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Yearly Plan Mathematics Form 5 (2013)



Week
No
Learning Objectives
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Learning Outcomes
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activities/Learning Skills/Values
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Topic : 1
Learning Area : NUMBER BASES -- 2 weeks
First Term


1

02/1/13-
06/1/13

1. Understand and use the
concept of number in base
two, eight and five.

(i) State zero, one, two, three, , as a
number in base:
a) two
b) eight
c) five

(ii) State the value of a digit of a number
in base:
a) two
b) eight
c) five
(iii) Write a number in base:
a) two
b) eight
c) five
in expanded notation

1






1






2




Use models such as a clock face or a counter
which uses a particular number base.

Discuss
- Dicuss digits used
- Place values
in the number system with a particular
number base.

Skill : Interpretation, observe connection
between base two, eight and five.
Use of daily life examples
Values : systematic, careful, patient


Emphasis the ways to read numbers in variours
bases.
Give examples:

Numbers in base two are also know as binary
numbers.







Expanded notation
Give examples

2

07/1/13-
13/1/13


(iv) Convert a number in base:
a) two
b) eight
c) five
to a number in base ten and vice versa.

(v) Convert a number in a certain base to
a number in another base.

2






3

Use number base blocks of twos, eights and
fives.





Discuss the special case of converting a

Perform repeated division to convert a number in
base ten to a number in other bases.
Give examples.



Limit conversion of numbers to base two, eight and
five only.
2
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(vi) Perform computations involving :
a) addition
b) subtration
of two numbers in base two




1





number in base two directly to a number in
base eight and vice versa.

Skill : Interpretation, converting numbers to
base of two, eight, five and then.

Use of daily life examples
Values : systematic, careful, patient




The usage of scientific calculator in performing the
computitations.




Topic 2
Learning Area :Graphs of Functions II --- 3 weeks



3
14/1/13-
20/1/13
























2.1 Understand and use
the concept of
graphs of functions

(i) Draw the graph of a:
a) linear function :
y = ax + b, where a
and b are constant;
b) quadratic function
c bx ax y + + =
2
,
where a, b and c are
constans, 0 = a
c) cubic function :
d cx bx ax y + + + =
2 3
,
where a, b, c and d are
constants, 0 = a


d) reciprocal function

x
a
y = , where a is a
constants, 0 = a

(ii) Find from the graph
a) the value of y, given a
value of x
b) the value(s) of x,
given a value of y

2

























2

Explore graphs of functions using graphing
calculator or the GSP

Compare the characteristic of graphs of
functions with different values of constants.

Values : Logical thinking


Skills : seeing connection, using the GSP














Play a game or quiz



Questions for 1..2(b) are given in the form of
( ) ( ) 0 = + + b x a x ; a and b are numerical
values.







Limit cubic functions.
Refer to CS.








For certain functions and some values of y,
there could be no corresponding values of x.



Limit the cubic and quadratic functions.
Refer to CS.
3
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4
21/1/13 -
27/1/13


@24/1/13
Maulidul
Rasul

(iii) Identify:
a) the shape of graph
given a type of
function
b) the type of function
given a graph
c) the graph given a
function and vice
versa

(iv) Sketch the graph of a given
linear, quadratic, cubic or
reciprocal function.













1









Limit cubic functions.
Refer to CS.














2.2 Understand and use
the concept of the
solution of an
equation by
graphical method.

(i) Find the point(s) of intersection
of two graphs

(ii) Obtain the solution of an
equation by finding the point(s)
of intersection of two graphs

(iii) Solve problems involving
solution of an equation by
graphical method.



1


1




2


1



Explore using graphing calculator of GST
to relate the x-coordinate of a point of
intersection of two appropriate graphs to
the solution of a given equation. Make
generalisation about the point(s) of
intersection of the two graphs.

Use everyday problems.

Skills : Mental process

Use the traditional graph plotting exercise if the
graphing calculator or the GSP is unavailable.





Involve everyday problems.



5

28/1/13-
02/2/13





2.3 Understand and use the
concept of the region
representing inequalities in
two variables.





(i) Determine whether a given
point satisfies
a) b ax y + = or b ax y + >
or b ax y + <

(ii) Determine the position of a
given point relative to the
equation b ax y + =

2



2



Include situations involving a x = , a x > ,
a x > , a x s or a x < .

Values: Making conclusion, connection and
comparison, careful



Emphasise on the use of dashed and solid line as
well as the concept of region.
4
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(iii) Identify the region
satisfying b ax y + > or
b ax y + <

(iv) Shade the regions
representing the inequalities
a) b ax y + > or b ax y + <
b) b ax y + > or b ax y + s

(v) Determine the region which
satisfy two or more
simultaneous linear
inequalities.



2


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Topic: 3
Learning Area : TRANSFORMATIONS III ( 3 weeks )



6

04/2/13-
10/2/13


3.1 Understanding and
use of the concept
of combination of
two transformations.

(i) determine the image of an object
under combination of two isometric
transformations.
1



- using CD-Rom interactive
activities.
- Everyday life example: around the
school.
- Recall the types of transformations:
- translation
- rotation
- reflection
- enlargement
- isometric transformation

5
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(ii) determine the image of an object
under combination of:
a. two enlargements
b. an enlargement and and an isometric
transformation.

2 - using Geometers Sketchpad.
- CD-Rom
- Give variety of examples to show an
enlargement and isometric
transformation.


7
11/2/13-
17/2/13



Chinese New Year



8

18/2/13-
24/2/13







(iii) Draw the image of an object under
combination of two transformations.
(iv) State the coordinates of the image of
a point under combined
transformations.
2 - Give examples on the blackboard
and students are asked to draw the
image under 2 transformations
- Tr. will state the coordinates of the
image of a point under combined
transformations.

(v) Determine whether combined
transformation AB is equivalent to
combined transformation BA.
3 - Using Maths exercise books (grids)
- Do exercises from the textbooks

6
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(vi) specify two successive
transformations in a combined
transformation given the object and
the image.
2 - Outdoor activity students are
brought to specific site of the school
compound and ask to identify the
two successive transformations :
pictures should consist of an object
and an image.

9

25/2/13-
03/3/13
(vii) Specify a transformation which is
equivalent to the combination of two
isometric transformations.
(viii) Solve problems involving
transformations.

5 - Classroom activities use GSP and
CD-ROM (Multimedia Gallery)
- To specify isometric transformation
- Different examples to be given
- Various problem solving questions
to be given




- limit to translation, reflation & rotation.
Topic: 4
Learning Area : MATRICES ( 3 weeks )

10

04/3/13-
10/3/13
4.1 Understand and use the
concept of matrix.

(i) Form a matrix from given
information.
(ii) Determine:
a. the number of rows
b. the number of columns
c. the order of a matrix
(iii) Identify a specific element in a
matrix

1 - Understanding the concept of
matrices through daily examples:
- price of food on a menu
- a contingent of altelitic
- seating of students in class
- mark sheet of students
- Introduce the order (mxn) of a
matrix
- Class activity students are
requested to identify the students
seating position in class
- Other examples give

* m represents row
* n represents column
7
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4.2 Understand and use the
concept of equal
matrices.
(i) Determine whether two matrices
are equal.
(ii) Solve problems involving equal
matrices.




2 - Teacher gives examples of two
equal matrices and discusses equal
matrices in terms of the
corresponding elements.
- Different problems given to solve
equal matrices.

4.3 Perform addition and
subtraction on
matrices.
(i) Relate to real life situations such as
keeping score of medal tally or
points in sports.
(ii) Find the sum or the difference of
two matrices.
(iii) Perform addition and subtraction
on a few matrices.
(iv) Solve matrix equations involving
addition and subtraction.

2 - Teacher shows the examples from
the textbook to determine how
addition or subtraction can be
performed on 2 given matrices.
- Examples given to find the addition
and subtraction of two matrices.
- Examples given to solve matrix
equations involving additions and
subtractions
- To include finding values of
unknown elements

- limit to not more than 3 rows and 3 columns.

11

11/3/13-
17/3/13













4.4 Perform Multiplication
of a matrix by a
number.
(i) Multiply a matrix by a number.
(ii) Express a given matrix as a
multiplication of another matrix by
a number.
(iii) Perform calculation on matrices
involving addition, subtraction and
scalar multiplication.
(iv) Solve matrix equations involving
addition, subtraction and scalar
multiplication.
2 - Teacher shows examples on scalar
multiplication of matrix:
- give examples of real life
situations such as in industrial
productions.
- examples given on the calculation of
matrices involving addition,
subtraction, and scalar
multiplication.
- Examples given on problem solving
questions.
- To include finding values of
unknown elements.


8
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4.5 Perform multiplication
of two matrices.
(i) determine whether two matrices
can be multiplied and state the
order of the product when the two
matrices can be multiplied.
(ii) Find the product of two matrices.
(iii) Solve matrix equations involving
multiplication of two matrices.
3 - Teacher gives real life situations.
Examples:-
- to find the cost of meals in
the restaurant
- teacher shows how 2
matrices can be
multiplied.
- Examples given for the product of
two matrices.
- Examples given on problem solving
involving multiplication of 2
matrices.








- Limit to not more than 3 rows and 3 columns
- Limit to 2 unknown elements





12

18/3/13-
24/3/13







4.6 Understand and use the
concept of identify
matrix.
(i) determine whether a given matrix
is an identity matrix by multiplying
it to another matrix.
(ii) Write identity matrix of any order.
(iii) Perform calculation involving
identity matrices.
2 - Teacher discusses the property of
the number as an identity for
multiplication of a number.
- Teacher introduces identity matrix
or unit matrix.
- Teacher gives examples of identity
matrix of any order.
- Teacher discusses the properties:
- AI = A
- IA = A






Unit matrix is denoted by I.

Limit to 3 rows and 3 columns.

9
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4.7 Understand and use the
concept of inverse
matrix.

(i) Determine whether a
2 X 2 matrix is the
inverse matrix of
another 2 X 2
matrix.
(iii) Find the inverse matrix of a 2 X 2
matrix using:
a. the method of solving simultaneous
linear equations
b. a formula
3 - teacher introduces the concept of
inverse matrix and its denotion.
- Examples given on problem solving
questions involving matrix:
- using simultaneous linear
equations
- using a formula

-1
AA = I















13



4.8 Solve simultaneous
linear equations by
using matrices.
(i) Write simultaneous linear
equations in matrix form.
(ii) Find the matrix
p
q
| |
|
\ .
in
a b p h
c d q k
| || | | |
=
| | |
\ .\ . \ .
using the
inverse matrix.
(iii) solve simultaneous linear equations
by the matrix method.
(iv) Solve problems involving matrices.

Cuti Pertengahan Penggal 1
@ (23/3/13-31-3-13)
5 - Teacher shows examples how to
write simultaneous linear equations
in matrix form
- To solve simultaneous linear
equations by using inverse matrix
- Project involving matrices using
electronic spreadsheet to be given to
students.
* limit to 2 unknowns.





10
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Topic 10
Learning Area: PLANS AND ELEVATIONS - 3 weeks



14

01/4/13-
07/4/13













10.1 Understand and use
the concept of orthogonal
projection.

i. Identify orthogonal
projections.

ii. Draw orthogonal projections,
given an object and a plane.

iii. Determine the difference
between an object and its
orthogonal projections with
respect to edges and angles.

1



2



2

Use models, blocks or plan and elevation kit.



Emphasise the different uses of dashed lines and
solid lines.

Begin wth the simple solid object such as cube,
cuboid, cylinder, cone, prism and right pyramid.

15

08/4/13-
14/4/13











16
15/4/13-
21/4/13




10.2 Understand and use
the concept of plan and
elevation.

i. Draw the plan of a solid
object.

ii. Draw
- the front elevation
- side elevation
of a solid object


iii. Draw the plan of a
solid object.

iv. Draw
- the front elevation
- side elevation
of a solid object




1


2





1





1

Carry out activities in groups where students
combine two or more different shapes of
simple solid objects into interesting models
and draw plans and elevation for thes models.

Use models to show that it is important to
have a plan and at least two side elevation to
construct a solid object.


Carry out group project:
Draw plan and elevations of buildings or
structures, for example students or teachers
dream home and construct a scale model based
on the drawings. Involve real life situations
such as in building prototypes and using actual
home plans.


Limit to full-scale drawings only.








Include drawing plan and elevation in one diagram
showing projection lines.
11

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Topic : 5
Learning Area : VARIATIONS - ( 2 Weeks)



17



22/4/13-
28/4/13


5.1 Understand and use the
concept of direct variation

(i) State the changes in a quantity with
respect to the changes in another
quantity, in everyday life situations
involving direct variation.
(ii) Determine from given information
whether a quantity.
(iii) Express a direct variation in the
form of equation involving two
variables.
(iv) Find the value of a variable in a
direct variation when sufficient
information is given.
(v) Solve problems involving direct
variation for the following cases:

y o x ; yo x
2
; y o x
3
;
y o x
1/2
.

1












1



1


Discuss the characteristics of the graph of y agains
x when y o x.

Relate mathematical variation to Charless Law or
the mation of the simple pendulum.

Discuss the characteristics of the graphs of y
against x
n
.

Communicative skills

Coorperation an d systematic

Y varies directly as x , yo x.
yo x
n
, limit o n to 2, 3 and

Y = kx where k is the constant of variation.












5.2 Understand and use the
concept of inverse variation

i) State the changes in a
quantity with respect to
changes in another quantity,
in everyday life situations
involving inverse variation.
ii) Determine form given
information whether a
quantity vaqries inversely as
another quantity.
iii) Express an inverse variation



















Discuss the the form of the graph and relates it
to science, eg. Boyles Law.


Y varies inversely as x if and only if xy is a
constant.





y 1/x

For the cases y 1/x
n
, limit n to 2,3 and
12
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in the form of equation
involving two variables.
iv) Find the value of a variable
in an inverse variation when
sufficient information is
given.
v) Solve problems involving
inverse variation for the
following cases:

y 1/x; y 1/x
2

y 1/x
3

;
y 1/x
1/2










1









1














For cases y 1/x
n
, n = 2,3 and , discuss the
characteristics of the graph of y against 1/x
n


Graph drawing skill

Be straight and honest.

If y 1/x, then y = k/x, where k is the constan t
of variation.



Use:
Y = k/x or
x
1
y
1
=x
2
y
2
to get the solution.


18
29/4/13-
05/5/13

















5.3 Understand and use the
concept of joint
variation


















(i) Represent a joint
variation by using the
symbol for the
following cases:

a) two direct variations
b) two inverse
variations
c) a direct variation
and an inverse
variation.
(ii) Express a joint variation in
the form of equation.
(iii) Find the value of a variable
in a joint variation when
sufficient information is
given.

1





1





Discuss joint variation for the three cases in
everyday life situations.

Relate to science, eg. Ohms Law.


For the cases y x
n
z
n
,
Y 1/ x
n
z
n
and y x
n
/ z
n
,
Limit n to 2,3 and .

13
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19
06/5/13-
12/5/13




20 & 21

13/5/13-
24/5/13





22 & 23

25/5/13-
09/6/13












MINGGU ULANGKAJI





PEPERIKSAAN
PERTENGAHAN
TAHUN 2013







CUTI PERTENGAHAN
TAHUN











(iv) Solve problems involving
joint variation






14

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Topic/Learning Area 6: GRADIENT & AREA UNDER A GRAPH --- 3 weeks


24
10/6/13-
16/6/13










25
17/6/13-
23/6/13

















6.1 Understand and use the
concept of quantity
represented by the gradient
of a graph























(i) State the quantity represented by the
gradient of a graph

(ii) Draw the distance-time graph,
given:
a) a table of distance-time values
b) a relationship between
distance and time

(iii) Find and interpret the gradient of a
distance-time graph

(iv) Find the speed for a period of time
from a distance-time graph


(v) Draw a graph to show the
relationship between two variables
representing certain measurements and
state the meaning of its gradient












1


2



2



2

1

2









Use examples in various areas such as
technology and social science

Use of daily life examples like speed of a
car, Formula One Grand Prix, a sprinter

Compare and differentiate between distance-
time graph and speed-time graph

Use real life situations such as traveling from
one place to another by train or by bus.



Use examples in social science and economy,
for example, the increase in population in
certain years


Limit to graph of a straight line.

The gradient of a graph represents the rate of
change of a quantity on the vertical axis with
respect to the change of another quantity on the
horizontal axis. The rate of change may have a
specific name for example speed for a distance-
time graph.

Emphasise that:
Gradient = change of distance
Time
= speed

Include graphs which consists of a combination
of a few straight lines.
For example,










Time, t
Distance, s
15
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26



24/6/13-
30/6/13





















27
01/7/13-
07/7/13
6.2 Understand the concept
of quantity
represented by the area
under a graph



























MINGGU SUKAN &
OLAHRAGA SEKOLAH
(i) State the quantity represented by the
area under a graph

(ii) Find the area under a graph

(iii) Determine the distance by finding
the area under the following of speed-
time graphs:
a. v=k (uniform speed)
b. v=kt
c. v=kt + h
d. a combination of the above

(iv) Solve problems involving gradient
and area under a graph.






























1



2


4









2



Discuss that in certain cases, the area under a
graph may not represent any meaningful
quantity.
For example:
The area under the distance-time graph.
Discuss the formula for finding the area under
a graph involving:
- A straight line which is parallel to the x-
axis
- A straight lien in the form of y=kx+ h
A combination of the above.


Include speed-time and acceleration-time graphs.


Limit to graph of a straight line or a combination
of a few straight lines.

V represents speed, t represents time, h and k are
constants.
For example:


Speed, v
time, t
16
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Topic : 7
Learning Area : PROBABALITY II - --- 2 weeks
Second Term



28



08/7/13-
14/7/13






7.1 Understand and use the
concept of probability of an
event.
(i) Determine the sample space of an
experiment with equally likely
outcomes.


(ii) Determine the probability of an
event with equiprobable sample
space.






(iii)Solve problems involving
probability of an event.


1



1









1


Discuss equiprobable sample space through
concrete activities and begin with simple cases
such as tossing a fair coin.

Use tree diagrams to obtain sample
space for tossing a fair coin or
tossing or tossing a fair dice
activities. The Graphing calculator may also
be used to simulate these activities.

Discuss events that produce
P(A) = 1 and P(A) = 0


Limit to sample space with equally likely
outcomes.



A sample space in which each outcomes is
equally likely is called equiprobable sample
space.

The probability of an outcome A, with
equiprobable sample space

S, is P(A) =
n(A)
n(S)

( ) n S
Use tree diagram where appropriate.

Include everyday problems and making
predictions.


7.2 Understand and used
the concept of probability
of the complement of an
event.












(i) State the complement of an event in
:
(a) words
(b) set notations
(ii) Find the probability of the
complement of an event.

1




1




Include events in real life situations such
as winning or losing a game and passing or
failing an exam.




The complement of an event A is the set of all
outcomes in the sample space that are not
included in the outcomes of event A.
17
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29

15/7/13-
21/7/13
7.3 Understand use the
concept of probability
of combined event.
(i) List the outcomes for events:
(a) A or B as elements of set
A B
(b) A and B as elements of
set A B

(ii) Find the probability by
listing the outcomes of the
combined events :
(a) A or B
(b) A and B


(iii) Solve problems involving
probability of combined
events.

2





2







1







Use real life situations to show the
relationship between
- A or B and A B
- A and B and A B.

An example of a situation is being chosen to
be a member of an exclusive club with
restricted conditions.
Use tree diagram and coordinate planes to find
all the outcomes of combined events.

Use two-way classification tables of events
from newspaper articles or statistical data to
find probability of combined events. Ask
students to create tree diagrams from these
tables. Example of a two-way classification
table :
Means of going to work
Officers Car Bus Others
Men 56 25 83
Women 50 42 37
Discuss :
- situations where decisions have to
be made on probability, for example
in business, such as determining the
value for aspecific insurance policy
and time the slot for TV
advertisements
- the statement probability is the
underlying language of statistics
















Emphasise that :
- knowledge about probability is useful
in making decisions.
- prediction based on probability is not
definite or absolute.





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Learning Objectives
Pupils will be taught to.....
Learning Outcomes
Pupils will be able to
No of
Periods
Suggested Teaching & Learning
activities/Learning Skills/Values
Points to Note
Topic : 8
Learning Area : BEARING --- 1 week


30


22/7/13-
28/7/13


8.1. Understand and use the
concept of bearing.
(i) Draw and label the eight main
compass directions:
a) north, south, east, west
b) north east, north west, south
east, south west
ii) State the compass angle of any
compass direction.





(iii) Draw a diagram of a point which
shows the direction of B relative to
another point A given the bearing
of B from A.

(iv) State the bearing point A from point
B based on given information.

(v) Solve problems
involving bearing.





1







1





1




2






Carry out the activities or games involving
finding directions using a compass such as
treasure hunt or scravenger hubt. It can also be
about locating several points on a map, finding
the position of students in class.









Discuss the use of bearing in real life
situations. For example, a map reading and
navigation.






Compass angle and bearing are written in three
digit form, from 000
0
to 360
0
. They are measured
in a clockwise direction from north. Due north is
considered as bearing 000
0
. For cases involving
degrees up to one decimal point.















19
Week
No
Learning Objectives
Pupils will be taught to.....
Learning Outcomes
Pupils will be able to
No of
Periods
Suggested Teaching & Learning
activities/Learning Skills/Values
Points to Note
Topic 9
Learning Area: EARTH AS SPHERE ( 3 weeks )


31


29/7/13-
04/8/13










32 & 33

05/8/13-
18/8/13


9.1 Understand and use the
concept of longitude














HARI RAYA PUASA

CUTI PERTENGAHAN
PENGGAL 2


(i) Sketch a great circle through the north
and south poles.
(ii) State the longitude of a given point.
(iii) Sketch and label a meridian with the
longitude given.
(iv) Find the difference between two
longitudes


1







1



Model such as globes should be used.

Introduce the meridian through Greenwich in
England as the Greenwich Meridian with
longitude 0
Discuss that:
- All points on a meridian have the same
longitude
- There are two meridians on a great
circle through both poles.
- Meridians with longitude xE(or W) and
(180- x)W(or E) form a great circle
through both poles.

Emphasise that longitude 180E and longitue
180W refer to the same meridian.

Express the difference between two
longitudes with an angle in the range of 0
x 180

34
19/8/13-
24/8/13




9.2 Understand and use the
concept of latitude

(i) Sketch a circle parallel to the equator.

(ii) State the latitude of a given point.

(iii) Sketch and label a parallel of latitude.
(iv) Find the difference between two
latitudes.








1




1

Discuss that all the points on a paralell of
latitude have the same latitude.




Emphasise that
o the latitude of the equator is 0
o latitude ranges from 0 to 90N ( or S )

Involve actual places on the earth.

Express the diffrence between two latitudes
with an angle in the range of 0 x 180.
20



9.3 Understand the concept
of locations of a place.









Use a globe or a map to find locations of
cities around the world.

Use a globe or map to name a place given
its location.



1




1
i. State the latitude and longitude of a
given place

ii. Mark the location of a place


iii. Sketch and label the latitude and
longitude of a given place.
iv.
A place on the surface of the earth is
represented by a point.

The, location of a place A at latitude xN and
longitude yE is written ,as A(xN, yE).

35

26/8/13-
31/8/13

































9.4 Understand and use the
concept of distance on the
surface on the earth to solve
problems.

(i) Find the length of an arc of a great circle
in nautical mile, given the subtended angle
at the centre of the earth and vice versa.

(ii) Find the distance between two points
measured along a meridian, given the
latitudes of both points.

(iii)Find a latitude of a point given the
latitude of another point and the distance
between the two points along the same
meridian.
(iv) Find the distance between two points
measured along the equator, given the
longitude of both points.
(v) Find the longitude of a point given the
longitude of another point and the distance
between the two points along the equator.

(vi) State the relation betwen the radius of
the earth and the radius of a parallel of
latitude.

(vii) State the relation between the length of
an arc on the equatoq between two meridian
and the lengthe of the corresponding arc on
a parallel of latitude.

(viii) Find the distance between two points
measured along a parallel of latitude.






1







2

























Use the globe to find the distance between two
cities or town on the same meridian.




Sketch the angle at the centre of the earth that
is subtentded by the arc between two given
points along the equator. Discuss how to find
the value of this angle.




Use models such as the globe to find
relationship between the radius of the earth
and radii parallel of latitudes.









Limit to nautical mile as the unit for distance.

Explain one nautical mile as the length of the
arc of a great circle subtending a one minute
angle at the centre of the earth.























21































36 46

02/9/13-
15/11/13

(ix) Find the longitude of a point given the
longitude of another point and the distance
between the two points along a parallel of
latitude.

(x) Find the shortest distance between two
2points on the surface of the earth.

(xi) Solve problems involving :
(a) distance between two points.
(b) travelling on the surface o
f the earth.













ULANGKAJI & LATIHTUBI



PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM


ULANGKAJI & LATIHTUBI



SPM 2013




2

Find the distance between two cities or town
on the same parallel of latitude as a group
project.






Use the globe and a few pieces of string to
show how to determine the shortest distance
between two points on the surface of the earth.






















Limit to two points on the equator or the
great a cirle through the polas.

Use knot as the unit for speed navigation and
aviation.