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New New Generation Generation Strategy Strategy Ultra-Supercritical Ultra-Supercritical Technology Technology

New New Generation Generation Strategy Strategy

Ultra-Supercritical Ultra-Supercritical

Technology Technology

Presented by:

Tim Riordan, Manager New Generation Design & Eng.

APP Site Visit October 30 – November 4, 2006

AGENDA Power Plant Steam Cycle – (Rankin Cycle) History of Supercritical Units Ultra-supercritical (USC) Overview

AGENDA

Power Plant Steam Cycle – (Rankin Cycle) History of Supercritical Units Ultra-supercritical (USC) Overview AEP Ultra-supercritical Design Steam Generator Design Turbine/Generator Design Efficiency and Emissions Comparison

Typical Heat Balance 3

Typical Heat Balance

Typical Heat Balance 3

3

Typical Heat Balance 3
SCR NOx control added to meet NOx SIP Call. Additional NOx control greater than 85%
SCR NOx control added to meet NOx SIP Call. Additional NOx control greater than 85%
SCR NOx control added
to meet NOx SIP Call.
Additional NOx control
greater than 85%
Low NOx Burners.
NOx reduction
greater than 50 %
FGDS to reduce SO2 by
greater than 90%
Bag filter to remove Particulate
Burners. NOx reduction greater than 50 % FGDS to reduce SO2 by greater than 90% Bag
Burners. NOx reduction greater than 50 % FGDS to reduce SO2 by greater than 90% Bag

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The Basic Heat Cycle Critical Point – 3208psi/705°F Sub-Critical Steam Cycles : Water boiling to

The Basic Heat Cycle

Critical Point – 3208psi/705°F Sub-Critical Steam Cycles : Water boiling to steam with pressures below ‘critical point’ Super-Critical Steam Cycles: Water to steam without boiling. Pressure above ‘critical point’ Ultra-Supercritical Steam Cycles: Steam temperatures above 1100 °F as defined by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

Gaining Efficiency Higher Pressure and Temperature Power Plant Cycle Improvement from Higher Steam Temperature

Gaining Efficiency Higher Pressure and Temperature

Power Plant Cycle

Improvement from Higher Steam Temperature Increase in Heat input: b'-3'-2'-2-3-b-b' Increase in Work:
Improvement from Higher Steam Temperature
Increase in Heat input: b'-3'-2'-2-3-b-b'
Increase in Work:
3'-2'-2-3
Net increase in cycle efficiency
2
Critical Point
1'
2'
1
3
3'
a
Entropy
b'
b
Temperature

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The Evolution Continues Comparison Ultra Supercritical 1960 Vintage Subcritical Reheat Supercritical Early 20th

The Evolution Continues

Comparison

Ultra Supercritical 1960 Vintage Subcritical Reheat Supercritical Early 20th Century Vintage Subcritical Non-Reheat
Ultra Supercritical
1960 Vintage
Subcritical Reheat
Supercritical
Early 20th Century Vintage
Subcritical Non-Reheat
1940 Vintage Subcritical
Non-Reheat
Temperature
History of Supercritical Units First Supercritical Unit: AEP Philo Unit 6 Initial Operation Date: 1957

History of Supercritical Units

First Supercritical Unit: AEP Philo Unit 6

Initial Operation Date: 1957 (49 years ago) 125 MW Steam Conditions: 4500psi/1150F/1050F/1000F (double-reheat)

World-wide – Over 200 units Typical steam pressures: 3350 to 4200 psi Typical steam temperatures: 1000 to 1050°F

Generating Technology: Ultra-Supercritical (USC) Pulverized Coal Plants What is USC Technology? Defined by EPRI as

Generating Technology:

Ultra-Supercritical (USC) Pulverized Coal Plants

What is USC Technology? Defined by EPRI as Rankin Cycle steam temperatures above 1100° F Limited to ASME code approved metallurgy for pressure part design Higher temperatures increase cycle efficiency

USC technology is most efficient cycle available for selected fuels (sub-bituminous coal)

Higher efficiency = Less emissions

IGCC is limited for sub-bituminous coal applications

Generating Technology: Ultra-Supercritical (USC) Pulverized Coal Plants An ultra-supercritical (USC) steam generation

Generating Technology:

Ultra-Supercritical (USC) Pulverized Coal Plants

An ultra-supercritical (USC) steam generation unit operates at supercritical pressure (typically 3500 psi or higher) and at steam temperatures above 1100 o F (593 o C). For comparison, a conventional supercritical unit operates at steam temperatures of 1000-1050 o F (538-566 o C). Modern chrome and nickel-based super alloys in the steam generator, steam turbine, and piping systems can withstand prolonged exposure to this high temperature steam. By operating at elevated steam temperatures, the turbine cycle is more efficient. This reduces fuel (coal) consumption, and thereby reduces emissions. USC technology is compatible with all types of coal.

re duces fuel (coal) consumption, and thereby reduces emissions. USC technology is compatible with all types
re duces fuel (coal) consumption, and thereby reduces emissions. USC technology is compatible with all types
Steam Generator Cross Section 11

Steam Generator Cross Section

Steam Generator Cross Section 11

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AEP USC Steam Generator Design Conditions Pulverized Coal-fired Benson Cycle, Spiral-wound Boiler PRB Coal Main

AEP USC Steam Generator Design Conditions

Pulverized Coal-fired Benson Cycle, Spiral-wound Boiler

PRB Coal

Main Steam: 3675 psi/1115 F

Reheat Steam: 1130 F

USC Impact on Steam Generator High Temperature Oxidation Internal oxidation of boiler tubing above 1050

USC Impact on Steam Generator

High Temperature Oxidation

Internal oxidation of boiler tubing above 1050 o F

Exfoliation of oxide layers leads to tube pluggage and could damage turbine blading.

SA-213-T91 material not used in heat transfer zone

Approaching limits of dissimilar metal weld (DMW) designs

DMW Design Limit = 1150 o F

Steam Generator Materials of Construction SSH Outlet Bank: SA-213-347 HFG Stainless Steel RH Outlet Bank:

Steam Generator Materials of Construction

SSH Outlet Bank: SA-213-347 HFG Stainless Steel RH Outlet Bank: SA-213-347 HFG Stainless Steel Superheater Headers : SA-335 –P92 Other alloys typical of previous supercritical designs

Steam Turbine/Generator Current Turbine Design for AEP USC Unit: Four-casing, 3600 RPM, Tandem Compound, Single

Steam Turbine/Generator

Current Turbine Design for AEP USC Unit:

Four-casing, 3600 RPM, Tandem Compound, Single Reheat

Single-flow High-pressure (HP) turbine section

Double-flow Intermediate-pressure (IP) turbine section

Two (2) Double-flow Low-pressure (LP) turbine sections

Designed for full arc, sliding pressure operation

Improved Efficiency

Minimize Component Thermal Fatigue Damage

sections Designed for full arc, sliding pressure operation Improved Efficiency Minimize Component Thermal Fatigue Damage
Steam Turbine/Generator Generator Design for AEP USC Unit: Two-Pole, Three-Phase Synchronous Machine 840 MVA Rating

Steam Turbine/Generator

Generator Design for AEP USC Unit:

Two-Pole, Three-Phase Synchronous Machine 840 MVA Rating Direct Hydrogen cooled field and stator core Direct water cooled stator windings

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USC Impact on Turbine Higher operating temperatures call for improved materials of construction: Most important

USC Impact on Turbine

Higher operating temperatures call for improved materials of construction:

Most important components:

Forgings (rotors)

Castings (casings)

Piping

Material Requirements to handle USC operating conditions:

High creep rupture strength

Resistance against embrittlement

Low oxidation growth and no loosening of oxidation layer

Ease in manufacturing and availability

Turbine Materials of Construction Main Steam and Reheat St eam Piping: Main Steam Valve Casing:

Turbine Materials of Construction

Main Steam and Reheat Steam Piping:

Main Steam Valve Casing:

HP Inner Shell: 9Cr (CB2) HP Rotor: 9Cr (FB2) HP Rotating Blading – Inlet Stages: Nimonic (Ni80TiAl) Nickel-based alloy Superior to steel alloys at temperatures above 1050 o F

SA-335-P92

9Cr (CB2)

Efficiency and CO 2 Emissions Comparison CO 2 Emissions vary with Heat Rate & Coal

Efficiency and CO 2 Emissions Comparison

CO 2 Emissions vary with Heat Rate & Coal Rank Lignite 1.10 1.05 Sub Bituminous
CO 2 Emissions vary
with Heat Rate & Coal Rank
Lignite
1.10
1.05
Sub Bituminous
1.00
0.95
Bituminous
0.90
Figures for Supercritical and Subcritical are for
existing units w /environmental control retrofits.
0.85
8500
9000
9500
10000
10500
Net Unit Heat Rate (Full Load), Btu/kwh
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CO2 Emissions, Tons/MWH
Emission Comparison Sub-Bituminous Coal Emission Ultra SC Supercritical IGCC Subcritical

Emission Comparison Sub-Bituminous Coal

Emission

Ultra SC

Supercritical

IGCC

Subcritical

3800psi/1100F/1100F

3500psi/1000F/1000F

2X1 7FB GT – Dry Feed

2400psi/1000F/1000F

SO 2

0.91

lb/MWh

0.97

lb/MWh

0.55

lb/MWh

0.99

lb/MWh

NOx

0.64

lb/MWh

0.68

lb/MWh

0.65

lb/MWh

0.70

lb/MWh

PM-10

0.14

lb/MWh

0.15

lb/MWh

0.09

lb/MWh

0.15

lb/MWh

CO 2

0.97

T/MWh

1.03 T/MWh

0.99

T/MWh

1.06 T/MWh

Conclusion Ultra-supercritical Pulverized Coal Technology Higher Temperatures = Better Efficiency Better Efficiency = Less

Conclusion

Ultra-supercritical Pulverized Coal Technology

Higher Temperatures = Better Efficiency

Better Efficiency = Less Emissions and Less Carbon Dioxide

Metallurgy Currently Available for Temperatures above 1100°F

Equipment Suppliers Can Guarantee Performance and Reliability