Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

Principles of Business Writing

The Principles
Each of these will be explained in a few sentences...

1. Stay Focused First off, you need to adjust the scope and scale of your writing to influence thebehaviour of your readers. This is the first step towards sharpening the focus of your writing.

Scope - adjust the breadth (restricting yourself to the subject matter) and depth (level of detail included) of your material. Scale - length of your writing. The larger your scale, the higher the need to plan your writing. Behaviour - action or inaction of your reader after reading your material.

2. Identify your Purpose Next is to identify the purpose of your writing and connect it to your readers expectations. Avoid buzzwords and simply use a purpose analysis model (usually sieved from questions asked when taking your initial brief) to gather your thoughts in 3 simple ways:

Identify your personal values and ambitions Identify your readers' expectations Find areas of overlap, emphasise recurring commonalities and address all discrepancies.

3. Explain your Meaning Always explain the meaning of whatever you write, whilst making sure readers can also relate!! :0) For example, answering the question what does A mean to B in a business stakeholders' communication is a simple, yet effective way of connecting with your readers. If you are looking for a simple way to put this into writing, use the [Statement], meaning [consequence] format. Simple illustrations include:

We are facing stiffer competition in our market, meaning we need to develop new products This logistics team achieved its set targets, meaning team members have earned a bonus.

4. Substantiate, substantiate, substantiate!!!

Your writing will gain credibility when it is substantiated with facts. Always make sure to verify your factual statements before 'publishing'. ;0) My approach will be to use focus as the lead principle. This will guide you when building a text from scratch. Once the main structure of the text has been prepared, your substantiating details can then be added.

5. Always build a Structure Three useful indicators include the use of sequence, consistency and balance to build a structure that guides the reader though your text

Sequence - order in which your writing unfolds; Consistency - using the same style and the same words when referring to the same object; Balance - your sentence or paragraph must be long enough to maintain a readers' interest but not too long. Consider sentences that are around 2 to 3 lines and paragraphs that hover around 6 to 10 lines.

6. Provide enough writing Clarity Ensuring clarity when you're writing is presenting your piece so that the readers thinking revolves around a compelling idea. Total clarity is therefore achieved during editing, since this is where you create a distance between yourself and the material; i.e. reviewing and re-writing it. This puts your writing into perspective and allows proper evaluation of the pros and cons of your work, a definite litmus test to check whether the initial five principles are selfevident.

7. Remain Humble!!! Be humble while writing and editing, and always critically judge your work first. Though this has no effect on how good the technicality of your work is, the truth is that most people are sick of reading anything that has an arrogant or condescending tinge to it. A tinge you definitely want to avoid if your thoughts are to be heard via your writing.

SQ3R Technique


Read to get the general idea of the chapter. Read titles, subtitles, pictures and captions, introductions, maps and charts and summaries. This tells you what the chapter is about. Now you have an idea of where you are going and what to expect. 1. Make the subtitles into questions. 2. This gives you a real reason for reading. 3. The questions will help you concentrate on the subject you are reading. 4. Work on one subtitle at a time. 1. Read to find the answers to the questions. 2. The answers you find will be the important facts and details. 3. Don't do anything except read. 1. Go back and ask the questions again. Can you answer them? If not, skim to find the answers again. 2. Underline Rememb er! Underline the outline! 3. Do any other work with the chapter which has been assigned. 1. Usually class discussion will serve as first review. If you have underlined well, you can review the chapter anytime intelligently. 2. Review periodically, once every week.





If you're looking to be a more efficient reader, try the SQ3R Method. It's designed to help you read faster and retain more. SQ3R stands for the steps in reading: survey, question, read, recite, review. It might seem like it takes more time to use the SQ3R method, but you'll find that you retain more and have to reread less often. Let's take a look at the steps:

Survey Before reading, survey the material. Glance through the topic headings and try to get an overview of the reading. Skim the sections and read the final summary paragraph to get an idea of where the chapter is going. Only spend a few minutes surveying the reading to get a background knowledge, an initial orientation that will help you to organize the material as you read it. It eases you into the reading assignment

Question Look at the first heading in the chapter. Turn it into a question. Ask questions to be answered in your reading. This step requires conscious effort, but is worth it as it leads to active reading, the best way to retain written material. Asking questions focuses your concentration on what you need to learn or get out of your reading.

Read Read the first section of your reading assignment to answer your question. Actively search for the answer to your question. If you finish the section and haven't answered the question, reread it. Read reflectively. Consider what the author is trying to say, and think about how you can use that information.

Recite Once you've read an initial section, look away and try to recite the answer to your question, using your own words and examples. If you can do this, it means that you understand the material. If you can't, glance over the section again. Once you have the answers to your questions, write them down.

Review After reading the entire assignment, test your memory by asking yourself the questions that you've identified. Review your notes for an overview the chapter. Consider how it fits with what you know from the course, experience, and other classes. What is the material's significance? What are the implications or applications of this material? What questions are you left with?

Effective communication in the workplace means improving employee communication skills

Effective communication in the workplace is the backbone of any business. Without it, you could miss out on important opportunities, waste time and cause your employees and customers to become frustrated. But not everyone is a born communicator, and there is always room to improve. That's why it's important to train your staff to create effective communication in the workplace. Removing roadblocks to effective communication in the workplace When a problem arises, it's often due to poor communication in the workplace. Particularly in this digital age when we rely so heavily on emails and phone calls to get things done, vital information can become lost or misinterpreted if not communicated clearly. Arming your staff with good communication skills enables them to work efficiently, effectively and navigate any potential issues that may arise. Everyone is different People have different styles of communication in the workplace. And while there is no right or wrong way to go about it, you can ensure that your staff are understood by teaching them how to adapt their style to the needs of others. With appropriate training, your employees will be able to identify their own communication style in the workplace, understand how this influences the process, and develop strategies to get the best results.

Effective communication in the workplace is a two-way street Communication skills don't simply mean the ability to talk and write effectively - they also rely heavily on listening and negotiation. Through training, employees will be able to practise their active listening and problem-solving skills and develop the means to influence outcomes. A professional training organisation can help your employees develop effective communication in the workplace by teaching:

the importance of effective communication different styles of communication awareness of non-verbal communication, such as body language how to improve written communication skills how to communicate with confidence how to tailor communication for an intended audience how to manage workplace conflicts or issues negotiation and influencing skills active listening skills and how to ask the 'right' questions.

Benefits of training to improve communication in the workplace By developing better rapport with co-workers, employees are likely to be happier and more successful in their roles. Improving employees' morale will make them more likely to remain loyal to your business. Improving communication between individuals, teams or departments within your organisation will streamline business processes and activities. Customer retention will be improved through better customer service. Staff will learn how to handle difficult situations and resolve conflict before it becomes a problem.

Q. Explain the advantages of oral communication with the help of suitable example. Answer: Advantages of Oral Communication: Oral communication may be defined as a process whereby a speaker interacts verbally with one or more listeners, in order to influence the latters behavior in some way or the other. Example: In a business context, a manager is doing a performance appraisal with an employee, or a sales manager making a sales plan presentation to his sales team. In the first example, the manager may point out areas for improvement and in the second case, the sales manager may be explaining how to achieve new sales targets. Oral communication in a business context can take the form of meetings, presentations, one-to-one meetings, performance reviews and so on. Oral communication has some advantages compared to written communication. These include its personal quality, high interactivity, possibility of making immediate contact, instantaneous feedback and control over the receivers attention.

Oral communication was also classified into oral face-to-face communication (meetings and presentations) and oral non face-to-face communication (teleconferencing, telephone and voice mail). While face-to-face meetings are more effective than non face-to-face communication in most ways, they are expensive and impractical sometimes, due to the distance factor. Thanks to advances in technology, meetings today can still take place without being face-to-face, through teleconferencing. Teleconferencing allows participants at distant locations to speak and sometimes to see each other. Apart from the high cost and the difficulty in setting it up, teleconferencing has the same advantages as oral face-to-face communication. Example: Several retailers like Walmart, the worlds largest retailer, make use of teleconferencing to keep their US headquarters in touch with their store managers worldwide. Some headhunters also make use of the facility to conduct preliminary interviews and shortlist candidates based in other countries, before inviting them for a face-to-face interview. Many multi-national corporations and large Indian organizations also use this facility extensively. In spite of its advantages, teleconferencing will not replace face-to-face meetings completely, since it is unsuitable for certain types of communication that involve brainstorming, negotiations, persuasion and problem solving. Telephone communication, another form of non face-to-face communication, has the biggest advantage of being able to contact a receiver who would be impossible to reach in person. Today, mobile phones have made it even easier to contact people who are on the move. Telephone communication also has a personal quality and permits the use of some non-verbal cues such as tone of voice, to enhance the communication. Voice mail is a type of telephone communication and is similar to an answering machine. Although it is generally inferior to speaking in person to the other party, it has some advantages. When you leave a recorded message, you can make your point felt and save time that might be wasted in exchanging pleasantries. Invitations can also be declined without having to give an explanation or reason, or having the other person talk back. Thus, there is greater control over how the message is composed and delivered. Besides, voice mail also makes it possible to keep a permanent record of the communication, unlike other types of oral communication. In spite of these advantages however, voice mail has not caught on in India. Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.

Advantages of Oral Communication

There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal. There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken. The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay. Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts. Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over. Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy. Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees. Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.

Disadvantages/Limitations of Oral Communication

Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal and very organized. Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as organized as written communication. Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times. Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.

There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials. It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience. Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in investigation work.

Emotio nal Intellig ence

See also Leadership Styles Introduction The capability of people to perform the work or job that they do falls into three areas:

Technical skills - which includes technical expertise e.g. accountancy skills. Intellectual capability - which is commonly known as IQ, or cognitive abilities. Emotional capability - often referred to as emotional intelligence or EI.

Whilst a significant amount of information, research and education exists in the fields of technical skills and intellectual capability, the area of Emotional Intelligence remains largely untouched.

What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognise, understand and manage emotions in ourselves and others. Emotional Intelligence is divided into the four clusters of Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness and Relationship Management (often been referred to very broadly as people skills in years gone by). Daniel Goleman, a leader in this field, has identified that successful managers and leaders possess a high percentage of emotional intelligence. By successful we mean those who have;

Achieved better financial results, Developed more effective and supportive organisational climates or culture and Achieved higher productivity gains with their workforce.

Golemans (1998) findings also indicated that Emotional Intelligence contributes 80 to 90% of the competencies that distinguish outstanding leaders from average leaders. The behaviours identified include;

the ability to recognise and understand their own moods, emotions and drives as well as their effect on others;

the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses, moods and to think before acting; the passion to work for reasons beyond money or status and the propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence; the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people and the skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions; the proficiency in managing relationships, building networks and the ability to find common ground and build rapport.

IQ versus EI In professional and technical fields the typical entry-level threshold IQ is 110 to 120. It is generally considered that your IQ, which is largely genetic, will change little from childhood. Since everyone is in the top 10% or so of intelligence, IQ itself offers relatively little competitive advantage. EI on the other hand can be learned at any age. Growing your competency in EI is not easy or quick, as it takes perseverance in the process of critical self-evaluation, commitment to improvement and of course behavioural practice. It is also important to note, that competence in Emotional Intelligence does not necessarily increase with age as you might expect. Some people may learn from lifes experiences, but many do not.

Emotional Intelligence

Figure 1. Golemans Emotional Intelligence Model (2002)

Self-Awareness: The core of Emotional Intelligence is self-awareness. Self-awareness is comprised of three competencies;

emotional self-awareness, where you are able to read and understand your emotions as well as recognise their impact on work performance and relationships; accurate self-assessment, where you are able to give a realistic evaluation of your strengths and limitations; self-confidence, where you have a positive and strong sense of ones self-worth.

The starting point and key in these areas is the ability to be critically self-reflective. Self-Management: Self-management is comprised of five competencies;

Self-control, which is keeping disruptive emotions and impulses under control; transparency, which is maintaining standards of honesty and integrity, managing yourself and responsibilities;

adaptability, which is the flexibility in adapting to changing situations and overcoming obstacles; achievement orientation, which is the guiding drive to meet an internal standard of excellence; initiative, which is the readiness to seize opportunities and act.

Social Awareness: Social Awareness is comprised of three competencies;

empathy, which is understanding others and taking an active interest in their concerns; organisational awareness, which is the ability to read the currents of organisational life, build decision networks and navigate politics; service orientation, which is recognising and meeting customers needs.

Relationship Management: The Social cluster of Relationship Management is comprised of seven competencies;

visionary leadership, which is inspiring and guiding groups and individuals; developing others, which is the propensity to strengthen and support the abilities of others through feedback and guidance; influence, which is the ability to exercise a wide range of persuasive strategies with integrity, and also includes listening and sending clear, convincing and well-tuned messages; change catalyst, which is the proficiency in initiating new ideas and leading people in a new direction; conflict management, which is resolving disagreements and collaboratively developing resolutions; building bonds, which is building and maintaining relationships with others; teamwork and collaboration, which is the promotion of cooperation and building of teams.

The Emotionally Intelligent Organisation: The Emotionally Intelligent Organisation i.e. an organisation with a high number of emotionally intelligent leaders, managers and critical professionals stands to be at the forefront of organisational practice and performance, and is more likely to be an employer of choice. Research also supports the view that competence in Emotional Intelligence accounts for over 90% of the difference between ineffective leaders and effective leadership performance. Effective leadership improves business performance and provides organisations with a competitive advantage. Becoming an EI organisation The decision to become an emotionally intelligent organisation needs to be based on an organisational strategy to improve business performance. To implement this strategy you first need to define what the core capabilities your business requires to achieve its vision, values and business strategies which includes Emotional Intelligence clusters and competencies. You will also need to identify the more specific competency profiles for positions within the organisation. This capability framework and competency profiles, then forms the basis for your performance management system in conjunction with your Key Performance Indicators. The performance management system then becomes a mechanism for driving and achieving changes in the workplace. The framework can also be used to support recruitment and selection and other cultural development strategies, thus ensuring a more appropriate match of people and organization goals. mtrx also has an EI Capability Assessment tool that identifies individual training needs as well as providing a picture of the organisations capability. The next stage is to grow the emotional intelligence competencies through specific development programs reflecting the organisations capability framework. The Emotional Intelligence Development Programs provided by mtrx provide a structured pathway to improve the individuals self-awareness, their self-management and the way they interact with people and develop relationships. In other words it will grow their Emotional Intelligence. If you do not have a core capability framework for your staff, there are still benefits in introducing Emotional Intelligence development programs. These are seen primarily through improved leadership and interpersonal relationships and as a result improved business performance. See Leadership Styles

Growing Emotional Intelligence: Growing your EI competencies is not easy or quick, as it takes perseverance in the process of critical self-reflection, commitment to improvement and of course behavioural practice.

Transformational Learning When you grow your Emotional Intelligence, it is called transformational learning, as this growth comes from using critical self-reflection. So, what is critical self-reflection? Most people would be familiar with reflection, which is the analysis of ones beliefs. We also have critical reflection, which is the analysis of the assumptions on which our beliefs are built. But the area we are most interested in is Critical Self-Reflection, which is the analysis of the way we pose problems to ourselves and of our own structure of assumptions that we use as a reference for interpreting our experiences. Effective critical self-reflection requires you to question yourself and the assumptions you make on an ongoing basis. This can be demonstrated through the three (3) why? Test, that is where you ask Why down three levels from the item you are analysing. For example, I have been asked to present a workshop to one hundred people on a subject I know very well, and I have said no. (1) Why did I say no? Because I would not feel comfortable doing it. (2) Why do you feel uncomfortable about doing it? Because I might look incompetent. (3) Why do you feel you would look incompetent? Because people in the audience may know more than I do. The answer to this question is based on assumptions, and we need to challenge these assumptions to check their validity. If the assumptions are invalid and we change that assumption and therefore our perspective then transformational learning has occurred.

Emancipatory Learning Developing transformational learning in others is called emancipatory learning. At mtrx we have structured our emancipatory learning programs to cover the foundations of the Emotional Intelligence Self and Social clusters. See Products & Services

Friday, March 23, 2012

Q2.What are the hindrances that we face in perception?

Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.

1. Selective Perception

Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen .Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to speed-read others, but, not without the risk of drawing

an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.

2. Halo Effect

The halo effect (Murphy & Anhalt, 1992) occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. For example, whileappraising the lecturer, students may give prominence to a single trait, such as, enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits have moral overtones, and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience.

3. Contrast Effects

Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently. For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Distortions in any given candidates evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interviewschedule.

4. Projection

This tendency to attribute ones own characteristics to other people which is called projection can distort perceptions made about others. When managers engage in projection, they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are.

5. Stereotyping

Stereotypingjudging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. Generalization is not without advantages (Hilton & Hippel, 1996). It is a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The problem, of course,

is when we inaccurately stereotype. In organizations, we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, and even weight. From a perceptual standpoint, if people expect to see these stereotypes, that is what they will perceive, whether or not they are accurate.6. First-impression error Individuals place a good deal of importance on first impressions. First impressions are lasting impressions. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person, and sometimes we are quite reluctant to change our initial impressions. First-impression error means the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions. Primacy effects can be particularly dangerous in interviews, given that we form first impressions quickly and that these impressions may be the basis for long-term employment relationships.

Q4. Ms. Chanchal Das Gu pta is a recruitment specialist. For the post of QCM a n a g e r , s h e i n t e r v i e w s t h r e e c a n d i d a t e s . G i v e n b e l o w a r e t h e p h y s i c a l characteristics of the candidates.
Ans: Per Sheldon`s theory of personality, below are the traits that Ms. Chanchalcan derive: Mr. Ravi represents Mesomorph body type. He is wellproportioned.Psychologically he is Adventurous, Courageous, Indifferent to what othersthink or want, Assertive/bold, Zest for physical activity, Competitive, Witha desire for power/dominance, And a love of risk/chance Mr. Gineesh represents Ectomorph body type. Psychologically he is Selfconscious, Private, Introverted, Inhibited, Socially anxious, Artistic,Intense, Emotionally restrained, Thoughtful Mr. Ramgopal represents Endomorph body type. Psychologically he isSociable, Fun-loving, Love of food, Tolerant, Even-tempered, Goodhumoured, Relaxed, With a love of comfort, And has a need for affection

perception The word perception refers to what the body is able to perceive, that is, the informationthat the body is able to discern from the outside world. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, perception is the process of becoming aware or conscious of a thing or things in general; the state of being aware; consciousness; understanding. The process of understanding becomes a mediated experience, as it requires the use of the senses in order to process data. To be perceivable, the object must be able to be understood by the mind through the interplay of sight, sound, taste, touch and smell. To be perceived, a sensation must pass through the body through one of sensory organ, that is, the eye,ear, nose, mouth, or skin. To interpret that sensation is what is known as perception. The perceivable is that which can be interpreted by the body. The current form of perception relates back clearly to its original Latin meaning as "the action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses" [1]. Perception is what allows us to make sense of the world through the experience of our senses and the collection of data, but the question remains of how we perceive and what it means to perceive. Furthermore, what makes an object perceivable? Are we the actors of perception or does it act upon us? To perceive something is thus not to understand something, but rather to hold that perception as a truth. Aristotle acknowledges this in early forms of theories on perception. He states that "there are two distinctive peculiarities by reference to which we characterize the soul (1) local movement and (2) thinking, understanding and perceiving" [2]. Aristotle groups understanding and perception together under the common assumptions of his predecessors who, "all look upon thinking as a bodily process like perceiving, and hold that like is understood as well as perceived by like They cannot escape the dilemma: either whatever seems is true (and there are

some who accept this) or error is contact with the unlike: for that is the opposite of knowing of like by like That perceiving and understanding are not identical is therefore obvious; for the former is universal in the animal world, the latter is found in only a small division of it" [3]. Perception refers to the most immediate response we can create, the very use of our senses; perception itself is uninterrupted, it is the raw data that enters our minds in order to be processed through thought and action. Thomas Reid explored these theories of immediacy and its relation to perception. "If, therefore, we attend to that act of our mind which we call the perception of an external object of sense, we shall find it in these three things: First, Some conception or notion of the object perceived; Secondly, A strong and irresistible conviction and belief of its present existence; and, Thirdly, That this conviction and belief are immediate, and not the effect of reasoning"4. An object is sensed and recognized as existing in its immediateform, creating an immediate experience of the object, because "it is not by train of reasoning and argumentation that we come to be convinced of the existence of what we perceive; we ask no argument for the existence of the object, but that we perceive it; perception commands our belief upon its own authority, and disdains to rest its authority upon any reasoning whatsoever" [5]. Seeing is, in many ways, believing. To believe in an object, one must perceive its existence, but the perception that occurs is immediate. That is not to say, however, that all perception is always unmediated. Once perception links with sensation, a function of the brain itself, the experience of the senses creates a link with experiences of the brain, connecting feelings to the immediate. Reid uses the example of smelling a rose. While the smell of a rose is merely a perception, it becomes a sensation when we realize that it is a good smell. Smell, in this case, becomes a medium for our sensation and pleasure, instead of existing independent of ourselves. Perception relies on

the mere act of smelling, while sensation relies on the interpretation of that smell. Perception becomes merely the means in order to access a medium. While perception as itself is immediate, it is able to transcribe media in order to create stimulation in our brains. Kant's views on perception revolve around the idea of a priori truths, or truths that do not come from experience, but rather from the brain itself. A priori truths are devoid of sensory input, but rather are the most basic and purely logical of human thought. Truths that extend from knowledge and experience are a posteriori truths. Posteriori truths require sensory input and posteriori knowledge cannot be obtained independently of the senses. [6] Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. Procedure of Sensitivity Training

Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps: Unfreezing the old values It requires that

the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure:

An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.

Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance

But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership

Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty

Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees

Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation

Procedure of Sensitivity Training Development of new values With the trainers support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and

giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values. Refreezing the new ones This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.

Sensitivity Training is a form of training that claims to make people more aware of their own prejudices, and more sensitive to others. According to its critics, it involves the use of psychological techniques with groups that its critics, e.g. G. Edward Griffin, claim are often identical to brainwashing tactics. Critics believe these techniques are unethical. According to his biographer, Alfred J Marrow, Kurt Lewin laid the foundations for sensitivity training in a series of workshops he organised in 1946 to carry out a 'change' experiment, in response to a request from the Director of the Connecticut State Interracial Commission. This led to the founding of the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine in 1947. Kurt Lewin, who met Eric Trist in 1933, influenced the work of the London Tavistock Clinic, both in its work with soldiers during the second world war and in its later work with the Journal Human Relations jointly founded by a partnership of the Tavistock Instituteand Lewin's group at MIT. The nature of modern Sensitivity Training appears to be in some dispute. Its modern critics portray its origins and function in negative terms. Others view the approach as benignly beneficial in many of its historical and contemporary implementations. During World War II, Psychologists like Carl Rogers in the USA and William Sargant, John Rawlings Rees, and Eric Trist in Britain

were used by the military to help soldiers deal with traumatic stress disorders (then known as Shell Shock). This work, which required service to large numbers of patients by a small number of therapists and necessarily emphasized rapidity and effectiveness helped spur the development of group therapy as a treatment technique. Rogers and others evolved their work into new forms including encounter groups designed for persons who were not diagnosably ill but who were recognized to suffer from widespread problems associated with isolation from others common in American society. Other leaders in the development of Encounter Groups, including Will Schutz, centered their work at the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California. Meanwhile, Training Groups or T-Groups were being developed at the National Training Labs, now part of the National Education Association. Over time the techniques of T-Groups and Encounter Groups have merged and divided and splintered into specialized topics, seeking to promote sensitivity to others perceived as different and seemingly losing some of their original focus on selfexploration as a means to understanding and improving relations with others in a more general sense.

Leadership grid

5. The team style (9, 9). The Sound / Team Leader (Contribute & Commit) This is based on the aspect that work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in the organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. In this style, high concern is paid both to people and production. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y, managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. This method relies heavily on making employees feel as a constructive part of the company. This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams.

Why is it important to handle grievances carefully?

How can we evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted in organizations? Q.4. How can we evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted in organizations? ---- As per Assignment set -1

Evaluation of Training Effectiveness / How To Evaluate a Training Program:

An objective of training evaluation is to determine the payoff from the training investment. It focuses on the improvement of the participant in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, what was effective and what was not, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training, and the extent of training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements.

In 1975, Donald Kirkpatrick, who was known for creating the training evaluation model, first presented a four-level model of evaluation that has become a classic in the industry: Level I: Reaction How did the student feel and what did they think about the training? Level II: Learning How much did the student learn? Level III: Behavior What is the extent of behavior and capability improvement and implementation/application? Level IV: Results What impact on the business did the training have as a result of the learners performance? By using Kirkpatricks 4 levels of evaluation, you can effectively determine if training goals were met.
The Kirkpatrick Model for Summative Evaluation Reaction Distribute an evaluation or feedback form. This is often called a smilesheet and can be administered in either paper format or online format. This type of evaluation is usually inexpensive and used by most organizations. Be sure to distribute evaluations immediately after training ends. You can include questions to evaluate the instructor, material covered, training materials and audio visual equipment.

Learning To assess the amount of learning, consider using pre-tests and post-tests. The tests attempts to determine how students have advanced with regards to skills, knowledge and attitude. Pre-tests should be administered before the class begins, and post-tests would be given at the completion of the training class. You can administer pre-tests and post-tests on paper or online. You can include multiple choice/fill-in the blank type questions, and/or may include work-related hands-on exercises for the learner to complete online.

Behavior To determine the extent of behavior and capability improvement, consider observing learners for an extended period of time after training is completed. This can be measured via post training interviews, monitoring progress and meeting with managers of the learners to determine if the training has allowed the learner to excel in his/her job. Results To determine the business impact of the training program, measure key performance indicators including return on investment, staff turnover, employee retention, quality ratings and other types of quantifiable aspects of the performance of the organization.

Explain the general procedures followed in the case of a disciplinary action.

75 days ago by GEP Faculty 0

Q. Explain the general procedures followed in the case of a disciplinary action. Answer: Though there is no specific procedure to be followed. Different organizations use a variety of formal and informal methods to resolve these matters. The following steps are recommended a) An accurate statement of the disciplinary problem. b) Collection of data or facts supporting the report of the offence. c) Review policy and past similar incidents. d) Identify corrective action to implement; take legal counsel to ensure that the local laws of the land are not in conflict e) Apply the action f) Follow-up on the disciplinary action.

(A) Accurate Statement of the Problem: The first step is to ascertain the problem by seeking answers to the following questions: 1. Does this case call for a disciplinary action? 2. What, exactly, is the nature of the violation or offence? 3. Under what-conditions did it occur? 4. Which individual or individuals were involved in it? 5. When, or how often, did the violation occur? In other words, an executive must first find out that a violation has occurred and that is entirely the fault, or at least partially the fault, of one or more subordinates. The next step is to determine and state the nature of the alleged violation of a rule, a regulation, a policy; to determine whether a request or order has been ignored or broken, and assess the seriousness of the specific offence which has been committed. It is also necessary to know exactly who and what was involved in the violation-whether a particular individual or group. Finally, it is desirable to know when and/or how often the violation occurred. (B) Collection of data or facts support the report of the offence: Before any action is taken in a case, it is essential to gather all the facts about it. A thorough examination of the case should be made within the stipulated time limit. The facts gathered should be such as can be produced before a higher authority, if and when needed. (C) Review policy and past similar incidents: The kind of penalty to be imposed for an offence should be determined beforehand. Should it be simple reprimand, a financial or non-financial penalty? Or should it be demotion, temporary lay-off or outright discharge? (D) Identify corrective action to implement; take legal counsel to ensure that the local laws of the land are not in conflict: When a decision has been taken to impose a penalty, the punishment to be awarded should be such as would prevent a recurrence of the offence. If the punishment is lighter than it should

be, it may encourage the violation of the same rule or another; if it is greater than it should be, it may lead to a grievance. (E) Apply the action: The application of the penalty involves a positive and assured attitude on the part of the management. If the disciplinary action is a simple reprimand, the executive should calmly and quickly dispose of the matter. But when severe action is called for, a fortnight, serious and determined attitude is highly desirable. (F) Follow-up on Disciplinary Action: The ultimate purpose of a disciplinary action is to maintain discipline, to ensure productivity, and avoid a repetition of the offence. A disciplinary action should, therefore, be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness after it has been taken. In other words, there should be a more careful supervision of the persons against whom a disciplinary action has been taken. Q1. Trace out the growth of Human Resource Management in India.
Posted on January 11, 2012 Filed Under Uncategorized | Leave a Comment Over many centuries India has absorbed managerial ideas and practices from around the world. Early records of trade, from 4500 B.C. to 300 B.C., not only indicate international economic and political links, but also the ideas of social and public administration. The worlds first management book, titled Arlhshastra, written three millennium before Christ, codified many aspects of human resource practices in Ancient India. This treatise presented notions of the financial administration of the state, guiding principles for trade and commerce, as well as the management of people. These ideas were to be embedded in organisational thinking for centuries (Rangarajan 1992, Sihag 2004). Increasing trade, that included engagement with the Romans, led to widespread and systematic governance methods by 250 A.D. During the next 300 years, the first Indian empire, the Gupta Dynasty, encouraged the establishment of rules and regulations for managerial systems, and later from about 1000 A.D. Islam influenced many areas of trade and commerce. A further powerful effect on the managerial history of India was to be provided by the British system of corporate organisation for 200 years. Clearly, the socio cultural roots of Indian heritage are diverse and have been drawn from multiple sources including ideas brought from other parts of the old world. Interestingly, these ideas were essentially secular even when they originated from religious bases. In the contemporary context, the Indian management mindscape continues to be influenced by the residual traces of ancient wisdom as it faces the complexities of global realities. One stream of holistic wisdom, identified as the Vedantic philosophy, pervades managerial behaviour at all levels of work organisations. This philosophical tradition has its roots in sacred texts from 2000 B.C. and it holds that human nature has a capacity for self transformation and

attaining spiritual high ground while facing realities of day to day challenges (Lannoy 1971). Such cultural based tradition and heritage can have a substantial impact on current managerial mindsets in terms of family bonding and mutuality of obligations. The caste system, which was recorded in the writings of the Greek Ambassador Megasthenes in the third century B.C., is another significant feature of Indian social heritage that for centuries had impacted organisational architecture and managerial practices, and has now become the focus of critical attention in the social, political and legal agenda of the nation.

Q. Trace out the growth of Human Resource Management in India. Answer: Evolution of the Human Resource Management The historical background to the management techniques of human resources are in vogue since ancient times. Its only in the past 100 odd years that the techniques and study of human behaviour at work has become formal and structured with certain basic practices established as core and a host of other practices left to each organization to design and implement as per their individual business driven practices. As per Fisher, Schonfeldt and Shaw, in their book titled Human Resources Management, they have characterised the history of HRM as having evolved through four broad phases, the Craft system, the scientific system, the human relations approach and the prevalent organizational science-human resources approach. The Craft system refers to early trends noticed in Egypt and Babylon, where skills based training was provided to people to ensure a steady flow of craftsmen required to build huge monuments. By the 13th century, subsequently the trend was noticed in Europe and later craft guilds evolved to ensure not only the skill acquisition but regulate the conditions of employment, level of skill and improved production techniques. Most relevant in the domestic industry where generations of skilled workers trained and became experts in a particular skill. The Scientific Management approach was a key part of the industrial revolution typical of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. It was instilled in the principles of mass production and organization of work simple work skills and supervisory/managerial skills. This rapidly emerged as the assembly line approach to managing workflow, which later Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915) pioneered based on the philosophy that employees wanted to be used efficiently and money being the primary motivator. Over a period of time this was proved wrong as employee dissent grew and union

issues surfaced. It was during this phase that employee welfare as a key HR practice emerged which redressed employee issues like recreational facilities, medical program and employee grievance systems. The Human Relations approach was an outcome of the famous studies undertaken by US social scientist Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger at the Western Electrics Hawthorne plant in Chicago. The Hawthorne Studies: As described in virtually every book written about management, the human relations or behavioral school of management began in 1927 with a group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric, an AT&T subsidiary. Curiously, these studies were prompted by an experiment carried out by the companys engineers between 1924 and 1932. Following the scientific management tradition, these engineers were applying research methods to answer job-related problems. Two groups were studied to determine the effects of different levels of illumination on worker performance. One group received increased illumination, while the other did not. A preliminary finding was that, when illumination was increased, the level of performance also increased. Surprisingly to the engineers, productivity also increased when the level of illumination was decreased almost to moonlight levels. One interpretation made of these results was that the employees involved in the experiment enjoyed being the centre of attention; they reacted positively because management cared about them. The reason for the increase in the production was not the physical but the psychological impact of the employees attitude towards the job and towards the company. Such a phenomenon taking place in any research setting is now called the Hawthorne effect. Leadership Style and Practices: As a consequence of the Hawthorne Studies, worker attitudes, morale, and group influences became a concern of researchers. A notable development of the nature occurred shortly after World War II at the University of Michigan. A group of social scientists formed an organization, later to be called the Institute for Social Research, to study those principles of leadership that were associated with highest productivity. Concurrent with the growth of human relations in work organizations, has been the burgeoning of techniques and programmes to foster human growth off the job. In the last two decades, millions of people seeking personal growth (or sometimes simply emotional arousal) have participated in programmes such as encounter groups, marriage enrichment groups, seminar training, couples groups, and transactional analysis.

Career development programmes in industry are more prevalent today than at any time in the past. Although varying widely in content, all these programmes are designed to help the individual make career decisions that will move him or her toward self-fulfillment. In the process, it is assumed that the person will make a better contribution to the organization. Finally the Organizational Sciences approach to human resources management has brought the focus to the scientific process within organizations that can impact employee experience, and less on just the individual. Todays organizations focus on building their processes and policies and compete to emerge as preferred employers (best employer). It is not uncommon for competing organizations to woo the employees through advertising more and better employee-friendly initiatives like work-fromhome jobs, careers for married couples, global work assignments and internal job postings and world class workplace infrastructures from in-campus cricket grounds to gymnasiums for employee wellbeing. This is the HR that we now see around us.

Q. Assume yourself as an HR Manager of a publishing house. You find that the morale of the employees is generally low. What steps would you take to improve employee morale? Answer: There are a number of measures which can be used to control the warning signals of low morale. The following are the positive measures to be taken to bring job satisfaction to the employees and reconcile individual interests with the interests of the organization. I take following steps to improve employee morale: 1. Creation of whole jobs: Under this method, complete jobs are assigned to the employees. The complexity of a job should be increased so that it may appeal to their higher needs. 2. Job enrichment: Job enrichment tries to deal with dissatisfaction by increasing job depth. Under this, individual employees may be given responsibility for setting their own work pace, for concerning

their own errors, and/or for deciding on the best way to perform a particular task 3. Building responsibility into a job: Employees should be encouraged to participate and if possible be held responsible for taking decisions. Some delegation of responsibility from the manager to the employee could be useful in improving employee ownership 4. Managerial effectiveness: This can be achieved by: Developing work groups; Improving the social contacts of the employees- time away from work in team building and fun activities; Managerial coaching discussed above Employee stress management activities 5. Flexing working hours: Flex time / work from home provisions allow employees to arrange their work hours to suit their personal needs and life-styles. This is particularly suited to situations with fluctuating workloads. Flex time employees are responsible for coordinating their functions with other employees and thereby have more responsibility and autonomy. 6. Rotation of jobs: This reduces employees boredom which arises out of the monotonous nature of his work. 7. Incentive and Profit-sharing plans: Morale can be improved by effective incentive and profit-sharing schemes. Incentive schemes are effective in improving workplace morale. They need to carefully designed (preferably by experts) well communicated and implemented to be effective. In addition to its economic aspects, profit-sharing has also psychological aspects relating to friendly move by the management in providing the employees an opportunity to participate in the profits.

Morale can also be improved by adapting several other measures such as employee contest, special recognition and awards to long service employees and training the managers in how to manage people.
Q. Explain sensitivity training.


Sensitivity training (also known as T-group, T standing for training). This approach evolved from the group dynamics concept of Kurt Lewin and the first sensitivity training session was held in 1946 in State Teachers College, New Britain, USA. Since then, it spread to numerous training centers in USA and other countries. Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction process in the unstructured form which requires people to become sensitive to others feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. The objectives of sensitivity training are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To make participants increasingly aware of, and sensitive to, the emotional reactions and expressions in themselves and others. To increase the ability of participants to perceive, and to learn from, the consequences of their actions through attention to their own and others feelings. To stimulate the clarification and development of personal values and goals consonant with a democratic and scientific approach to problems of personal and social decisions and actions. To develop achievement of behavioural effectiveness in participants. To develop concepts and theoretical framework for linking personal values and goals to actions consistent with these inner factors and situational requirements. Process of Sensitivity Training Sensitivity training focuses on small group (T-group) with number of members ranging from ten to twelve. T-groups are designed to provide members with experiential learning about group dynamics, leadership and interpersonal relationships. The basic T-group training or sensitivity training is to change the standards, attitudes and behavior of individuals by using psychological techniques and programs. Based on the sources from where these members are drawn, there may be three types of T-group: stranger-lab, cousin-lab, and family-lab. In the stranger-lab, all participants are from different organizations and they are strangers to each other. In cousin-lab, all participants are from the same organization but from different units.

Q. Mr. Suresh Kumar is the VP- HR of a leading Financial services company. He is having a meeting with Ms. Rejani Chandran leading HR consultant. Mr. Suresh is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Rejani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Suresh, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction? Answer:

Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. For an organization, satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and increased productivity. Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination. Job satisfaction is also linked to a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the bottom line. Below are the suggestions that as a leading HR consultant I will give to Mr. Suresh, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction: Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs; and because of this success, they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Similarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. Temperature, light, noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisors leads to increased job satisfaction. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly, those who offer

praise for good performance, listen to employees opinions and show a personal interest in them. Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions. Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Current concerns include protecting the environment, promoting worker safety, supporting social issues, investing in the community, etc. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and organizational social responsibility. Q. Assume yourself as an HR Manager. You have been given the responsibility of promoting the rightful employees. For this, performance appraisal of the employees must be carried out. What appraisal method would you choose? Justify. Answer: A performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performance review, or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employees recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgment of an employees performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone. Aims Generally, the aims of a performance appraisal are to: Give employees feedback on performance

Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, bonuses, etc. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and employer Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements. To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development. Methods A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates, and customers, while also performing a self assessment. This is known as a 360-degree appraisal and forms good communication patterns. The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal process include the following: Management by objectives 360-degree appraisal Behavioral observation scale Behaviorally anchored rating scales Trait-based systems, which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness, are also used by businesses but have been replaced primarily by more objective and results-oriented methods. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factors such as these should be avoided. The reasons for this are twofold: 1. Trait-based systems are by definition based on personality traits and as such may not be related directly to successful job performance. In addition, personality dimensions tend to be static, and while an employee can change a behavior they cannot change their personality. For example, a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have been caught, but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caught is gone.

2. Trait-based systems, because they are vague, are more easily influenced by office politics, causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employees true performance. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to assess the employee based upon subjective feelings instead of objective observations about how the employee has performed his or her specific duties. These systems are also more likely to leave a company open to discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to back them up with specific behavioral information. People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employees abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance. Performance appraisals are widely used in the society. The history can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept. It is an indispensable part of performance measurement. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being get paid according to what you contribute the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured, it helps the employees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to the individuals performance. It helps to align the individual performances with the organizational goals and also review their performance. Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuses on the improvement of the future performance of the employees. Here at naukri hub, we attempt to provide an insight into the concept of performance appraisal, the methods and approaches of performance appraisal, sample performance appraisal forms and the

appraisal softwares available etc. An attempt has been made to study the current global trends in performance appraisal.