEADY

GAS

FLOW

gas

This flow

article carried

reviews the computational out at the Computational 1957 and 1962. The

University

between

workers of the Institute graduate and graduate organizations, and the project was headed by This article is those of completed present collection.

of Mechanics of Moscow State University, understudents of the University, members of other regular staff of the Computational Center. The Academician G. L Petrov. nature _accounts and the of which results given are published are mostly in the

NUMERICAL BY

THE

COMPUTATION METHOD I.

OF

GAS

FLOW

Potential of

with

of

plane of the

the Mach number M over the increasing function M=[(x)with I'(O)=0: [(C)=Mo, x being the computation characteristic been tabulated: is made BC by the the up to

nozzle axis (in the form of a monotonically a piecewise continuous derivative; ]tO} =l, coordinate along the nozzle axis}. The method critical of characteristics section. SLdx series from the straight have of nozzles

Mo:I.506; 1.75; Mo=4.5; 50) 8; M0=4(0.5 ) 7; Mo_8, 9, 10; ,14o=10(1)20; Mo=lO(5) 25;

I0;

Ig tg tg tg tg

ratio

of

specific

heats

_ was

taken

as

1.4

for IV

series

I-

V,

and

5

3

for and of

VL Nozzle allowance

series II-Vl have a region of conical flow characterized by the angle 80. The part of the nozzle contour from the sonic line to the conical region is common in all these series. Series II- V differ in their conical angle e0. 8

C FIGURE 1

C FIGURE 2

L. V, Pchelkina, of conventional

V.

/2/

give flow,

tables and a

point, at the

plane transitional surface The fan of rarefaction Goursat problem AC of the fan and

A and

the

conditions boundary

by the method of characteristics. proceeds from a series expansion coordinate*. Reference an angular point, covering

/2/ is the first part of an atlas of conventional the following range of parameters:

M 0 = 1,4(0.4)3;3(0.2)5; y = 1.I (0.02) The computational L, V, Pchelkina and the To facilitate principal

method and the programs V. A. Rubtsov in /3[. of the atlas, functions ratios

M, 0 < :4 _

7, for

following

1.18; 1,20; 1.22; 1.25; 1.3; 1.4; 1.67. /5/ tabulated conventional nozzles procedure BC (Figure of symmetry. 3)

V. K, Solodkin

with an angular point and radial outlet is similar to /2/, with the difference is a characteristic Nozzle contours of sonic have been Mo=5, U, G, Pirumov of supersonic and annular

flow. The computational that the characteristic pole O' on the axis

8o=0.01;

developed angular

a straight

See Katskova O.N. and Yu. D. Shmyglevskii. Osesimmettichnoe sverkhzvukovoe techeni svobodno rasshiryayushchegosya gaza s ploskoi pover_nost'yu perekhoda (Axisymmetric Superlonlc Flow of Freety Expanding Gas with Plane Transitional Surface). -- Vychislitel'naya matematlka, No. 2. 195'/.

line. Nozzles with coplanarangularpoints(Figure4), aswell as nozzles with displaced angularpoints(Figures 5 and 6) are considered. Computations are made by the method of characteristics. It is shown that the the annular nozzle same critical is shorter than section area and a conventional the same M0. nozzle (Figure 2) with It is also shown that

displacement of the lower angular point {Figure 5) may increase the number M0 at the nozzle outlet in comparison with the M0 of an annular nozzle of the Displacement nozzle enables comparison annular Rubtsov, same critical of the upper section angular area point which (Figure has coplanar 6) lowers angular points. the M0 at the to lower 2 in of point several V.A.

outlet. The use of an annular nozzle with a displaced the nozzle length to be reduced by a factor of close with the corresponding by conventional nozzle. U.G. nozzles are given and E. Vo Sorokina E. G. Mezhibovskaya, /71.

Tables Pirurnov, G

0'

0 C FIGURE3

FIGUI_ 4

C G

Ax/s of symmeu T

.... HGURE 5

A_

sonic no

in

[6/

and

/7/ to

linear

with

M = 1.001

introduces

computational

An approximate method is the flow in an annular nozzle, exact method in regions far A large series at the Computational of computations Center.

the out

Eddy

N. V. Drozdova

neartheturningpointonthe generatrixofthe body,the solutionis expanded in a Taylor seriesin terms of oneof the unknownariables. v

Jet boundary

FIGURE 7

Computational = 2.2, for M= 2.6, 2.594, results 3, .3.42, 4.097. are 4.098, applied jet the given 6.103, for and a cone for with aconewith

FIGURE 8

8, = 20, _,=

82 = 35 , 15 ,

for

82 = 35 ,

T. G. Volkonskaya /9/ computation of a supersonic the outlet pressure exceeds "suspended" compression described for computing in determining the shock accuracy of the tions are made teristic AB.

in the stream. A procedure is shock. It is shown that the errors have a negligible effect on the of results the flow are up given. to some Computacharac-

3.

Computation

for

U. G. Pirumov,

V. A. Rubtsov,

computed

nozzles

with an angular point {Figure physicochemical reactions. mixture, it suffices to know density computer essentially {for constant and is then does not entropy). applied differ

2) taking into consideration equilibrium To compute the flow of an arbitray equilibrium the tabulated dependence of pressure on This dependence is approximated in the method of characteristics, from the method of characteristics in the which for an ideal

gas. Reference /10/ discusses the flow of real gases in nozzles of given contour and computations are made of nozzles with uniform and parallel outlet flow. For one given gas composition, the effect of real gas properties on the coefficient of momentum and loss in the nozzle is studied, a neglecting friction. N. V. Dubinskaya, procedure characteristics, gas mixtures reactions. air flow. and

R. A. Gzhelyak

I. V. Igonina by

/ 11 / developed

of the of characteristics

In view

large volume of computational to steady axisymmetric gas of the computational Computational Center and computation computer. A./L for the STRELA

works applying the flow, much attention work. of Moscow State developed

method is paid

to the proper organization During 1957, at the G. S. Roslyakov, of of standard programs ideal gases on the for routines.

University, a system

V. M. Paskonov,

Deeva

]12[

potential flows library includes nodes of the and "also several has been written for an for easy standard

computation of flow parameters at the inner grid, at boundary points of various kinds, One common part of the working memory programs have been A provision is made

allotted to all the subroutines. The arbitrary ratio of specific heats V. referencing subroutines stored For memory mutual

of the subroutines from the main program. Any of the (and also the common part of the working memory) can be in the computer storage. are adjusted in the computer (SSP-2)*, which also ensures for computing turbulent gas flows V. M. Paskonov and L. V. Pchelkina of potential Center flow of of ideal gases State on

anywhere

each application the subroutines by a special compiling program referencing of the subroutines. by of subroutines was developed for the computation

1131.

Standard on the programs electronic computer of the Computational Moscow

University were developed by R. A_ Gzhelyak0 E.G. Mezhibovskaya, L. V. Pchelkina, and V. A. Rubtsov /14/; for computation of equilibrium real-gas flow, by V, A. Rubtsov and V.N. Suvorova /15/; and for nonequilibrium Besides typical Goursat, Center. The flow, by N. V. Dubinskaya, R. A. Gzhelyak, and I. V. Igonina ]16]. of the programs discussed in /12-16/ (programs for computation points), programs for the solution of typic-_l problems (Cauchy, mixed problem, etc. ) are also available at the Computational experience gained in the solution of particular subroutines of programs. a cylindrical the Mach s). Elers**: p and offer some In angle problems shortens showed the time

that

of the library compilation and preceding functions /13/, used, variables as works in /12, also the

B (in are

more and

in /16/ of

pressure nature.

remarks

a general

See Zhogolev, E.A. Sistema programmitovaniya s ispol' zovamcm biblinteki podprogramm ( A Programming System with UtiliZation of a Subroutine Library ).-- In: "Sittema a_rtomatizatsii prograrnmizovaniya", N. P. Trifonov and M.R. Shura-Bura, editors. Fizmatgiz, Moskva. L961. ** See Elers, F.E. Method of Characteristics for Isoenergetic Supersonic Flows Adapted for High-Speed Digital Computers. [Russian translation. 1960.]

1 To estimate accuracy the numericalsolution,integral . the of controlis generallyemployed, the lawsof conservation checked. i.e., are Whensolvingproblemsof this particular class, it is mostconvenient to checkthe lawof massconservation.In computations usingthe method of characteristics,the flow rate is determined everygrid point. The at flow rate alonganystreamlineis conserved. Therefore,if the flowrate is known somestreamline,the (relative)deviationfrom this valueat for otherpointsof the givenstreamlineobtained the computational in procedure servesas anintegralcheckof the accuracy the numericalsolution. of Flow-ratecontrolis usedto someextentin the solutionof all problems. Oftenthe lawof conservation f momentum alsochecked.This o is momentum controlis applied,for example, hencomputing w nozzleswith uniformoutletflow andplanetransitionalsurface /1--7/. In this case,

the the x-axis check by the momenta difference of the on the at the outlet and in the momenta pressure computations these obtained control with forces the inlet of the nozzle should be equal to the nozzle between also are easy projection to compute; on the accuracy divided the generally the points in acting on the is the difference outlet. procedures, grid it is spacings. advisable This, to compare is however, contour. these An values

momentum

at nozzle different

for one or two variations of the problem, mainly with the of choosing the optimum characteristic grid spacing, while computations are controlled using flow rates or momenta. The unknown quantities are determined at characteristic grid of second order with all the interpolative are also the of second order respect to the and quadrature {_ccuracy. grid spacing. formulas used

the machine time required problem, etc,, will be When computing computations angular point of a the position as to maintain are A.

given for a particular the fan of rarefaction made along 2nd-family The intervals points on the uniform family

/2/ (see section 1). OAC, Figure 2), the issuing angle from the at point A and are chosen so

of the

with

accuracy. When computing the nozzle contour and To check compute the the x-axis. variation the computations projection of Here are some (M = 10) on the of points: _lCof of points OAC ACB,

cannot be used for control purposes. of conservation of momentum, we forces along the nozzle contour on describing the computation of a certain computer of the sonic characteristic, number Computational 160 on

of characteristics

in region

CB, 120. Computer time flow-rate accuracy, 0.01%. momentum accuracy, 0.01%.

streamlines areas of the taking friction streamlines have been surfaces

the

contour AB several intermediate Along these lines the forces of pressure, and some quantities essential for computed. suitable for The results along quadratic interpolation.

IL

INVESTK_ATION WITH

FLOW WAVE

PAST

BODIES

computation of supersonic flow past for the construction of algorithms and in a varying This degree on the solution of is due to the relative R has been demonstrated problem is proper, provided class of solutions with problem the for being application Laplace's

based

the Cauchy problem in an elliptic domain. simplicity of the ensuing numerical methods. that for linear eUiptic equations the Cauchy some a priori considered*. L. A. Chudov of difference equation, has been convergence proved. Studies restrictions /17/ schemes which is used demonstrated of the in this studied to the are imposed

on the

some solution

problems of the

connected Cauchy

as the model problem for one important class solution being to the continued

in gas dynamics. Stability of explicit schemes, and exact solution has been

by L. A, Chudov

and of gasthe

dissociation

consideration).

h be

initial line and along the normal to it, respectively. analysis of /17, 18/that it is advisable to employ of a high order of accuracy in l, so that ! can be reduced of lines in a certain sense. For for the solution of partial /19/ computed the subsonic flow region. case

made as

G. P. Tinyakov

transsonic regions beyond a shock wave for supersonic bodies whose generatrix has no angular points in this used is essentially the method of lines, adapted to the

strips need be taken, Systematic computations were made for flow past a sphere for Mach numbers of incident flow M_= 2 (1) 8. 10,oo, and a ratio specific heats _/= 1.405. The problem was reduced to integration rays of a system of ordinary compression shock compression shock The position which were sphere were of the chosen satisfied differential equations along three radial to the surface of the body. The generatrix was approximated by an even fourth-degree shock on the three so that the boundary for the three rays gave conditions from the of the polynomial.

rays

simultaneously.

See, for example, Lavrent'ev, M.M.--Izvest/ya AN SSSR, _riya [r_tcmaticheskaya, Vol. 20, No.6. 1956; DAN SSSP_ VoLll2, NO.. 1_7; alloPucci, C. --RencLAcad.Naz.Lincei, CI. Sci.Fi_.Ma., Ser.VlII, VoL 18, No.5. 198.5.

path chosen enabled the singularities arising with the DorodnitsynBelotserkovskii method* to be avoided; this simplified the computational procedure and the program. were automatically selected by the computer. on the STNELA computer; machine time for 1 minute. The integrals of the gasThe three free parameters The computations were made one variation was

on the average

dynamics equations not employed in actual computations and also the integral law of mass conservation, written for mass flow through the rays, were used to estimate the accuracy of the numerical the variations computed, the error in all the relationships solution. For used was less

than 0.I 5 %, which corresponds to the approximation accuracy of the partial differential equations in the program. The effect of ray position and the growth of error owing to distortion of the shock along were studied (no essential growth of the error was observed). shows, as an example, the computed shock wave on the number M,. G. F. Telenin flow in subsonic flow past dioxide. formulas dependence the ray Figure 9

of the separation

of the

and G. P. Tinyakov /20, 21 / computed and investigated the and transsonie regions beyond a shock wave for supersonic immersed in an equilibrium stream of air and carbon in

a sphere

The thermodynamic functions were approximated with the of A. N. Kraiko (for air) and V. V. Mikhailov (for CO2), which accuracies employed.

the entire range of p and T ensure The method presented in /19/ was of the flow past the sphere temperature, and pressure pt=10-s--I arm for air and carbon dioxide. Itwas shown that when into consideration, were

made

for a wide

of the incident flow: M, =4-- 50, T,=250 -- 1500 K, M,=2--35, Tl=250-500 K, p,=10-4 --1 atm for physieochemical reactions wave in the gas are taken

the separation

of the shock

geometric pattern of flow varies nonmonotonically flow pattern depends little on p, and substantially

parameter shaping the flow in the subsonic and the transsonie regions is the density increment in the direct shock. As an example, Figure 9 shows the separation of the shock values of Pland T, G. F. Telenin wave as a function of M, in air for different /22/ investigated the applicability of ellipsoids, and

and S. M. Gilinskii

the scheme described in /19/ to computation of flow past also to computation of low supersonic flow past a sphere. G. S. Roslyakov and L. A. Chudov /23/ propose

the method

of steadying

for the solution of the problem of flow past a blunt body. Applying the difference method they find the numerical stationary solution for the corresponding nonstationary problem (starting with arbitrary initial data). The steadying of the solution is achieved by a special choice of difference ("viscous") shock wave. The problem schemes, and also by dissipation which reduce of energy on the of

is solved

in coordinates

the domain

integration to a time-independent rectangle. The shock wave coincides with the coordinate line and serves as part of the boundary of the domain. The numerical procedure which is dividedintotwo possesses stages. In the first stage, a "rough" using Lacks' scheme, considerable "viscosity",

* See Belotserkovskii,

O.M. -- Vychislitel'naya

matematika,

No. 3. 1958;

solutionis

computation arbitrary the integration

the

initial

wave).

inside

P: ann

T, eK

o IL;!

:tV____ *

_ o LO

v IJ ,JI 0, _=

u,,

II

I._.._

:

&

? lJ

fr, a

FIGUR

second

stage

the

solution

is

rendered

more

accurate.

Two-layer

schemes accuracy

"half-integer"

temporal subsequent

obtained

application

4#

ItSL

0

"-"

! I:I_tU_ 10

In systematic computations omitted. Given a solution for certain Mach number /M of the second order of I. G. Belukhina solution by dimensional

of the procedure may be known shape and for a we may apply the scheme values of schemes M. for the

of

problem was obtained from gas-dynamic coordinates) by replacing the transverse lateral derivatives along one of the rays a known solution. The effect of various of the As first solution an stage was studied. Figure procedure) I0 of illustrates pressure example, of the

equations (in spherical velocity component and all the with the corresponding values from factors on the rate of steadying the along process the axis of of steadying symmetry. (in the

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. SOLODKIN, skotostei 2. PCHELKINA, tochkoi 3. PCHELKINA, i programm --Otchet 4. 5. Tablitsy from V.K. (Tables L.V., (Axisymmetric L.V. and and G.S. of Nozzles V.A, ROSLYAKOV. for Supersonic and Tablitsy Wind V.M. sopel Tunnels). dlya aerodinamicheskikh --Otchet VTs MGU. trub 1961. sopla MGU. s uglovoi 1963, metoda sverkhzvukovykh

an Angular

March Opisanie

Osesimmetrichnye an Angular

toehkoi, of Method

Description

and Programs).

gazodinamicheskikh 1,05 to 1.67). L.V. na VTs vykhode MGU, and --Otchet and V.K.

funktsii VTs

dlya MGU.

ot March

1,05

do

1.67

for nym --

1963.

SOLODKIN.

Radial

6.

PIRUMOV, (Computation

U, G.

Raschet

kol'tsevykh seriya

sopel meklmniki

V.A. of Annular

RUBTSOV, Axisymmetric

and

E.V.

Raschet VTs

Nozzles), of Flow

Numerical

Computation

a Scalariform

of and

Supersonic

Axisymmettic

|ets,

-- This

volume, Exhaust

of Axisymmetric -- This obtekaniya Angle 1962. podprogrammy the Solution volume. tupogo by the

Allowance R.A,

Equilibrium

11.

N,V.,

GZHELYAK, relaksatsii

ugla Method

metodom of

Allowance

12.

A.A.,

Standartnye for

dlya

resheniya of

of Problems

VTs

MGU.

13.

PCHELKINA.

Standattnye

podprogrammy

dlya

resheniya

s rasehetorn Subroutines

osesimmetrichnykh with 1960, V.A. RUBTSOV. dlya for VTs dlya Gas the MGU, EVM Computation

of Nonisentropic

of Ideal

PCHELKINA, gazovoi

Electronic 1961.

Computer

V.N.

rascheta Equilibrium

ravnovesnykh Flows).

techenii --Otchet

(Standard

Computation

L.A.

Ch_ulov

and IN

SYSTEMS

Introduction gas flow problem range past a blunt for /1/. systems in the body by the

compressible

so-called inverse method leads to a Cauchy of equations, which is elliptic in the subsonic

a nonlinear 11 is well

system known

that the Cauchy problem for elliptic equations and is "improper n in the sense that small perturbations lead to round-off numerical large disturbances in the errors are inevitable methods to these have solution /2/. in numerical problems

Since both truncation solutions, the application should applied involve in some large recent

improper been

3, 4, 5[ to the solution of methods were empirically yielded feature as we of round-off see solutions of the from errors

a blunt body. Some of the unsuitable for this object, accuracy method cited, spacing error is used is the is sufficient for all of

only such grid spacings greater than the truncation of A correct improper and generally model evaluation problems the made problems in

which give a round-off error should be used. much The parameters theory theory, To

substantially case

of these errors is than in proper ones. of lattice the This form. by applying /6, 7/. its present

more significant in the choice of difference for proper problems schemes to does not apply apply difference

determination

to

problems

(e, g., in inverse body with separated of the gas convergence the /4]), of

shock wave allowing for physicochemical we must at least devise some simple the approximate and the round-off In ]8] application the to solutions errors. a certain to the exact

truncation in its

convergence

of the model

difference

Laplace of

12

16,

N.V.,

R.A.

1GONINA. Subroutines

podprogrammy Computation

dlya of Real

rascheta Gas

17,

CHUDOV, Solution

resheniya Problem).

Koshi No. 5.

Method

foe.the

18.

CHUDOV, Problems

Errors volume.

Difference

of Boundary-Value

F4uations G.P.

19,

tel

20.

TELENIN, vozdukha

TINYAKOV. of Supersonic

sfery NIl

21,

TINYAKOV.

Ratchet

sverkhzvukovogo Equilibrium

sfery Flow

(Computation MGO.

of Supersonic December

1962. sverkhzvukovogo Bodies with obtekaniya Shock tel s otoshedshei Wave). --Otchet udamoi NIl

22.

(The

Separated

23,

L.A.

Raznosmyi of Problems

metod with

rerheniya Separated

zadachi Shock

ob

oroshedshei --Otchet

udarnoi VTs

Solution

Wave).

24.

BELUKHINA,

Graduation

thesiS.-

MGU.

1962.

ii

the

boundary

values

under

a suitable

a priori

restriction

of the

class

of

considered difference of

convergence

problems choice of

rational

spacing

important class of difference schemes. for the model problem discussed in 181. coefficients yield of gas dynamics tentative (see /4/). estimates of

problem

2.

The

Model

and

Convergence

of

Consider equations,

a Cauchy-Riemann

system

of

-_-y =-

a--F; _----__

(I) (2)

Suppose that whf.ch satisfies in the the domain condition 0 _ z _ x, 0 < y-.< Y this problem has

(3)

a solution

SuS(x,

0

y)rLr._,M s,

(0_9,-._10.

(4)

4--1

k-

k_l, we

2 .... shall take above b_ = O.d, equalities. = O, i. e., Because drop of each (I), (2), the of this second sum When shall

right-hand

of the

proposition,

independently problem

other. (3), we

u(x,)= _ (x) o

13

as on

initial

condition v(x,y)

and will

will thus

seek only

the

dependence an auxiliary

of

u(x,y) role. an

function

play

It is easily operator,

dk =0, we transforming

Theorem 1. Boundary-value problem (1),(2),(3) is proper in the sense of Tibhonov under a priori proposition (4). The continuous dependence of the solution u(x,y) on the initial function _(x) = u(x,O)follows from the estimate

z

0 I1 n

_<

I.,(,,,

Estimate transforming (6) is exact. into It follows u(x,y)does from not this u(x,0) constitute

o)i.,.,)'-+.

estimate that the operator linear as we may a continuous

if the two functions u(x,0) and u(x,y) space L_(0,n). Applying the a priori norm for the initial values:

(7)

Then.

taking

I1_11 sup =

O,ll_Y

u,(x,y)dx,

(8)

we

obtain

from explicitly

(5)

an the

estimate a priori

which

is uniform

in the

norms

and

does

not

contain

propositions:

llull_: ll'PnoTo of should basic u(x,O) evaluate in the know to the what effectiveness degree of difference of initial a solution (4) is specified values of problem by the schemes and (1), and (2), (3) the influence errors, satisfying initial we the values errors determination of round-off

approximate

m=l,2 in the

..... values

N--l; of

h=--_-. u(x,y)

"

the grid rectilinear norm

(9)

grid

on

0 _<y-(.Y,

introduce

a suitable

14

N--1

Theorem 2. Let u(x,y) be a solution of problem the a priori proposition (4) and meeting the additional b, _0, (k= 1,2,...). Construct the function

N--I

k--I

where

_, are

obtained

from (m_

initial-value

+ w _w-'_,,

(lO)

,_- r- u;, v=

--1

,f.

We now proceed with the discussion of the results which have bearing on the stability and convergence of difference schemes. We shall only consider two-layer schemes. The grid is assumed rectangular with constant spacings Ax = A, &y = z, where z = _(h) and T(h) --* 0 as h --* O. For two-layer difference schemes, we define a norm of initial values by analogy with (7) :

n_|.,=

M--I 6--1

Y, &_',

_m = (mh)

{ _'_sin/tmh

},

(k----1,2 .....

N--l).

if for

to be stable

in

(11)

where

K is a constant

independent

of h.

15

For

difference

schemes

having

a solUtion

of the

form

u_ = u (mh, n_) = s n(k; h) sin krah, = v (mh, n_) = sn (k; h) cos kmh, we have values: directly from (11) the necessary condition 0 ,_ nx _ Y. of stability (12)

in initial

Is n (k; h) [ -_ KekV; The inequality Is" (k; h)l_.<Kek_; will be stability called the of several 3. have the strong condition of difference schemes Let a two-layer of solutions of stability

O..(n_=y_<Y stability in initial is investigated difference of the form scheme, (12) with values. in /8/. for _= any The

(13)

integral

a system

let

strong

condition that

(13)

assume h -_ O

condition h) = + lns(k;

is

satisfied: (14)

uniformly

in every

finite

e--(N+D,I

k

+ M

Mj(h) inequality

is

uniformly (4).

bounded

on

the

class

of

solutions

satisfying

expediency of using schemes Indeed, two conclusions can we conclude that if the exact the The the the function initial u(x,g) values is determined thus carry

with a high order of accuracy relative to h. be drawn from (10). First, setting y = 0 initial values u(x,0) are known on grid (9). on this grid with exponential a very large information content be utilized scheme. as thoroughly Second, the as form accuracy. as regard possible of the in

16

side

so-called scheme

u_,+' -- u.

"_

1

h q----p

(15)

h q_p

The

coefficients

are

defined

as

a'_') = (--

1)q-1

(p

--

q)! q to'-]-

_!_

q)!

; a_ ) ffi 0.

degree p. 128)

2p taking that

values

It is known tt

/.(x,+th)

+ t_-

=I,+

I,+

_,!_+...+

i_1 0f___-b (16)

z_a--_

q. t,<t,-where

I)<t,--_J...lt,--(p--l_!/_o, (_):

(for see the /ll/,p. definition 113), and properties of the finite differences setting [_o, _f_-__, -_-_', _ = O, we obtain an

_ ...

3 fo +'--

+ (--

1)_-'

+ (_ 1)p-_

(2p _ 1)!

/_-_ page

[,,,, we obtain the coefficients of _)for some schemes q and of a[p' = O. (15). Let

The

table

scheme

_f.=f.+,--_.,

v/. =/,.--

f.-_.

17

Symbolic notation

Truncation _rtor

R is

easily

seen

that

the

following

equalities

apply:

Formula (17) can thus be written in the following operational notation:

h,f'(x_)_+(A+V)[|---_.,

(AV)-+-...+

(2ql)I

+ (__ 1)__ , [(p-- 1)!1' (AV)P-' 1[m= (2p-- J)_ j To setting investigate / = u + iv: the stability of scheme (15),

Lcp)fm"

we

write

it

in complex

form,

C, ' -r_ + 7

(We return It is easily to our ordinary seen that notation:

t . = -_ L_pI.,.

f_ = l(mh, m. ) Let [_ = Is (k, h)l"e -lkmh.

V) e "-ikmh

= (---

_---

i sin coskh)

kh

e-_k'm';

e-_mh; -I e ''i'm_'.

2 (l -2)q -I

(1 --

coskh)

Hence,

setting

s (k, h) = %,

we

p

have

s_ = 1 + --

---" sinkh a

E q-I

2q_i

-1 =

p---I

= 1 + ---_sinkh_

h q-0

(2q +

ql

l)!!

(1 --cosl_h)q.

18

Let

us

study

in more

detail

the

expression

H = _n=

"0

where

==/_.

(18)

Substituting

x = sin--%, 2

we

obtain

from

(I 8)

H = 2x

l_t-_--_--_] _

q-O

q! 2VxSV t2o+1)!!

It is

known

(see for

/12/;

appendix follows

to Chapter directly

I

8, S 5) that from

the

series

_q! q=0

I x_ < ! (this

D'Alembertts

criterion),

being (l--x

Therefore

H = 2 arc sin x.

This

signifies

s_ = srr= _: (1 + tk) _ < e_w. This proves Proceeding inequality from (13). these results scheme

we (15):

can

easily

calculate

a simple

implicit

scheme,

obtained

from

q----p

q----p

"e'-:=,

[

q.---p o q_p P ----p # _--p

(19)

for

inequality (19)

p

(13)

applies

in this

case,

too.

Indeed,

q--t P

q--I

(l -- cs kh)'-']

s "(2q

19

According inequality

to

the

preceding

sp < s.

1-F

kx +

1 -_

k2x _, and

since

the

is

satisfied

simultaneously

the in

validity initial

of values

the

last (13) if

inequality we set

proves K = 1.

the

strong

condition

of

stability

4.

Choosing

the

Grid

Spacing

with Errors

an

Allowance

for

Round-Off

section errors

we for

shall two

estimates

of truncation

and

to Theorem to

of the

truncation

error

is equal

of magnitude

M max

k

e-k_ I 1 -- e-(k-kTY

[.

Taking order

error

the of

ratio magnitude

of

this is hi,

error we

to obtain

the

value of the

of

11u(g)][_, relative

whose truncation

R = max e-kn

k

[ 1 -(15)

We Then

shall k

now sinka h

estimate and

for

scheme k--k->

p =

1.

We

first

set

= 0.

consequently

Further

I -- e-(_-_v =

(k -- k) y

2!

Y' + _

V" --...

Suppose Leibnitz's

that

at point on

k, where

R is maximized, decreasing

(k--k)y series we

_< 2. obtain

Applying

theorem

alternating

n < (k - _) ye-_.

We further have = h 3_ 5_ + ....

Let

from

LeiDnitz's 3 k = --,

theorem

k--k<

k'h,

6

andR<R,

e-k,

k,h,

6

u.

R3 is

maximized

at

so

that

h.,y _'

(20)

in

initial will

values be

(rounO-off assumed to

calculations

2O

off. by M, as

norm due to

of this

_o maxe_-_

k

inkh

= _.e _

h ensures that the truncation error

If

For

a given

y, the

optimal

grid

spacing

and the error 6(//, h) both of optimal spacing gives particular Let us 60 = 10-a; inaccuracy scheme in

have the same order the maximum accuracy for a given 60. example. the relative e = 10-2.

of magnitude. attainable

question

g

obtain

1 (]3.8)s '_-"

(21)

Setting

0 =

y--, we r

have

(21)

' Hence

.___

r 0 _ 0.67 and h = --. 21 result can be summed small only up as follows. When using scheme (15) with of 10-= for h_ r---.

This

_, a relative error of the order up to O= 0.67; correspondingly, (15) with p = 2. For this scheme

scheme

ss-----1 + c (--_-_sinkh

With

_ = 0 we

have

Estimating

R as

we

have

done

before,

we

find

that,

for

Ph 2 < 42:

R<Rs = e-_-_-

_/Ph

y_-_

625

e -'--_ y.

(22)

21

The

maximum

growth

is

max exp

h\3 for

6 60 = I0 -s, e =

Equating calculations.

5(y,h)

with

Rs

_ = 0.73, h = Y-Y-. With this 14 thus be obtained for higher corresponding p = I. This discussed we have x-interval example in 3. calculated

required 0 than

1.5

times

advantages

schemes

quantity

as the

estimate

relative

truncation

error

for

different

y.

The

results

the validity of the (22) and enable the for the values of values =

these for

accurate permissible

maximum problem

consider have,

c_<l.

For

scheme

with

p = 1we

provided(k_

sufficiently

small,

(k--_) sinkh h

--_-ln(l

+ csinkh)

-T

We shall not attempt c from of the to derive condition (20)) parts an accurate that at the Then,

+c

estimate point for of the

.

of_s(c maximum given ). Instead Rs (see k = __3, h c----_.-. we shall

c---- -_.

frequency We find

h take

in the truncation

error. c_

other

values

estimated

P

= m7

q-i

(2q-

l)l

(, _

= max 2 _

a z...a q--I

a(P_sin aq

q

and

a,_

is

the

value

of

a at which

maximum

is

reached.

22

the two

neglecting figures may single schemes of use only. result correct with equations implicit

the

errors, of round-off

we

could errors

The in a

dynamics,

highly

complex,

schemes.

5.

Estimating

Grid of

Spacing Gas

for

Certain

Problem

Dynamics

us making

consider due

of

supersonic

flow

past

a blu_z

inverse of at the

flow shock

parameters wave.

the

statement /4/. Let wave, Let system wave /4/we by density; flow equations the of and

of

centered symmetry r ,= r(z); distance shock of wave. the different (x,y) along of

shock

pointing shock

normal

denote u, v

components; by p the

component pressure;

y,

respectively;

p the

The

then

have

=' AI

., v(t + KI/)

o,_ ox

. '

(1 -

Z, 2 ....

.'9

(23)

_-

=*(x,y,

-_ ..... _

..... -x;'

_"

u,v .....

"i .....

",/_

-- '

"

(25)

@y

i-FKy

ax

o#

j '

23

ae

#p

r oy

j

I-Iere-_---/-1

"--._or1 ; r

r

(27)

(28)

p=p-_-"

, where .,tI is the of the M I is the of rate molecular parameters weight of the respective

gas

flow

u, v, o, P, T, a_..... aj

for the j-th mixture component; and u, v, p, p, T, a_ ..... % Iinear in the derivatives the difference However, of these method, schemes although schemes the (15) author and (19) of

by by

/4/

difference

which are clearly hyperbolic, unstable (in the ordinary sense a/ lack schemes. therefore the smoothness System solved required (23), which using a stable

application

high-order

+ (1 -- 2coX)[(ai)_ -- (al)_i_-J + (A,)"+'/, l

. ,-m+L]'

(23*)

where to=J_2.__,

1 + Tk

k----const,

y=2Bn+'l.

m+'lm

_* ,

h*

B=

v(l + Ky) In some problems, allowing it is expedient to calculate and Ax = h*. on the partial In what of for the particular nature of the functions these functions using a fine auxiliary grid scheme equations propose use Let of the the (23*) of a method boundary wave is stable, we gas dynamics for determining conditions be described can proper, a given by

a/,

withAy = z* concentrate i. e. , (24)-(28). tentative on the Let the the the our

h which

a specific

shock

equation r- arc cosh (z+l). In the new coordinate system shock wave, functions K = K (x) and r = r(x, y) depending shock wave particular appear example in the equations of our gas-dynamics

ln[x+

(1 + xg'/,l--

(1 +xg-_xy.

the

24

Equation

(25)

then

takes

the

4

form

--ov

7 -+

1-1

al dr

\ o

"

I--I

_,

=j_,+

+,-, --'r'--+.,,.

The the enthalpy coefficients of the derivatives, point of the shock wave. equations with constant

_+_u

ox

function can

calculate (23)-(28}

reduce

(3Z)

To these equations we now previously considered for the solution w(z, y} we write

apply model

().

IP l,-,_

't

(33)

expressions

(33)

for

the

derivatives,

we

obtain refer

a systeL,_

of

ar_. -- s (k, k) e'_'_. Here Then m _ == w (mh, n_), and a --- kh. (-_-)" ,__e_'= _('--'_)

P

_,

25

In the following

we

p

notation

#-l

In conjunction with system (A), we shall also investigate a simple system obtained by eliminating p (see /3/) and keeping P constant. We shall later justify our The terms functions (29)-(31) quantity assumption that p changes very little along the y-axis.

0-LP can thus be regarded as a coefficient. Rewriting the #x a2,bs,c_,d,. etc. in equations (29)-(32) to bring out the desired sought to the for set a=u __aai ____ au _ (e. g., b, aa--_P bi = b_ v; z + c, = c_u), we reduce the system

i t-,, av

. _;o,-_ =0 _

Oy

(36)

ox

o. +b.4o=O"

the

For

system

to have

a nontrivial vanishes.

solution

u, _, it Expanding

is the

necessary determinant,

and we

sufficient have

determinant

+[

Seeing that _ = ch, c =const, also contain /h =const,

+..,,,

we a factor neglect _; then all quantities for a small

"' w =o.

/,= z.=_j which, h we have beside

1)' +

(38)

26

In dropping form

the

right-hand

side

of (38)

we

neglect

an

expression

of the

(39) SLnce

from our analysis of the model problem), estimated as C-r, where G is uniformly bounded side of (38) zero and setting

in

leR-hand

Z_

se

obtain

b_== = 0. For the system corresponding to equations (29)-(32)

+

(40) we similarly obtain

=,+ (ave-- b=-- d_b, b_) z' + + + [=,(a,-- b,-- d,b,)+ b_ + c,_ (b,+ d,_)-- _ -- c_(d,b,--d_)

We shall equations. now give some results obtained The coefficients of equations

=,-(41)

solution of these are calculated from

= 0.

by numerical (40) and (41)

the boundary values on a shock wave at points z= 0.02, For cubics and quartics with complex coefficients terms are taken into consideration), with = 0.007, for x=0.02, y= O,

zt_-----O.Ol31

l-

!.0429

of this table, we should concentrate roots which has the greatest modulus. of the new four equations (29)-(32), in comparison as information with

27

the

three for x# to

the

roots omitted

of

the

come

Cubic

(40)

Quartic

(41)

zh2=0.0192 i 1.0417 z8 = -- 0.2514 z4 = 0.309. 10-9 zl, 2 = 0.0299 +_ i 1.0448 z3 = -- 0.4327 z4 = 0.258. 10-y

We We

now have

can

estimate

from

below.

z=a+ib= it -h

s--I p E

q-I

2a_aV' sinaq

Since

P

[s(k,h)

l"

-_

]l-T-b-_--_,2a_P'sinaq_q=l P

P

q_l

l<

b E

2a(P)Sill aq,

should

pick

out

from

the has

roots the

of greatest Y/h

(40),

(41) bm_.

the In error

root our

imaginary We than 4 of

determine of 10 6. paper,

so

round-off

does

According

_2a# p,sinaq =

4-1

sina _

0-I

1.8374

for

1456

2 8

of

of these is

problems

show from

/3/ the

that shock

with wave.

Y_0.09--0.11

APPENDIX*

1%

First

c -_ 0 (_ = 0L

We

consider

the

behavior

of the

relative in 4 scheme

21

/=

Then,

if

7=

{}Y,

.q---- Y_y=

(l --O)y,

-- e(i--*_q == e-_1-_)Y[I--e

-_('t" th--*h)],

SO

Rz(O) = e---_z-_=_ [ I - e2_'_'-=_l. Analogously, and grid size in calculations v h -----=--, we 14 have with a five-point scheme (15) with p = 2

These _) =---Y, Y Figure The 1. values /_s{0) points errors For The were calculated and give as function of the a for various are values plotted of in Rs(0}. of gives

results values

and

the v.

various

are

the

of

justify and

the assumption imposed five-point schemes and fairly case accurate. discussed for c=

estimates 2 . Table

with the aid of R are c:_ 0 (T_ 0). For the values we of have

in 4 I_. 7

R:(v)calculated

h._- V-_,_Y 21

1,50

See

4. for max followed R/,and by the max signed Rl(i_3-.Sl, exponent. each group of four digits gives the manu=a of a decimal

* * In columns number,

29

CO

t_.

C'_

O0

t.O

cO

CO

C_

......

....

I

E

ooI I

__ I

o I

Lo

J

8

3O

TABLE

c = ____=!

7 0 max R, (c) max _ (c)

FIGURE

for y= 0.667Y

we have

for

31

The and

error the

Rafc)in form

calculations

by

scheme

(15)

with

p =

R8 (c) = e-_

[ ! --

-_Y_ [In(t+csinet)--k_]

].

Seeing

that

"r = ch,

y = ,bY,

x _

Y -:=-:, lbO

we

have

Rs (c) = e -al-s_21

[ 1 --

el$00[InU%cslna)--ca]].

Figure

2 shows

graph

of

this

error

for

_=

0.667.

Note

that

2 max Rs (0) t

= 0.01675,

Rs(c)and

R3 (0) maxima

are

comparatively

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. VAN DYKE, M. The Problem of Supersonic Flow Past a Blunt Body. PETROVSKII, I.G. Lektsii ob uravneniyakh s chasmymi proizvodnymi Equations).--Fizmatgiz, Moskva. 1961. [Translated into English, [Russian translation. 1958.] (Lectures on Partial Diffeeential Interscience. 1955.]

MILTON, D., M, VAN DYKE, and HELEN GORDON. Supersonic Flow Past a Family of Blunt Axisymmetric Bodies.--National Aeronautics and Space Administration, American Research Center, Technical Report R1, Moffet Field, California. 1959. LICK, Vol. W. Inviscid Flow of a Reacting 7, No. 1. 1960. Mixture of Gases around a Blunt Body. --Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Flight

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

VALIO LAURIN, R. and A. FERR1. A Theoretical [Russian translation. 1959.] RICHTMEYER, R.D. Wiley. 1958. Difference Methods

in Supersonic

Problems. (The

-- (Interscience) Stability of

RYABEN' KII, V.S. and A.F. FILIPPOV. Ob ustoichivosti Difference Equations).--GITTL, Moskva. 1956.

uravnenii

CHUDOV, L.A. Raznostnye metody resheniya zadachi Keshi dlya uravneniya Methods for the Solution of the Cauchy Problem for the LaPlaceEquation). No. 4. 1962. TIKHONOV, A.N. Ob ustoichivosti obratnykh Vol. 39, No. 5. 1943. LAVRENT'EV, M.M. Doctorate dissertation. BEREZIN, Moskva. COURANT, l.S. and N.P. 1959. ZHIDKOV. Memdy zadach (The Stability 1961. (Numerical

143,

of Inverse

-- DAN SSSR,

Novesibirsk. vychislenii

Methods),

Vol.

I. -- Fizmatgiz, London.

R. Course of Differential

and Integral

Calculus.

Part I. Blackie

32

U. G. Pirumov,

T _ CA,.,,..,[3 T

V.A.Rubtsov, AXISYMMETRIC

and

V.2_.

Suvorova NOZZLES

Several

works

on the

equilibrium

gas

flows

by

the

method

of characteristics have been recently is adapted to the flow of real gases, contours with uniform and parallel calculation velocity. of different is given of a flow of real However, gases these works in a nozzle of

/1--3/. In /1, 2/ the method are given on nozzle nozzle exit plane. In /3/ a a given axial distribution of

do not consider the problem of the flow given contour and hardly touch on the the coefficient problems, the of momentum Computational losses Center gas ensuring in flows point

effect of the real gas properties the exhaust nozzle. To study of Moscow in a nozzle uniform (Figure were and State University of given contour parallel exit considered

on these

undertook calculations of equilibrium and calculation of nozzle contours flow. and Axisymmetric the effects nozzles of viscosity with and heat

an angular

1) were

computational of equilibrium

results, gas

Since no shock

composition of gas with given stagnation parameters we can find an isentropic line, S = const are allowed in the nozzle, then for every particular and a function giving the variation of pressure with density FIGURE1. with

Axisyrnrnetric an angular point

along

this

line,

p = p (p).

These

functions

nozzle

can be obtained by thermodynamic calculations of the equilibrium gas state, making due allowance for dissociation and recombination processes. (e.g., been for Many tables of thermodynamic air, see /4/). For some compositions /5/, which enable the function along the line s = const for given most gas compositions of practical the p= isentropic lines P0 and this

'

functions even

are

now

available have

_--_dlagrams

published

p = p (p) to be calculated stagnation parameters. interest, the variation of of without difficulty. Given a tabulation stagnation expression parameters), p = p*av+

can

be

tabulated the

P-- , where

p0 are by

approximate kay=

In--_'-a

the density

lnpa

Pa is

33

to the were

density coefficients

in the

and as,

corresponding

a0, a, and

approximating _is

passes at all

derivative

The acteristics

p was case

the method of chargas flow, does not differ for isentropic ideal gas

in principle flow.

the

method

of characteristics

As the dependent variables we used The equations of the characteristics describing equilibrium isentropic gas flow are written in the of a gas form dr dx Consistence equations along d_ + the

of differential

equations

of thermodynamic

- _d-_ p(_,+l)

Here angle

x, r are of

Cartesian

flow

plane;

inclination

_= V_-1;

The First from to be variables Let us first

_=

first flow

"

p* and p* in the critical M = 1. Then, taking the the x-axis, the fan

of expansion

arising

angular point A (Figure 1) is calculated. wave fan, the sonic characteristic is in a series in terms of the characteristic that being the ratio to of specific heats of the equal

When calculating the expansion determined by expanding the solution coordinate /6/. It is assumed flow near the sonic line is constant,

the expansion wave fan, we .40 and the nozzle contour. calculated surface S,the on the flow characteristics rate xp and

p-

expansion x projection on we

forces acting on and at the nozzle function is 1.207. I. The values margin nozzles p = p(p) In the formulas to within is

the considered

kavfOr to this

following

we

for p = p(p) used inthe calculations 1% in pressure and 0_% in velocity, of thermodynamic first nozzle (No.

data. 1 contour)

Flow

34

was calculated second nozzle characteristics) with k=1.25. nozzles. 1.185, in the

ideal gas with k =1.14. exactly (by the method flow I was with 1.25,

The of

and parallel outlet gas of composition flow of an and with ideal gas k= 1.14,

for an ideal gas calculated for both k = 1.114, 1.33, and 1.14, 1.4

0f

OG 6_ -$ _5

-5

/'

/

a_

I

_3

/

,/

o O

FIGURE

"IbL_0

-!

2. In p vs p for composition I

kP

FIGURE the

3.

Var/ation

of

a along

nozzle

axis for

gases

The

solution

of the

mixed

problem

(flow

between

the

characteristic

and

the nozzle contour) in the second nozzle, was obtained by the method of characteristics applied to the Goursat problem and calculated to ensure uniform and axisymmetric exit flow of an ideal gas with ratio of specific of ideal identical integral gas with heats h_ 1.25. To evaluate its accuracy we calculated gave difference the flow gas with parameters k-----1.25. The results of this calculation in both eases. For example, the virtually in the flow of ideal near

P in the two calculations was 0.05%. When calculating the k I 1.14 in the first nozzle, the characteristics intersected

the axis (see Figure 1}. We nevertheless succeeded parameters at the contour, because this intersection characteristic DC. No such intersection was observed The intersection of characteristics can be attributed first nozzle calculated by approximate exactly. calculations, while the

in calculating the occurred below the in the second nozzle. to the solution of the second nozzle was

35

tf_.

J u,

:.-.-M._.t65

73

Composition I _:t.33

J

0

FIGURE 4.

2.5

Pressure

5

integral Curve P on --No.

Z5

No. 1 contour

to

for

t2 5

various gases.

t5

Lower

i contour

We now proceed variation of a along that for the variation an ideal gas of with

interesting gases.

to compare Figure 3 shows variation The 4 shows ratio of I is closest the difference 3--4%. heat specific We shall parallel losses _ is

the

angle a for composition k = 1.25 (for composition No. 1 contour increases integral

of the integral over the nozzle momentum and that the pressure integral of the two of the loss interest.

that,

specific of the

on momentum losses momentum losses due of the outlet flow. from the formula The

F- is

the

area

of the

given

by

the

area critical

of the

_ the

velocity

For

ratios,

_! = where

the

momentum

36

flow

whose

critical-section

area

and

flow

rate

are

equal

aM

[

,.-o_ I _,_Jr.tt5

O02

00/

......

FIGURE 5. Coefficient of momentum gases loss _ on No. 2 contour for various

Figure

5 shows

the

variation

of

_ along

the

contour

for

the

flow

of

in the second nozzle. Examination of this figure reveals noticeably with the decrease of the specific heat ratio. in this coefficient for gases with kffil.33 and k ==1.14 is of _ of 3other hand, gas difference and to is due 590. the with in,in to the For smaller _ the difference in losses k =1.25, the fact for range that _-values of high in this difference between not losses k= is

as

high as 1% for values 0,2 to 0.690. On the composition is a mere I and 0.1%. about ka, being The 0.490, equal

an ideal

exceeding

greater, from

range (see

1.14-1.17.

in the No.

2 contour therefore

with

the outlet

untruncated contour, _ drops to zero at the last point for k= 1.25. A gas with other k will not give a uniform and parallel flow at the nozzle outlet, and therefore the curve for k =1.14, which at first is below the curve for k = 1.25, become It is reaching which valves but for differ intersects greater than it at a certain for k =1.25 point, from this so that point the losses for Figure k =1.14 5). but on (see

also interesting to compare the coefficient the same point, which have been calculated carry the same of k =1.14 and gas. These contours are k =1.25. The coordinates

This fact was also emphasized such contours and for different by 0.390. Note that _ can be

to within

37

7-

a"

6' 3 2 t

the same

Besides we flow to and gas plotted also for 0.270, the with in

flow contours

of

gas

in

nozzles and

of

given parallel outlet these flow and end lines of contour not exceed

contour, outlet a equal nozzles of 0.208 for these end lines ideal are

0.231,

uniform to

contour

I and for ideal that the difference I and will having be for an even

5--10%. T with

smaller

composition

k =1.207.

/S I

.............

Contour end line for nozzles calculated for uniform and parallel flow

cr.OZ

_a

__ 208

0 0

FIGURE 7. Nozzle

_ I0

contours calculated

I 20

for uniform and parallel (composition T) 1"); -----ideal

. 30

flow of ideal

_0

gas (_ = 1.25) and real gas

2:

_real

gas (composition

38

We

have

the for

effect

of real

gas

properties nozzle

on the size.

loss

of

momentum calculations evaluate various momentum have been velocity for be generalized the

Given

for real gas with real gas properties Consider the choice length. nozzles area or given for designing

and parallel flow, we can choice of nozzle size in ensuring maximum methods exit easily present

a nozzle

In /8, 9[ variational which ensure maximum area. flow of These a real methods gas.

can In the

work, however, the basic comparison is made for a family of nozzles constructed using uniform characteristics. It can nevertheless be expected that the estimates of losses due to incorrect choice of nozzle size by failing to allow for the real gas apply to nozzles properties obtained in the above case will also If constructed with the aid of variational characteristics.

we neglect friction, then among nozzles of given exit plane area maximum exit velocity is found in the nozzle with uniform and parallel flow. Insofar as the contour end lines of nozzles with uniform flow for composition I and for ideal gas with one point _re k = 1.25 are similar, also similar, and the losses of contours to solve with uniform reaching it is sufficiently accurate for a family of nozzles

problems of given outlet area by solving flow calculated for some constant k.

FIGURE

8.

points

Consider

the

problem

of determining

the

size

of the

nozzle

with

maximum of of

momentum for a given length. The nozzles with uniform characteristics from this figure that the maximum a gas with sometimes k = 1.25 reaches

choice of this nozzle from is made from Figure 8. momentum Pm_ of a real gas

39

the from

of

the of to area. we

be

made

with

fair

by

constant of a nozzle

k = kay. ensuring

results exit

apply

surface

observe

that of

our

results

on loss these

the

effect

of obtained

the

real for

coefficient

momentum

apparently requires

this

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. KATSKOVA, O.N. Ob osesimmetrichnom Expansion of a Real Gas).-Zhurnal No. 2. 1961. KATSKOVA, O.N. gaza (Calculation i Matematicheskoi svobodnom Vyehislitel'noi rasshirenii real'nogo gaza (Axisymmetric Matematiki i Matematicheskoi Fiziki, Free Vol. 1,

2.

and A.N. KRAIKO. Raschet osesimmetrichnykh of Axisymmetric Isentropic Real-Gas Flows). Fiziki, Vol. 2, No. 1. 1962.

3. 4.

GUENTERT, E.C. and H.E. NEUMANN. Design of AxisymmetricExhaustNozzlesbytheMethodofCharacteristics Incorporating a Variable Isentropic Exponent. -- NASA, TR, R-- 53. 1938. PREDVODITEI_V, A.S., E.V. STUPOCHENKO, A.S. PLESHANOV, E.V. SAMUILOV, andI. ROZHDESTVENSKII. Tablitsy termodinamtcheskikh Functions of Air). -- Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR, Moskva. funktsii 1959. vozdukha (Tables

B.

5. 6,

SINYAREV, G.B. and M.V. DOBROVOL'SKII. Zhidkestnye rakemye dvigateli (Liquid-Fuel Engines). --Oborongiz, Moskva. 1955. KATSKOVA, O.N. and Yu. D. SHMYGLEVSKII. Osesimmetrichnoe sverkhzvukovoe techenie

7. 8.

rasshiryayushchegosya gaza s ploskoi poverkhnost'yu perekhoda (Axisymmetric Supersonic Flow of Freely Expanding Gas with plane Interface). -- Vychislitel' naya Matematika, No.2. 1957. RAO, G.V.R. Recent Developrfients in Pocket Nozzle Configurations. -- ARS Journal, No. 11. 1961. SHMYGLEVSKII, Yu. D. Nekotorye variatsionnye zadachi gazovoi dinamiki osesimmetriehnykh sverkhzvukovykh techenii (Some Variational Problems in Gas Dynamics of Axisymmetric Supersonic Flows).PMM, Vol. 21, No. 2. 1957. HUDERLEY, translation. G. and B. HUNTCH. 1956.] Best Configurations for Isoenergetic of Supersonic Supersonic Axisymmetric Flows Adapted Jet Nozzles. to Digital [Russian

9. 10.

of Characteristics 1960.]

Computers.

40

G. S. Roslyakov NUMERICAL A

and

N.

COMPUTATION SCALARIFORM

i. In this article a numerical computation scalariform Circular cone (Figure 1) immersed ideal gas. It is assumed

the incident flow is parallel to the axis of the body, while the flow velocity and the cone angles are such that the flow is supersonic at all points, It is also assumed that the angle of the second cone is larger than that of the first cone, so that a curvilinear jointing line on the surface frontal needle. compression of the body, shock is formed issuing from the as well as the conical shock in the conical the flow

In the region enclosed by the shocks the flow is self-adjusted; flows are tabulated in /I[. Beyond the second curvilinear shock becomes region, turbulent, and To its computation determine is very difficult. The near with the exception of the jointing line, is computed the flow parameters theory were applied. of the flow, we shall origin at the needle point

turbulent

of coordinates, 1).

of the

FIGURE

following

we

confine

the

discussion

to one

meridional

plane

half-angles known,

shall compute the flow shock OA, the generatrix family passing through

conical AB of

compression

41

% shocks. - following p, p, the incident This we should use the and 8, the be adequate for A4,the divided by most Mach the practical number; pressure velocity ratio. polar normal I is In applications. _ , the and the Mach density to the to In the angle; of the x-axis; the

pressure flow;

vector addition

s, entropy; cylindrical at O. By

x, 9,, we the

r, ocentered

denote

radial

radius) A4 by the

components equality*

dimensionless

velocity 2 M*= 1 x+

related

to

The

beyond shock,

the 2.

first

shock

beyond 3. from

remain only

along polar

any

ray

depend

angle

velocity

components equations:

k,,X. satisfy

following

of ordinary

differential

dk__L ),,, = d_ dk d. 1 kr+ ),. etg _, 2 k2 7.+1 " x+l ),2 (1)

1 ----

System

(I) will

be

integrated

for

the

following X.=O;

boundary

conditions: (2)

solution

must

satisfy

X,X.tg o,,

Given

X, and

k. from

the

solution

determine

-_-

(5)

e(),) =(l--_'--lk2/*-'x_

'

and

p,, and

p. are

determined

from

the

conditions

on

the

conical

shock:

Allunreferenced

formulas

in the text

/2/

or are easily

derived.

42

x+

m x--

x--F ! I _2.,._inainl_ w

(6)

#w =

4. is

As

we

have by

observed, of of

the

flow

beyond

the

curvilinear

shock

form

d_y#= tg (0 + a), dx _I) -_-dO+ 1 +cos2_da -- x--cQs2a and 2nd + sinOsin, dx--T- sin-------_ da=O -- y cos (O ::h a) 2x(_t-- 1) families), a_" = tgO, dx ds=O (7)

(characteristics

of

1st

of

3rd of

family the

-method

We

shall (the

not

dwell

on

the reader

interested formulas

e.g.,

in

only

give

for

computation the

compression

% = +

(8)

where

27.

* --

u-t-I --

P,=P(_)

2 x -- 1 + Ms (_) sins t

x-]

g=x,(_).[I [ P(') + _, d

--

1)sin'

_],

g is to

the the

angle

of

the

flow,

and

o the

inclination

angle

of

reIations aIong

be

supplemented characteristics.

with

a condition

which

is

43

special

computational the

procedure angle

is applied 6 is known:

near

the

jointing

point.

At

deflection

6 = L02-- c0,;e

is determined

where

tg_e

-{- Atg2_

+Btg_

4" C = 0,

B =

'

2 M s (_t) -+ --I 2

M' (_i) -+

x--I

A = C[1

-- M _(oh) L

all

the

unknown is

are in the be

from

difficulty As the

wall,

found

meet i). To

the

generatrix the

of the required

second

cone

at point

determine

parameters

at point

pressure

at point

a, using

the

expansion

Pa_Pe+(--_y)=AY where

(_dp_\ }2 = -ay

l

Kt K2 = _-

= _

tg (_ --

_), _) cos_l,

[sin _ -t- tg (_ --

1.

a =2tg(e--S)_I1 b = 1+ + (_ -_) (1 + __--1 B_] *B1, I] ,

tg _ tg

M_) --

B, = M_sin2(_--_)Itg_tg(e--_)--

(here Formulas

P2, M2, in

e, this

and

6 are form

taken were

at obtained

the

jointing by

point, by

beyond a method

the

shock). analogous to

Mel'nikov

44

that other

employed quantities

in

/4,

Chapter a : e_ = _,

IV/.

We

can

now

easily

determine

all

the

at point

s_ = s,,

where

Given (8}

the

flow

parameters

a,

we

can

compute

the

shock

point

from

of equations

of conical

Runge-Kutta method. To solve the boundary-value problem (1)--(4) at the left end point, with co = _, the value of _r was varied so that for some _0 = _ equations (3) and (4) were satisfied simultaneously (with pre-established accuracy). caw was assumed to be the conical-shock angle. In practice, the conical-flow by solving 2-3 _2(_0) and since _ (c0_) is approximately known (from could be determined with the problems. tabulated as the tables in /1/), required accuracy calculations, _. curvilinear from the a point parameters initial-value

As the result of these functions of the angle the beyond the 2nd family computing_

for

System (8) should be solved simultaneously with the equation _+=O, (see (7)). Let the solution be known at point P on the shock and at points of the characteristic of the 2nd family passing through point P (Figure 2). We find the intersec tion

!

point

Q of the line

passing

through

point

Pat

an

quadratic

conic flow parameters, find _2(_) and 0(_). From (5} we compute p(_) and p(_). Now from (8} we find the parameters beyond the shock at points Q (for a = op -k Ao). We compute with at points the value of $+ by replacing the differentials corresponding difference expressions ! Sm=ZB*_X

2

/i q

i _p

FIGURE

required

quantities

at points

M (for

and _ = ap + Aa--2_g the true position of the required interpolation chosen so that

, respectively} and compute the point N of the shock (with at this point (beyond quantities as functions different signs the of

+ at these points. Now += 0} and the value of shock} $+. Q and the are found by quadratic A_ and A_ are M, flow i.e_ rate so that at this the

at points we compute

45

in in

--

(9)

N.

the characteristic of the characteristic apply points the characteristic (x_, y_),

of the we the

x, y, 0, e, s we

equations

(x2, Y2) on

1)_

In in

x_

cosYdX(0-- ' =)

(10)

by the

trapezoid

formula.

2.Z

/?

r.8 //IV

1.0 _ o)1=20

I

Z5 FIGURE 3. 2.9 3.3 3.7 q,! 9.5 , Compression shock and boundary characteristic for various Min data (see Table 2); 0z=20; 0_2=35 Circles mark experimental .

the flow

unknown rate is

quantities computed

rate one

a point on the body. In practice, body, an integral accuracy check on the generatrix of the body.

since we compute from the shock to the will be that the flow rate does not vanish STRE LA computer at the Computational The results are shown in Figures 3--6 ratio for all the alternatives was of the of curvilinear Min of the shock incident and flow the for values

6. Computations were made on the Center of Moscow State University, and in Tables 1, 2. The specific heat taken boundary as 1.4. Figures 3 and for 4 give different characteristic

graphs

46

bodieswith

obtained (alternative by

and are

co, = plotted

points ;Win= 3

ii

2.2--

/

_d

"

aJ2= 35 1.0 35

FIGURE 4.

I

rn':'51 33

Compression (VII) and

I _.7

and boundary

1

I 51 5.5

characteristic o1=15", 0}2=35 for

_. 3

shock

Min=2.594

Min=4.097(Vl/I);

vr

J

/F ,/

FIGURE

5. second

of the

pressure iointing

over point;

the

of 2)

the

Figure

5 shows

the

(divided

by the

pressure

at the

jointing

high Min a stagnation region forms near the jointing point. the pressure along the generatrix becomes more intense. as computations the shock, the the of graph. Figure g. were made for point of maximum a comparatively pressure Min= rate for small Min=6.1

47

'/

y?

7

f/

VII

_/ 4- Alternative

t 0 ;

VIII Z6 ofy

as a function

Table trend

1 gives

the for

s as small

of

_.

Note (as

the

of entropy a minimum

entropy

a function

of _) has increasing

high

Min

s becomes

a monotonically

function 2,

x, g are

coordinates on the

of the cone

two

is the

pressure flow

second

of the

incident

computed flow

2 give rate

the As

divided already

at the

corresponding

observed,

_)m_xcharacterizes

to a certain

accuracy

of

computations. All the using the alternatives see Section relation, IV" was of results 0.1%, error of all for were 5). computed Since the reduced with shows in all other with pressure near Ax =0.01 (_x the a was point. of flow less exceed rate than _x. the interval computed along

shock,

a linear

exceed The

parameters

apparently

48

on

the

method on the

The

method

described cumbersome.

point

somewhat the first jointing point of values the and first the

substantially be proposed to the Below the shock scheme taken 2.748477 1.001498 0.610496 = 0.548388 s 0.076099 O.004316 as in

reduced in which

o equal generatrix. on

angle we cases

inclination the

point scheme

calculations.

x 2.758477 y 1.016410 0 0.6O6883 = 0.548323 s 0.076086 ,_ 0.047742 We smoothes see that off. the divergence in numerical

2.758477 1.016413 0.6(16882 0.548323 0.076085 0.047752 results is slight and quickly

$- IO_

'

0.000 0.300 0,600 0.900 1,200 1.500 1.800 ! .932 2,100 2.400 2.545 2.700 3.000 3,022 3.300 3,600 3.714 3.900 4,200 4.500 4.597 4.800 5.100 5.400 5.700 5.726 6.000 6-216

II

HI

IV

V!

VII

VIII

2.42 2.30 2.22 2.17 2.13 2.11 2.10 2.09 2.08 2.09 2,10 2.11 2.12 2.14 2,16 2.18 2.20 2.23 2.26 2.30 2.30

3.41 3.36 3.33 3.32 3.32 3.34 3.36 3.39 3.42 3.45 3.49 3.53 3.58 3.63 3.69 3.75 3.77

5.14 5.f2 5.12 5.15 5,18 5.22 5.27 5.32 5.39 5.46 5.54 5.63 5.72 5.75

7.61 7,62 7.65 7.70 7.77 7 85 7.94 8.03 8,14 8.25 8.38

12.9 12.9 13,0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.5 -13.7 13.9 14.0

4.-_1 1K32

4.83 15.66 4.87 -4.91 4.96 5,02 5.07 5.12 5.20 5.27 5.35 5.46 5.55 5.62 16.42 16.43 ------------

49

In conclusion weexpress thanksto V. I. Goryachevor his our f experimental data, andalsosomecomputational resultsof approximate theories.

TABLE 2 *

Alternative

_in

";-

u-

p,

( d_-71 kay/

P_

_max

20 20 20 20 20 20 15 15

3.423 3. 450

3.405 3.347

3. 265 3. 122

] I

4. 743 4. 397

For

all

alternatives,02

= 35 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

KOPAL, 194q.

Z.

Tables

of Supersonic

Flows

around

Cones.

-- Mass.

Inst.

Techn.,

Center

of Analysis.,

Rep.

1.

2. 3.

FERRY,

A.

[Russian

translation. and

1953.] N.P. (A SHULISHNINA. Computation nyi Tsentx Opyt of Plane AN SSSR, rascheta and Moskva.

of Characteristics).

-- Vychislitel'

4.

CHERNYI, Velocities).-

G.G.

Techeniya Fizmatgiz,

gaza

s boy

shoi 1959.

sverkhzvukovoi

skotost'

yu

(Gas

Flows

of High

Supersonic

Moskva.

50

Z

T. G. Volkonskaya CALCULATION OF SUPERSONIC AXISYMMETRIC JETS

jet

of the method of characteristics emerging from a nozzle are formulas are given for

calculating

and a general calculational procedure is described. calculating the flow parameters on the compression /2 / mainly deals initial wavelength, with the effect of nozzle and shape and curvature

experimental data and numerical calculations. This work is mostly concerned with subsonic jets or supersonic jets where the compression shock forms far downstream, i.e., cases where the shock need not be calculated. The authors maintain that the method of determination of the shock with allowance for the transient conditions across the shock front of the one are exceedingly shock as the type. of characteristics The present jets. The compression complicated. envelope of the the of one work also They therefore intersection points calculational with the determine the position of characteristics of ignores calculation for the

Correspondingly

type. deals is

focused

on the

calculating

2. Consider an axisymmetric jet emerging with supersonic velocity from a nozzle into a stationary gas (Figure 1). We shall assume the flow at the nozzle outlet to be uniform, having its velocity vector parallel to the nozzle axis. We shall also assume that the pressure of the surrounding medium "suspended" increases compression the flow shock}. boundary problem subsonic is less than the pressure at the nozzle outlet. In this case a compression shock may form with the coordinate x. Near the shock is reflected forming changes from supersonic The compression shock again of jet regions in the nozzle jet, whose axis, the shock intensity dropping axis, and

a direct

on the

from the direct and the free The complete to the presence is to obtain a right of AB, some x, r, to limited by the on its method of

forms a direct shock on the axis, calculation is highly complicated in the only shock. jet. The purpose of this in the The

numerical solution by the first direct characteristics the segment characteristic cylindrical the x-axis;

region bounded by the initial linear axis of symmetry, the free boundary following 0, the angle; notation is employed inclination angle S, the entropy;

throughout:

51

number angle

KOl

C

FIGURE 1

B

FIGURE 2

is

consider a general scheme characteristics of the 1st A, AB or axis the well-known the

The calculation from the initial (Figure 2). are used. as follows. in the At Let shock. we

boundary equations is

is observed,

sequence

of computations

Xk Bk be a part of previously region I.* C_ is the point Starting with characteristic X_+, Bk+,. Then applying find region the point Ck+, on the II a lst-family

construct in region I the characteristic for transition across the shock, point Ca+, As+,. Ca+,we then construct in

From

characteristic

FIGURE

us

a scheme quantities

for

to

a point a point

on the on the

shock

Iis located upstream

shock, and

region Hdownstream

from it.

intersection

* Region

last

characteristic

from the compression

with

52

The

gives the flow parameters at point 7 on the side of region IL the inclination o, of the shock, we apply one of the conditions across the shock:

0;- ei+ _

Suppose that poLnt 0 of the

_(e;- [_+21-_o(e_-_+sio4] _

shock (Figure points required the 3b) has already been computed at the

and that the solution passing through this intersection at points of the 1 and

5, 6, 8 of the lst-familycharacteristic point of the shock, 2, lies neighboring are at point it amounts lst-family known. 2 on the to the the The

3 of which

parameters

for the _etermination analogous to that continue the shock the (at side point

3--1 into region II ignoring 0 (assuming the parameters a 2rid-family characteristic characteristic issuing

from

parameters interpolation

at point 2 on the side of region for points 3, 1,4. To determine II, we apply

(D

_--1 sin (0_-o,)]} .2 '

sfa.(o_--_O

x-I]

[,

_,.'4

.-,]

We supplement this system with a differential relationship holding on the 2nd-family characteristic 2-- 7. Writing it in a finite-difference form*. we obtain

(2)

53

L=+[

l= !

sinS;sin=_ t- r, eos(0_-=_

'

k

0"2, a"2, S"_ in(2)as functions ofo_,we in fact reduce the (1) and (2) to the solution of the equation _ (c_) = 0 onthe We should first seek the segment the of la2, a_ lonwhich t _ _+_ difference and then on o so that between this q)(_2)=0 the segment

root of by

i = l, 2 ..... points

interpolation

a new

cD (_2) vanishes,

.,.=.-------'='_ . I

# 2

o

FIGURE M b = 3.0

t

4. Jet

z

boundary

_

formed

,;

forM0 =2.5, in the

jregion

z

5.

_

Jet

_ 8

boundary

,o ,_ ,;,

for M_3.0, of similar

FIGURE

No shock in

question

ignored

o

FIGURE

_

6. Jet

2

boundary 1.5.

3

and

,

the shock

0

FIGURE

7

_. Jet

2

boundary

3

and line

o

shock gives

for M,=

Mb=2.9996

dash-dot as the

jet with

boundary;

reflected

characteristic

The

numerical

calculations

were

carried

out

on

the

of calculations

object of checking both the accuracy of our work and the accuracy of the results in /2/. Figure 4 gives the shape of the jet boundary for M0=2.5, Mb=3.0. No shock formed in the calculated region of the jet. The results

54

in /2/ calculations shape jet boundaries calculation noticeable when show of in the

are

shown as are closely the were (also only jet boundary obtained ignored. see at is a

We in

see the

graph case.

two 5 line

of

M0 =3.0, crosses A

the

boundary

calculations

intersections boundary in the from ]2/ due this 6. M0= in to results the (marked the This solid

obtained

nozzle by

shock

fairly

The is

_ll%l

is lines

Figure for

figure by

boundary The by

_,e

of The other

between results

discrepancy.

FIGURE 8. Jet boundary for Me = 2.5, Mb = 2.'1 (curve 1); 3.0 (curve 2); 3.3 (curve 3); 3.5 (curve 4); 4.0 (curve 5)

FIGUR_ 9. Jet boundary forMo= 1.6, Mb= 1.8 (curve 6); 2.0(curve 3); 2.3 (curve 8); 2.5 (curve 9); 3.0(curve 10)

FIGURE

10.

Characteristic

grid for _lo= 3.0. Mb= 5.2867. are marked by thick lines

Calculations position Examination determined is the circles determined fan with plot the the of the of very as

to of

effect the of

of

an of

in results. can

the

be origin of the is

The

dash-dot

shock

the

reflected

A similar problems

conclusion

was reached

in/3/

in calculation

of "suspended"

shock waves

in one-dimensional

of gas dynamics.

55

The

difference as no

of the

"points large,

of

is fairly of the

however, shocks

on

the

jet boundary,

both

merge

at a certain

distance. varies with M_ M0 remaining in the region in question. for M0 = 3.0, lines. M b =5.2867, The

8 and 9 show how the jet boundary In all the cases no shock formed 10 gives and the the characteristic shock are marked grid by

boundary

thick

BIBLIOGRAPH'Y

1. WAND and PETERSON. Spreading of SupersonicJetsfrom Axially Symmetric Nozzles. --Jet Propulsion. May 1968. 2. LOVE. E.S., C.E. GRIGSBY. L.P. LEE. and M.J. WOODI/NG. Experimental and TheoreticalStudies of Axisymmettic Free lets. -- NASA, Technical Report R--6. 1969. 3. ZHUKOV, dinamiki Problems A.I. Primenenie metoda kharakteristik k chislennomu resheniyu odnomernykh zadach gazovoi (Application of the Method of Characteristics to the Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional in Gas Dynamics). -- Trudy Matematicheskogo Instituta ira. V.A. Steklova, Vol. 58. 1960.

56

H.

BOUNDARY

LAYER

L . A . C hudov

RE TEW OF

THE COMPUTATIONAL CENTER OF MOSCOW

C, IED

STATE

OUTAT

UNIVERSITY*

During problems

some out

of boundary-layer of Moscow State G. I. Petrov with the as well as graduate These studies cover value solved most by

University under the general guidance of participation of workers from some other and undergraduate students of the Moscow a very of them a variety series The wide also of range, have numerical and direct besides applied methods

to a system to the

equations,

expansions, reviewed

I.

SELF-SIMILAR and

PROBLEMS. E. L Obroskova

inblow (hydrogen

argon) strongly differs in its physical properties from the embient gas (air). The binary-mixture approximation was used to compute the diffusion. An exact numerical solution of the problem was obtained for self-similar boundary velocity the plate). problem method conditions proportional The were used of integral on the plate (constant to x-'a where x is profiles in the relations obtained same for in the the surface temperature; downstream coordinate of this self-similar the (in inblow along

solution

particular, with E, L Obroskova statement is also problem works, applying of the self-similar,

constant inblow). and E. N. Starova problem and with regard the solution

for a system of ordinary differential equations. this boundary-value problem was solved by the the forcing function method for the solution of

Lecture

delivered

at

the

Conference

on

Numerical

Methods

in

Gas

Dynamics,

Moscow,

March

1962.

57

equations.

(Third

order

equations

in the stream

function can

conveniently solved by the forcing function method. ) _,',;The next four works are of particular interest in elucidating questions pertaining to the physical statement of boundary-value in many-component A. B. Karasev gases. ]2/ computed the boundary layer near

(atomic oxygen, molecular nitrogen, and silicon on the wall and is entirely inblown into the boundary are "frozen" in the boundary layer. The main

methodic purpose of the work was to compare the results obtained with different representations of the diffusive fluxes. Three alternatives were considered: Wilke's formula, averaged Wilke's formula, and simple binary formula. The solutions obtained in the first and the second alternatives differed insignificantly; the third alternative showed of considerable divergence from the results of the previous two, which indicates the inapplicability of the binary formula for the computation ternary mixtures N. A. Anfimov in a many-component components. The of this kind. /3/ considered gas. gas was the boundary-layer near

Computations were made for the case of five assumed to be in equilibrium at the wall and the layer, while in the boundary layer the reactions

were "frozen". Diffuse fluxes were computed using Wilke's formula. The main methodic problem was to establish the effect of various physical assumptions adopted in the computation of the transport properties of the individual components on the various profiles and the heat conduction. Two interaction models were considered (rigid sphere model, and LennardJones depend atomic problem, that this conservation correcting In active potential). It was found that the results of computations substantially the on the procedure components. namely formula (up this. used in the computation The same work also dealt of the properties of with another methodic

a chemically premises

were are

(and

normal

in every boundary condition. The method the mixed boundary conditions to simplest satisfactory focused on convergence of the the rate of combustion by [5, the author in 6/ investigate

proposed by the author, conditions in every iterative under boundary process. various layer on gas The

iteration, ensures main attention was physical The assumptions two works

discussed of V. I. Stulov

/3/. the

a is

dissociation. of equilibrium

Diatomic dissociation.

Small variations equilibrium, and which are reduced of the atomic "boundary-layer" to zero

characterizing the departure and first approximation are To determine the to construct an varying function

from considered,

concentration

components, solution,

at infinity.

58

computation axisymmetric outlined by system which depended of a certain self-similar case body in a compressible V. V. Lunev*. The problem by

P. Vas//'ev of the

/7/ boundary

made layer

gas. to the

This solution

with a parameter, coefficient_ devised so that the at equation forcing differential solved by (series

process

every step only of second order function method. We now pass L P. Sopr-anenko

a boundary-value had to be solved. to the 18/ treatments the wall. The with small in powers with

expansions). by

considered

flow

of an incopressible

fluid on a slightly wavy sinusoidal perturbations represented as a series simultaneous over two waves retained in the by successively These method. equations. ranging linearization

waviness of the wall was described amplitude 5. The solution was of x. The procedure involves to e. To investigate the solution be up to 40 terms must coefficients are determined of linear differential were numerically work can be extended

respect

boundary-value used

problems

of compressible gas, hut, as system of ordinary equations V, Ya. Shkadov /9/ obtained, expansion of the stream

the author observed, the resulting is fairly cumbersome. for the case of incompressible of some

function in terms

dimer_siorless

combinations containing the velocity U.(z) and its derivatives. Analogous, hut more complicated, expansions were constructed, under certain restrictions, for the case of compressible practical use of this method on electronic gas. It is noteworthy that the computers involves considerable right-hand sides coefficients. of the

difficulties owing to the complexity of the differential equations defining the expansion

Series expansion of the solution in complicated problems seems to lead invariably to cumbersome and non-standard computations which are not suitable for electronic computers,

II. Application of the boundary The significance. of difference layer system was

works

mainly

describing

See

Lunev.

V.V.

nyi

sluchai

tla Past

vyazkim an ^xisym-

59

compressible scheme:

many-component

gas

can

be

represented

by

the

following

a___

Out

a [ p);

Oul\--

(i =

l, 2 ..... o

(B) (pv)= O.

o-_(pu) -i-

The

of

in

group the

(A),

i.e.,

a t,

depend

on

the u vertical

horizontal

component on the

components, F t depends, first wall, difference (B), from and scheme. on every derivatives it is

case, to y.

functions at an implicit

vanish

natural scheme

to

stable is

essentially approximated (A), order In studied is used (/3) makes accuracy /10, in ii,

equation stable

(in

y),

difference to iterate

nonlinearity to ensure

of

system

it in 12/,

second-

Chudov,

L Yu. methodic

and

I. I. Gezenko when this features layer, the the results methods. mesh of size scheme of

(choice

the of

study

comparing by by Ma T.

solutions later

other

Ching-tang problems

related of the

boundary basic

that the

the

scheme closely.

separation

calls

iterations to compute v, owing to the unbounded increase Ou derivative _ . In /15, 16/ some procedures of accelerating the of of Landau /16/ numerical for these iterations were computations u, v near formulas the were of using schemes without this continuity other, the separation used to studied. confirm It was the point*. improve functions. 4-th order equations complicating turns (B), and out it is to be in y is of the discussed the type (A) in the numerical computation shown asymptotic in /14/ that the of

convergence results L. D. In by

formulas

suitable The

unknown of

schemes

]15]. with

It

is

shown few

very

insufficient

therefore

some

1456

60

The solution

methodic

investigations, problems

and

also

the

experience

of boundary-value

in two-component

in progressing toward the solution of various particular problems. V. M. Paskonov /17/ developed for the STRELA-4 computer a standard program for the solution of the system of equations (A), (B) according to the difference scheme described in /10, 11/. This standard program can be conveniently used in the compilation of specific programs for solution of various boundary-layer problems reducible to system the (A), (B).

We shall now briefly describe some particular projects. The problem of the two-component boundary layer in the statement proposed by /1 / was considered in /10, 11] for the case of a plane plate and constant inblow, and in /13/, near the critical point. of The steadying. by more converge /18/ The self-similar or The less to the solution solution arbitrary self-similar a liquid system In this is determined in differential at x ffi 0will, /13] by the method equations determined in suitable variables, of partial conditions solution boundary used the system of layer limit

M. G. Merzlyakova and (3. A. Beda on the surface of a truncated cone. of the liquid boundary layer as coordinates the E. L Obroskova compressible The problem stream of

a coordinate

thickness of the boundary layer is and V. M. Paskonov /19/ studied layer with as follows. is fed Inside which combustion A porous through

constant. a many-component in a of

at the wall and radiation. plane plate is immersed the plate, there is the problem which burns is a mixture capable of boundary was layer posed

Hydrogen

emitting and absorbing radiant energy. L M. Soprunenko and V. M. Paskor_v an /8/, was incompressible fluid on a wavy but solved directly, using devoted here to establishing and the separation. T. F. Bulatskaya, layer on the for

in as in

surface.

scheme. The main attention between the magnitude problem a blunt of body /4/, computed in a of the methods: melting

lateral

high-temperature results obtained Wilke's formula V. M. Paskonov of a viscous this problem Interesting steady T.S.

flow of dissociated air. A comparison with rates of diffusion computed by two and Hirschfelder's formula. and Yu. V.Polezhaev /22/ considered near the critical to (A), which is were and obtained point. The then solved the /23/

concerning

E. L Obroskova

computed

a two-component

by a discontinuous the standard difference discontinuous question equations boundary regarding in similar can In

adequate

in the

equations layer.

61

/24/,

V. M. Paskonov

and

S. I. Serdyukova

considered

of on a plate. velocity

component, confined to In conclusion of this different boundary nitrogen, coordinate in directions point flame was formulas front, difference layer on hydrogen,

interval on the leading edge of the plate. we should mention two studies employing V.G. Gromov /25/ considered the mixture of gases (oxygen, in the flame front, A The derivatives using manyseparated regions). by variable) applied layer the

with the flame front was used. to the wall were approximated approximations the points for the regions in the respective

of ordinary equations (in the Runge-Kutta method. to the with problem of constant inblow.

a similar (hydrogen-air)

method

a two-component

SOME

PROBLEMS

OF

THEORY in the previous in /i0[ it was boundary dynamic layers boundary section shown can layer.

solution certain

of some theoretical

For

that the depth of the diffusive be several times greater than This means horizontal that computations velocity component

must be u virtually

the velocity as an is

of inviscid flow u,(x). usually done, from the absurd value. result When

If the vertical component continuity equation, t_en as y -+o%v boundlessly and the diffusive

can have considerable far from the wall. with its conception

boundary

asymptotic boundary layer, neglects the problem "global n approximation, i.e., a solution applying as in the region of main flow. It is easily seen cannot be matched some of the continuously problems boundary with the solution wall. For conception allowances its influence approximations

of construction near the boundary that the asymptotic of inviscid the more flow classical complete

of modern aerodynamics, layer is inadequate, and for the effects of viscosity, flow. The problem arises to viscosity both near

it. The methods available in the literature for matching the boundary layer with the inviscid flow solution are also inadequate, since in the best ease a continuous solution (without continuous derivatives) is obtained for u(x,y) only, boundary layer. L, A, Chudov, L. A. Lyusternik, e --V'T for the case while v(x, y) remains the procedure zero and first discontinuous developed steady at thelimit by of the and past

applying constructed

M. I. Vishik flow

approximations incompressible

in the parameter

of two-dimensional

62

/27/. and

These smooth

by Residuals that

which

computed.

be the for

an explanation of v. considerable solution (for that the difference decrease of /28/. in x. practical In are two x

mentioned

is

the initial

of

many only

x = 0) of as

boundary-layer

we

can

assume will

increases. were

of and

solutions

Paskonov

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. AVDUEVSKII, V.S. and E.I .OBROSKOVA. plastine s ueheromteploi mattoobmena Heat 2. and Matt Transfer). --Izv. Issledovanie laminamogo pogranichnogo sloya na porittoi (A Study of Laminar Boundary Layed of a Porous Plate with mekhaniki i ma_int_roemya, No.4. 1960.

AN SSSP,, Seziya

KARASEV, A.B. Re.shenie mavnenii pograuiehnogo sloya v l_aednei krtticheakoi tochke troinoi smesi (Solution of Boundary Layer Equatiom at the Frontal Critical Point of a Ternary Mixture). --Izv. AN SSSP_ Seriya mekhamild i mathimmxoeniya, No. 6. 1961. ANFIMOV, N.A. Laminamyi pogranichnyi _ v mnogokompoaenmoi smeSi gazov kritichefloi tochld (Laminar Boundary Layer in a Many-Component Gas Mixture Point). --Izv.AN SSSR. Sexiya mekhaniki i mathinortroeniya, No.1. 1962. v okrestnosti Near the Critical

3.

4.

ANFIMOV, N.A. Laminarnyi pogranichnyi sloi na khimicheski aktivnoi poverldmmti (Laminar Layer on Chemically Active Surface). -- Izv.AN SSSR, Se_iya mekhanitd i mashinostronniya, 1962. STULOV, V.N. Pogranichnyi slni na plastine Distoclation). s uchetom --Izv. neravnovesnoi disso_lauti (Boundary

Boundary No.3.

5.

Layer

on

i mathinostroeniya,

Teploperedacha v laminamom pogranichnom (Heat Transfer inLaminar Boundary Layer mekhaniki i maahinmtroeniya, and F.P.VASIL'EV. integro-Differential No.6.

floena plastine s uchetom khimicheskoi on a Plate with Chemical Noneqnilibrium). 1961. Solution of a Boundary-Value Boundary Layer. --

--

SSSR, Seriya

BUDAK, B.M.,

T.F.BULATSKAYA, of Nonlinear

Numerical Equations

of a Hypersonic

SOPRIJNENKO, I.P. Pogranichnyi tini na voinistoi stenke (Boundary SSSR, Seriya mekhaniki i mashinosn-oeaiya, No.2. 1962. SHKADOV, V.Ya. Ob integtirovanii uravnenii Equations). -- DAN SSSR, Vol. 126, No.4. pogranichnogo 1959. sloya

--Izv.AN

9.

(On Integration

of Boundary-Layer

10.

setok

11.

BRAILOVSKAYA,I.Yu. and L.A.CHUDOV. Reshenie uravnenii pograniehnogo sloya raznosmym metodom (Solution of Boundary-Layer Equations by Difference Methods). --ln: "Vychislitel'nye metody i [xogrammirovanie", Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1962.

63

12. 13.

GEZENKO,

I.I.

-- MGU. E.I.OBROSKOVA,

MA KUO HS0

1961. -- MGU. -- MGU. the 1961. 1961. of Boundary-Layer Problems. --This volume (see

Solution

18.

Raschet of a Liquid

zhidkogo Boundary

sloya Lateral

na

bokovoi

poverkhnosti of a Truncated

Surface

-- Otchet E.I.

19.

V.M.PASKONOV.

Raschet

sloya and

s goreniem Radiation).

i --

(Computation MGU. V.M. T.F. tela --Otchet V.M. and volume. T.S. razryvnoi and 1062. and

of a Compressible

20. 21.

Boundary sloi in

Layer

on

a Slightly

Wavy smesi

WaU. gazov on

--This na the

volume. bokovoi

v mnogokomponenmoi Gas

(Laminar VTs

a Many-Component

Mixture

Lateral

Surface

22.

PASKONOV, Point.

Yu.V.POLEZHAEV.

Unsteady

Melting

of a Viscous

Material

near

Stagnation

-- This

23.

Raschet

pogranichnogo Layer

pri

nalichii

vduva, Described by a

funktsiei

of Boundary 1962.

Inblow

24.

PASKONOV,

pogranichnyi Inblow).

sloi --Otchet

vduvom

thesis.--MGU.

-- MGU.

1961. Boundary-Layer profilei of Boundary Theory. na Layer). -- This razvitie --Otchet volume. pogtanichnogo VTs MGU. sloya 1962.

of Classical

V.M.

of Initial

64

L.A.

Chudov

SOME

SHORTCOMINGS BOUNDARY-lAYER

OF

CLASSICAL THEORY

The

classical

theory

of

the

boundary

layer

with

the to

as the viscosity flow in the entire domain. divided into flow, various from the equations. convincing It is the

boundary

assumed "main

domain

flow

viscous flow differs greatly appropriate boundary-layer A fairly rigourous flow and boundary-layer on an impermeable

described describing

of equations

of a boundary equations to

layer some

other cases of boundary layers was case of a permeable boundary, one that the normal velocity component We are thus faced with the question already in this simple Similar questions No analysis substantially wall. outlet Unlike it is As an has been different example and arise made from we can

purely formal. For example, in the of the basic premises of Prandtl -vanishes at the wall -- is not valid. of applicability very common with other layers boundary the boundary of Prandtl case*. applied equations problems.

of a rectangular channel under certain natural boundary conditions. the Prandtl boundary layer, its thickness is of the order of .v and described by ordinary differential equations. of applicability of other types gases, becomes of the classical of boundary layers, more urgent as the

The investigation of the conditions boundary-layer equations and study especially problems Very in cases of compressible done theory on the of boundary-layer little has been

conditions

boundary layer. We shall not dwell of initial conditions on the line x = x0 of boundary-layer on the "outer

layer.

65

the simplest

boundary incompressible

are near

following

y _ oo,u (x. y) --+U (x), flow at the wall. lead to a paradoxical velocity of

U (x) is the

It is well result:

layer), this physically meaningless the results (see /1/,p. 94). Some papers and text books also the introduction of a certain spurious The conditions unsound in our realized properties example, construction altogether of the are the of specifying opinion. solution conditions

behavior

consider boundary conditions based "interface" of the boundary-layer. physically cannot simple for /2/). applying (Such, in

the position of this "interface" are Some alternatives of these conditions distances of the from the wall owing boundary-layer Ou(x._)

' 0y

be

at finite

to the

u(x, 5)=U(x) approximate is hardly confined to It is easily matching equations aerodynamics, the

The

a "global"

solution,

a solution

throughout the flow domain, The description is mostly the solution for small v. impossible approximate to construct solution by of

touched in the classical a general sketch of the seen that in the general and smooth (in flow all "limiting" the and the

treatments. structure of case it is solution of the e.g., the in the /3/). of the

a continuous

components)

classical boundary-layer In some problems boundary layer Investigations construction, parameter approximations Physical differential indicate of that sufficiently

"feedback"

on the main flow is by no means of this problem are in fact mainly in the "main domain", of the next Applied problems and small as thus mainly

e=V _-

functions

and the boundary conditions e n+_ *. Known methods for the "limiting flow", and smoothness

approximate solution. The residual arising when into the Navier-Stokes equation contains singular 5-function or its derivatives This is clearly not due to an imperfection of the method It is now general may sufficiently constructed throughout object resolved smooth the flow approximations domain in the that in the

this solution is substituted terms of the type of the something inherent, but natural to ask how in in The e be main

theory between order n is of

viscous the thus exact incomplete,

* The present of mathematical the difference of

incompressible and the

Formally, of classical

flow approximate giving no is unable

bear Our this out by providing oI for the

to

solutions. indication as to

definition norms

solution

the

measuring

66

consists written smooth expansion boundary introduced boundary functions corresponding automatically In flow using the of v as this near the equations

in

that, the

in

Vishik

and

Lyusternik's solution, but the Navier-Stokes parameter flow. boundary are zero The

method, for

the

are to

terms

e with The

the

"corrections"

that

the

are away is

the

of

approximation

of

viscous

incompressible is established and of flow first constructed between behavior a simple a domain.

approximation is the is

paradoxical

y -+ _ is and and

approximate conditions "main domain". viscous be to the the for directed surface.

specifying

plane-parallel x-axis

flow the be

We conditions

write

lVa(u'v'P'O_-ug_+v_

-j

o_

_2Au=O;

(1)

Ns(u,v,p,_)_u--g_-+v

Ou

+T"

Ov

ou

(2)

Jv_(u, v) -=-_; + _

uf_-o vlv-o Following approximate The first series, using functions satisfies the relevant to part (5). functions, to . This This in Vishik solution and called functions n-th order (1), of luyusternik's problem the smooth independent approximation (2), the (3) with as = O; = O.

= o;

(3)

(4) (5) we shall series in seek terms is relations so the that the of defining smooth e"+_ . an of 5.

procedure, a sum part of of e. are a residual the of smooth inviscid does by the second on with part terms the local of x not of the two

oY the

approximation,

Recurrence chosen of

boundary condition

boundary the is

approximation remedied

condition local

i. e. , functions zero, series relations are with is for constructed any called the

to local the

and part

_1, of

as the

approximation.

part

residual,

67

obtaining when the sum of the smooth and the local parts of the approximation is substituted in equations (i),(2), (3), also has the order of zn+, 3. pressure condition iota1 and applying As the smooth for (4), this we part of the zero solution. approximation po(x,y). we take the and the a (3) corresponding "limiting" Let the velocity components

solution be Uo(x,y),vo(x,y), set in the zero approximation Inserting this (5) 0 we equation find for

function.

u in the

condition

(6)

o 0

where

_ =--.

Let

v0(x)=

_ _un --j-_ ,

0

(7)

(8)

,}

From

(6) we

have

(9)

If Inserting obtain

uo is three

a local groups

function, of terms:

then

from(8)

Vo(x,,1) is

also left-hand

a local side

function. of (1), we

Uo_-+

(Uo + Uo) _

a.o

v a.o + _l

o au

p " o--T'

+ Uo -- -- 0 --, ax Oy"

apo

(IO)

+ (% + _vo +/Vo)

(1 I)

(_o "I- _'Vo (x)) Ou-2-n _' a'u. _ _, a'u____o_2 a'_'__2o -_ . ay Ox2 Oy' Ox' Sum (10) regarded later on. vanishes as the The by the residual second definition of u0, v0, p0. The terms in (12) of the zero approximation and considered (11), is transformed by substituting

(12)

8

group,

+ _o(x, 0) o_

Ouo

a_,

68

where

s, =

+ a,(,. ,aj

---:--+

+

_) ,

(13)

&

Ox

ax

(14)

$I will be combined

with residual

approximation.

Setting So equal to.zero and combining this equation with (7), (8), and the continuity equation (3), we arrive at a system of equations of zero approximation. and set e_o = _o+ We write this system in terms of the original variable y,

_-o(*):

[.o(*,o) +u_l_-'+

+ u_ Ou,(.. O) ox

et o'_, = O, o_ (15)

_---a_ _v (_'j = o. +

The boundary conditions are (uo + uo)w-o = O, (% + Ewo)u.o ----O, _o-+0 R is easily seen that equations as y-+ ao. conditions assume

(16)

shall moreover

a'o/,.,. = _o(,0.

where 4. _ Let is a local us function*. the zero approximation with Prandtlls This asymptotic solution boundary-layer and boundary

OUpr OfP pr ---_'y -IC I --

(20)

compare

OUpr U pr -'_

equations. conditions:

OPo (x. " Ot es

satisfies

OauPr --

Ox

O_

= O;

(21)

* We shall assume that boundary-value this solution being a local function. following O .A .Oleinik /6/.

problem (18)-(20) has a unique solution u_in some interval xo<x<x_, With some additional restrictions, this assumption cam be proved

69

aUpr

aVpr

az

F_=

O;

Upr (X, O) = O; Vp, (X, O) = O; Up, (X, oO) = Uo(X , O) (u0(x,y), limiting We Vo(X,y), po(x,y), as before, solution of the equation introduce "increments" denote the of inviscid up,, components flow), by

ewpr defined

upr = uo(x, O) + Up,, Ova(x, O) Vp, = y_ + eWp,. Inserting the equations (15), for the uo coincide applies, equations written up, and theorem (26), (27) of in (21) and flow (22), relating and also in (23), (17), (24), obtain (25), for and

(26)

u p,, _p,

boundary of zero

conditions approximation

for x = x0. Then, if the corresponding uniqueness up, _ u_, ew p,= ew0. Comparing U.or, Vp, with the zero u(0) = u0 .4- uo, v () = v0 q- ew0, we u_) = up, -_ (uo(x, y) --uo(x find , 0)), (28)

approximation

v >= vpr + (Vo(X, y) --y It follows describe e only do not for from (28) a solution those and (29) that of the problem which of the

Ovo(x. O) _1. solution flow with , y)(up,, errors v,, )will of the y)--y

(29)

order av0fx. 0) au

y for e in order

u0(x , O) andv0(x,

exceed

We now boundlessly

Oy

auo(x, O)

c_x

_0.

The

zero

approximation

constructed

in the preceding

section

is free from

the restriction imposed on y when the asymptotic solution is used. It is noteworthy that owing to (28) and (29) the zero approximation can be constructed from tions can be made the asymptotic solution, so that the numerical computawith the aid of the various approximate methods Prandtl equations (21), (22) with boundary approximation for equation is of (I)

developed for the classical conditions (23), (24), (25). 5. We shall now show the order of e. The consists of the terms

of the zero

7O

We

write

separately

the

smooth

and

the

local are

parts

of the order

residual, relative to

and in the process isolate the terms e. The smooth part of the residual

which of order

of first e is

cA(x, y) = _ (x) _.

ay

(30)

The

smooth

part

of the

residual

of order

e2 is

O a'u0 -_-"

(31)

The

local

part

of the

residual o

of order ay

e is Oy O_o L e_ ax _(32) u o.

+T

The local part of the

. _vo P:, O)

o_

residual

of order

ez is

axe OUo(x" O) t Ou' +[ _(x" O)

21

1_

._____O'mVo O)I (,

_ e"l a'u, (z, o) _ axa, ju+_P'[au'-_ Let us now with e = 0to compute construct the residual the functions smooth e. As for

'_)

O_o(z, o) o, ]"

(33)

This equation was used the smooth part of the contains residual,

(34)

which are formally of zero order not been used in the construction However, smallness it is easily to seen e: we that relative apply

in e. of the in fact

is so because equation (2) has part of the zero approximation. terms (5) and are of first them order of form rewrite in the

condition

aOo(X,) a o

[&.o(x, _)

a_.(_,o)l-

the

of equation residual

(2)

as

we have e is

done

for

equation

(1).

of order

_A: (x, y) =

71

The

smooth

part

of the

residual

of order

e2 (and

higher)

is

axs Oy, axS The local part of the residual of order e is

The local part of the residual

of order e_ (and higher)

_ o._. 0

is

(35)

__ OVo(X, 0) lO__. _

_v [ 0v(x''_) L ay

Vo(X' I -- aa O_oOx, Oy )

136)

Equation vanishes.

(3) satisfies

the

zero

approximation

exactly,

6. The zero approximation exactly. On other parts of the introduce crement faster order could than relative have an additional residual to our of e,

the boundary conditions for y = the increments u0, ev0 _- _Vo(x) boundary conditions. to zero evo(x) is of The for the ine --, 0 first we

u0, according any power to "truncated" function (1), (2) to We the In by part V=Vo-_-ev,, the to of e.

converges ev0 _

while

increment

Following the

Vishik-Lyusternik uo, of but of this e. The nevertheless the course, of first a residual is these and of dropping the first order of since the of ev_, Jr e_(x)using

increments

independent would e, shall and not change, a residual follow of follows, it first a

smooth

orders equation consistent conditions, can be The u=uo+eu,, (3), order smooth

appear approach

residual in the

of order in

e in this of the

boundary

approximation

residual

with

P=Po-}-ep,. of obtain

definitions e, we

terms

of

approximation

c)

+ vo

Ouo

+ +

O;

(_v_)+ _u_-

O_o + Oy

_'_ (sP')

= o;

(37)

(_"0

+ _ (_v,)= o.

72

Wedemand that

of the smooth part approximation.

the of We

velocity

component and

vanish the

at local

y = 0 for part of

the the

sum zero

approximation

Since of the

e_0+ first

_0(x)

ffi 0for

to

(18),

then

for

the

smooth

part

approximation

boundary

condition

0.+_=_.(x)

for

y_0.

(38)

Condition approximation increment limit wall, Note main but on flow of the where

(38)

that

wheel

the

smooth equal

part to

of the

the

first

taken

zero

"at

that

boundary

a certain n of seen

from layer,

distance

boundary

a distance is

is the

in

definition @, which

conditions as far as

approximation

mBUOGRAPHY I. CHUDOV, L.A. Review of Boundary Layer Studies -- This volume. nesznimaemni zhidkosti (Dynamics of Viscous Incompressible Fluids).-Carried out at the Computational Center

of Moscow 2.

vyazkni

Moskva. Modern

3.

LEASE, L. dvizheniya

of Hypersonic deistviya".

in: "Problemy

golovnoi

IL, Moskva.

4.

VISHIK,

M.I.

and L.A.LYUSTERNIK

Regulyarnoe

vyrozhdenie

i pogtanichnyi

(Regular Degeneracy and Boundary-Layers -- U MN. Vol. 12. No. 5 ( 77 ). 1967. resheniya ktaevykh zadach

and L.A.LYUSTERNIK.

6.

differentsialnykh uravnenii (The Asymptotic Behavior of the Solution of Boundary-Value Quasflinear Differential Equations). -- DAN SSSR. Vol. 191 , No.5. 1958. OLEINIK. O.A. O tiareme uravnenii pogranichnogo sloya (On the Boundary-LayezEquations). Vychislitel'noi Matematiki i Matematicherkoi Fiziki, Vol. 3, No.3. 1963.

-- Zhurual

73

V. M.

Paskonov

OF

The

system

of

equations

describing the

the

flow

of

a viscous

compressible two

unknown be reduced

functions to the

at _-x +bt _Oh = _-y ( c ' a,9'h di + el,, aft 0 J_+ Opu + 0_, o_ _-y =o,(i=1,2 ..... k).

(1) (2)

(I)

Equation

(2)

is the

ordinary

continuity

equation

where

u and

v are,

the longitudinal and the transverse System (D contains k _ lunknowns, of the Ii should identically coincide always be brought to form (1).

velocity component, p namely v and ft (i = 1,2,... k). with u, since the equation It is assumed that the of of a

coefficients a_, b L, q, dl, e l may depend on v, fl and various combinations of their derivatives. The standard form (1) suits not only the equation motion, but also the energy equation (the equation of the temperature boundary layer), the diffusion equations for each component (equations continuity for every individual component) when we are concerned with flow of a multicomponent gas mixture in the boundary layer, and the radiative balance equation when we are concerned with radiative transfer in the boundary layer. System (I} also describes the boundary layer behavior for the oblique some approximation, conditions of zero lift. The class of problems which can be conditions For purposes is desirable flow of a compressible gas past a cylinder or, for the gliding of a wing of finite span under The flow in a wake is also described by system considerably imposed on increases system if the (D are diverse into class enable boundary consideration. of problems the entire taken

with (D.

it

system (D or at least the system (1) to be integrated for various boundary conditions, various coefficients at, b_, q, dl, e_, and various dependence of p on the unknown functions or their derivatives. This standard program was evolved at the Computational Center of the Moscow is so schemes State University for the STRELA permits the nonstationary computer. application boundary The standard program of certain difference layer problems. written that it even for the solution of

74

As is grid

in

/2/,

the

system by

(19

is

solved implicit

by

difference

method. scheme.

Equation A rectangular

(I)

approximated is chosen on

six-point

the

x = xo + nAx ,

y = mAy,

(m, n = O, l, 2 ....

),

and

an

auxiliary

net

Note of the

that

the

mesh of

spacings system

hx and (D.

Ay may

vary,

depending

on

the

behavior

solutions

The (the

coefficients

computed points).

at the

auxiliary

grid

points

"half-integral"

Setting

we write the finite-difference approximation of equation (i) in the form

ax

2ay

--

av, {[0 - s,)(/,,.+, -- p,;,) + s,(p_+,- _1 _..7__r_. - t(_ s,)(/TU:_--,)s, + qT.-:7_,-,)J + _-_.}

+ d_'.7". + _ ", [(1 -- s,) _-' s l can that (3) can be be chosen written -4- sJ_'m], differently in the form for each (3)

n--I

--I

'

where equation

the

averaging _(T

parameter 1

'

-_s_<

Note

where

(4)

System boundary of ]_ on

(3),

together

with specifies

of the values

n, if the

(n -- l)-th layer

75

points of

known. (1) is we

is

solved on forcing

by

the

forcing layer. in

successively the

every coefficients

find [t on recursion

Ai m

A_.,h%+l

+ B_,,

(5)

alrnAirn

71,n -_

_lra

(6)

Bl0 are

found

from

the

The the

program recursion

(5) at points are mesh (m-the are computed spacing l)-th and (rn-{- I)-th

forcing from

differ

(6). and

m-th is

points

the

spacing respect

points

at the coefficients

(rn--2)-th, the

m-th,

points,

are

computed

formulas

+ _irn

+ Blm-2) _- _irn

a_m, and

_,.,,,

7i_,

_,are

determined

from

(4)

with

m--2

substituted

for

2AgforAg. the mesh between (m+l)-th, size the and changes (rn--1)-th (m+2)-th approximated and the at the and points the it at the ,n-th m-th is point from points '/2hg, the is Ag to hgand derivatives using the '/2hg, i. e., when

spacing m-th,

respect m-th,

points,

coefficients

computed

from

almBlm--1)

The

ai_,, rn + m

_i_,

be

(4) _m+tare

with also

m +2 determined 1, and

substituted from

1 and

is

2 substituted

form--l,

m+2form+

*[ Cf., e.g., I.S. Berezin and N.P. Moskva. 1959, and later editions.

Zhidkov, ]

Metody

vychisleniya

( Numerical

Methods),

76

!2

Ay for

Ay.

The

program

5 regions Ay,, _

with intervals

different of length

Ayj(j = 1, 2,

!

'"

5) (or

in one

layer:

m 1 intervals m_ intervals

ay, = T

ay,

Ay, = -_

Ay, (or

Ay, = 2Ay D.

(i=l, 2.... k, m=0,1 ..... M--I; M-_l layer) on the n-th layer and face of the boundary seeing should that before f_ for layer as x solving However, thicker, we one of the

outer

(for m=Nl), we can find increases the boundary (5) for matching ft at all the condition grid

functions

the

where e is n-th layer, are at found; all unknown a small a point points. positive number. with Ay=y.--yM--, these We thus add If this added condition and the the n-th limit layer

(7)

is not satisfied on the coefficients Au_, Bm values as many of li are used as points

is

in computing

coefficients, in the

necessary to ensure smooth matching for the two last points of the layer. Addition of many points in the .-th layer generally shows that Ax is too large, f_ in condition (7) is the function with the maximum thickness of the asymptotic boundary layer. This choice of the test function should be verified The in every continuity particular equation 1 problem (2) is by numerical by n computations. the difference equation approximated I

ft, found

p are from

at all (8)

grid

points v_,-'r' to

layer re=l,

boundary enables

condition

transverse

component,

equation

n-th layer (M'_> M). (D, as indicated above, derivatives. over v and

of their interpolation

principal points. We thus have to as functions of unknown functions. usual way. In the first approximation (n--I) -th layer are assumed Systems (D of different ai, hi, cl, all, et, for fl (different conditions subroutines, subroutines, compiled subroutines 77 SP /3/: for for the particular

compute _, b_, c_, d_, ex on the n-th layer This is carried out by iteration in the the values of a function on the corresponding problems points of the n-th layer. differ in their coefficients conditions at y=0 in upper boundary using special

performed

for

which can be incorporated as a rule, perform simple every particular problem are given by referencing the

in the main program. These arithmetic operations and are anew. The core addresses of these standard program according to

77

x

+ 1 x 4- 2 + 3 ,_ + 4 x+5 Here %sa [3es a "fesa _csa <Ayl>

4004

rosa Pcsa _csa _csa <Ax_

0 j' j= /3 h 15

acsa, csa, Y csa, csa, csa, csa,arethe core starting addresses _ B v P of the following functions:

conditions);

of the subroutine

which

is referenced

after

every iteration. This subroutine can be compiled, for example, so that it would control the convergence of iterations and suitably adjust the interval Ax, etc. _csa is the core starting address a required number described before) included of a subroutine which is referenced after of iterations (this number or after a pre-determined the program. This is specified in the subroutine number N of iterations subroutine is generally used

in referencing

for controlling the computations, for finding the unknown functions from the solution obtained on the n-th layer, for modifying the intervals Ax and Ay, printing out results, etc. The initial data fed into the computer include the number of equations (1), k; the number of the equation for which condition (7) should be checked, i'; the core address of the word where the e of condition (7) is stored, < e >; the core addresses of the words number layer, where Ay,and Axare stored, < Ay, >, < Ax >; of the maximum Ayjintervals k>l, k,l= permissible in the initial 1,2 ..... 5). j, = 1, if Ay is constant; O, otherwise. then M lmJ. of points in a layer, Mm_,; the number rn I (]=l, 2 ..... 5; rn, = 0, if rnt = 0 and

iv =

O, if

1, if

Ayq

1 Ayq=2Ayq_ t.

= -7 Ayq_

I.

(q=2,

3, 4, 5)

The

standard

1146

words

of

memory.

When

using

space (n--l)-th

be allocated to the working program (kMm_+14 words), to the n-th layer where lis the When SSP-2 /3/ is memory. of type where (1);

(2k(Mm_+l)+k+l words), number of intervals with used the program The standard can be program

to the storage of s_ (klwords, different Ayi in the layer). loaded anywhere can also be used of bypassing the

is provided is integrated.

78

BRAILOVSKAYA. I. Yu. and L.A. CHUDOV. Reshenie uravnenii metodami (Solution of BounCiary-l_ye; Equatiom by Difference

3.

metody i l_ogxammizovanie'. Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1962. ZHOGOLEV, E.A. Sistema programmizovaniya $ i_pol' zovaniem biblioteki podprogramm (Programming w_th a Subtour2ne Library). --In: _Sistema avtomarizatsti programm_ovaniya," lq. P. T_IFONOV an_ II.R.SHURA-BURA, Editors. Fizmatgiz0 Moskva. ]961.

79

V. M. Paskonov

and

I. P. Soprunenko

BOUNDARY

LAYER

ON

SLIGHTLY

WAVY

WALL

In necessary

formulating to make

problems allowance

of

flow of

it the

is

sometimes surface.

contact

Even slight waviness will produce periodic fluctuation of pressure. This has a considerable effect on boundary-layer flow, may lead to separation of the boundary layer, and to onset of turbulence. A solution of profile the problem

2_x

of is

flow (x,

on

a wavy

wall

with

y=a0sin

y define

Cartesian wave

with x-axis parallel to the a0 to be small in comparison for the downstream velocity can be written

incident flow). Assuming the with the wavelength L, the component of the incompressible

2-V

(1)

and

the

expression

for

the

pressure

on

the

-2--'

and

velocity

The problem of boundary-layer flow on in /2/ assuming linearity in a and expanding of x; the expansion coefficients were taken variable _ = Y _= T is the kinematic

a slightly wavy wall was solved the stream function in powers as functions of the characteristic viscosity, I_ viscosity, a, the boundary each wave there occurs, while The value oecurred

X

on the amplitude etc., ridge. For aI1 a<a. no separation separate to 0.011, at this ridge. and separation with the separation separation

--

of at

for

the

second

at T=l.6. of a laminar

foIlowing

criterion

8O

at the outer face of the {2), and boundary-layer , occur 0,0011 we at find a,= that according

the 13)

Assuming plate

(?)

should and

0.0032 point

at the

X

of the ridge,

at the

-_-= 1.515

of the

second

by the

carried out with the purpose of establishing, the values of a, at which separation occurs All gas the calculations were made with the of boundary-layer equations 4k_ flow m _,,= boundary layer and the In the [4[. on a wavy The problem

at

standard program for solution Consider incompressible with the pressure reduces x-axis directed distribution to the following u-Ou ox

wal!

of equations: Y_ _ o___ + Ox o_ =o. ay vector along the x and y boundary conditions at u is taken velocity at y=0: flow (2_)Sacos 2_x --+v-_ Oeu o_, ' (4)

u and v are the components of the velocity System (4) should be integrated with zero (u=O. v=O), while at the upper face of the to the longitudinal component u==V., of the potential

boundary-layer

+ V. 2xarfin 2_ quantities

Introducing

the

dimensionless x

x'=

_-"

Y"

u r"R_-

"

u'

=_-:-_'

v C_i"

v.

P" =

_-_-2 '

( Re = P_-_ ) "

and

omitting

the

primes,

we

obtain

the

system

of

equations

c_u

(6)

at the

upper

To determine the {5), (6)was integrated profile, we assumed solution for a plane

values of a, at the first, second, etc., for various values of a. As the initial the values of u and v for x= 0.01 from plate.

81

An iterations was

of

the

effect

of with The

Ax, of on

of

the

number is profile hx= determined was 0.01 x= increase from We layer therefore and us{ng

of

made

a= first

21,

Ay = 0.04. and and in the 6 iterations. x= 0.54. number clearly another profile again = 0.005 of

calculations of separation the was choice Ax= 0.01, the but 0.005 same 0.001. 0.005, but results further was

between sharp

0.53

When of points

approaching in of a layer a poor with with Ax= 0.46 close, for with with The new The Ax= the Ax=

to

of_iterations _= increased. x= 0.41, 0.480 we was the preceding < Xsep< 0.480. and made 0.01 and The

6. were separation

Up

to fairly

x--

= 0.485.

U

velocity point of

followed again:

0.479

I 1/

f ">_-_

,.0.,6

II//_

_

I f I z

1. Velocity

_,o.9

/jj

0

- ,.,,zs J

3

profiles u for a

I _

= 0.008

I s_

FIGURE

of separation iterations

was i.e.,

x=

0.416 found

and that

in the from

the

away

near convergence

the

iterations, x= 0.416

points six

y= iterations

0.08

then compared

5u t <e= twelve at

0.0003 x=

needed

0.476.

.0

I 1

FIGURE

2

2. Velocity

3

profiles u for

4,

a = 0.003

82

On the

strength

of

these

results,

in further

calculations

with

Ax if the number of iterations 6u_ <e The taken This with y-intervals

of points in a layer more had to be increased to more condition were Aye= 0.04, (with made the e = 0.0003) variable: other points to the less

at points on the

y were

Ay_ = 0.08. Initial x-interval was Ax = 0.01. As we approached separation point, we gradually reduced _ until it decreased 0.001. The separation was thus pinpointed to within 0.001. Alternative 0.005, which claculations were made for a= 0.01, 0.008,

0.0065,

0.003, 0.002, 0.001. The results show that the amplitude a, for separation fL-st occurs at the first ridge !ies in the interval 0.006 <

<a,< 0.0065 , and at the second ridge, in the interval 0.002 < a,< 0.003. The separation point for various amplitudes a varies as follows:

I Xsep I

om 0.4775

! ]

o.oo8 0.5125

I 0.003 1.54

first ridge For velocity amplitudes profiles a at which u flatten out separation toward the Figure occurs separation the

second ridge at the first point as velocity ridge, the x increases. u for and at second Figure layer 3 8 graphs

1 shows

profiles

a = 0.008 (separation at first ridge), Figure 2, for a = 0.003 (separation ridge). gives G

FIGURE 3.

the

For the same alternatives thickness of the boundary x, as determined (see /4/). We from see

d_

Variation

t.e

of boundary-

t5 X

boundarytoward the is

separation point; in the second case, there only a slight increase in thickness. We should also observe that for the occurred at the first to the profiles of the profiles coincide of iterations was found up to ridge, classical x= 0.76. layer. The A somewhat the Blasius

a at which no separation profiles u were very close For a= 0.001, of we noted iterations the the two

In calculations average number higher number of new alternative. satisfy our system

in each to be 2--4.

iterations (5--7) was observed at the This is due to the fact that the initial of difference equations and the first

computational procedure was in fact devoted to establishing a solution adequate accuracy. As we have already observed, the number of iterations sharply increased near the separation point. It is remarkable that first although ridge, interval for a = 0.005 and a = 0.006 no separation occurred at the the number of iterations increased (to 6--9) for 0.58 <x< boundary-layer separation occurred at a = 0.0065.

0.7.

In this

83

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

LOITS'YANSKII, Moskva.

Mekhanika

zhidkosti

i gaza

(Liquid

and

Gas

Mechanics).

--

Gostekhteoretizdat,

2.

SOPRUNENKO, AN SSSR,

sloi

na

volnistoi

stenke No.2.

Layer

on

Wavy

Wall).

--Izvestiya

3.

BAM-ZELIKOVICH, --Izvestiya

of Boundary-Layer

Separation).

AN SSSR, V.M.

nauk, Solution

No.

4.

PASKONOV,

A Standard

Program

of Boundary-Layer

Problems.

--This

volume.

84

V.

nd

Yu.

V. Polezhaev

NEAR General statement of the STAG_ON problem of _ing POINT in a high-speed expressing gaseous, gas stream leads to simultaneous conservation of mass, and solid phases, solution of a system o_ations momentum, and energy (]_v_he _. particular cases ! 17_hO_w that the affect the gaseous bo_7,_ phase and for the two other phase_,,_ This considerably simplifies the heat flux boundary of a viscous even in such q_ and layer the at friction _, satisfy a stationary, wall. computation material. materials as the form of and heat and -_ the liquid,

resp_ecti_vely)_

Exact solutions a_e motion of the molten film i_ot layer. The equations for the gaseous can therefore be solved separately. problem, and the well-known The present of the process The thickness molten equations equations The the flow we can assume formulas for paper describes that the a gaseous an

attempt

a laminar boundary layer. of the melt is practically therefore be regarded assumed weaker as are also substantially of equations coordinate a

of the

(in the

in Figure

-_y(_)= o,

1

(_)

_ [ _,, \

_-+_-_+_-_= or +,

_. Here along x, y are x, y axes; Cartesian r p tbe the

_u

8u

#u

p

ay

ap __ I

0_

-;-"_fk_-_y) _r

_ " u, v the symmetry _ the

'

(2) (3)

0r + v__ =__L__

8x pc r , time; axis density; of

velocity of the

temperature;

viscosity;

conductivity; c a is the specific heat We now make certain simplifying 1. If we confine ourselves to the critical velocity point of a bluff body, we a linear

at constant pressure. assumption. motion of the molten film near aT may take r=x,-_x =0. and consider function 85 of x.

the the

component

u to be

Provisional of higher

estimate order of

show smallness

that

and

time

terms in the

terms

Liquid

film

Seeing a= const,

that we

critical the

velocity

equations

ESg!ii?: Et;

Gaseous boundary la2/er Solid body

The

problem

is thus

reduced

to a system v and T:

in two

independent

variables

unknown

functions

o-7+

-- \dx

= 0,

(4)

OT

_T

__O 0T =0,

(5)

friction of the

at

the gaseous of

film

surface, boundary

which layer.

is

assumed

to

be

do

not in

solve setting T =

liquid

the

solid

in

the

for

y=O for

+q_(T_)=O, T(_)=Tcs

(6)

The gaseous nor occur simple Riddle solved /3/ The scheme The

heat

flux boundary

to

the

film, layer.

q_, If with we

should

be

known

of

the

additionally components the the with for heat well-known boundary the Center by

reactions surface of

the film,

the

transfer

e. g., (4),

from (5)

conditions

solution of

problems University.

a standard difference

rectangular equations

the by the

y=mAy.

86

1 - 2 seconds after the onset of heating, since even at 2000K is still very high (of the order solutions of the problem of unsteady heating the rate of variation of surface

determine

temperature

the depth of heating in the first 1 - 2 seconds before the formation of the liquid film. Physical considerations show that these rates at least should not increase after the molten film has formed. On the other hand, certain limitations the heat on 12ux the time the interval _tu_face are imposed by T,. the nonlinear When variation of the the q, with temperature approximating

boundary conditions for the n-th time layer we were forced to employ values of q_ (Tf)calculated on the (n-1}-th layer, and therefore the difference q_ ( T(_) ) -- q_(T_ -')) had to be sufficiently small. For these reasons we took AT equal to 0.02 sec and Ay = 1.10-4m. The process of unsteady heating increases the region of other words, the number of points on the n-th layer should or equal to the number of points on the (a-1)-th layer. A provision integration value at larger automatically from infinity the is made in the program for the definition fhe condition of smooth (since the temperature dynamic determined layer). by the The inequality matching boundary number integration, be greater domain with much is

in than of its

of the

than

of points

layer

--[

e was set equal to 1. In some alternatives this did not affect the flow of the film. results of of test to runs set in showed may be that as the high melting all of

required 15--20

unsteady-state variation of the object hv, Ay and It was might values. lead

curve leading to the steady parameters past the midpoint reducing machine time, we

gentle, and is slight. With for 128. the doubling size velocity for and at the

e when found,

the number of points on a layer however, that with this program weakly hand, damped we could the fluctuations set up an The highest

mesh

reducing temperature

behavior gradients

near _ =0, It is therefore advisable to use This we did, and together with overall reduction layer substantially improved the approximation since A!/was reduced was defined as follows, 4 intervals of 2.10-sin, and all other intervals, up matching, distribution alternatives of the with

of high gradients, T_e 9"mesh 1 10-Smeach, of 8.10 -_ m, condition This previously resolution alternatives

by an order of magnitude. starting with y_-0: 6 intervals of 4 intervals of 4.10"sin, 4 intervals to the boundary basis defined by the of a

equal to 1.6.10-4m. was chosen on the with the object flow of the liquid the new y-mesh

of an analysis as fine

of ensuring

87

Comparison f results showed o onthe wholea good agreement the of ablationrate in bothcases,butthe steadysurfacetemperature andthe velocityprofiles in the initial periodsomewhat differed. Sinceallowance nonlinearityof the systemin the standard for program makesit necessary carry out iterations in everytime section,wehad to to determine number iterationsensuring the of desiredaccuracy. An analysisof theresults showed thatthe convergenceepends n d o variousparameters theproblem: rate of heating,propertiesof the of material, giventime instant,etc. However,as a rule, satisfactoryresults couldbeobtained thethird stepalready, andthe conclusive at runof the problemthereforeemployed threeiterations. Weseefrom the summary tableof thealternativecalculations thatin the first five alternativesonlytheparameters the incidentflow were of changed,Theheatflux andthe friction atthe film surface,andalsothe second derivativeof pressureandthe enthalpy gradientin the boundary layerweredetermined from the followingrelations /5/:

07

= --

i.o_lw

i", rg,

where pg is the density Prgis and

pz(t3),;

and _gthe viscosity number, a and of the gas at stagnation

_ the velocity gradient near b are functions of the incident 106 . velocity gradient at the 10_; heat flux from gas. In particular,

properties b= only

a=--4013, Individual critical This 400 alternatives point corresponded kcal/m 2 sec to _---(I-V) differed varied

[d._, \-_-]=

in our 700

which

in the

4,104-_1.2 of the

VI we dependence

constants we

for

the

viscosity

EEl

8.5 [

_"-v

thermal

*' 1_1_4/i

d

FIGURE

I

6

of ablative

_

2. Rate in

8

mass

t

loss

increase of the heat transfer coefficient (a/q,)g in alternatives I-V produces a sharp increase in the rate of approach to the steady state. heat fluxes, the In the limit, steadying with time very should large be

vs. time

various

alternatives

88

Decrease of viscosity (alternative VD and decrease of the material (alternative VII) produce a similarly It is noteworthy of the incident Heat conductivity condition, that the thermal diffusivity VH were steadying via a =as in trend thermal pep not and

of

only

a boundary

indirectly

WI/

//l/I li'I/

III/A II!/I

IIII

,, mlllI I11 II I II I

FIGURE 3. Surface temperature of liquid film vs. time in various alternatives

film

the variation of the surface of time in various alternatives. state I - V). properties value is similar of the of temperature

of the molten general trend of curve steadying of about of the the that which considerable values, heat conductivity rate is of

temperature the ablation However, process and pronounced. 35 (alternative film surface at which the inaccuracies notoriously deviations Much on

toward the steady rate (alternatives the on effect the of the stationary

more

of viscosity stationary

determination

difficult to measure accurately, of the calculated results from weaker, though still marked,

surface temperature. Figures 4 and 5 give dimensionless at three successive times, calculated

89

and

the

of was

V.

We grids:

have one

remarked mesh

variable

y-interval.

v]v

I

IIII

Alternative t, 1.5 sec t : 3.1 sec t _6.1 seo V*

0.#

_6

B._

I

0 FIGURE 4. / 2 3 _' S

Itti

IIII

5 7 $ j.lO for three Comparison time instants of dimensionle_ profiles of ablation rate and different Ay (alternatives V and V*)

and

5 illustrate by

the change

changes of mesh size suffices liquid the gave a the constant Figures of

in

temperature It should alternative say layer that was gradient of rate and 3). the and even

and be V

velocity observed made a poor the by allowed rate. surface V* with 3 -4 that

produced and for film This the flowed clearly and the in mesh fairly liquid freely,

size. Ay in to

when

represented to the be

did general

accurately

ablation

alternative

_Alternative

05 0 FIGURE 5. interior Io Comparison ZO of dimensionless time instants V and V*) $0 temperature and different _ profiles j.aO for the

of the body

for three

Ag {.alternatives

Of the the

considerable of the

the

in

Figure flow

6. parameters

It

shows on

temperature

V* rate and

shows of the

heat a With

coefficient

(a/Cp)g, influence

which on

transfer

9O

the

is the

heated external

to

considerable namely

the and

film surface

thin

forces,

small), layers.

is transconductivity

substantially

depth.

I '

%_

as!

zaar _s.

,,,

\_

m

FIGURE 6.

"..-_,.,._.. _ 20

......_...__., JD

....... #'#__

The effect oi material properties and incident flow parameters on the unsteady temperature profile is a comparison stationary by the of curves V* and VL It is known profile is

interest

temperature

w_

Ir--_ Tw -- To

a=

appear

that case,

unsteady V* of

in Figure a=

alternatives,

surface

_ and nearly pep temperature This this simple clearly for 6 is to these purely reach and loss by

validity

methods

curves

and VI0

in Figure required

results

obtained

the time

equilibrium between the processes transfer of heat by the liquid phase more, This can have a decisive

of heating, heat conduction, and may in some cases be 10 seconds influence in calculating the mass

viscous glassy materials in gas streams, whose parameters vary with time (in particular, in the case of an atmospheric entry trajectory). The accuracy provided for these problems by the quasistationary equations of heat conduction and liquid-film motion will apparently be very low. It is noteworthy that the time required to reach steady surface temperature is much lower than that corresponding to the ablation rate.

91

cO e4

oO

>,l_

I=

_

il

c_

1466

92

This shows thatthe flow of the liquidfilm substantially odifiesthe m rate of heatredistributionin the body. In conclusion weshouldobserve that in so far asthe dataonthe physicochemical propertiesof materialsare widelyscatteredin the literature, noreliable computations canbe made theprocesses of of heatingandablationfollowedby a comparison theresultswith adequate of

experimental data.

BIBLIO_.A PI"IY I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. SCALA and SUTTON. The Two-Phase -- Heat Transfez and Fluid Mechanics FAY and PIDDLE. Theoretical [Rumian iron.clarion. 19_9.] Analyr_ Hypenonic Lamina_ Institute. 1958. of Heat Transfe_ Boundary Layer --A SmdyofSurfaceMelting. Point AMated by DL_ociated Air.

at the Frontal

for the Solution of Boundary-Layer Problems. -- This volume. ( Theory of Heat Conduction). -- GITTL, Moskva. 1952. Trar_fer near

SIBULKIN, M..Teploperedacha vblizi perednei kriticheskoi techki tela vrashcheniya (Heat the Frontal Critical Point of a Body of Revolution). -- In: "Mekhanika," No. 3, 1943. BETHE, H.A. and ADAMS, M.C. A Theory for the Ablation of Glag_ Materi_l. --Journal Space Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 6. 1959,

of the Aero

93

T.S.

Varzhanskaya,

E.I.

Obroskova,

and

E.

N.

Starova

BOUNDARY

LAYER

NEAR

THE

CRITICAL

POINT

I. layer light

paper

presents point

an on

analysis a porous

laminar

boundary A The

a critical -- hydrogen

in a stream wall

of air.

-- permeates with an

rate.

equations

for

diffusion

in dimensionless

pu

0_- + pv _-y

= o _-y a

+ x,

o #x

(ou) + ac

(po) = O, / D ac \ i (i)

p. _

+ _o oy

ov _P " -_7}P4-

--

dc

de

the

external

flow

velocity

near

the

critical

point

is low

(M

_0),

we

energy boundary

for

y=O,

u=O, Dl_

4

c=c_, Oc

@ t

O= 1

I, (2)

Oy

The are

for

o at the

wall

is derived

in /I/.

The

notations critical

x. y the x-axis to

Cartesian

point,

with

directed the

it; u,v

horizontal absolute

velocity

where

T is the (ratio of

temperature; density

concentration of the

hydrogen mixture);

the

hydrogen

density

p density;

conductivity;

94

values

at the

physical to vary

X=

I

(1 -- 0.50) '.s.

p=

(1 --o.s0) 0 + ]3._

1.2

1.2--0.s0

(1--

0"50)"_

l+0A31--cc

o.o

l+3"gSl----c

,)

c ",

(31

ca,

' = 13.15(I--0.50)0-,_, Pr, /2/ = 0.73. for the case near wall} _-_ the can =0.5. critical be reduced point by

Prt,_ = 0.151, These 2. in the The case relations system are taken over from

of partial

equations at the

w

{constant

x = x, Y = /4/ function

[gdy, V = pv _u dr" _). dx x = x, _ = Y, $ = xf, where such that 0__ = u, _ aY 0_ in c(n/. 8(_}

[' = u

x '

a dimensionless nonlinear

= --V, and

to [_11:

differential

equations

l pSDI' (xP')'P_T. + e-_,. CpC'0' +

]

P Cp/0' = 0,

(4)

with

the

boundary

conditions

]=0:

_'=0, _=oo:

O=

|. C:C,_, f'=l.

f= 0=0, iterative

|P_Dn_.,l_cw P)g,o " C. c=O. procedure: L 8. c: f0{q). c01q} in new linear c {_ the 00(q), c0(q_. 00(_). coefficients we

(5}

We

solved 1.

system

(4)

by

the

following

Choose

a zero

approximation approximation

for

functions

2. of the find

[0(_},

equation,

95

Substituting second Substituting equation, with 02(_), c_(_), the etc. equation,

the c,

functions we find

in the

coefficients

the for

functions I'(_). to is

the

coefficients the entire approximation difference all q) becomes arising of described, equation the

of

approximation The process (for linear the dwell in forcing of on the the form

find

continued function

equations

rewrite

Pf" + QF where

-- Kf' + L = O,

p=_p,

are unknown For condition functions have of T].

Q=(_p),+f,

/<= f,,

L = !

8

,I = 0 we V =

to satisfy

the

boundary

The the

l at infinity problem

to the

e=

10-a, At

interval .... _

parts. is

the

= kh ..... relations

approximated

following

finite-difference

p_

2h 3

h=

--K,

l_+,-t#-, 2h 3f._1

+L

k = 0 for

_=

2 3 .... nw2,

(6)

P.-i

-_-

1. --

+ 3t._,

--

l.-_ l

+ I

+ 61._,

--

.--2f._,

+,__=--

' 12

at the The

point

_h-,

= (n--

boundary

conditions

f0 _ m I -- ct_

2k

0, I

Pr&.

v l=

l:

/.-,--41.-, 2h

+3[.=

I.

96

From

(6) we

find

that

the

coefficients

A,,

B,,

C, in the

forcing

equation

(8)

satisfy the following recursion formulas

where

a,----_ (

,,=

P* _-K, h') 2h

7,=Q_%-_,-P'

From Bl. C,

these

formulas

we

can with

compute

all

the

forcing The

using the

boundary

A, ffio. B.=o,

A,

c.=h,.

C.

=T' !

B. = 0

=T 3 I'"

conditions, and also the by the of the

Applying forcing reverse convergence functions equation for various 0.8; 0.9. For and for c.

(7) and

the

right-hand

boundary

relations forcing,

n -- 2. n -- 3, n -- 4, we find f. and f.__. Then we find f.-2, 1,,-3 ..... fl. To improve the having calculated f_, _, _. ) in the tried we substitute

_ _+_ 2 approximation.

several 0.2;

c. = 0; linear

approximation

for

function for ff(_)(except Pr&. /all 11> 0 a11, etc. a11q, _ = + (l--q} served the the solution solution

c. = 0.4, as the zero approximation with c.= 0.2, and for q=0,c=c. c. = 0.6, as the zero approximation with c.= 0.4, zero and = 0.6 with,1 was

> 0 served

c. = 0. the

_o = 0 for

as _=f(,]) we tried

97

of

the

results

at corresponding

points

'I shows

that

h = 0.15

coarse (this shortcoming size h = 0.075 gives much ,1 the results computations of obtained for

is particularly more satisfactory with high 'I for h = 0.075 concentrations various

near the wall). while for differ made is only with shown at these

c, 0, f, f' with

c.

on

the

I - 4. We Figure

c,0.['reach

x

4 gives

__u= f,, We

in the layer

is less than the velocity at exterior points. For all cw > 0,f'reaches a maximum in the layer, i.e., in the layer the velocity is higher than the velocity at exterior points. As the hydrogen concentration at the wall increases, f' rises considerably and [" at the wall also increases,

o9

o,,

o,_

FIGURE 1. Concentration cofthe inblown gas (hydrogen)vs. T for I various e values at the wall

3. method The

(1),

(2) was

solved

by

an

alternative

method

difference scheme described in for x0 = 0.01. Twenty-six points for 0-.<y_ 2.8, equal to 0.0025.

chosen in the 2.8 < y _< 7.2. 6 layers were with 6 iterations As the number. concentration asymptotic c, -- 0.2 were profiles

Ay= 0.4 for The first other see layers /5/). in for the with effect of the the

with 8 iterations per layer and s --0.7 (s is the averaging expanded, of smooth the velocity is STRELA solution. the

the points on layers increased matching (see /5/) was checked component slowest. computer u. Several to determine In our case,

of-_the

alternatives the

initial

final

98

I) Inthe first

previous solution

the

initial in the

data

were

borrowed variable

from _.

the

self-similar

1B

,IB

"q

FIGURE 2. The temperature functions T-- T., 0 =--vs. 11for various c values at the wall T,--T,

were self-similar,

made

on the the

0.01

_z

0.0475

interval.

Since by difference

the

values

of e, cand

u obtained

method for different z should coincide when passing to the similarity variable _l(z,y). The results showed that the solution steadied already at x -- 0.0375. After reducing the results to the self-similar variable on the interval 0.0375 was 0,1% for-,, 2) were _z _ 0.0475, 0.7% for c, the and scatter 2% for of the e. functions for identical

In the second alternative, the same as in alternative 7.2. Computations were (i. e. ,the _ 0.0475. variable, 0.1%in of e did In the u, not

the functions e, c and v in the initial layer 1, while u = y for 0 _ y _ l and ,, = I for made for 0.01 _ s_ 0.095. The solution for to the self1 did not in the c, u, v from 4.4 <y_ 7.2. data

effect of the initial data disappeared entirely) For x _ 0.0475, after reducing the results the departure from the solution of alternative 1% in exceed c, and 4%in 1.3 90). the and for initial @(for data 0.1_@_ were 0-_y_4.4, The l, the the

scatter

third

alternative, solution,

self-similar

made

effect

slowly than in alternative 2; the solution reducing the results to the self-similar 1 did from 4% in data 2, were c=0.2--Y---

steadied variable

x _ 0.085, the departure from alternative 0.73 % in c, and 1.2 % in e. The departure did not exceed 0.3% in u, 0.9% in c, and in e did not exceed 1.2 %). 4) as In the first alternative 3, u as the initial

not exceed 0.3 % in u, the solution of alternative O(for 0.1_0_ 1 the scatter chosen 14 for as follows: 0 was and value 1.

in alternative

in alternative

0_y_2.8,

c = 0for 2.8 < y _7.2; v was taken at the wall and assuming at y = 7.2

satisfying value as

99

was much

made

for

0.01 rapidly

_<x

_< 0.075.

The

effect 3.

of the The

more

than the

results

0.0525,

departure 1% in 6,

0.85 % not

in c, and exceed

of alternative from %

2 did the

0.390

in u,

departure 0.05%

solution

of alternative

exceed

in u,

in c 0.97

in 6.

38

T.0

i

t.0 0.5

o

] vs.71 at the wall for various FIGURE 4.

_

The

$

velocity u z

3

'=]' vs.

q

rl for

$

various

r_

c

FIGURE

3.

Function c values

values

at the wall

To half

the

of Ay

the ,

we

re-ran

x = 0.0475. 0.0475 -._ x-K ,1 did the scatter of 0.1-_0-K 3 did 2.3%). 0.8% in u, not not

results

0.9%

of

departure in c,

alternative 1 at

0.97% the

and of not

most 1.05

solution 4 did

c, of _0_<1,

0(for0.1_0\<l,

departure

most results

1.45%). obtained size the x. not exceed of when h,_=0.075 6. The in 6, solving and c, u from scatter 0.9% in of the problem in with of for 1.7% in u. the the self-

,_ with by the of

mesh

functions c, and

100

BIBLZOGRAPHY

" "

1.

E.I.

OBROSKOVA.

floya on

na

-- i mRssoobmena andR.BIRD.

a Porous No. 4.

M_sTmmfe.r).--Izv. C.CURT1SS,

2.

HIRSHFIELDER, 1961.]

[Runi_n

translation.

3.

A.A. 1942. H.

P_ogranichnyi

sloi

v szhimaemom

gaze

(Boundary

Layer

in

Compressible

Gas).

4. ft.

[Russian

_anslation. uravnenii

19fi6.] pogranichnogo --In: Izdatel' sloy& zazncsmym mewdy 1962. Moctkva. metod i

I. u.

Equations tabor

by the

Method). MGLI.

ychislitel' Metody

tsenLra

7-HIDKOV.

( Numerical

Methods).

-- Fizmatgiz,

101

B. M. Budak, NUMERICAL

T.F.

Bulatskaya,

and F. P. Vasil'

ev PROBLEM

SOLUTION OF A BOUNDARY-VALUE FOR THE SYSTEM OF NONLINEAR INTEGR O-DIFFERENTIA L EQUATIONS A HYPERSONIC BOUNDAR Y LAYER

OF

1.

STATEMENT

OF

PROBLEM a slender body of have the following form the leading edge along along the normal /1/:

ou

The equations of a hypersonic boundary layer on revolution in a flow of viscous heat-conductLng gas in the coordinates xL, yL, where x is reckoned from the generatrix, and y from the surface of the body pr(u T_ _b au ou _ =_r oy / _x ax

_- _r_

a(pru) __

I a (_ -7" W (

o (r _

o,

ax ax

0,+ v, :#)+ _

Oi \ oy ] '

a(prv) --0,

( 1)

ay

where uu, vu.o are the velocity components along the x and y axes, respectively, iu_ the enthalpy, p_.u_ the pressure, _= density of matter, _. viscosity, L the length of the body, rL the distance to the axis of the body, R= u._p_.Lthe Reynolds number, a the Prandtl number.

The subscript ,oo. designates the parameters of the incident flow. For a slender body, r = rw(x) y,where r = rw(x) is the equation of the generatrix. In the Dorodnitsyn variables the system (1) takes the form ]1[

au 0i

+v,-g-= Ou

0i u

p ap _ 1

ap

_]_2

M, Ms

R "-&- (yf__) o

0 z.Ol \

u-_-+v,-_-=

T_-

+ 2 _-_-[rt-_-)+

MS

/

i

(2)

_-=o,

102

where u y=

X'

_ _

,I + I=

_(_+_ _

pM i '

(3)

and

M is Equations

the

Maeh

number. be solved for the boundary _-_- =0 _-.+oo. (2), (4) is sought in the conditions for _=0.

(4)

form

The

solution

of the

boundary-value

problem

u = _ (_),

i = i(_),where_

-R"_ 2M FT

(5)

Inserting system

problem

for a

of nonlinear

integro-differential

equations:

-1,-

where

,],,

+ (,,,=o.J

(6)

(7)

F(i)=-_i.

rf"=r',

I +kl(O.

;) = ._F(Od_.

o

(8)

_(_) =_ _(t)dt,

&

(9)

x is

the

ratio

of specific

both

given functions of i. A self-similar solution of (5) exists if k const and root of the cubic

m = const,

where

is a nonnegative

(11)

103

where S(+o G=3_' a is the of bodies parameter admitting I+ M -,: .,_-Rgeneratrix of the (12) family

(65, (75 for the integro-differential with the cubic (115, where function i (_). The

the

convergence

2.

GENERAL METHOD

OF OF the

THE

NUMERICAL

the

problem to /1 /

differenc

-2-u= _' (_) = _" (_) and decrease advisable increase it by points and replace derivatives, the values difference explicit integrals formula will be The not slower to employ of _. Taking than e-H:; a varying where mesh,

i (_) for

_ _ -hc_ constant, increasing 0 _< _ _< l, we it is with divide _v], v = 1,2 ...... n and its by corresponding The The

a sufficiently

0 = S0 < _i < ... < _. = l into at each point _v the value which of the ratios are provisionally discreteapproximating yv and yv calculated ratios will not

n unequal segments [_-,, of the unknown function designated y(_ function y_ and the from the values of yr. will be given be calculated advantageous). method. (11) in the infinite

form of these difference of the unknown functions (Simpson's numerically boundary-value formula solved by problem replaced 0 _< _ _< l: (Y[)v _ by is

more

interval problem on

boundary-value

(13a)

+ 0"l)v (_b_)_ 0, =

+=1,2 ..... n--l, (13b)

@0=0, _.=

i 0=i_, 1,

or i.=O,

i0=0,

1. (1) ks + k 2 -- G2 = O,

K

104

where{YtN,(Y_)v,

substituted for the

_,

Ira(/) denote

the

corresponding

quadrature

formulas

integrals

0'f) _-_,

The that the points interval length of the the 0_/and ! of the unknown entire the

(r t

mesh spacing along the axis are chosen finer mesh that so

interval functions we

interval;

of _, and /v as v appro_-ches _ be analogous to i (_)as _ -_ +vo (see the beginning of this section, ! 1/ F(i) =--=-- i i,

we

solve

the

difference

boundary-value

problem

(13a)-(13e)

by the

following

iterative

scheme:

(=) (s+lj (s) (s) (s-+-l) 2n1 _'--1 (?

(_,

(=)

(,+,) 7,,+,,

(s+t)

+

all

,_,

,,+,)

+

(15b) (15c) (15d) (15e)

(m

%=1, (or

(s) (=)' (s)

for iQ=0),

(z)

s=0,1,2

....

_=i.

i.=0

(z)

|=)

(o) (0)

(i)

_,, can

(concerning

(o) (0_

its

(o) (0)

see

to

find for

then

(15e),

Now

in the in terms

O)

equation known

(15a),

is

(o)

are

quantities (15c)

tl)

_v,

iv, for

k s=l,

(l)

equation the

for

$, with

(t)

with numerical

boundary differentiation

eonditions

(I)

_to=O, _ by

_#=I.

(l),

we find with

_tthe

and

(O

(I)

The is

coefficients linear

(I), {1)

of the s=0

difference in terms of

in

(0)

(_,

(o)

are k and

quantities

(I)

_1_, _h(15d)

_, for

i,,

equation

,_2)

is solved

(D (_l

s=l. find

{3) ($)

analogously

the

(2)

next

approximation

)#_, i_, k,

and then

approximation

_1_, i-,

k, etc.

105

The

iteration

is terminated

(Sq-l) (s)

at s=so,

when

s+l) (s)

the

inequalities

are first satisfied for all v=0, which has been taken equal to

1.2 ..... 10 -5 .

n; here

e is a given

positive

number,

3.

DESCRIPTION AND OF

OF THE

APPROXIMATIONS OF THE

difference approximation (13a) -(13e) for (6), (7), (11} The interval 0 _ _ _ lis divided into r subintervals and each smaller

is constructed by points

0=10 < 1_ < ... < 1,-_ < 1, =l, in turn divided into several length h_ so that

n_= _,

i__,

i=

1,2 .....

r.

(17)

rl_=n

_-

12--ll h2

'

...

....

rt r=

n l ''b

...

"+

nr-,

-_

It--l,-1 hr

= n

(18)

are

integers. Evidently,

i

l_=2(n_--nj__)h

i,

no=O,

i:

1.2 .....

r.

(19)

We

have

thus

divided

the

segment

a nonuniform

_, .... _,, =l where _ =l_, i=l, 2, ..., r, such that when passing from the interval l__, <4 </_to

=2h_.

denote

any

of the the

functions derivatives

in equations g'(_)and

(6) by y"(_v)are

g(_)and replaced

g. for0<_<n,;

Yv+l

-2hi

Yv--I

gv+l -2hi gv--2 + l

<n_,

i =0, 1.....

r, (20)

for

_=n

r i=

1,2 .....

r--l,

106

Yv+l -2Yv + Yv--2

y"(_) = y_ =

i. i=0,1

.....

r,. (21)

i=

1,2 .....

r--1.

or

(22)

are

respectively

replaced

or

f(O)_.--Ys4"4yt_SY

YI,

Y.=Y,.

(24)

the

trapezoid

formula

by

cv

Y_,-, + Yn,

...

+h_ for

"'"

The

derivative

at the

right

end

point

(26)

at the given

left

end

point

is

formula

functions

of boundary-value problem (6).(7), (Ii) are sufficiently smooth, then with this method of approximation of the derivatives and the integrals, taking I sufficiently approximation mesh chosen. on large, accurate the to difference O (h2). scheme where (13a)(13e) maximum gives spacing an of the h is the

2 . Solution for a linear difference equation by the variable mesh. In the course of iteration (15a)-(15e)0 a boundary-value problem for the linear

,,=!,

2 .....

n--l,

(27)

107

with

boundary

or

Yo=

-- y' +4yz-3y

2h_

=y_,

Y.=Y=

(282)

approximation (20) in 1, and the (21). form (29) we We

to

obtain as the

the

(s + follows:

1)-th

proceed seek

solution

of

problem y_ = al_)yv+,

(27),

+ a__,

_ = I,

where Y_ = Y=,

al l) =

hi sz)

aL')

l cr., + _L_ al_-_ for

- L,4)+ h_c.,

LI al ) + (2c,_ - h_c,_) hic2v c_J i=1,2 ..... r, (31)

+ (2c,_ --h_ l,

ni-z_*<n

1 cw @ _- hi+z C_v L_A__-_> + (2c,.,, for._=n_, i=I a_+, %,) ..... r--i,

, A_"-')=

a_v-_

aLv-'

=

A-it'2 _ "i-_-I

i=1,2

C4V

.....

r, (32)

LvA_v-I)

for _ = nt, i=1,2 ..... r--l,

Lv

__

n,,

i =

I, 2 ..... r--l,

r, (33)

ri=l,2

.....

civ=cj(_v),

]=1,2,3,4. (34)

108

With

boundary

conditions

and

with

boundary

conditions a_O_ =

(282) 4 40) -3 ' the forcing and then (29) are solution given _+

(z)

2 h, Y_, 3

.(o)

From

(30)--(34)

we

find

of increasingv(v=l,

2, 3.... , n)o

(vfn--l, n--2 ..... 1, 0) we The forcing formulas size mesh*. 3 . equation Newton's (15e)'is methodfor reduced

in the /3/

s to the

iteration

_!

(z).

_.(_ (s)

(*)

(s) (s)

])+ _"

q=0,],2

....

(35)

k,(3t. kq+2) (t) As the initial approximation we at q=qo for which the inequality

(s)

assume

iteration is terminated

(s)

I k_-,--kq]

(s)

<%

= 10_ the cubic (15e) has a single approximations. various values the results

(36) positive

of !, (/) > 0.

for

(0)

of are

(0) (0)

showed initial

that

regard iterations

(0)

i_, _,

achieve

(0)

accuracy

s depends

on the

iv.

_.

For

example,

when

_,was

taken from the table in /2/. applying linear interpolation _0) points, and i. was calculated

p. 529 (the column corresponding to _= 2.0). for the corresponding intermediate grid from

(o)

i,=

I -_- (1

___

)+B(l--_,).

(0)

(37)

where

B=

1 0 for i' (0) = 0, " ----2' for i(0)=i., e= 10-Svaried from 7 to 10 depending on the

* The forcing

of iterations x, m, _o.

(0) (0)

for

set will

for the

l0 -s and

the

same

parameters

18--20

required.

difference Computational equations Center of of second Moscow order State in the case of variable-size see. e. g. ,/6/. mesh has been

scheme used at

previously

Universit),,

109

(0)

as in the

the

initial computer

approximation memory, we

storing following

a great initial

many

numbers

(o)

and to

(37).

(o)

We at the

_ /2/

points

when

are

used).

of initial

requires the same number of iterations as are necessitated data from /2/. The function (38) is a rough piecewise-linear to the function _v given in /2/.

4.

VERIFICATION AND this and the for numerical compared column the to the the system

METHOD

method, we made a control calculation for the the results with the table in /2/, p. 529. We for _ = 2.0. If we take i= !

2

it

equations

differential boundary

integro-differential

y = --m

conditions _ (0) = 0, _ (_) = 1. of lthe following values of the m=--7, B0=0, f=l, g=l, g=l.4. 0_< _ ,.<5 and making h=0.05 and constant

parameters Replacing

to

0 _<_ < +c_ by the interval with constant mesh size approximate of 1.4% and Making h,=0005, values values values 0.12%,

in this interval calculations mesh size h=0.0125, we a maximum values in mesh size approximate

obtain

deviation /2/.

points in the interval 3 _< _ _< 5 in all these cases differed by at most from 1. Note that for _ --* + _, _b(_) behaves as 1 _- c0ns_.e-'_', where H =const > 0, and that in choosing the interval 0 _ _ 5 for calculations set Xb(5)=l. Replacing the interval 0__<5by mesh values of the interval0 _<<3and boundary by at making a calculation _(3) = 1, we obtained 0.1% from h=0.0125 seemed with constant approximate size h=0.0125 and _'(_)=$(_) differing

values

size results

satisfactorily

110

is made analogously in cases of m, u, _0, o, i., i,. The of the 0 _ <: l interval s/j ,_ _, 1 differed at mesh size sufficiently most by

the was

interval

0 _<_l

and

of the

mesh

size

other

combinations

of the

known

constants

assumed sufficiently fine and the length large if the values i(_), _(_)in the interval the boundary values i(l) =0, _(/) _l, Shl and doubling of the corresponding points by mesh size at most 0.1%.

We observe that increase of _0 entails an increase of the interval length I. For example, we had to take the interval 0 _ _ _ 30 for the following parameter values: m----0.25, z= 1.4, _0_100, o==0.72, i, =0.25. With this large gives interval, too low the fixed-mesh accuracy. alternatives calculation We therefore calculated, occupying had to as the minimum working memory resoi_t to variable mesh size. was made finer, the and _ monotonically increased, definite limits*.

In all

mesh

values _ (_} = _'(_) for any given ally dec reas ed, both approaching

5. The parameters

OF was

FOR

SEVERAL for

above

in calculations

boundary

f=l, x _ 1.4;

a==0.72;

m = -- 1; i_ = 0; 0.1; 0.25; i. ffi 0; _, ----0; ! m .... i w = O; 0.25; i= = O; _e ----- 0.5; 2; I0: I00; O; 4' m ffi ----; z = 1,2; m=--l; m= ! ----; 4 i_ffi0; i_=0; i,_=0; i'_=O; [_0=0; _0=0; 0.5; 2; 10; ]00. l 4 i_ = 0.1; _o _ 0; 10;

The

1--4. of the layer. parameter For _0 on example, Blasius increase, the effect the with case. and of due the value

_=l characterizing _0=100and i_ =0, This is probably effect of increasing increasing viscosity The parameter to

is apparently u=_(_) is

drop in enthalpy. the boundary value of the than boundary for the

velocity as velocity

(characterizing concerned}

so far

* This regularity may be established theoretically. method will be discussed in another paper.

111

r.o /ag3... _2 _6

0.6

@.4

05

fxt a3"

0.3

4tl. -_

[---t-_k,,_l

"x_

Q2 O..f

t

I

I !

2.

f

FIGURE 1.

b

Enthalpy

_

i vs._

a

=

T

_

"1

"_

r I

2

Velocity layer

0

FIGURE

3

profiles with

',"

5

u=cp'(_)in

7_

boundary

2MeT

(11, are the boundary Dorodnitsyn layer with variables) 13_0 in

13=0

"_

I_' I..'I.,11 15 li,,O I

o,

o t 2 3 *

FIGURE

I

_

3.

l

Enthalpy

0

i vs._

$

for

!0

13=100

t!

15

The boundary no effect on the at higher _0. The of the slender calculations boundary bodies

value velocity

of

;=0 for

and the parameter 130=0; 0.5,but have the on over effect the a wide

virtually effect

estimate stream

pattern

at high supersonic

velocities,

of the parameter

130,characterizing

the slenderness

112

_e

II _7

IJ

FIGURE 4. In the the conclusion, we formulation and for of constant his seminar extend of discussion attention

Velocity our

profiles to

_=I00 Lunev for of are Kh. the discussion values thankful IRakbmatulin to of of G. and S.

physical parameters,

the

choice We and of to

numerical also A.

results. work

Roslyakov participants

for

discussion

results.

m BLIOGRAPE.rY I. Ik]NEV, V.V. Avtomodel'nyi sluctmigiperzvukovogo obtekaniyaose.simmetrichnogo tcla vyazkim teploprovodnym _zom (SelfSimilar Hypersonic Flow of ViscousHeat-Conducting Gas Pastan Axisymme_ic Body). --PMM, Vol. 24. No. 3. 1960. 2. LOITSYANSKII, L.G. Mektmnika zhidkosti gaza (Mechanics of Liquids i and Gases).--GITTL, Moskva. 1957. 3. BEREZIN, I.S. and N.P. ZHIDKOV. Metody vychislenii (Numerical Melhocls),Vol. II.-- Fizmatgiz, Moskva. 1960. 4. RICHTMEyEP,_ R.D. Dif/erenceMcthods fortheSolutionof Boundary-Vaaue Problems. [Russian tran_ation. 5. 6. 1960.] COLLATZ. PASKONOV, L. Nume.rische V.M. Methoden Zt_ AuflSsung von Differentialgleichungen. of Boundary-Layer --Springer Problems. (Berlin).

A smnd_d

Program

-- This volume.

113

IlL

VISCOUS

FLOW

class

equations

of

mathematical

physics

equations express laws momentum, energy, principle follows from this is the conservation particular, for Maxwell Following S.K.

of conservation of mass)and, moreover, the basic equations. for this is shall of entropy; equations), /1/, we

For equations of gas dynamics, equations of crystal optics (in the conservation consider equations of energy, etc. of the form

Godunov

qm),

i=

1,2 .....

m,

(i)

k=O,l

.....

n.

m

n m

calculus, of gases,

smooth

of

system

(1)

conservation

0 _t (_-_ q'Lq,t--1

Ll) =0,

(2)

be can

interpreted be extended

of energy or to irreversible

models for systems having an "exact" law of energy conservation of the form (2). This problem was first posed for the Navier-Stokes equations for viscous incompressible flow (which, incidentally, do not belong to class (1)) by A. N. Kolmogorov at the seminar on problems of turbulence models will The author the form held in 1958-1959. possibly imply some is not familiar with We first consider A study of the ergodic properties of these properties of the continuous case also. any work the case in this i=i=l, direction. so that the equation Oq (3)

takes

114

(thedissipativeterm hasbeen added the right-hand in side), whereit is assumedhat Aq(q) q--A(q) > 0 and C (q) > 0. For simplicity t we shall consider

a Cauchy problem with periodic _q. (t, O) = Oz_ Other of boundary conditions can be boundary a*--Eq if,/), Ox analogously condition k = O; I. treated, including the for z: (4) case

a region unbounded in x with the relevant We multiply equation (3) by q and transform follows: q_O Aq(q) =_

at infinity. terms as

_) (_)

q _Oz Bq (q) = _

Hence,

in view

of (4),

i

we

obtain

the

identity

T 1

(the law of dissipation of "energy" Aqq--A). We shall attempt to construct a finite-dimensior_al model of the problem (3), (4) which would _!ow analogous transformations to be made in the difference equation approximating equal to/_; (3). kffi0.1 In the ..... interval N, h_ 1 _: (0, Owe the define points with abscissas considered half-integral The required at xa their at (qk+l--q_). points: xk as

points

Points with the abscissas (k_-l/2)h will play an auxiliary role in our

functions q_ (t), kffi0, 1..... N, approximating are assumed to be defined for the integral explicit half-integral We also and implicit values determine "derivatives" of the the index, with i.e.,

the solution of equation (3) values of the index, while respect to x are considered

we

shall

write

_q*T=-_l

ndrift"

of a function

q_ at half-integral

_+',. = _ (q_" + q%

For functions _ have the following and b rule _, which are of "summation periodic on the by partsn: grid, we obviously

of which Consider

we

will the

make

much

use. to equation (3). _ Aq (q_). dt term at integral _ o (C(q)-_-) points, i.e., we the reason functiow as follows: The term 0 --_Aq(q) is clearly

approximated To the

by the

expression

approximate

dissipative apply

approximation

C(q)-_z

115

should

be approximated

l

at half-integral

!

points;

the

approximation

1

C (_q_+ _)_qk+

!

_-(in

case variables,

take below).

p.C(q)k+_gq_+-g; We now

with write

not

so -- see

analog

Z

k

g (C (_q) gq)_'q" = -- Z

k

1'

(here

the

periodicity

of

into

i.e.,

q0 = qN--,

q,=qN).

Bq (q)

terms,

Bq (q). and we

moreover

obtain lead

formula

oq

Ox

o ox

B (q). These

requirements

k k

B_

_,+ _l _ (q).

k

The We

of the system

first

term

does

not

differ

from

(a).

d Aq(qk)+_(Bq(q))k=_(C(_q)_q)k dt with the periodicity conditions qO=q,V-j, has the "law of energy dissipation"

T

'

k=O,

1,..

"'

N,

(6)

q,=q_

(7)

The

sum

in the are

in the

right-hand densities

side

is

made

up

at corresponding

grid

systems

n 8Lqt _'_

of the

form

i=1,2 .... m, (1!)

OLjql

O---_- bi. s

Oql

_

j=l

Oxj

A_ OxI

j.l.s

and positive-definite

processes),

the construction

is carried

out analogously.

116

author has not succeeded in his attempt to construct a difference scheme with a rectangular mesh for the case of more than one space variable; tetrahedral nets were used, which had been first introduced for similar (and more general} For metric purposes simplicity, by V. L Lebedev consider the ]2/, case whose of two work space we shall closely follow. p,, p_ with the variables

dss = (g_)' dp_ .+ (g')' d_, (curvilinear The linear coordinates orthogonal coordinates). operators

do = g'_dpldp,

(9)

of mathematical

physics

in these

grad_={-_(

av ' ap,

1 e'

_} a,_,

' (10)

,oo,

rot_= es Ops ' e_ opt ' (A'being a vector, _' a scalar suitablefortheverificationofrelations of various forms of the function of p,, P2). Formulas {10) are as suchas r0tgrad xI,-- 0 and div rot of the type Srot VAdo---The --

A'=0,

Ga_,s_

formula

fVrotAd,,

as the corresponding

formulas

in Cartesian

coordinates.

difference

approximation to the operators (I0) amounts to the foUowir_. A uniform grid of points is introduced on the p,, p_-plane, as shown in the diagram. These points are labeled by indexes (m, n) and (m _- '/2, -_ '/2),nd called n a introduce integral points. Between an auxiliary "half-integral every two such "integral _ points we _ point (m, n_- '/2)or (m _- '/e, n):

m,n-+-I 0 i ,n___ I m----_-_ O m_l,n o m-, rn-1 n 1 2 ' --T 0 2" n I 1 1 rn, n-@ --- rn -b-_ , n -_ -_* 0 l m,n mq-.-_-,n ra+ l,n 0 , o m,n --T I 1 m-t1 T'n-T o 1

* m, tl_ o

The at integral

function points,

and

the while

of even of odd by

defined defined

points. with

expanded for _m

2)substituted

example,

117

roth ,_o.o= _ [_1(g,A=)o.o_ _=(gtAt)o.oI = go,o go,o =_[(g2 go.o go,o --(gJ A_ __ "T' T.o ,A' i--g o, T o.T 2 A2 )__ - _,o - _-,o

I _A z ,)1 o,--_ o.-- T clearly (+_+, i.e., unit should consider the vector

value

of rot_,_ at the

at point

(0,0)we points

half-integral

0). (0, _+ -_)). the weight with Pt, p2 intervals). analog which the

to

that be

finite-difference

at (0,0)

L, '..... ,5'I-"

L_=

L t

'.....

q= 2 o

I

v'l

q2 o

,

(ii) L2 = ql '-_

' 2

_ q_

o,--A

2

.__

--Y

-'

_)

(the are

manner carried

different). case.

The The

other law of

manipulations energy

dissipation

Lq_q_

a,_ T ;-t

It-O

a',_" l,s,/_ where The a, _ run through assumptions imply as let of that all integral and and term a',6"through all half-integral matrix positive model plane points.

symmetry every

of the

of the

a', _' is

density of energy dissipation rate. us consider the problem of the difference flow. The Navter-Stokes equation in the

2

Out + _

ot

_ o_j

i = l, 2,

/-I

div u = 0.

118

Let are

us again treated

periodic boundary conditions (conditions Integrating the incompressibility function #_: _(xl, x2) such that _----=.Ox,, .,, _

introducing obtain

an equation

o_ 8(xz, x@ This equation gives the enrgy dissipation

T

(12)

law

which

is obtained term

by multiplying

The

nonlinear

of the phenomenon.

it is by no

means immediately clear how to write a difference scheme with an expansion of the nonlinear term which would have this property (this is chiefly due to complications in constructing difference quotients products}. We therefore rewrite equation (12) in the form _a The nonlinear term does A_ = rot [rot _ X Agl Jr_AWp. not enter ,)dx, (13) because of the evident d_; relation for

(14)

_S (rot [rot #pA], the mixed product twice. It follows that this propert] orthogonal is trivial. We

,'Ix== --_S

(rot _b A, roi,)dx,

in the integrand from our method is also retained "Integration thus shown that

identically vanishes because rot_ enters of approximation of differential operators in difference formulas (in any curvilinear n in differences the system of the linear terms

coordinates). have

-hh @=_ = r0th h @ a_l "_ -i- A_ _a [rot _ with periodic law (or adherence) boundary conditions

T

dissipation

a',p"through

A_ = divA gradA= -- rothroth, In conclusion be used to obtain very large arbitrary and A.A. we observe that

difference

schemes

properties.

class of ordinary differential accuracy) were constructed Samarskii (see, e.g., ]3/).

119

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

GODUNOV, --DAN

sistem

(An

Interesting

Class

of Quasilinear

Systems).

2.

O metod

dlya

utavnenii F_tuations).

v ehastnykh --Izvestiya

ptoizvodnykh AN SSSR,

(On seriya

a Difference matemati-

of Partial

Differential

3.

TIKHONOV, Schemes).

SAMARSKII. noi

Ob

odnorodnykh

skhemakh No. 1.

(On 1961.

Uniform

Difference

Vychislitel'

Matematicheskoi

120

2 L/6

A. NUMERICAL L. KryIov STUDY ROTATING and E.K. Proizvolova BETWEEN

OF FLOW CYLINDERS

We

consider 28):

here a viscous

the

following incompressible

(for is

more enclosed

see

/I/, coaxial

18, 26,

numbers

simple stationary flow independent and gives way to a different regime independent obtained by .... perturbations). phenomenon experiment. of the Taylor angle, periodically experimental!y, Our aim is to carry nonlinear assume

height flow

becomes which,

still were

height.

These

and also numerically (using s_nall _ . out a numerical analysis of th_ the formulation, flow to be coordinates in accordance with periodic in height an_t have the _x_-_ form (see

in cylindrical

/2/,

Oh. l)

_+,,_+_ o_

-if- + _-_-- +-T -_-+u

.__

,p +,____8r k

rt _ 2'

+_

am _

ap + *hi

and

the

incompressibility

condition

__o

a-_--(ru)+

Here a =-_-

the _.

velocity

components a stream

Introducing u==--

function,

--,

of incompressibility for _ and

.:-.,

/-

we

integrate p,

the obtain

equation

and, v:

eliminating

the

pressure

a system

{1)

121

T =

where

1 a , _ 1

L = -a-fi-r*-t- -_- --_t -t We periodic seek a solution in the conditions domain in z: rl_<r

az,

<r2,--H<.z<H.

boundary

dz t

z---H

az t

az m

_--H

az m

z-H

(2

t)

m=0, solid

*=_-I

or j r-r/

mentioned v=Ar+

above _,

T

has

the

form

Q=----O, where A and B are constants which i=1,2, and are independent ofv. sufficiently large v (with constant v = vet. This Equation phenomenon (1} and the

in terms of Ot and r_, flow is stable for all beeomes unstable for replaced by corcylinder

responding difference equations rl -_<r _ r2. --H < z _ H we set up rm=r z.=nk; lq-mh;

boundary conditions. with constant and .... ..... p=0, M; hi r_--r_M ; k= P. px will is taken

On the z intervals:

N,N+I; 1.....

U _---;

(3)

The _.,

values v_.

of The

_ and

v at the

be

denoted form

by

difference La_.

approximation

in the

_, __.

(4)

where L n, M n, Nh are difference operators differential operators (Ln is a linear and more detail, see /3/). This upper amounts layer has to a two-layer the form scheme,

in

i.e,, scheme can be divided on into the subsystems viscosity in v and _.p+t and deteriorates vm.. P+' as The v _ stability depends

(5)

of our

0; we therefore

122

hope

with the

of is

of moderate system

Reynolds

determination {@_0, _,

notations

_f___}

form

-1 ,_ _ 1 --P+! -t -1

(6)

.....

M--2;

"WAI--I

_---

_vM--2,

(7)

{ _:,+t _'=o,

The vectors _ satisfy the

1 .qZ.p+x

=-_+1

_'

--o.1

X,_-.t-- l

periodicity

_rn,--2 -a'm,N_2,

condition

rn,--I

Cm, D,,

E m in (6)

are

all

symmetric can

and be obtained

cyclic. from

A the

a_+_d = ai.i-_ (i,j.---O,1,...,N--1). row. The cyclic is also a cyclic _r= "vectors" A cyclic matrices matrix. {x_} with the

thus completely defined by its a ring; the inverse of a cyclic to interpret cyclic matrices

x+_r={x,+y,};

i

cX = {cx,};

N--I

12-,,,-, 2:,,,+,-,};

k=O k=i + l

k--O

(X-_

is the

first

row

of the is

cyclic

matrix

which that

is the

inverse

of the

matrix whose are essentially coordinates conditions; System in this case consecutive

operations with cyclic always appear when one case, also in boundary forcing, for

our

will

method Consider

of matrix two

which three

relations

123

, w_+_, v_+2,

_

which

_

for

rn__2 _Urn__

i,=m--2,

1

m--l,

take

the

form:

_+!2 _+-',

Inserting these relations

in (6) we obtain + for the analogous relation for i = rn:

m _ura__

m = 0, 1 using

cylinder:

Xo=Yo=YI=O, where Direct and only obtained vectors once (for the last E is the forcing Z_+_ all unit matrix. involves from p), forcing successive recurrence where Z_ relation

XI-_'-4-E,

_0,

of should number.

matrices be

Y=

depends

we apply the second boundary conditions _+i= O; _+---ll= I .-:p+l

to

determine M--3

_+___, .....

and

then, is

(9), reverse

we

-_+_ for at

for

m = M--2, V_ is solved

2. This

corresponding

the

cylinders

have

_o p+_ = where We were Reynolds e= now made (1, I ..... proceed for number a grid was 1). with with thus an

f_r_e,

-__ =

_r,_,

of N = by

numerical fl, =

dimensionless

viscosity

801

I

/Z

tfi

2'_

28

Y2

36

49

FIGURE 1.

Variation

of tlt in time:

I--==

-_-,

H=l;

II--

=-_,

n=2l.

1456

124

As initial

simplest We Reynolds establish which is were

values

_0,

v_

we

assumed

distribution

of

_,

v close

to

the

solution. concerned 1 v --- _, of find with the the possible following periodic problem: regimes; in the part given a constant

existence under

"stronger"

frequencies perturbations.

infinitesimal

r-t

P.,_

3l

lli

for H=41

(flowM)

Computations

were

In with a

the pair

first of

and

the

second

flow period.

obtained, to growth _} is of

counter-rotating is I is shown

regime flow

gentler

amplitude

125

smaller. principal The harmonic growth stationary This spectrum rate of time one

I is

less

intense

than

flow

II.

In

the

second flow

the

in

by the entirely

gentler different,

the has 21 so

infinitesimal by the principal repeated Lavrent'ev the frequency is of is theory. influence projects work, guidance Yu. on

in

case the

(Lavrent'ev limit). This We contributed of stability continuation are in also the In conclusion wish

a rod

our

problem, also

strongest from

2/(frequency

stability 2x a =_=

3.2).

to

thank

Gel'land initiation

and

active

numerical in particular, of I. M.

Gormatyuk

who

participated

program.

BIBLIOGRA PHY 1. 2. 3. LANDAU, L.D. and E.M. LIFSHITS. Mekhanika Stability. sploshnykh --Cambridge sred (Mechanics Univ. Press. of Continuous [Russian translation. Media). 1968.] --

1954. of Hydrodynamic

ZHIDKOV, N.P., A.A. KORNEICHUK, A.L. KRYLOV, dvizhenie vyazkoi zhidkosti mezhdu vrashchayushchimisya Fluid between Rotating Cylinders). --In: "Vychislitei' MGU. 1962. LAVRENT' EV, M.A. Kumuiyativnyi zatyad Principles). --UMN, 12(4): 76. 1957. i printsipy

and S.B. MOSTINSKAYA. Pioskopatallel'noe tsilindrami ( Plane-Parallel Motion of Viscous nye metody i programmirovanie," Izdatel'stvo ego raboty (Cumulative Charge and Its Working

4.

126

A. STABILITY

L. Krylov OF

and

VISCOUS

RO TA TING

CYLINDERS

k neutral number

), spectral

properties Poiseuflle

those

equation

of sta_

viscous flow between rotating concentric If u. v. 0v are the velocity, components along stationary solution (1)

"trivial"

u=w=o,

where

_--_+_.

A=

\R_/

% el /

'

B=--

(R"

\ Rl ]

1

velocities amounts system (] = 1,2). [ 1 [, Ch.

(see

1)

properties

(L-.@----_--==a=O L_

(,_-.), =2 (A+

(L-- _.,-- oR)v= 2_.4_,

for a_ 0 k I r r=R d dr i ! rs (j=l,2),

(2}

Here

X and

o are

parameters

which

can

physically

be interpreted

as

z-

and

t-frequencies of the solution (X > 0, a = ol + io2). For given for which the homogeneous o -- 0 is called neutral curve in the (R, X)-plane

for small perturbations X and a we must find problem (2) has to stationary to the neutral

solution R case

a nontrivial

127

neutral curve. called the c ritical "trivial" solution. The by Taylor /2[. The

The least (in k) Reynolds number on this curve is Reynolds number; it is the stability limit of the number ideas for this problem of Taylor, who was first determined the solution

approximated

by a linear combination equation of the infinite developed With in ]3, high-speed 4/.

the coefficients by zero, were further to solve problem direct more (2)

which evident

of Poiseuille flow where giving a small coefficient the above procedure to later

leading derivatives the neutral curve Thomas /5/. 2. procedure Jackson, Setting from To obtain

l

1

and

developed

Numerov,

_) = r-_-_ (2).

and

v = r- Y u, we remove

the derivatives

ds__+_+ and

dr s

d___v

dr

substitution,

system

(2)

takes

the

form (2')

3

/'3

D = k4 -_

3

2

_,2

r2

63

16r I

F = -- 2kRA.

If we

replace

the

derivatives

l _(IV) _ h.__ _

using

the

ordinary

difference

formulas

((_i+2

--

4_i+i

_i

--

4_Pi-I

-l- qDt__),

U"

of the order

of h 2 per

step.

A similar

error

To

reduce

the truncation

error,

128

where

52 is the

second _'z

central 2x_ +

difference

xl_ l = x (f + h) -- 2x (r) + x (r -from setting the order the ! k, = -(, of h 4. conditions [1---We

and

the

coefficients It we obtain is

easily an

accuracy estimates:

formulas

and

I 5 l

u_=-_-L+,+ TL +-_Y_-,,

dr* _i = _'gi + -h*g {_ h* ,

d" u,=

'

'

h'Y(_'l

Omitting

terms

of

the

order

of +

h 4, we

rewrite

system _+

(2')

in

the

form

A-,gf+, + B_gi+,

, + Aigt-

Figz+, -t- 4Fig i -.}- Figt_, + GJ_+I + HJ, i=0,1 ..... n--l, + Gifi_,= O,

(3)

where

At= I- h-L(---_ 12

Bi=__4__ 2_2_h2[ 2_ 3 3 \

' -

2_') _'

3 2 3 h' ri

+2k')-_

C_ffi6+

2r_

+2_'

h_

_'4

3 __(

\_,_

3 _.

_ "-_-_+ 63)

gg

F, = - --_-_ _,

3

= 1--_--L/-}-3 + x'),

H'=--2--Sh'(_--_-, _6 +_')"

129

The

boundary

are

also

approximated

to within

h4, as

in

pairs

recurrence

(4) [l = =lgi+l -_- _tgl+2 -_- VJi+l, where the recurrence coefficients formulas X_, Y_, Z_, at, _, W are expressed in terms of the coefficients of at two preceding are simply expressed by system certain (3) at the points of the and find

/-the r__

point and the forcing coefficients and r0 the forcing coefficients coefficients of the equation. For relation

points. At in terms

the forcing coefficients endpoint. It has the form X,,_,_ l )gn _ O. then g_ = 0 and,

(5) as is readily

If the

factor

preceding

g_ does

not

seen,/_+l=f,=0. It then follows from i.e., the problem has a trivial solution curve can thus be written M(X, R) If M = 0, we can take gn _a 0 and

(6}

16, 26 points. An analysis of the with n = 16 and n = 26 do not differ practical purposes, i.e., the is independent of h and therefore the differential, as well as the differ20--25 were sec of the STRELA required to find to

A IO / ts $ $ / / /

the root R of the equation M(X,R) =0 within 10 -s for a given X with n = 16. 3. We see from the graph that the Taylor flow has a neutral curve with two branches, one of which approaches the axis X = 0, infinityinbothRand unlike Poiseuille of Taylor flow the is and

(

0 _oo2003oo_9o_oot0o_ critical Reynolds number program of the calculated number was

.i _o

other recedes to _. Therefore, flow, all the frequencies become X) root unstable. of the (in

the

eventually

The

R which

equation of the neutral curve (6} is equal to nonstationary case a = _ q-i_2 was calculated curve for _ = 0. The Computational Center Reynolds 1959/60. was run on Moscow State in the

Z = 3.2. The general to the neutral computer at the The critical of G. Tolstova in

M. Sc.

130

Table

of results

! 0.I 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.! 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 1189.725 596.167 398,941 300.726 242.135 203.368 175.941 155.594 138.978 127.661 i I7.TJI 109.627 102.921 97._5 9'2.566 88.541 85.110 82.182 79.667 77.518 75.674 74.10_ 72.?69 71.648 70.717 69.954 69+347 68.879 68.541 68.318 68__204 68.191 68.272 68.443 68.697 69.030 69.438 69.916 70.463 71.075 71,749 72.483 73.274 74.114 75.013 75.963

4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5,2 5,3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2

76.963 78.013 79.109 80.251 81.437 82.668 83.941 85.256 86.610 88.004 89.438 90.909 92.417 93.964 95.543 97.161 98.812 100.498 10'2.217 193.969 105.752 107.563 109.409 111.287 113.195 115.131 117.097 119.092 121.1t5 123.166 !25.249 127.355 129.491 131.653 133.842 136.057 138.296 140.560 142.851 145.168 147.5O8 149.874 152.267 154.675 157.113 159.575

!o.?

iU._

i]

10.4 10.6

!!1o.5

;+ 107

i ii i:! _,+ {0.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 II. 3 11.4 ll.5 11.6 ll.7

i _

il ii ,

12.0 11.9 12.1 12.2 12+3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

ii 13.5

15.0 17.0

ij

162.060 164.569 167.101 169.652 172.230 174829 177.451 180.095 182.761 185.449 i88. J59 190.801 193.645 196.413 t99.117 202.0(}9 204.847 207. 732 210.613 213.515 216.437 219.380 222.345 225.330 228.335 231.360 234 4O7 237.473 240.560 243 667 246 7_ 249.942 253.110 256.208 259.505 262.733 265.980 269.248 272.535 275.840 279.170 282.517 285.870 340.080 415.920 546.510

mBUOGRAPHY

1. 2.

LIN,

C.C.

Theory G.J.

of Hydrodynamic of a Viscous

SmbiUty. Liquid

-- Cambcidg Contained

Univ. Two

Press.

[Ruman

translation.

1968.] Trans.,

TAYLOR, A, 223,

S_tbiiity 1923. S.

between

Rotating

Cylinders.

-- Phil.

289-343.

3.

The

StabLUty

of Viscous

Flow

between

Rotat/ng

Cylinders.

-- Proc.

Royal

Soc.,

tea,

301-311. of the

1958. Galetkin 19S5. PoLseutlle Flow.--Phys. Rev., 93(4): 780-783. 1953. Method to the C.alcula_o[x of the Stability of C_ved Flows.

4,

DI PriMA. --Quart.

13:5,5--62.

5.

THOMAS,

Stability

of Plane

131

and

T.

INCOMPRESSIBLE

1. Two-dimensional is described by the nonstationary equation at where x-axis, _ is the stream the function, velocity

ay _ = u 0g component

Ox is the along

ax

-q_ = v is Ox

viscosity. Numerical These difficulties not explicit the solution solution varies

solution are

of due

equation to the

(l)

involves

considerable first,

difficulties. equation (1) is third, at small in which the i.e., methods intensely of

following

reasons:

second, it is nonlinear, the boundary of the region a boundary methods, as layer, the

generally behaves as normal to the boundary. apply semi-analytical and Galerkin, the problem mount estimating methods. possibilities the rapidly

Attempts

Kantorovich (the ray method) viscous flow show that as programming procedures. difficult promising computational It is quite is a complicated task as difficulties Moreover, with these regard accuracy. obvious that problem. the

of nonstationary complicated, the of error seem and standard is a very more estimating the

with respect to t, method) a difference to ensure second additional iterations more complicated the "tripod" scheme, substantially variation mesh or

at every time section Poisson equation order must schemes etc.}. accuracy be made should The with at be

we must solve {by some iterative for @. As the equation is nonlinear, respect to the time interval, alternatively scheme, equation every time section, or employed {the three-layer derivatives algorithm, requires

fourth-order

in the

132

Until nowonlyvery,fewpapershavebeen published onthe application of differencemethods the solutionof nonstationary, r evenstationary to o problemsof viscousincompressible flowdescribed thecomplete by NavierStokes equation (see /1/--/6/). These works, however, mostly give no

estimates of the accuracy of the results. This is due to the exceeding cumbersomeness of the computations which generally strained to the the capacities of the techniques used, and also to obvious difficulties deriving approximate problems particular, tion of grid In the theoretical equation for evaluating to present investigate article parameters, estimates (1). of errors in difference necessary of difference as is choice processes. mad e (or_the_.mo_l equation .............. schemes to devise methods, of schemes, used model in determinaIt was therefore the effectiveness such and the of problems iterative limit of to

analysis

8t with constant (on suitable of this coefficients A, B, v. The Cauchy t > 0). by the as

conditions, integral

(x, y, t) = _ where

(3)

can on The be the approximate represented choice of the solution obtained in the form (3) by scheme, the mesh parameters. of the factors with any of the difference substituting-_ for X, where size, and also the iterative

,_

schemes -X depends processes

and their respective here by comparison time of the exact and which the approximate mesh size question. and the

solution. Given the accuracy be computed, we can determine iterative with we which processes for the

scheme

In the present certain difference method various difference As an stability equations example of Poiseuille

the choice of mesh intend to investigate can be applied to the to these particular results, we considered

iterative

processes

The

remits

of one prosteithikh

simple

iterative

process protsessov

are

in the

author's

oshibok of Stability --

dlya

an Center

Allowance of Moscow

Navier-Stokes

Ec_ation).

Report

of the

Umversity.

133

$2.

THE PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC first define not change i.e., some (to

THE MAIN RECTANGLE. ACCURACY STANDARD* concepts. Suppose accuracy) domain is that the solution integral by

us

pre-assigned integration

if the

if the

replaced

0<I_11_

The sides _,. 0 are determined inferred from they sometimes solutions, and eXt_ox _u 0 _<x-_-0, can be sometimes

,

by the

0_<Lo,1<o_.

smoothness previously data. of the solution required; found approximate A solution of the form

sufficiently accurate computation of the principal harmonic characterized by the number of grid points N(_, _ ) in the We shall show ( 4)that N, in a certain sense, is a constant independent determined axis y. total with equal total of _, co. Let the region parallel remark Q where the solution by L, long In view of the on the side preceding to the x-axis and concerning N, we

will be main rectangle. number is being Lj along see that harmonic rectangIes, _. The the the

required to compute the principal is proportional to the number of necessary to equal in order below,

L, L2 c0t 02 N.For 0_ 0

_2

considered

decreases accuracy

with decreasing

of estimating

the

on the principal

harmonic. To simplify the notations, we shall write in what follows _o:, 02 _ for _o ,_0 The relative error of the approximate solution for the principal harmonic at time t is

I--7--I

For small ! this error is

_t_

e_t = I_f__ t _ I [.

approximately we

to error. concept

Ik-

_I t.

The

'

This definition of characteristic variation of amplitude time

'

can be justified as follows. harmonic amounts, second, _((0_-_ co_))and,

(5)

According

of the principal

of phase (due to iA_ -_-iB_o2). If A = B = 0, then during the time the logarithm of the amplitude will change by I, and the phase

* The concepts introduced in this section and the general procedure employed were developed by L. A. Chudov in application to the equation ut = .cAu+Aux +Bu_ in his special course "Difference Methods for Solution of Parabolic Equations" given at the Moscow University in 1960/61.

134

constant. amplitude

If v = 0 {and Aeo_ q-B_2 will retain its previous by logarithm no more of the

0), value.

the

phase In the

by will

error

Tch_ is (6)

_ = 1_-,),_,_ The overall error with respect processes. processes, order of is made

up of the

errors

to x and y, of the derivative with When choosing the mesh parameters require that each as a small number

we shall smallness

will be called

standard (technically this is more convenient of smallness directly on 6). Approximate clearly characterizes optimum choice

of parameters.

SCHEMES. difference

_'J_

Here AM is the approximation to the

ffi_L_

operator

+ _'.,.

A= _ + _ __

(7)

on a grid with side satisfying the hka

to the operator

on the right-hand

interval;

a_, as weights,

conditions al+ a_ = l,al > 0.a2 >0; _., = _ (_, Id,nx). We now proceed with the description of the difference operators and L_. We shall consider two alternatives differing in order of approximation. Alternative A. Approximation error O(h2+12).

alk_)_m,

k =

dfm+l,k--2_m.l_h

41

_r_--IJt

.jr

dtm,k+l--2_m,k-_-_

_m.k--I

(8)

where 2/I 21

Alternative

B.

Approximation

error

O(h'_Jr-P).

12

( 1O)

135

1456

L(B) .I, f(A) _, _ 4 4

_-IA

(_....

23

+ _vuv_)%,,_] -2 2

(11)

Here

5x_.k

is the

central

difference is the

approximation analogous

to the approximation

A (_+_uyvv)q).,,k _ 4

o_ (o,+

The difference expressions computing the main terms difference difference case quotients equation

o,+

o,

(11) with were obtained from (8), subsequent substitution derivatives, will be The investigated (9) by of

((_I = 0, (_2 :

of time-symmetric stability

_m.k

,h _ ---S_d_,_he_O,k_

these

to multiplication

F / / | sm _. oxh _. _ _l sm "-_-_ \ . [ sinc.th _ sin_,g_/

(13)

s _A'=

+-%--]-,_

" 2 _2l \

[_--;-

+'-7-)J

(14)

For

alternative

B we have

Sty) I + a_:(P + Q)

(15)

I

[" Asinmth

2 1 + _- sin.

sin'_t/ 2 );

_,h _+ 2

(1

.+_2

'

Bsinwzl

Bx];

A t = 1 + 2-sin_

3

_xh +

2

C1 ]

B a=

1+

3 2

This

scheme

is actually Poisson

implicit, should

since be

only solved.

A_,t

_n_-I

_s determined

explicitly;

to

find

,@n+t

difference

equation

136

1

C'=T It is easily seen Indeed, consider that for _sint at = %=

_h+

_h__lsin, lthe 2

alternatives. Let us

now

Is It _ 1. scheme _d

(a t = 0, at = 1).

For

alternative

We now Case I.

cases.

,17,

sin__/__). (18)

Case

H.

v=O.

Then s= l+/x(A_+B

_= h

const,

*_2_= e0nst, t

then

from

(19)

we

have,

for

the

corresponding

indicates have

instability.

+ VbBin

m_/)t.

V_IB,)'T]

(20)

O_ rtt _ T.

is side

thus with

stable small

finite the z.

0 _t

_ T.

However, solution

if

right-hand

of (20)

approximate

$ 4.

SPACE INTERVALS ACCURACY IN investigate harmonic ext e_,_ e_'_ h, I, _)=_1 ,t errors

FOR h AND of

As

we

approximate an

137

Takingfirst _=

0 we

find

h and

l so

that

where

k is

the

accuracy

standard. _(_,,

From

the

general

formula

(13)

we

have

_, h, l, O)

( 21)

The

_, for with

differential A (scheme

is

given order

in 1, (4). error in

consider Then

particular

cases.

_-=-4_

(sin'-_

--

h'

'

= - _(,d ,_). +

The permissible h and I should thus be found from the condition

/ . , _h -s,n 1 _2+._4

-F

1\it__.___7._q_ ___....__//

The

left-hand

side

of (22)

can

be

rewritten

whence it is obvious that the errors due proportional to 0_ and (0_. We shall.first for the principal harmonic be _, we of the obtain order

to

h and require of k.

l are that

averaged with weights each of the errors the for _: (24) permissible

Designating equation

values of

th, e following

=

1 -- sinS'_

k.

N=Nx>_Ns

0-055 28X28=784 ;0X

O. 17 I0=I00

table: (25)

o.os

0.392 4X4=16

The third row gives the approximate number rectangle which ensures the required accuracy. as follows. x-axis h = 2_. therefore y-axis, previously we is --,=

o1

of points in the main This number is determined rectangle parallel to the ____ = _p,_d, is to the have co, (it i.e.,

The the

length of the side of the main mesh of size mesh h is determined in this other is side, equal

the

The N,_

number _ _

intervals the

have observed

, which

N remains

constant,

regardless

of co, and

138

must to the

be

. . _h

the spacings

ratio -i-

of =

the .

sides In say,

is case

---_ of

is

equal

ratio

of

magnitude, of a very

stability with

2 2

_mn+--/ 4 +.oh' we

2 \ ]

it

would

seem

can

determine

_P,,,=T'

the

formulas

++ '

The with second m_= formula ___t 10' gives 1 sin' _,, is close __ sin'_.____ _

+++

"I T "2

,+_

to

the

original

(24),

while

the

first,

already

e_

100k.

this

formula

we

increase error

times.

However,

determine accuracy We

(and

consequently by the

unaffected

decrease

-- iAsin Then

,,,h + h

iB

sin_/ l

k = iAo_

+ iBo_

I I:+

A+x

As,(, ++)+

+ B_ mill

B_

( I

sin ,._l

We sign. has

assume as in

that the

the previous

and

have

the for

condition "q,

the

o,/-_

where

is

the

root

of

the

equation

1 --

sin_._._ k. =

We

obtain

the

following

Jc N=N_z>(Ns

table:

0.001 0.01 0.06

0.0775

40 X 40= 1600 13X

0.245

13= 169

0._

6X6=36

(27)

If accuracy, absolute

Ao,

and

Bo, since

different "weights"

signs, A,o,

A _l 4-

it

is and

more

difficult B_ may

B_

to

the large

B_0,

Ao, I +

values.

case

requires

further

analysis

with

139

actual the

values general

of

A and case of

B,

and

will (2).

not

be

discussed

equation

_=ki+Xzz,

where

/sm

-_-

. , ,,,,t \

_-,= -4_

_H = i_',, =i(A x, -.---- _ (_ Then + _),

+ --9---: 'I

_,_______h B sin_,_) sin h + X,, = i_.,, = i (Acol + Boo,)

_f+_,

Hence exceed

_,

x_+_,_, _

relative error

_,,

(28)

of -_ does of the

not

for

error each

previously considered are imposed on h and of h and l in particular weights relationship for cases this way of the errors between I and II that is relatively

cases does not exceed l by the second case. problems we should of the two different

k. Stronger requirements To obtain more exact estimates take into consideration the (i.e., allow for the grids in of the achieved

cases

_z and _ll ). We see from a comparison the gain in the number of mesh points small, since Nt, _ 1.7N,.

5.

FOR h AND

Consider

L which

As in the _- from P is

preceding (21).

=, (_ + _).

Proceeding second order preceding h and l schemes of accuracy, obtain

Then

= _,_hh= 2

_,_t.t. 2

(29)

sin=? ?,

d . sin y t

Thus

_ is

found

from

the

equation

140

2 1 sir_ ! +--_-sin=_ 1 . 1 + T=n'T for k N =NI"N= t various 0.001 7X7=49 0.2437 0.01 4X4=16 0.431 k _k.

The

results

of

computations

are

given

in

the

following

table:

these h and

results l to be

with

table

(25),

we

see

that (by

the a

considerably

increased

= O.

We Setting

have

k-=

Q,

where

Q is

determined

from

(15),

= we find 11 from

ca,h = o)=l,

(31)

I______

l__

=k.

The

results

are N=_z

k _(Ns be with

0.05 (32) I, by a factor accuracy. in the and preceding follows). the It can in $4 can be of about

I can used

scheme

second-order as (28)

general for e 1.

second To (29)

what

h and

I we

introduced

analogy

schemes. given

that the justification to this scheme also. 2. As in the the preceding results

of equations

and

B are depend

assumed on A. B,

to 0_,,

have c02.

like

Otherwise

S 6.

DETERMINATION

OF

THE

TIME

INTERVAL

In chosen (13)

choosing in and

the

time

T we procedure

shall

assume outlined in

h and S 4, 5.

l to

have According

been to

accordance we have

(21)

] -- _-k,

=_

(_,

e2;

h,

l. 0)(in _).

the

two

previous

sections

this

parameter

was

designated

= i, ]. s = _o+

The contribution of x to the

error

"

relative

141

is

estimated

by

the

expression

! 1

as

_, we

l

require SO that

6~k.

Tchar

The

n

characteristic

'

Tcna_ is of time

Tahar=_l

where n should

n is

period;

therefore

be

2'

the (33)it case

(33)

scheme For the relevant l

Let

us

first

consider from

symmetric

o.oo_ 11ol

o.ol 3

(34) on

the

I n _2k .

retaining

Hence . lo (35)

7.

ON THE THE

CHOICE OF idea

OF

THE

ACCURACY OF

STANDARD

FOR FLOW

PROBLEM have an

STABILITY amount

POISEUILLE

In order in the solution the difference flow. Of the problem, methods. We enables give the the

to

of the

of computational

work

involved

of problems of stability of viscous incompressible flow by method, let us consider the problem of stability of Poiseuille several papers on approximate solution of the linearized work of Thomas /7/ is the results. as only one to utilize difference of equation (1)

Linearization

= _ (y) e-_(_o. The well-known d'_ dy4 where Orr-Sommerfeld equation is solved --a'_) for p.

(36

+ 2_ = 0j,_ velocity,

(37) _ the

kinematic

given

as an eigenvalue.

142

If Imc is

negative,

the

solution

infinitely

increases

in time,

which

indicates

The eigenvalues of equation (37) were a difference equation with fourth-order of mesh solution by Thomas o.3_,_+ +io.o_ intervals showed for was quite very sharp a ffi l and o.aoH+ +_.o142

large (50--100 in the main work), variations. We give the values of Reynolds numbers: o._+ +io._ 138)

various

+m._

! -40._7

We relative

see

from this table that the eigenvalues error of from 0. 005 to 0.08 to enable determined to X, we with any obtain degree of

had to be determined with a the sign of the imaginary part Extending this

of c to be requirement

reliability.

We scheme rectangle.

thus

obtain

an accuracy

standard

k ffi 0.001.

A second

order

difference Let

in h and I thus gives a grid of 40 X 40 = 1600 points For the fourth-order scheme, a grid of 9X9-the question of the number of main difference computations are made. is the rectangle --_'_x_, O_y<l.

rectangles In Thomas's

domain

For

x = _ we

have

periodicity

conditions;

conditions @ ffi _" = 0; for y _ O symmetry in the x-direction we have two half-waves, two times in this direction, i.e., in the intervals for second-order scheme and the More complicated y-direction, i.e., function number _, is

conditions: _' ffi _" ffi 0. Since the main rectangle is contained x-direction we should have 80 18 intervals for fourth-order scheme. of the _2, main rectangle let us consider than in the

is the problem of the length the value of _,. To determine _p,(y) - Imp(y), R = 10000 and same order which is a= I (see of magnitude

q_ = Rt_p(y),

of the

as r =, where Y is the d and d is the "width m of the peak We can conclude from the graph 10r, thus In the repeat In the obtain the points regards y-direction, the main range a grid for the of of

rectangle at least 10 times. space variables (39) we thus 400 X 80 = 32000 points for 2000 with scheme and fourth-order It is @ ! '-" y-length agreement Thomas's The for a linear equation method can with be of 20 X 100 scheme.

second-order

noteworthy

that

to the

the grid we arrived at close with the number of intervals in work (for the fourth-order scheme). in this fact, section are all quite they Indeed, even do not apply the Fourier which, although

estimates

transform

in regions

143

in distance we

the the

are

small

in vary

with

equations method e

Fourier

with in

nonlinear problem of

equation stability

accuracy grids.

required

Poiseuille

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. 4. _. THOM, ALLEN, A. The Flow Past Circular Cylinders at Low Speeds. -- Proc. Roy. Soc. (A), 141: D. N., R.V. SOUTHWELL. Relaxation Methods Applied to Determine the Motion, J. Mech. and Appl. Math., --Jouznal of Fluid Mechanics. Number. -- Proc. Roy. Soc. 651. 1933. in Two 8: 129. 1955. Vol. 3, (A), Vol. 249,

Dimensions, ofaViscous Fluid Past a Fixed Cylinder.--Quart. JANSSEN, E. Flow Past a Flat Plate at Low Reynolds Numbers. No. 4. p.329. 1958. JENSON. V.G. p. 343. 1969. ZHIDKOV, dvizhenie Viscous Flow t_ound a Sphere at a Low Reynolds

N.P., A.A. KORNEICHUK, A.L. KRYLOV, vyazkoi zhidkosti mezhdu vrashehayushchimisya Cylinders). --In: Numerical

and S.B. MOSTINSKAYA. Ploskoparallel'noe tsilindrami ( Plane-Parallel Motion of nye melody i programmirovanie", Rotating Cylinders.-This

Viscous Fluid Between Rotating Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1962. 6. KRYLOV, A.L. volume. and E.K.

"Vychislitel'

PROIZVOLOVA.

7. THOMAS,

L.H. Th_ Stability Plane Poiseuille of Flow. -- The PhysicalReview. Vol.91, No.4. 1953.

144

IV.

SEEPAGE

PROBLEMS

and ERROR

SOLUTION PR OB LEMS

SEEPAGE

In this estimation

paper in the

the for

problem the

of convergence of the

and

solution

nonstationary

stationary seepage problems. These problems ing the influx of oil to an imperfect borehole In /1 / the ray method was applied without the solution of the stationary problem, which

arise, e.g., when considerin the radial-symmetric case. theoretical substantiation to amounts to a mixed boundary-

value problem for an elliptic equation with variable coefficients in the "rectangle" D {0 < r, _< r _ r2, 0 _ z _H}, where r and z are cylindrical coordinates; it is assumed that on some parts of the boundary the values of the normal stationary problem required derivative. present function paper are given, the while ray on other parts the values of its or

In the

we apply

method an

to a nonstationary

problem which is reduced to for a two-dimensional* parabolic itself to the [1, as a natural two-dimensional to the

analogous equation. of

mixed boundary-value The ray method in the plane equation, method and the ray enables

this case suggests applied in /2, 3, 4/ method the applied in The ray problem method to be

combination parabolic

5, 6/

two-dimensional

elliptic

equation.

0 _z_,H}, but also in the unbounded However, we shall dwell in detail in the unbounded case the solution equations of computations. The paralelepiped equation the ray method is by

domain D {0<r_<r<-]-*% on the bounded case only, of the system of ordinary no means problem simple and

convenient as follows:

nonstationary

boundary-value seek

Q = D X [ 0, T] we Ltt_ dmu +!

a function #mu

d. _

satisfying inside Q,

Ou _

Or

the

boundary

conditions u1 .... ul,_,,=_,(z,t) =_,(z,t) where for O<z<H, for Ho_z<H, 0 _< H o _< H: O_<t-_T, O_<t_<T, (1.1) (1.2)

That

is,

with

two

independent

space

coordinates

r, z

and

the

time

t.

145

Ou

OU _Z

_= z-H

,h Yl

Ir k

t)

r,<r<r2.0_.t_T, 0, O_:t_T,

(1.3) (1.4)

forO<z<H

and the initial condition u It-0 _o (r, in D, = z) always assuming that the natural (h (z, O) ------(P0(rl, z), matching conditions are satisfied: (1.6) (1.5)

The following scheme of the ray method is proposed for solving this problem. We construct the planes z=ih, i=0, 1..... M-{- l, where (M-_- ])h-_H and t = kT, k = 0, 1..... N, where N_ = T. The intersection lines of these planes will be called nodal lines. The segments of the nodal lines in the parallelepiped (r, ih, kT)=(r, Q form zt, tk,), a "grid" nodal consisting lines by of points the with the system coordinates Equation(1.0) of ordinary where r,_.<r_r_, O_<i_M-F-1, O_<k<_N. following

is then approximated on the differential equations Lh, [ulk (r)] -for where r,<r<r_,l_<i

a_u_k(r) .4 I drs r

dua (r) dr

_-_,W,k(r)--

_rut,(r)

=f_,

(r)

( 2. O)

<M,l_<k_<N,

The respectively

boundary

and

the

initial

condition

(1.5)

are

conditions:

u,_(r,)=$,(z,,t_),Mo+l_i_<M,O_k_<N, u_k(r,) = % (z_, t_), ufft(r) -- uot_ (r) h _ (r, t_), forr_<r-_r,, 1 _< i _< M,

(2.1) (2.2)

dr

l..<k_<N;

(2.3)

% (z_, t,),

1 ..< K _ N, rx_r_<r_.

(2.4) (2.5)

U_o(r)=_o(r,z_),

146

The stationaryseepage roblemis reduced thefollowingboundaryp to valueproblem: in therectangleD { 0 < q _ r _ r_, 0 _ z _H} we seek a function

u=u(r, z}, satisfying the equation (3.0) Lu_= 8'u + I 0, _u _, 7-_-+--_-----f(r,z) and boundary conditions u_.,,=eh(z), H_<z<HwhereO<He_H; u _._,, _ (z). O<z<H; = O"[_z iz-o=#'(r_'" _L==_,(r). r,<r<:rs; (3.1) (3.2) (3.3') insideD

=

The scheme of the problem (3.0)--(3.4): ray method proposed

0<z<,.

in [1 / tares the following

(3.4

form for

L+tul(r)l

;! _+dr(') _- _

-+ (r) = f+(r).

1 _ i ..< M,

(M+ 1)h H; =

5(r_)=%(z,), M,+I<i<M-+-1, ut(r J = %(z_), udr)--_(r)=_/,(r), h O<_i_M M0= [-_]; + I, r, _r _r,;

(4.0)

(4.1) (4.2) (4.3) (4.4)

In 1 of the

present to the

paper

we

prove

the

convergence

solution (for

of T

problem nonstationary

h and boundary-

in fact proves the existence of a solution differential properties of this solution and a posteriori problem. of 1 and 2 in application to estimates of the error

prove its uniqueness. In 2we give a priori of the ray method briefly problems. for the In 3 we stationary consider

nonstationary aspects

$ I. AND

CONVERGENCE

OF

THE

RAY

METHOD

AND

EXISTENCE

UNIQUENESS OF SEEPAGE

SOLUTION PROBLEM

and 3) /'2 those parts of the boundary _, 2) q_l and xp2, and 3) *o, *_, _, are We shall retain these for the corresponding points of Q which do not

given, and write /" = F0 +/'_ +Fs. the previously described grid and By points of Q we mean the

parts belong

boundary.

147

to F, whereF

(2.5) can

is

the

boundary be written

of

Q.

Then

problems

(1.0)--(1.5)

and

(2.0}--

Q,

Ulr0=_0,

Ulr,=_,

Boundary

conditions

a function _S(r, z, t), whichis continuously D, has continuous fifth derivatives inside (1.1)--(1.4) will be called conditions. Definition. 1) u is ments 2) initial 3) i.e., u 6 W_f(q)]7/, 4) if F6 is the lateral surface of the of on the boundary smooth of D in the permissible five-fold A continuously (1.0), the (1.5) in

differentiable in a closed domain D, and satisfies the conditions classical function sense. Any such the function boundary that: satisfying

solution of problem (1) is a function differentiable inside O according and satisfies this equation; (1.1) first boundary conditions of problem in the classical sense; Q and has square-summable

equation

u satisfies condition u is

bounded

in Q, (3)

Q_{q +B..<r_<r,--_, contained permissible such conditions in Q, and function q)(r, we have kU(r, z, t) is satisfying z, t) satisfying the limiting

_<z-.<H--_,

any

other

function

boundary

Fa

=0, of F6 differentiable follow from of the the estimates function the other

(5)

where

v=u--W,

and

n is the

inward

normal

Observe that if u should be closed domain Q, requirements propositions. In this boundary-value section we problem first

in a

estimates

and S.N.

Bernstein's

of Q) forthederivatives quotients

difference

{_u_}, {_,iulk}, {_z_u_k}, Uik {_ },{_hu_k},_}ux,}, { the following of problem theorem, (1) are function such that qr (r, z, t)

{_Hutk }"{_-;-u_k}' {8,1tulk} , {_zu;k}' {_i_kJ we prove Theorem there exists at satisfying these 1. If the boundary five-fold conditions, %, least one boundary

conditions

0% Or ' t

(6)

and

also

8r s

'

Oz _

'

_t dz*

'

dt cgr _

Oz Or"

148

are bounded, and if the difference _o (r, z)_ (r, z, O)in arbitrarily narrow, but fixed strips 0 _ z _: v and H--V_. z <tt is independent of z and satisfies the matching conditions _, (rt, z)-- _ (rl, z, 0) _=0, % (r,, z)-- (q, z, 0) --=0, |

-_ [_e (r, z)-_ (r, z, O)l lr.,, :-- O, 0-_z _<H,

J

of the

(8)

then

the nonstationary

boundary-value

problem

solvable*.

I. e m m a 1 (maximum principle). Let a system of functions ua (O which are continuous on the closed segment 0< r_<r_.r2 and twice differentiable (with respect to r) at its inner points satisfy everywhere inside Q the inequalities _,(u_D>o ILh,(ui,)_0l . Then maxu_(r) [minua (r)l

Q O

is attained

on

F.

everywhere

inside

Q,

is simple,

by assuming

the opposite.

Lem ma 2. Let a set of functions u_, (r) differentiable with respect to r on the closed interval O<r_r_.r_ and twice differentiable with respect to r at inner points of this interval satisfy everywhere inside Q the condition L_ (u_) <0, ILk. (u_,) > 0]; on the boundary 1" the boundary conditions (2.1) - (2.5) are satisfied, and ,o _ O,ta _ 0, _2 >0 I% > 0, _1 > 0, _ _7 01. Then u_ (r) >/m = rnin_[u/_ (r) _ ma = max _lr0+r, r0+r, Proof. Observe that the ease Lh, u_>O reduces to L_u_O by subst/tuting-u_ for u_. We can therefore limit the discussion to the ease L_ U_a<O only. Then, from Lemma 1, u_ (0 cannot have a minimum inside the domain Q. If the minimum is reached on Fo-[--F_, the lemma is proved. It remains to show the impossih/lity of a m_nimum being atAained on /'2. Let the minimum occur on the face r=r_ at the point (q. z,. t_.)_Fs. By assumption, u'_(q) ffi@_(z_, t_)_0. We define in Q a subdomain O_{r_r_r_q-5. i=i,--l, io. ioq-l, k-_ko, k0--1}, where 5>0 is so smallthat 8_q- 5 < h_. We define in Q_ an auxiliary function

if _(r) -_ { (r--rO'+(r--rt)'O, if i=i,, i=i,+_ k=ko, k o1,

(9)

1, k=k_.

of the choice of _, we have L_. (v_)>0. Moreover, since minimum point, u_{r)>u_(ra) at all points of Q_, except the where for i = i,, k = k, we have the equality ui_(rt) = ut.t,(rO. there exists an > 0 such that ut_(_)-- u4_,(q) = d > _v:#(_)for ko-- 1. But then the function _i* (r) u_, (r) u_,_. r_)-_Vi,(r) = -( -

The existence and the uniqueness of the solution of problem (1) can also be proved with weaker requirements on I. _, _, either by the barrier method, o_ by passing to closures in appropriate functional classes, but here, for the sake of simplicity, we shall be content with Theorem 1.

149

is nonnegt=tive on w_k(r) >/0 everywhere -_r,.<rl+_. and pass dicts the If the _a <. 0, we would also should however, have We divide

the the

boundary of Q_. Now as inside Q'_. and consequently two sides of this inequality

L_, w_k<0, we have by Lemma ut_o(r) -- u@o(rl) > ,vt_,(r)forq by r-r, where 0 < r--

1 _<

r, < _,

as r _ rl + 0. We then obtain u;a0(r,) > _> 0, which contra_0-_0. Hence, urn(r) cannot have a minimum at any point were attained at a point hence should (r0, 0, tk,) _ F_, where by (r0, assumption z_ tko) i.e., we if

(q, z_,, tko)E r, . would have _u0_ (r0) :* 0, and be a minimum point, and r0 = r_ or r0 == r_. (r0, z_, t,.) E F_, then, of u_ (r0) = u0_ (r0), i.e., lie on the boundary, is we

contradiction. possibilities

3.

Let _ and

in

--L

2'

and a_v_k(r,),

constant

_ _. z, -_ H -- _, 0 _ t_ _ T. r,+ small <:r_r=---_, positive further O_zt_H--l, numbers, and the B.o_, (r)

[o_,(r)l_KmOa_ sufficiently

_, r are

r_ + _ _: r <. r= -- _, 0 _ t, -_ T,

where

1(1 is

independent

3 and

4 are

analogs

of the

lemma

in

]4]

mo=suplcPl,ro+r, mt=SrUPl*l"

Then

the following

estimate

for

the (2):

solution

of

the

difference-

differential

boundary-value

lu,,(r)l

+ (10)

H --/t ) --

2mr

_ -4-

q_ ._______m, ___ (z

)t + m, (rt_

(lot)

150

where

e_00

satisfies

the

following

conditions

for

0<_h_:

L=_=<--,<O.

Therefore, by

V,_lr.+r.>O.

Lemma 2, V_(r)_0

_*

r--r z

<0.

everywhere

_.V,_l.-o<O.

inQ, i.e.,

_.V._b-,>O

ff--k

"

-(z_

"P

Since the last inequality holds independent of s. we can pass L e m m a P r o o f. u_ = u-it-applying 6. Let Problem _ and (107. _tt of we (2)

for any e>O. and its left-hand to the limit as -.0 and obtain cannot have different (27 for u a _0. two different solutions f _-0,

_Lt is estimate

a solution

_ -_0,

and _p--_0,ando

of a solution of the difference(2) and derive for it an expression K0(_). in the To this end. we write the following vector-matrix ut--t,

in form: (11)

I0(_) and

of differential u,-b

equations +

where

f "*(') #,(r) =

I f.. (r)

(r) = f_ (r) " " ,(r. t,J k

f__,. (r)

{

1--2 10

A_

1_,,oo .... o[

.... 0

. o. !

0 .... 0 ....

o..

1

1 0

--2

l --1

The

boundary

conditions

(2.3)

have

not

been

taken

into

consideration.

If

the solution of problem (2) at the (k--l)-th time section find it on the k-th section it suffices to solve equation conditions (2.1), (2.2), and (2.47. By using an orthogonal

(--

l_+='_/"_,

l ,_i_.M,

$=M,

151

the

matrix

2 K$ 2M

A is

diagonalized /1,5,6/.

to A = B'AB,

with

diagonal

elements

-- ks,

where

ks=4COS--, After

I_<s_<M,

this

transformation, BB' uk

equation BB' uk

hi

(1 1) is

rewritten l

Uk_l.

BAB_

_-

% B';k =7k

by B'=B-' _:

1 "_

___

this

vector for

1 _"

equation the

1

and

settingVk=B'_,

we

equation

"_"

vector

A_ k

V k -F--/- k + -_E V

-- -- V k =

= B h -- -- _',--,= 0_, ,

which is equations: equivalent to the following uncoupled system of ordinary

(l 1i)

differential

The

general

solution

of this

equation

has

the

form

where Zsk(r) is a particular _ (r) are the equation solution fundamental (112) , and of the inhomogeneous equation (1 12), a

of solutions of the corresponding Bsk are arbitrary constants. As functions I0(}7 and Ko(_),

fundamental system, we can choose setting w'_ (r) - 10 (%r), w_k (r) = K0 (%r),

.M--I

-_(117

u,t,(r) =

I its

[Ask Io(%r) + B,k Ko (%r) + z,_ (r)l + + _ To find Ask, B,,, we 234 unknowns, obtained determinant solvability solution of solve from [AMklo (aMr) + B_ukKo (at_r) + z_k (r)]. the system conditions does We that of 2M linear (2.1), (2.27, (this proved in terms _ C(_), the algebraic and (2.4). equations The the unique of a I0(_) (2) of problem problem family ( 1 2) in

of problem

expressed

functions

the

{u_ (r) } and of the family to r and z up to the third second order Q, inclusive or in the adjoining inwards,

and difference quotients and with respect to subdomains parts of the of the boundary.

152

This can be

estimates Seeing /8, that

by

applying smooth

difference permissible

analogs function

of _(r,

S.N.

Bernstein's

the boundary conditions unknown function v_-u--_, we obtain for v conditions; also

of the problem exists, and passing where u is the required solution problem the initial initial condition; boundary-value (1) with condition for homogeneous

v a boundary-value satisfies

o[:_o_-to--W!t-o, v_ we problem

will be called the modified obtain a difference-differential homogeneous boundary substitution of variables it to have been carried To ent derive the the to apply identities

difference

estimates,

it is conveni-

(13)

Lh, (U,t_Vp) "_-Viit Ls, (Vlk) -_- Vtk Lh, (V_) + 2U'_ V'tk +

(14) (15)

From estimate (10) we have

Io,,(r) [ < K,

where K is a con_tmnt independent of /_. z. If the estimate (10") applies

(10")

to

some function Ua (r), we shall express this We thus have v_ (r)ffiO(l). We now proceed BernsteinVs estimates. First consider the

fact by the equality U_k (r)ffiO(l). with difference analogs of estimates in the parallelepiped

where To

_ is

a positive v._(r)

number in Q:_ we

the function

inequality

0<_<_

r_--,_ 2

estimate

z_(r)=(v_a):_(r)-_ c_ and easily Q,,. cs are seen Hence, some that by positive for i. the

L_za_0 Lemma

large

the boundary of Q_. Since _zz_ _ _z_--= 0, then, by Lemma 2, the maximum of z_(r) can be attained only forh={_ either for r=r_&_ or r_rs--a. But from condition (6), and also by virtue of the conditions v_a(r) = O(1), R(r, -_ _) = ---R(r:--_) _ffi0 we have z_(r)= in Q_a. 0 on these parts of the boundary of Q,a. Hence, z_(r)---- 0 (l) everywhere Therefore,

Iv',,(r) l< _

in any subdomain in Q_, Q_,, 0 _ _ _. estimates consider are obtained the function for Analogous is bounded

= o(_)

v'_(f) in Q_. To prove that _ Lv_,(r) It is

easily seen that L,, (z_)_0 in Q,_(0 _ a _ _) for sufficient cs By Lemma 1, z_, has a maximum on the boundary

c_ and other

153

hand from theequalities _ _V_k 0andfromthe conditions Theorem1 _vok _ of wehavezik(r)=O(1)inQ,a. Hence ]OzOtt]..< =O(1) O(1-----_-) R (r)

A similar consider the estimate function is obtained for in Q,_ for O<a<O.

_.v,, inQts.

To

estimate

_.vm we

zt, (r) = (Lv;k)' ' (r, z, t) + c, [(0,_k) + R _ + (_, o;_,,k) + 0, o;+lk)'+ 0, v;k-,)21+ c', _

where R(r,z,t)=(r--rx---_) x(z--) and, as before, find that T'..<z_.H--T, (H--C--0 (r, _2 (t--_), r)

O,V_k=O(1)inO_va{rl+O\<r-_r_--_,

_<t<T},

where The follows. In order Vtk for 8, T, _ are arbitrarily small positive numbers. uniform boundedness of _ o_ (r) in the entire domain is proved as The function 07vtk satisfies the equality Lh_(_iVtk)= O_fti, 2<k_N. that this equality be meaningful for k = l, we extend the definition k =1, stipulating at To(r, zl) __ dr' + 1 d_o(r, zt) + Oz % (r, zt) - (16) From 0(1). (16) and (6), we

of

__ I+o (r, zt) -- vl,_, <r) = _to (r), where have l_i..<M; Vo._x(r)=v.-l(r), OTVto(r) = Further, 0Took(r) satisfies the VM+,.--t(r)=vM.--l(r). _o(r. zt) -- v_._, (r)

"t

boundary d _ for0ivtk,

Mx = max 0! I + 1, taking sufficiently o ot I replaced everywhere by _-tvtk and the consideration, it can easily be

into

shown

OhOi, are bounded in Q,8. From equation (2.0) and from previous follows the boundedness of. 0,,-vtk, _,_V_k,_.;.Vt_ in Q,_. To estimate apply Lemma 4, substituting 0Givtk for v_. It is easily verified requirements of the 1emma are satisfied under this substitution, 0_Tvx_(r ) = O(1), for r_+_.%r_r,--_, But then, using l_<k_<N. the function z_i (r) = (01f vt_)_R' (r) + ct CO,7 vt_)_ + ctr t _i-,7va, k(r) =O(1)

154

find

= 0(1)

in Q,a.

From

equation

Qz_.

estimates

analogously

subdomains Fs for r = q.

O_/r, -_ r ..< q -5 _, 0 < _<z _ H0 -- _, 0_t_T}, v_(r), we take the function zlk(r) = (v_pR'(r,

+ c,[_+i_ -5_ -5 _-_*]-5r_, where R (r, z)= (r--z_-- _)(z--y)(Ho -- y --z),and form Bernstein's estimate. We similarly estimate _,v_ in O_ To estimate _=_a we take the function zL,(r) = (_=,,_)' &" (z) + cd_+,_ + _ + __.,! + c,(r-n)'.

The estimate of _.;v==s similarly i obtained, and the boundedness of v_ in

Q_ follows difference

from (_..0). Estimates are thus obtained for derivatives and quotients of second order for the case of compact v_ in Q_,_. 0_.<t,_<T}it is estimated in all of Q.

In domains oftypeQ_{r,--_-_r-_r,, 0<_z_<H--y, sufficient to estimate _=v_ and v_, since _vehas been To prove the boundedness of _i, we consider

the function

z._.(r) = (_. t'l,.)"_:_(r. z) _L C. (_+1, + t_ + 4--1_) "]- C_a, where R(r. z)= (r, --_-- r)(z-- y)(H-- V-- z) on the boundary to Bernstein. estimated in regions of t}_pe r = r=using The family {o_,} should first be inside

estimated v_'_nd a

Lemma

Q=, according

4% problem

We (1).

prove the

existence estimates

and uniqueness in 3_ we see that in any subdomain subdomain obtained of the are ,-strips point compact adjoining

of the solution of o_,(r) are compact, form Q, = the rectangle also of the of the where in of the from and in

the sense of uniform = D, [0, T] , where D by removing corner D, is points. obtained an The from

_, (r), _,

F,. The families t_ v_ v_, _.;0_ are compact truly interior subdomain of D, and _>0 is Therefore, from _(r) such entering in the family vx_ (r) depending that for equation /10/, inside we Q,

in _, = _)= 1_, T], where any arbitrarily small on h and we can pick and

[h,l +[x,l-_O it and its derivatives (2.0) converge uniformly in their can and prove that the also the initial limiting and the

regions. As equation(l,0)

function homo-

geneous boundary conditions (1.5), in the classical sense. requirements I and 2 of the (1) with inhomogeneous We shah prove that requirements the of solution _ and 8_ -_- in 1 and 2, of problem Q follows Therefore, the inequality

(1.1) --( 1.4) and the modified initial condition Clearly, the function u = v + W meets definition of the solution v(r, z. t) 3 and not u of the only initial satisfies definition 3. of Boundedness /_- v_, to problem

boundar T conditions. the limiting function but (1). from also We requirements first consider

4 of the

uniform the

boundedness inclusion

v_ and

respectively. establish

to prove

it suffices

155

rl

EQ('o)=SdtydzY

0 0 rt

_ [(Or

' ) +(O_-f]

dr<+

(17)

N

M rt

smooth

h_ E

k=i

E J" {(rv;k)'"

i--I r,

+ r(_'Tv")@'k--r(_Tv'*)"--

N M rt

by parts

terms

of this

h,

Z

k-I At

_

i-I M

r, r,

k--I l=l rt

(18)

once continuously boundary conditions right-hand side of for v_k and @_,

and w;_ (r) its values (18) vanishes by virtue can be written.

h_

N

_

k=l M

_

|_l rt

i'r[(v:.k)'+(_v,.)'ldr=

rt

= h,

E

k--I

E

i-I

b |

the that

inequality

terms

on

the

right-hand after

side,

N _/

bounded, side,

rt

a sufficiently

E

4=1

_,, ;r[(v_k)'-{i--It,

independent

of in the

h and left-hand

If summation

integration

not

over Q, but over aclosed parallelepiped _<t_< T},lying inside Q, the inequality previous Ih_l+]% constant _0 and C in the right-hand that Ov and 0-7-

Q'_{r,+_<r_<r2--_, _<z<H--_, is a fortiori satisfied with the side. Passing to the limit for in Q_ and

seeing

Ov _ are continuous

(v_l)'_ we obtain

O_ ,

dr

1456

156

pass to the limit 8-_ 0 and obtain

the

proof

F_

v G _>

(Q).

Hence 4 in the

belongs

= 0

for the

any once

function

satisfying

De_(v,_p)

F_

(22)

where imposed

-f=[--LUt. on f and

of the integral

inclusion

v _ W_(Q) and

the

limitations

r Q

_v _

, _v --_-_--- * -I-?1 _ exists and lim D _ (v, O) = D Q (v, _L Therefore satisfying relationship the homogeneous (21) for any continuously (1.1)--(1.4) differentiable is equivalent

conditions

D Q(v, 4)) = 0, or alternatively lim/_ Designating conditions for the left-hand _),

N ;Mrs

side

v_, and

(25*)

In this

equality,

however, direct

we transition

cannot

directly limit

pass is

to the

limit for

to the

admissible

157

2/

rs

The

behavior

of the

expression q_,_) = h. _

k--I

E_.(v,k,

_

i--I

Sr Iv:, *:,-}-(_zvi.).(_.*,.)]dr

r1

(27)

at the

limit

requires

further

study.

Let

G6 be

the

boundary

domain

left

after

removing the parallelepiped Q6 from Q; we retain the same notations for the corresponding grid domains. Then EQ (v, }and E_hCRk, lk) are representable in the form

E q (V, ?P) = E Q_ (v, YP)-'[-.Lc_t(v, _), Eqh't (tJdt, dPlk) = E_ _ (vd, TPU,) Jr

+ E_a (Rk, _)" Applying and the Cauchy-Bunyakovskii we easily obtain [Cauchy-Schwarz] inequality to the

(28) sums

integrals,

Therefore,

from

(19),

and hence, q) being bounded in Q,

G8

(,_, 0,_),

for that for sufficiently small sufficiently small fi > 0 (29) 6 > 0 (30)

we

obtain

IEz_ (Rk, ,k) I < e. Applying (28) and (297 and (30), we obtain

for sufficiently small 6 > 0 uniformly lim Hence, for sufficiently small in h and v. But for any fixed 8 > 0

Ihsl+l_sl_O.

IE_, (v_,, i,) -- E (v, P) [ < 3e. That is, lirn E_, (v_, _t) = E _ (v, P).

(32)

I hs I+ I _1-_0.

Therefore, passing to the limit in (25*) as Ih,] + Hence, relationship (21) for the function v is satisfied continuously homogeneous differentiable conditions permissible (1.1)--(1.4).

I_l

(25).

158

for

the

solution

of problem

(I)

concerning

the

function

u=v-_-W.

This

com-

pletes the proof We now prove solutions of this corresponding relation (23)

of the solution. of this solution. Let u and u be the function U=_--_ is a solution with f =--0, cp_ 0 and _ _ 0.

for any continuously differentiable permissible function satisfying (1.4). Since U belongs to the closure of the set of all these functions metric W_ (Q), U can be substituted for _ in (33), which gives Q Integrating over t and applying the initial condition U(r, z, 0) _ 0, we aU'

(1.I)-in the

(34)

obtain

L_(U, LO=;SS +r--_-_' [(_r) Q + ._ rU' (r, z, T)dD Hence, point U(r, z, T) =- O, with the possible (r_, He, T). Since the upper limit we have U (r, z, t) _ exception segment of the vertical sides [rh H_ 0 _: t_ T]. This problem (1). of the uniqueness

(_.)']dQ+

the

arbitrarily,

in

Q,

of the

solution

it follows

that

not

only the subsequence v_ (r). corresponding to the sequence hs. _,. approaching zero,converges to the solution _, but that to the solution v for any arbitrary approach of h, r to zero.

$ 2.

ESTIMATL-NG THE EHROH THE NONSTATIONARY priori estimate. derivatives _a Let and 0s,, _"

OF

FOR

1. having

u(r,z,

of problem O. Let

(1)

bounded

in the

parallelepiped

Let ray

u_ (r) method

be

the

solution

of problem

(2).

We

estimate

the

error

of

the (36)

v_, (r) : u (r, z_,t,) -- u,, (r). Applying the Taylor expansion, _u(r,z,,t,) we obtain

(37)

15g

where

Rz= TI Id'u(r"z'tk) t dau(r'_'t_)ltP2 "[0"2t "

z, z

lie

on

the

segment

[z_--h,

z_Wh],

2 Ri,

(38)

hs

t inside the

O. conaitions

(39)

vtk satisfies

2

(40) (41)

0-_k<N;

dz=

2

dr

0z =

(42)

r_ _< r _ r=,

dv_k(rl) =0,

1,_i_<340

Ulo (r) _- O.

Applying _38)--(43),

the and

estimate using(35),

(i0) to the solution of boundary-value (37), (38), we see that everywhere rx)_] \ Msh. / 12 2 --

1o,,(r) J <--

+ [(r_-rz)2-(rlines

'.

h

If we then, faces

use

a mesh

of straight

by boundary

-_- along

the

z-axis on the

/11/,

conditions

(46) have the of derivatives estimates and known estimates Diriehlet estimates aperfect is known

disadvantage that they contain maxima of the unknown solution. Of considerable are expressed i,e., by in terms the so-called D. F. Davidenko Laplace for the H0=0 assume of the a posteriori /13/ for

of the absolute value are found estimates. the solution (1) of this

which

previously

solution of

O<:z_H,

shall

160

existence has

conditions require two application Theorem equation and let are

been proved in 1, is such satisfied also at the corner proved (1) with Nirenberg. minimum in Q. Vyborny. which at this reaches point in /14/ Ho=O. Let at some Then u _u Let its _!,_c> and

initial of Q. which

continuous

S--H

interior point P" (r'. z', t') _ Q, (r', z_, t') _- const everywhere in Q u(r, z, t)be a continuous in Q at the point face z=o, solution of

for t <e.

Theorem problem l_(r ". _.z"t') _" I Suppose constructed, R. H0=0 Then minimum

0 if P, belongs

to the

<0 if P" belongs that an interpolatory which coincides lines, is Q, satisfies (1) for estimate

to the face z= II. function uh (r,z, t) haB been somehow with the solution u,k(r)of problem (2) for continuous, the same and on its derivatives which enter equation conditions on E, as the solution 1"o+1"1 takes the value uh Ir,+r, =_*(s).

H, = 0 on the nodal (1.0) are bound in u(r,z,t) of problem Then the following

H==0, holds:

[u (r, z, t) -- % (r, z, t) l _ Ege (r, t) + %, where g,(r.O--n_n{g(r);t}, g(r)_-" 4 + P_--_ ln :L_, 4 In f_! rl

1

(47)

E- mPtt-z_l,

In particular, the auxiliary if functions _* ----_. we should

","r_: v(')-v'(')l

set eo=O in (47). Indeed. consider

V (r, z, t) ffi E (r) + _ + (u -- u,), which satisfy the following inequalities: LV= +_-IT-Lut--E _O,

O

it follows that minV _ Q mint r_ is attained either 0 Q, then from Nirenberg's minimum is reached for

cannot on

be

reached or

on the Q. that

r.+F,, theorem,

inside

seeing

LV _ _ invariably Therefore,

t = 0.

Thus

rain tr_ is

O

attained on F 0 + F_ where the function V is nonnegative. everywhere in Q _ _ 00 which is equivalent to the inequality lu--utl _Eg(r) + e_. (48)

Now

consider

the

auxiliary

functions

161

[u--un which together Remark nodal lines with (48) gives the If we have found from u_, (r), we

l "_ Et + "o, estimate a function may use (47). un(r,z,t) the estimate

(49)

1.

which

on the

inner

differs

lu--u_I_<mQaxlu--uhl where nodal uh(r, lines. z, t) is The the first interpolative term on the and the estimated estimates

+ maxl u n --'u_ t, Q function right-hand second using of coinciding side of with (50) is

term is known at least on the the theorem of V. S. Ryaben'kii arbitrary interpolative functions

uh in terms of difference quotients of corresponding orders of a function defined at grid points. R e m ark 2. The estimates (47), (50) have a certain advantage over Gerschgorin's maximum u(r, of the are estimates absolute expressed (45), (46): they do not values of the derivatives in terms used (2) of the require knowledge of the required found solution of the solution and of the the ray

z, t) and

previously

method, but also with other methods, e.g., the The main difficulty involved in the application estimates is the construction of the interpolative we may use etc. /11/. interpolation Hermite polynomials,

Here

polynomials,

3. In this seepage. to be such in a closed satisfies the such function the boundary Definition. that: 1) (3.0), 2) u is and satisfies u satisfies sense; is bounded F, is the section we

CASE briefly

OF apply

conditions (3.1)--(3.4) called five-fold smooth of the solution problem. of problem (3.0) inside

in the classical sense. Any permissible function satisfying -(3.4) is a function with -(3.4) u such equation

differentiable

Q, in accordance (3.1)

this equation; the boundary conditions in O and boundary continuously conditions u 6 W_ (Q); of subdomain

of problem

in the

It _ _}, satis-

= O,

162

n is the normal to 1"8, and D any once function satisfying the homogeneous

continuously boundary

differenticonditions

Irl-----O, -_-_ Jr, _ O. As in 1, and stationary analogs of Lemmas 1 and 2 on the maximum

M--I

solution

form

_-I

!!.<-'y+"

"

+

2 x$

%=

f(r,z),

Bessel (4.3) in be

' Oz*

A=, B, from

are the

equations 1, _t

it_

S. N.

Bernstein's 2. (3.0)

the

&dr 1

_f

'

_f

solvable. obtain both the Gerschgorin of the by and simplest z=H, as approximation in (4.3), we reach

normtationary estimates.

seepage,

_ on the sides z-0 and & of 2 the estimate Iu (r, zi) -- u I(r) I _ 1

i(r,--

rl)* -- (r -- rl)' l X

a half-mesh-spacing

I u (r, zl) -- u_ (r) 1<: O(h'). DavidenkoVs case the a posteriori form estimate for a perfect borehole (H0=0) has in

this

_< Eg(r)

+ *,,

_-_ + ---lnrQL r$

r In--,

r_

D r_

163

proof with

of the of

these I.

in R. of general

the

case /l

follows 7, 1 8/

in

its for

theorems

Hopf

substituted

Vyborny. the case generalized were solution previously in for considered cases Aa, Ab, the in/i Ab', 9/. Ac,

and

uniqueness in a more

problem 2 Bc,

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. 2. 3. 4.

ALIKHASHKIN, the Problem of ROTHE, E. Uber --Math. Ann. TIKHONOV, in Several VENTTSEL',

Ya. I. Reshenie zadachi o nesovershennoi skvazhine metodom pryamykh(Solution of the Imperfect Borehole by the Ray Method). -- Vychi_litel' naya matematika, No. 1. 1957. Wfirmeleitungsgleichung mit nichtkonstanten Koeffizienten im r_iumlichen Falle. 104: 340-354. 1940. (On the Heat Equation

A.N. Ob uravnenii teploprovodnosti dlya neskol'kikh peremennykh Variables). --Byulleten' MGU, sektsiya AI, No. 9. 1938. T.D. Pervaya kraevaya zadacha i zadacha Koshi dlya kvazilineinogo

parabolieheskogo

uravneniya so mnogimi prostranstvennymi peremennymi ( First Boundary- Value Problem and Cauchy Problem for the Q uasilinear Parabolic Equation in Many Space Variables). -- Matematicheskii sbomik. Vol. 41, No. 4. 1957. 5. SLOBODYANSKII, M.G. a) Sposob priblizhennogo integrirovaniya uravnenli s chasmymi proizvodnymi i ego primenenie k zadacham teorii uprugosti (A Method of Approximate Integration of Partial Differential Equations and Its Application to Problems of Elasticity Theory). -- PMM, Vol. 3, No. 1939. b) Prostranstvennye zadachi teorii uprugosti dlya prizmaticheskikh tel (Three-Dimensional Problems 1940. 6. of Elasticity Theory for Prismatic Bodies). -- Uehenye zapiski MGU, No. 39 (mekhanika).

1.

FADDEEVA, V.N. Metod pryamykh v primenenii k nekotorym kraevym zadacham (Ray Method Applied to Some Boundary-Value Problems). -- Trudy Matematicheskogo Instituta im. V.A. Steklova, Vol. 28. 1949. SOBOLEV, S.L. Nekotorye primeneniya funktsional'nogo analiza v matematicheskoi fizike (Some

7. 8.

Applications of Functional Analysis in Mathematical Physics). --LGU. 1950. BERNSTEIN, S.N. Ogranichenie modulei pnsledovatel'nesti proizvodnykh reshenii uravnenii parabolicheskogo tipa ( Bounds of Absolute Values of the Sequence of Derivatives of Solutions of Parabolic Equations). --DAN SSSR, Vol. 18, No. 7. 1938. KARMANOV, V.G. O sushchestvovanii reshenii nekotorykh kraevykh zadach dlya uravnenii smeshannogo tipa (On the Solvability of Some Boundary-Value Problems for Mixed Equations). -- Izvestiya AN SSSR, seriya matematieheskaya, Vol. 22, No. 1. 1958. PETROVSKII, I.G. Lektsii ob uravneniyakh s chastnymi Equations).Fizmatgiz, Moskva. 1962. BEREZIN, I.S. and N.P. ZHIDKOV. Metody vychislenii --Fizmatgiz, Moskva. 1959. proizvodnymi (Numerical (Lectures Methods), zur Lfsung on Partial Vol. partieller Differential

9.

GERSCHGORIN,S. Fehlerabseh_itzung fiir des Differenzenverfahren ungen. --ZAMM, Vol. 10, No. 4. 1930. DAVIDENKO, D.F. Thesis.--MGU. 1960. NIRENBERG, L.A. Strong Maximum Math., Vol. 6, No. 2. 1953. VYBORNY, R. O svoistvakh teshenii of Some (On Properties of Solutions Vol. 117, No. 4..1957. Principle nekotorykh for Parabolic kraevykh

Equations. zadach

--Comm.

on Pure

patabolicheskogo --DAN

Boundary-Value

Problems

Equations).

A.F.

raznosmykh

di tipo Eliitico.

-- Springer

(Berlin).

OLEINIK, O.A. O svoistvakh reshenii nekotorykh kraevykh zadach dlya uravnenii ellipticheskogo tipa (On Properties of Solutions of Some Boundary-Value Problems for Eliiptic Equations). -- Matematicheskii sbornik, Vol. 30, No. 3. 1952.

]45_

164

for Second 20. Order Elliptic Equations). -- Thesis, LGU. 1950. NEMCHINOV, S.V. O reshenii 2-go poryadka ellipticheskogo Order Fiz_i,

ellipticheskogo

tipa

(Mixed

Problem

metodom setok _aevykh zadach dlya uravnenii v cb.asmytda proizvodnykla tipa (Difference Solutions of Boundary-Valtm Problems for Second Equatiom). -- Zhurnal Vychislitl' noi Matematiki i Matematicheskoi

_s6

165

EXPLANATORY AND

LIST

OF ABBREVIATED

NAMES

PERIODICALS

APPEARING

IN THIS

Abbreviation

Full

name

Ctransliterated)

Translation

AN SSSR

Akademiya

Nauk

SSSR

"

Academy USSR

of Sciences

of the

DAN

SSSR

Doklady

Akademii

Nauk

SSSR

of

GITTL

Izdatel'

stvo

i Teoreticheskoi

LGU

Leningradskii Universitet

Gosudargtvennyi

Leningrad

State

University

MGU

Moskovskii Universitet

Gosudarstvennyi

Moscow

State

University

NII

Nauchno-Issledovatel' Institut

skii

Scientific

Research

Institute

PMM

Prikladnaya Mekhanika

Matematika

Applied

Mathematics

and

Mechanics

UMN

Uspekhi Nauk

Matematicheskikh "

Advances Sciences

in Mathematical

VTs

Vychislitel'

nyi

T sentr

Computational

Center

166

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