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Appendix A

1. The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a

brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a A. correlation coefficient. B. scatterplot. C. standard

A. correlation coefficient.

B. scatterplot.

C. standard deviation.

D. bar graph.

Answer: D

2. When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to

When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to A. mentally transform

A. mentally transform the data into a scatterplot.

B. identify the value of the standard deviation.

C. note the range and size of the scale values.

D. remember that correlation facilitates prediction.

Answer: C

3. The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores is the

occurring score in a distribution of scores is the A. B. mode. median. standard deviation. C.

occurring score in a distribution of scores is the A. B. mode. median. standard deviation. C.

A.

B.

mode.

median.

standard deviation.score in a distribution of scores is the A. B. mode. median. C. D. mean. Answer:

C.

of scores is the A. B. mode. median. standard deviation. C. D. mean. Answer: A 4.

D. mean.

Answer: A

4. In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is

mode of this group's dist ribution of annual incomes is A. $10,000. B. $15,000. C. $16,000.

A. $10,000.

B. $15,000.

C. $16,000.

D. $31,000.

Answer: A

5. The mean of a distribution of scores is the

Answer: A 5. The mean of a distribution of scores is the A. most frequently occurring

A. most frequently occurring score.

B. arithmetic average of all the scores.

C. least frequently occurring score.

D. score exceeded by 50 percent of all the scores.

Answer: B

A. standard deviation B. median C. mean D. mode Answer: C 7. Mr. and Mrs.

A. standard deviation

B. median

C. mean

D. mode

Answer: C

7. Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children, aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and 16. The mean age of the Klostreich children is

7, 8, and 16. The mean age o f the Klostreich children is A. B. C.

7, 8, and 16. The mean age o f the Klostreich children is A. B. C.

7, 8, and 16. The mean age o f the Klostreich children is A. B. C.

7, 8, and 16. The mean age o f the Klostreich children is A. B. C.

A.

B.

C.

D.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Answer: D

8. The median of a distribution of scores is the

Answer: D 8. The median of a distribution of scores is the A. most frequently occurring

A. most frequently occurring score.

B. difference between the highest and lowest scores.

C. arithmetic average of all the scores.

D. score exceeded by 50 percent of all the scores.

Answer: D

9. During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was

25. The median number of books read by these individuals was A. 2. B. 10. C.

A. 2.

B. 10.

C. 12.

D. 9.

Answer: D

10. When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to

reported in the news, it is most important for readers to A. determine whether it is

A. determine whether it is statistically significant.

B. consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases.

C. be sure that it describes a truly random sample.

D. recognize the potential for illusory correlation.

Answer: B

11. When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?

Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the score s of these two students?
Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the score s of these two students?

A. mean

B. standard deviation

C. D.

C.

D.

mode

median

Answer: A

12. A lopsided distribution of scores in which the mean is much larger than both the mode and median is said to be

is much larger than both the mode and median is said to be A. statistically significant.

A. statistically significant.

a random sample.and median is said to be A. statistically significant. a scatterplot. B. C. D. skewed. Answer:

a scatterplot.said to be A. statistically significant. a random sample. B. C. D. skewed. Answer: D 13.

B.

C.

significant. a random sample. a scatterplot. B. C. D. skewed. Answer: D 13. Seven members of

D. skewed.

Answer: D

13. Seven members of a boys' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of cookies: $2, $9, $8, $10, $4, $9, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings

$4, $9, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings A. the median is greater than

A. the median is greater than the mean and greater than the mode.

B. the median is less than the mean and less than the mode.

C. the median is greater than the mean and less than the mode.

D. the median is less than the mean and greater than the mode.

Answer: C

14. Seven members of a Girl Scout troop report the following individual earnings from their sale of candy: $4, $1, $7, $6, $8, $2, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings

$8, $2, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings A. the mean is less than

A. the mean is less than the mode and equal to the median.

B. the mean is equal to the mode and greater than the median.

C. the mean is greater than the mode and greater than the median.

D. the mean is less than the mode and less than the median.

Answer: D

15. For which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean?

more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean? A. 10, 22, 8, 9, 6 B.

A. 10, 22, 8, 9, 6

B. 12, 6, 8, 5, 4

C. 12, 15, 12, 9, 12

D. 23, 7, 3, 27, 16

Answer: A

16. Median is to range as

is to

23, 7, 3, 27, 16 Answer: A 16. Median is to range as is to A.

A. skewed distribution; bar graph

mean; modeis to range as is to A. skewed distribution; bar graph scatterplot; correlation central tendency; variation

scatterplot; correlationA 16. Median is to range as is to A. skewed distribution; bar graph mean; mode

central tendency; variationA 16. Median is to range as is to A. skewed distribution; bar graph mean; mode

B.

C.

D.

Answer: D

17. Central tendency is to variation as

Answer: D 17. Central tendency is to variation as A. scatterplot; correlation range; skewed distribution mean;

A. scatterplot; correlation

range; skewed distributiontendency is to variation as A. scatterplot; correlation mean; standard deviation median; mode B. C. D.

mean; standard deviationas A. scatterplot; correlation range; skewed distribution median; mode B. C. D. Answer: C is to

median; moderange; skewed distribution mean; standard deviation B. C. D. Answer: C is to 18. The difference

B.

C.

D.

Answer: C

is to

18. The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the

the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the A. mean. B. range. C. median.

A. mean.

B. range.

C. median.

D. standard deviation.

Answer: B

19. During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is

respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is A. 7. B. 11. C. 14. D.

A. 7.

B. 11.

C. 14.

D. 21.

Answer: C

20. Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events?

a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events? A. mean B. scatterplot

A. mean

B. scatterplot

C. standard deviation

D. correlation coefficient

Answer: C

21. Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have been during the past season. Which of the following measures would be most relevant to this specific concern?

measures would be most relevant to this specific concern? A. mean median standard deviation correlation coefficient

A. mean

medianwould be most relevant to this specific concern? A. mean standard deviation correlation coefficient B. C.

standard deviationbe most relevant to this specific concern? A. mean median correlation coefficient B. C. D. Answer:

correlation coefficientto this specific concern? A. mean median standard deviation B. C. D. Answer: C 22. The

B.

C.

D.

Answer: C

22. The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the

A. B.

A.

B.

normal curve.

median.

C. D.

C.

D.

mean.

range.

Answer: C

23. On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin's advanced chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of

the standard devi ation is equal to the square root of A. 4. 5. 6. 9

A. 4.

5.standard devi ation is equal to the square root of A. 4. 6. 9 B. C.

6.devi ation is equal to the square root of A. 4. 5. 9 B. C. D.

9devi ation is equal to the square root of A. 4. 5. 6. B. C. D.

B.

C.

D.

Answer: C

24. Although Dominick's psychology class is sometimes longer or shorter than usual, on average each class is 50 minutes. If the lengths of these classes form a normal curve, which statistic would enable Dominick to estimate the probability that any single class will last somewhere between 47 and 53 minutes?

class will last somewhere between 47 and 53 minutes? A. range B. median C. correlation coefficient

A. range

B. median

C. correlation coefficient

D. standard deviation

Answer: D

25. The symmetrical bell-shaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a

physica l and psychological characteristics is called a A. bar graph. B. normal curve. C. correlation.

A. bar graph.

B. normal curve.

C. correlation.

D. scatterplot.

Answer: B

26. A normal curve would approximate the distribution of

B 26. A normal curve would approximate the distribution of A. males and females in the

A. males and females in the total American population.

B. American children enrolled in each of the first through sixth grades.

C. the physical heights of all American women.

D. all of these groups or characteristics.

Answer: C

27. Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between –1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean?

of the cases represented by the normal curve fall betwe en –1 and +1 standard deviations
of the cases represented by the normal curve fall betwe en –1 and +1 standard deviations

A. 16

B. 34

C. 68 D. 95
C.
68
D.
95

Answer: C

28. If a set of standardized test scores is normally distributed, having a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, approximately 68 percent of the group members receive scores somewhere between

of the group members receive scores somewhe re between A. 50 and 60. 45 and 55.

A. 50 and 60.

45 and 55.members receive scores somewhe re between A. 50 and 60. 40 and 60. 35 and 65.

40 and 60.receive scores somewhe re between A. 50 and 60. 45 and 55. 35 and 65. B.

35 and 65.somewhe re between A. 50 and 60. 45 and 55. 40 and 60. B. C. D.

B.

C.

D.

Answer: C

29. Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within standard deviation(s) from the mean.

curve fall within standard deviation(s) from the mean. A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 5

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 5

Answer: B

30. If IQ scores are normally distributed, having a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, approximately what percentage of people have IQ scores somewhere between 70 and 130?

of people have IQ scores somewhere between 70 and 130? A. 34 B. 50 C. 68

A. 34

B. 50

C. 68

D. 95

Answer: D

31. Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between –3 and +3 standard deviations from the mean?

betwe en –3 and +3 standard deviations from the mean? A. 34 B. 68 C. 95

A. 34

B. 68

C. 95

D. 100

Answer: D

32. Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?

and the strengt h of a relationship between two variables? A. correlation coefficient standard deviation B.

A. correlation coefficient

standard deviationof both the direction and the strengt h of a relationship between two variables? A. correlation

B.

and the strengt h of a relationship between two variables? A. correlation coefficient standard deviation B.

C. range

D. mean Answer: A 33. Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for

D. mean

Answer: A

33. Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which IQ scores can be used to predict grades in school?

to which IQ scores can be used to predict grades in school? A. mean standard deviation

A. mean

standard deviationIQ scores can be used to predict grades in school? A. mean correlation coefficient B. C.

correlation coefficientto predict grades in school? A. mean standard deviation B. C. D. range Answer: C 34.

B.

C.

A. mean standard deviation correlation coefficient B. C. D. range Answer: C 34. To represent graphically

D. range

Answer: C

34. To represent graphically the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a

between two variables, researchers often con struct a A. skewed distribution. B. scatterplot. C. standard

A. skewed distribution.

B. scatterplot.

C. standard deviation.

D. bar graph.

Answer: B

35. If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are

this would suggest that the two variables depicted are A. normally distributed. B. positively correlated. C.

A. normally distributed.

B. positively correlated.

C. negatively correlated.

D. not correlated.

Answer: C

36. Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

the weakest degree of relat ionship between two variables? A. –0.12 B. –0.99 C. +0.25 D.

A. –0.12

B. –0.99

C. +0.25

D. –0.50

Answer: A

37. If a positive correlation between two sets of scores is displayed as a scatterplot, the points are clustered in a pattern that

a scatterplot, t he points are clustered in a pattern that A. resembles a bell-shaped curve.

A. resembles a bell-shaped curve.

extends from the lower left to the upper right of the graph.in a pattern that A. resembles a bell-shaped curve. resembles a U-shaped curve. extends from the

resembles a U-shaped curve.extends from the lower left to the upper right of the graph. extends from the upper

extends from the upper left to the lower right of the graph.curve. extends from the lower left to the upper right of the graph. resembles a U-shaped

B.

C.

D.

Answer: B

38. Professor Connolly uses a scatterplot to display the relationship between students' intelligence test scores and the number of failing grades they have received. The points on the plot are most likely clustered in a pattern that

on the plot ar e most likely clustered in a pattern that A. resembles a U-shaped

A. resembles a U-shaped curve.

extends from the upper left to the lower right of the plot.clustered in a pattern that A. resembles a U-shaped curve. resembles a bell-shaped curve. extends from

resembles a bell-shaped curve.extends from the upper left to the lower right of the plot. extends from the lower

extends from the lower left to the upper right of the plot.the lower right of the plot. resembles a bell-shaped curve. B. C. D. Answer: B 39.

B.

C.

D.

Answer: B

39. Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of level of self-esteem?

predict body weight from knowledge of level of self-esteem? A. +0.60 B. +0.01 C. –0.10 D.

A. +0.60

B. +0.01

C. –0.10

D. –0.06

Answer: A

40. Gamblers often throw dice gently for low numbers and hard for high numbers. This most directly illustrates

and hard for high numbers. This most directly illustrates A. an illusion of control. B. the

A. an illusion of control.

B. the normal curve.

C. the standard deviation.

D. statistical significance.

Answer: A

41. The illusion that uncontrollable events are correlated with our actions is facilitated by a statistical phenomenon known as

actions is facilitate d by a statistical phenomenon known as A. regression toward the mean. B.

A. regression toward the mean.

B. the correlation coefficient.

C. the central tendency.

D. the standard deviation.

Answer: A

42. Colette received an unusually high grade of A on her first biology test and a B+ on the second, even though she studied equally for both tests. Which of the following best explains Colette's deteriorating pattern of performance?

Colette's deteriorating pattern of performance? A. illusory correlation. the illusion of control. the

A. illusory correlation.

the illusion of control.pattern of performance? A. illusory correlation. the random sampling effect. regression toward the mean. B.

the random sampling effect.pattern of performance? A. illusory correlation. the illusion of control. regression toward the mean. B. C.

regression toward the mean.pattern of performance? A. illusory correlation. the illusion of control. the random sampling effect. B. C.

B.

C.

D.

Answer: D

43. After sports magazines give cover-story attention to the outstanding performance of an athlete, the individual often suffers a real decline in performance. This may be at least partially explained in terms of

This may be at least part ially explained in terms of A. illusory correlation. the illusion

A. illusory correlation.

the illusion of control.part ially explained in terms of A. illusory correlation. the random sampling effect. regression toward the

the random sampling effect.terms of A. illusory correlation. the illusion of control. regression toward the mean. B. C. D.

regression toward the mean.the illusion of control. the random sampling effect. B. C. D. Answer: D 44. Statistical reasoning

B.

C.

D.

Answer: D

44. Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from

reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from A. a range to a standard deviation. B.

A. a range to a standard deviation.

B. a standard deviation to a mean.

C. a sample to a population.

D. a scatterplot to a skewed distribution.

Answer: C

45. The precision with which a sample average approximates a population average increases as

average approximates a population average increases as A. the standard deviation of the sample increases. B.

A. the standard deviation of the sample increases.

B. the standard deviation of the sample decreases.

C. the mean of the sample increases.

D. the mean of the sample decreases.

Answer: B

46. A sample average can be used to estimate a population average with greater precision if the sample is

population average with greater precision if the sample is A. large. B. a skewed distribution. C.

A. large.

B. a skewed distribution.

C. highly variable.

D. vivid and memorable.

Answer: A

47. Which of the following events is the most probable?

A 47. Which of the following events is the most probable? A. flipping 6 or more

A. flipping 6 or more heads in 10 coin flips

flipping 60 or more heads in 100 coin flipsmost probable? A. flipping 6 or more heads in 10 coin flips flipping 600 or more

flipping 600 or more heads in 1000 coin flipsin 10 coin flips flipping 60 or more heads in 100 coin flips All the above

All the above are equally probable.100 coin flips flipping 600 or more heads in 1000 coin flips B. C. D. Answer:

B.

C.

D.

Answer: A

48. In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex?

A. hospital X B. hospital Y C. hospital Z D. The probability is the same

A. hospital X

B. hospital Y

C. hospital Z

D. The probability is the same at all three hospitals.

Answer: C

49. As the size of a representative sample increases, the decrease.

size of a representative sample increases, the decrease. A. range mean standard deviation B. C. D.

A. range

meana representative sample increases, the decrease. A. range standard deviation B. C. D. median Answer: C

standard deviationsample increases, the decrease. A. range mean B. C. D. median Answer: C of that sample

B.

C.

the decrease. A. range mean standard deviation B. C. D. median Answer: C of that sample

D. median

Answer: C

of that sample is most likely to

50.

A cross-sectional study is one in which

most likely to 50. A cross-sectional study is one in which A. the same people are

A. the same people are retested over a period of years.

B. different age groups are tested at the same time.

C. different characteristics of a given individual are assessed at the same time.

D. the behavior of a group is assessed by different researchers.

Answer: B

51. Tonya conducted a research project in which she arranged for people of different ages to complete

a survey of life satisfaction. She then compared the reports of life satisfaction across different age levels. Tonya's research best illustrates a

age levels. Tonya's research best illustrates a A. longitudinal study. B. normal curve. C.

A. longitudinal study.

B. normal curve.

C. cross-sectional study.

D. standard deviation.

Answer: C

52. Researchers studied the effects of exercise and other behaviors on the heart health of over 5000 residents of a city throughout their adulthood. This research procedure best illustrated a

their adulthood. This research procedure best illustra ted a A. regression toward the mean. B. cross-sectional

A. regression toward the mean.

B. cross-sectional study.

C. scatterplot.

D. longitudinal study

Answer: D

53. Cross-sectional research indicated that during early and middle adulthood, aging is associated

with

aging is associated with

levels of intelligence. Longitudinal research indicated that during this period of life,

levels of intelligence.

A. stable; declining B. declining; declining C. declining; stable D. increasing; stable Answer: C 54.

A. stable; declining

B. declining; declining

C. declining; stable

D. increasing; stable

Answer: C

54. Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if

averages are most likely to be statistically significant if A. the difference between the samples is

A. the difference between the samples is large.

the standard deviations of the samples are large.if A. the difference between the samples is large. both samples are drawn from the same

both samples are drawn from the same population.is large. the standard deviations of the samples are large. the sample means are larger than

the sample means are larger than the sample medians.are large. both samples are drawn from the same population. B. C. D. Answer: A 55.

B.

C.

D.

Answer: A

55. To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between

populations, it is necessary to determine the

bet ween populations, it is necessary to determine the A. mean B. median C. standard deviation

A. mean

B. median

C. standard deviation

D. statistical significance

Answer: D

of the observed differences.

56. A statistically significant difference between two sample groups is NOT likely to be

difference between two sample groups is NOT likely to be A. a reflection of differences between

A. a reflection of differences between the populations they represent.

B. due to chance variation within and between the sample groups.

C. observed more than 5 percent of the time the groups are compared.

D. observed when the two groups are very large.

Answer: B

57. To clarify whether a statistically significant difference is of any practical importance, researchers indicate a finding's

practical importa nce, researchers indicate a finding's A. normal curve. B. scatterplot. C. effect size. D.

A. normal curve.

B. scatterplot.

C. effect size.

D. range.

Answer: C