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News AgendaSettingWorkshopon SocialSimulation

The NCeSS (http://www.ncess.ac.uk) is organisingan Agenda Setting
Resources {or SocialSimulation.
Workshopon e-infrastructures
'"tirh-|,, The workshopprogramme is stillbeingdeveloped,you can participate
to the
processby usingthe facilitiesofferedby thisWikisite.
Note:To linklo this Wiki site from emailsor WWW sitesVoucan also use
wiki the shortURL:http:i/purl.org/NET/ssw.
Tableof contents
About 1 Organiser
2 Dateand Location
3 WorkshopRegistration
4 WorkshooRationale
5 WorkshopFormat
5.1 Roleof the Wiki
Log in
6 WorkshopProgramme
6.1 9:30-10:00 Registration and coffee
6.2 '10:00-10:20 Introduction to the Workshop
site to F 6.3 10:20-10:50 Participants'Introductions
6.4 10:50-1 1:25 KeynoteSpeechand Discussion
6 . 51 1 : 2 5 - 1 1 : 4
F5o c aP
l oint
e-Social$cience 6.6 11:45-12:45 'SharingKnowledge, Session
emailnewsletler 6.7 12:45-1:30Lunch
6.8 1:30-2:15 'Modelling' Session
6.92:15-3:00'Computing' Session
6.103:00-3:30Break- Tea and Coffee
6.'113:30-4:15' Verifying andValidating'Session

7 RelatedActivities
8 Registered

Pasqualino'Titto' Assini - Data Archive, Universityof Essex, U.K.
uk (mailto:titto
titto@essex.ac. @essex.ac.

Dateand Location
Wednesday 26th October, University of Manchester (Manchester
- KilburnBuilding,
Computing AtlasRooms1 & 2).

Getting There (htlp;//www.cs.manchester.ac.uk/About/location.php)


is nowclosed.

In the last decade,the computersimulationof social phenomenahas
becomean increasingly popularresearchmethod.A growingcommunityof
practitioners,the appearanceof professionalassociationsand refereed
journalsand the many regularconferencesand workshopsbeing held,
attestof the generaladvancemento{ the field.

Despitethis progress,the impactof simulationon the socialsciencesis still

negligible,especiallyi{ compared with the widespreadapplicationof
computational modelsin the hard-sciences.

Fortunately,recent developmentshave the potentialof furtheringvery

significantly in the socialsciences:
the roleof simulation

I The creationof specialised e-Socialscienceresearchcentres,such

as the NCeSSin the U.K.
'i' Technical breakthroughsin the development of distributed
infrastructures for large-scalecomputation(the Grid and other
High-performance compulingtechnologies)
') Newsourcesof funding:in lhe U.K.for e-SocialScienceresearch,in
in the
lhe EU for the creationof Europeanresearchinfrastructures,
U.S,A for cyber-infrastructures for social research and similar
in Asia.

The aim of the workshop is to investigatehow these technicaland

organisationaladvancementscan be exploited to create effective and
for socialsimulation

The workshoois dividedintofoursessions.

Eachsessionwillbe introducedby a presentation (of around15-20minutes)

whosemainaim is to providea usefulcontextfor the followingdiscussion.

The initialpresentation
will be followedby an open discussionstructured
The questionsthatyou see listedin the following
arounda set of questions.
programmeare just an initial proposal.Feel free to edit the existing
questions,add moreand suggestpossibleanswers.

Short presentationsor demos (of up to 10 minutes each), that can

contributeto the discussion,are also welcome.lf you want to give a
presentationor a demo during one of the sessions,just write the
presentationtitle and your name under ihe questionthat you think your
presentationwould most contributeto introduceor to answer or email
me (mailto:titto@essex.ac.uk?subject=Social%20Simulation%20Workshop%2

Role of the Wiki

Thiswikisitewillbe used:
' beforethe workshop:to collectproposalsregardingthe workshop
themesand format
duringthe workshop:as a whiteboardto fix and examineideas
) afterthe workshop:
to collectthe conclusionsof the workshopand as
a forumfor furtherdebate

WirelessInlernetwill be availableduringthe workshopand participantsare

invited1o bringwireless-enabledlaptopcomputersto help edit in real{ime
thiswikisitewiththe ideasemergingfromthe debate.

9:30-10:00 Registration and coffee

10:00-10:20 Introduction to the Workshop

'-' Aimsof the workshop
() Workshopstruclureand groundrules

10:20-10:50 Participants' Introductions

The participants are invitedto introducethemselves, say somethingabout

their research,the role lhat simulationplays in it (if any) and what they
expectout of the workshop.

KeynoteSpeechand Discussion
Good Social Science, Bad Social Science and Social Simulation:
lmplications for an 'elnfrastructure' - Prof. Scott
Moss (http:/icfpm.org/-scott), -
Centrefor PolicyModelling(http://cfpm.org/)
Manchester MetropolitanUniversity.

1 1 :25-11 :45 Focal Point

Case Study: Human Rights lmpact

- GregWalton(http;//gregwalton.civiblog.org/blog)
- Independent
to Rights& Democracy, Montreal,Canada

The idea of the Workshopis that ol havinga generaldiscussionon what

kind of (conceptual, technical,etc.).infraslructures
would be neededto
fosler the adoptionof simulationas a researchmethod for the social
sciences.A slightrisk, however,is that the discussionmight degenerate
from being general to being simply generic.To avoid this risk, the
organisersfelt that it would be usefulto have a 'focal point',a concrete
exampleof a complexmodelthat someonemightbe willingto buildand to
whichwe can go backduringthe workshopto ask ourselvesif and how the
infrastructureswe are discussingwouldbe usefulin this case.I will presenl
our problem,with an emphasison the methodology we are developingfor
civil societyorganisations,and seek your ideas on how socialsimulation
mighthelp(or hinder!)lhe research.

The methodologyhas been developed from the UN Norms ior

that wereadoptedby the UN Sub Commission on HumanRightsin August
2003, which themselvesdraw on the entire body of international and
regionalhumanrightslaw.This methodology is to be testedon fivedifferent
cases of international investment.In its current form the methodology
consistsof a series of open-endedquestions.These questionsshould
enablecommunities, corporateand governmentactorsto understandhow
the various factors and differentactors interactto result in a positiveor
negativeimpacton humanrights.The processof usingthe tool is intended
to increaseawarenessof humanrightsnormsamongall stakeholders, and
could lead to engagingduty bearers,challengingviolators,publicising
and improving policy.

So, our aim is to developa consistentand comprehensive

methodology for
the analysis of investmentprojects,that helps to design strategiesfor
rightsbaseddevelopment. The modelwouldtry to
integratelegal,socio-economic, environmenlaland technological concepts
includingthe development,integralion,and demonstration of tools and
methodologyto improveforecasting,assessmentand policy level decision
support - at an early stage in the project cycle -> permenant,real-time
'mirrorworlds'(installationsprocessingground based sensorsand earth
observation data to supporte-government). Combiningan indicatorbased
approachwith simulationmodelsand scenarioanalysis,socio-economic
and environmental impact assessment,managinglegal doouments,and
collaborativewriting,and a publicinformationcomponent, the modelwould
includeawarenessbuildingand educationalinitiativesfor stake-holders
participatingin investmentdecision making processes.The five case
studiesinvolvedin HRIA differ widely in terms of culture,environmental
conditions,size, economicslructure,socialcomposition and demography.
However,they all face commonchallengesin their projectssuch as those
relatingto health,workersrights,etc., but also relatedissuessuch as
reducingsocialexclusionand promoting sustainable development.

bdn.ac.uld- pedwards4& Edoardo
- Universityof
We will provide an overview of the
demonstrator projecl,whichfocussedon deployment of an existingland-use
modelling simulation (Fearlus - Macaulay Institute)onto the Grid.
the projectexploredmechanisms
Additionally, to supportsharingand re-use
of simulationexperiments,results,etc. Centralto our approachwas use of
emergingSemanticWeb technologies suchas RDF and OWL,leadingto a
SemanticGrid (http://www.semanticgrid.org/)
solution.One of the key facets
of the approachis supportfor creationof evidencestructures,linking
experiment results,publications,
descriptions, etc.

The recently announced NCeSS research node

(full title: SemanticGrid Tools for
RuralPolicyDevelopment& Appraisal)will builduponFearlus-G lo focuson
a widerrangeof meta-dataissuessupporting socialsimulation.

':r Do we need meta-datato describepropertiesof models such as:
designcharacteristics, implicitassumptions?
c Whataspectsof simulalionworkflowshouldwe maketransparent?
':) Howto supportcreationand managementof audittrails?
'r What aspects of provenance(includinginformationquality)do we
needto capture?
r How are process(dynamic)characteristics of a model documented
(ratherthan structuralcharacteristics)?
o How are meta-data querying and resource retrieval services
deliveredwhich meet the needs of (widely)differentslakeholder

Opendiscussionon the followingthemes:

Should there be a more systematicway of sharing and preservingthe
knowledgeand artefactsproducedby the socialsimulationcommunity?

Simulation is a relatively new, at least for the social sciences, and

technicallychallengingresearchmethod.Beforesettingup a simulation
model,a researcherneedsto learn about,socialsimulalionmethodology
and techniques,previous research(and in particularprevioussimilar
models),simulationlibrariesand tools.ls this information
Though there are
books(http://www.amazon.co.uk/execlobidosiASlN/033521 6005/simulation-21
journals (http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/JASSS.html) and even
wikis (http://www.swarm.org/wiki/Main_Page) that specialise on social
simulalionthere does not seem to be any systematicway of capturing,
sharingand preservingthe collectiveknowledgeof lhe socialsimulation

The JISC-fundedeBank UK (http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/projects/ebank-uk/)

project is developinga data-archivingapproach within a very different
community.eBank UK brings togetherchemists,digital librariansand
computerscientistsin an interdisciplinary whichexploresthe
potentialfor integratingresearchdatasetsinto digital librariesby using
commontechnologiessuch as the Open ArchivesInitiativeProtocolfor
MetadataHarvesting (OAI-PMH).

What kind of knowledgewould be more usefulto collect,preserveand


Knowledgeabout simulationand domain experts and opportunities

Socialsimulationis a complexresearchmethodthat requiresskills and

competencein at leastthree areas:the socialsciences,lT and statislical

As not many socialscientistscan be expectedto be proficientin all these

cooperationand team
areas, social simulationcalls for interdisciplinary

Shouldtherebe a 'match-making agency'forpeoplewith researchideasto

get in touchwith peoplewith the technicalexpertiseto translatethem in a
workingcomputational model?
knowledge' techniques
and models:do we needa SocialSimulation

Many scientificcommunitieshave started developingtheir own online

" knowledge repositories", often in an encyclopaedicformat, some

. PlanetMath(hltp://planetmath.org/)
J StanfordEncyclopedia of Philosophy(http://plato.stanford.edu/)
:' Wikipedia Portals e.g. on
' MolecularBiology(http:/iwww.ensembl.org)

Scientificpapers:shouldthere be specificarchivesfor social simulation

papers(or genericsocialsciencepapersarchivesare sufficient)?

o OnlineJournals(JASSS(http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/JASSS.html),
PublicLibraryof Science(http://www.plos.org))
' Centralisede-Printarchivesas arXiv(http:/iarxiv.org/)
i) P2Pnetworksas LionShare (http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/)

models:do we needa SocialSimulation
Note: The UK eScienceBioSimGrid(http://www.biosimgrid.org/)
aims to make the results of large-scalecomputer simulations of
biomoleculesmore accessible1o the biologicalcommunity,and presents
one approachto sharingof simulalion

Polhi|| (http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/staff/staffdetai hil
- The MacaulayInstitute(http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/)

{One of the issuesScottraisedin his presentationis that e-lnfrastructures

might be premature.The social strucluresto supportsocial simulation
shouldbe developedfirst,perhaps,and then the e-lnfrastructures builtto
facilitatethem. Some ideas for the kinds of social structureto facilitate
modelbuilding couldbe:

r Trainingcourses.Theseare discusseda littlebelow.

u' Couldprogramming librariesbe managedsomehowin a similarway
to journals? Perhaps a shared ownership of libraries, with
peer-reviewof contributions to ensurequalitycontrol,would allow
librariesto developorganicallyto meetthe needsof the community.
'r Applications and programming languages can also have
communities built around them.
Mathematica(http:i/www.wolfram,com/), has a user community
contributing and sharingmaterial,for example.

materialin my talkis writtenbelow.

Mostof the remaining
--Gpolhill17:16,28Oct 2005(BST))

Opendiscussionon the followingthemes:

Creatingcomputermodels is an expensiveand technicallychallenging
endeavour. Couldthe processbe streamlined allowinga greaternumberof
scientists for theirresearch?
to u$esimulations

Whatfactorswouldspeedup the creationof simulation


{One conventionalset of answers to this questionare the following,

althoughthere are plausiblealternatives.For example,there is little
evidencethat non-specialistsfind declarativelanguageseasierto grasp
than proceduralones; softwarelibrariesusually have long and steep
learningcurves- and the'better'ones,with morefeatures,havethe longest
and steepest;and we seemalreadyto be awashwith data (try browsingthe
Data Archive catalogue):what we lack are good dynamic,processual
modelsandtheories.--NigelGllbert20:48,6 Oct 2005(BST)]
':' Higher-level (declarative)
r Bettersoftwarelibraries.
':' Betteruserinterfacesto designmodels.
') modelsexamples.
of simulation
i) lmproved data availability (for example Geographical
data (htlp://www.ncess.ac. lS-and-Gr
some data now freely available via Google

{Buildingon Nigel'scommenls(onwhichsomeexpansionon the conceptof

"good dynamicprocessualmodelsand theories"would be appreciated),
thereare a two mainwaysto speedup simulation
') Reduce learning time. This can be achieved by developing
programminglanguages that are closerto naturallanguage--making
phenomena easier to describe; or through developing
"drag-and-drop" modelling applications, akin to
Simile (http://simulistics.com/),
a dynamicsystemsmodellingtool.
Anotherway to reducelearningtime is to providetrainingcourses
and good qualitydocumentation on the applications,programming
languages,and programming libraries
that are used in the model
developmentprocess. Currentlymost people learn to develop
modelson the job, with assistancefrom mailinglistsor by lookingat
otherpeople'scode.Thisis notthe quickestway to learn.
'rr Reducedevelopmenl lime. Modeldevelopmentapplications will also
of programming
assisthere,as willtheavailability The latter
are particularlyuseful through implementingfunctionalitythat is
tediousfor the model developer,such as PRNGS,floatingpoint
issues,visualisationtools, and scheduling.Such provisionsaves
wheel reinvention, and repeatingcommonmislakes,pafiicularlyin
areas where social systemsmodellersare unlikelyto have much
expertknowledge.Librariesare, of course,specificto programming
languages,and it may be lhat design patternswould be a more
usefulsharedresourceto assistmodeldevelopers.

Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages.Whilst

drag-and-dropapplicationsreduce or remove the need for direct
programming skills,suchapplications
will eitherbe very specificto a certain
kindof modelling techniqueor application domain,or sucha vastmishmash
of objects,optionsand variationsthat it will becomediJficullto learnto use.
Some ol these issueswere discussedal the meetingin relationto the
MAS-SOCtalk below.One issuewith both drag-and-drop applicationsand
withhigh-level programming languages is thatof implicitassumptions.In the
case of high-levelprogramming languages,for example,what happensif
different inference engines are used or different conflict resolution

Presentation:"MAS-SOC: a Social Simulation Platform Based on

Agent-Oriented Programming" by FabioOkuyama- InformaticsInstitute-
Instituto - PortoAlegre,Brazil
de Inform6tica

Whatfactorswouldimprovethe usability/portability
of simulation
':r Specification/implementation
of standards.
'r HLA/lEEE 15 16 (https://www.dmso.
'i Couplingmodels

{Couplingmodelsinvolvestryingto bolttogetherexistingmodelsto createa

super-model.One possibilitywe could imagine is creating modelling
fragmentsas semanticgrid servicesannotatedwith appropriatemetadata
about their assumptions, scheduling requirements,
provenance/endorsements, and application
areas.Experience withcoupling
modelstogetherthusfar has beensomewhatmixed,however.Therecan be
issueswith scheduling(e.9. one model requiresa daily time-step,and
anothera yearly--how to decidewhenthe evenlsin the lattermodelshould
take place relativeto the former?),and spatialscale.There is also the
polentially problemof a super-model
significant beingbuillfromtwo or more
modelsthat happento implement the same phenomenon in differentways,
potentiallycreatinga situationin which contradicting states-of-affairs
simultaneously occurringin the super-model.lf it were possibleto resolve
these issues,however,then not only mightmodelsget re-usedmore,but
also model developmenttime could be reduced.For now, however,the
generalconsensustendsto be that modelsshouldbe builtin an integrated
mannerfromthe groundup.
Whatis neededto analysethe use of simulation

ir Whal scalesof provenanceare important?

') Whatlicencingmodelsare consistentwithgoodscience?

{To do good scienceyou needto providethe facilityto inspectthe source

code o{ your models--otherwise modelsare blackboxesthat are shownto
generatecertainresultswith littlein the way of accountability.
You should
also providethe rightto modifythat sourcecode,so that otherresearchers
can try algorithmicvariationson the implementationto see what difference
they make. Having construcleda modilicationto the model, the other
researchersthen also need the right to make their findings public,
accompaniedby the modifiedsource code. The GNU General Public
Licence(http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.hlml)is one exampleof a licence
that providesfor these rights whilst offeringsome protectionof lPR.
Doubtlessother such licencesexisl, and one e-lnfrastructure issue to
considerwouldbe templatelicencesthat are consistent withbestpracticein

One issue relatingto licencingthat shouldbe consideredparticularly for

socialmodelsis that thesemodelsmay be used as the basisof adviceto
policymakers. As such il couldbe arguedthat in a democratic
is a moralobligation to makethe softwareand documenlation morewidely
availableso thatit is opento publicscrutiny.

In manyareas,IikeOperationsResearch,modelsdo not take intoaccount

human behaviour,they are proposed for optimizingprocesses,but
sometimeshumansare not performingas they should.And this is due to
manypossiblesituations whichmightdistractor obstructtheirconcentration,
relationto/with others, and so on. As an example,in an inlernational
corporation,it is very often that peoplefrom very differentbackgrounds
(cultural,ideological,etc) must interact.Anotherexample,inmigrantsthat
integrateto a communitymust adoptnew habitsand in somecasesthese
are conflictingwith their own. On the other hand,the communitycan feel
treathened by massiveinmigration.

Howcan we modelthesekindof cases?

i: ls therea benchmark for softwaredevelopment?

Howto meassurea simulatoraccuracywithsucha benchmark?
'r' Do SocialScientist
find usefulthe actualmodels?

Howcan we modelpersonality
and socialrelationship?
i Howto modelpsychological processes?
Howto modelculturaldiflerences?

"A socialsimulation
Presentation: toolfor Personality"
Dr.AntonioR. Diaz&
Manuel Castafr6n-Puga- UniversidadAutonoma de Baja California,

2:15-3:00'Computing' Session
Hewitt - Head
of $upercomputing, Visualization -
and E-Science Manchester
Computing (http://www.mc.manchester.ac.
Opendiscussionon the followingthemes:
ls the availabilityof large scale computationalGrids critical to the
developmenl What is ihe mostimportantfunctionality
of socialsimulations?

':' Exploringlargeparameter spaces.

t Performing moredetailed(statislical) result's.
analysesof simulation
' Storingvoluminoussimulationresults.
':r Advancedvisualisations.

Who is goingto providethe computing/storage power?Shouldwe rely on

gridsor set up a volunteers'-poweredgrids?

Advantagesof dedicatedscientificgrids (e.9. the UK National Grid


'r lmmedialeavailability.
') Greaterreliability
for long-term

Advantages ol volunteers'-powered grids (e.9.

SETI@Home(http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/)or World Community
Grid (http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/)):
'r Potentially,muchgreatercomputational power(NGShas 2K CPUs,
the largestsupercomputer around30-50K,SETI@Home400K,WCG
I Involvement of the generalpublicin socialresearch

On the baseof whatcriteriashouldGridresources

be allocated?

i Scientific by peerreview).
(' Creditsystembased on the amountof resourcesprovidedto the

Whatmodelof distributed
' SingleProgram,multipledata streams(SPMD):multiplecopiesof
the same simulationlunning entirelyon individualprocessorsbut
with different parameters (use case: explorationof parameters'
spaceof relatively models).
' Distributedworlds: a single simulation running on multiple
processors, eachtakingcare ol a part of the simulationspace(use
case: complex artificial societies simulation, e.g.
NewTies(http://www. new-ties.org/mambo/))
': Services networks:simulationsexploitingspecialiseddistributed
services(e.9.geographical databases,dataarchives,neuralnetwork
processors, advancedvisualisationfacilities;use cases:simulations
with sophislicated agent models, simulation validation,

Presentation: Prof.Ben
The NewTiesapproachto distributedsimulations.
Paechter (http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/-benp/)& Dr. Bart
Craenen (http://www.xs4all.nl/-bcraenen/) - Napier University,
Edinburgh (http:i/www.soc.napier.ac.uk/)

3:00-3:30 Break - Tea and Coffee

3:30-4:'15'Verifyingand Validating' Session

lntroductory Presentation: Dr. Bruce
Edmonds(http://bruce.edmonds.name4,Gentrefor Policy
- Manchester
Modelling(http://cfpm.org0 Metropolitan
Opendiscussionon the followingthemes:
Can we increasethe scientificvalueof socialsimulationmodelsby making
themeasierto verifyand validate?
the simulation
Verify:checkthat the softwaremodelcorrectlyimplements
':' White-boxverification:
conductedby checkingthe simulationmodel
.r Black-box conductedby comparing
verification: the resultsof mulliple
indipendent of the sameconceptual model.

Validate:check that the model correctlycapturesthe aspects of reality


Whatare the factorsthathinderwhite-boxverification?

') Sourcecodeis notalwaysavailable.
': Sourcecodein unfamiliar
:i Usageof low-level
programminglangUagesthatare difficultto verify.

Whatarethe factorsthat hinderblack-box

r Difficultyin executingand collectingresultsfrom simulationmodels

written in a variety of software platforms and using different
interfacesand dataformats.
'r Difficully in extracting abstract models / rulesets from model
frameworksto run under differentframeworks.The alternatives
would seem to be either using interfacesto combinea varietyof
sourcesof modelcomponents(whichdoesn'tseem to reallysolve
the problem,but breaksit down into smallparts)or for everyoneto
use the same framework.What would that look like? How would
extensionof such a frameworkwork?

lor simulalions?
Shouldtherebe a standardremoteinterface

Authorsthat wish to publisha scientificpaperneedto complywith certain

presentationand formattingstandards.Should this not also apply to
publishedsimulationmodels?Shouldthey be made availablethrougha
commonremoteinterfaceso that they can be executedand their results
of agreeingon an unique
collectedin a uniformway? In the impossibility
programminglanguagefor simulations,agreeingon a common remote
interfacewouldgo a longway in simplifying of social
accessand verification

Whatare the factorsthathindervalidation?

r) Lackof suitabledatasetsin the area of study.
') Limited access to relevant datasets for organisational,legal or

of grid-enabled
Wouldthe availability

.) NSF Workshop on Cyberinfrastructure for the Social

Registered Participants
Sciences- Unilever
':' lqbal Adjali - Mathematical& Psychological
'- Shah Jamal Alam (http://cfpm.org/-shah/)- Centre for Policy
Modelling (http:/lcfpm.org/) - Manchester Metropolitan University.
-' TittoAssini- DataArchive,University of Essex,U.K.
ir' Mercedes
Bleda(hltp://www. mbs.ac.uk/research/AcademicDirectory.aspx?id=2599&
- PREST-Manchester University
. ManuelCastafr6n-Puga - Universidad Aut6nomade BajaCalifornia,
M6xico (http://www. uabc.mx/)
'r Tristan Caulfield (http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/-csltjc/) - Computer
Science University of Bath
tr' Bart Craenen(http://www.xs4all.nl/-bcraenen/) - NapierUniversity,
Edinburgh (http://www.soc. uki)
':r'AntonioRodriguez-Diaz - Universidad Aut6nomade BajaCalifornia,
M6xico (http://www. uabc.m/)
i' Ana Duek - Laboratoryof ModellingSystems -Universitddella
') Bruce Edmonds(http://bruce.edmonds.name) - Centre for Policy
Modelling (http://cfpm.org/) - Manchester Metropolitan University.
I Pete Edwards(http://www.csd.abdn.ac.uk/-pedwards/) - Computing
Science,University of Aberdeen
'r PhilEdwards- Schoolof Law University of Manchester
') Mark Elliot(http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/staff/mel.htm) - CCSR- University
of Manchester
':) Andrew Evans (http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/people/a.evans/)
SchoolofGeography - University of Leeds
') Amin Ghaziani- Departmentof Sociology- GoldsmithsCollege,
University Of London
'r) JohnGiven- Adultand Community Care- Northumbria University
') Paul Guyot (http://www-poleia.lip6.frl-guyov) - LIPO - Universite
Pierreet MarieCurie- Paris,France
i) Alison
Schoolof Geography - University of Leeds
J Terry Hewitt (http://www.sve.man.ac.uk/General/Staff/hewitt)
Manchester Computing (http://www.mc. manchester.ac. uk/)
') Evangelia Koundouraki- Inforrnationand Communications
Manchester Metropolitan University
I HagenLehmann(http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/hl/) - ComputerScience-
University of Bath
':' David
- Marketing - INSEAD- Fontainebleau , France
') Jon Minton- Sociology - Universityol York
i Scott Moss (hltp://cfpm.org/-scott) - Centre for Policy
Modelling (hltp://cfpm.org/) - Manchesler Metropolitan University.
'j Emma Norling (http://cfpm.org/-emma/) - Centre for Policy
Modelling pm.org/)- Manchesler
(hltp://cf Metropolitan University.
'r Fabio Okuyama- Informaticslnstitute- Institutode Inform6tica-
') Ben Paechter (http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/-benp/) - Napier
University,Edinburgh (http ://www.soc.napier. ac.uk/)
I EdoardoPignotti(http://www.csd.abdn.ac.uk/-epignotV) - University
of Aberdeen(http:i/www.csd.abdn.ac. uk/)
':.' Gary
Polhill(http:/iwww.macaulay.ac.uk/staff/staffdetails.php?garypolhill) -
The Macaulay Institute (hltp:/iwww.macau lay.ac.uk/)
I EmmanuelTanguy(hltp://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/-cspeart/) - Computer
Science- University of Bath
ir' TobiasSchiebeck - NationalCentrefor e-SocialScience
J Emma
Uprichard(http://www.dur.ac. uk/sass/abouVslaff/?mode=staff&id=787)
- Schoolof AppliedSocialSciences- Durham
i-' Greg Walton (hltp://gregwalton.civiblog.org/blog) - Independent
consultant to Rights& Democracy, Montreal,Canada