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Jan 28, 2013

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Syllabus

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Syllabus

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- NACA TM 863 on the Determination of the Take-Off Characteristics of a Seaplane
- Propeller Design Workshop Part I
- The Aerodynamics of Sail Interaction
- AIAA Reno 2007 1070 Schuette DLR Final
- Aerodynamic Analysis of Air foil in Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
- 20320140501010-2
- H .K. Moffatt- High frequency excitation of liquid metal systems
- The+Effects+of+Corrugation+and+Wing+Planform+on+the+Aerodynamic+Force+Production+of+Sweeping+Model+Insect+Wings
- Propeller Design Workshop Part I
- Bubble Flow
- Basic for Aeronautics.ppt
- 214b_PhysicsofSailing
- NASA-TN-D-8524
- AIAA-2009-2078
- S5 Mechnical Strem Automoble Eng Sylla
- 2.Goldshmied.J.Aircr.90.pdf
- _g3_BoundaryLayer_Flat_plate_turbulent_BL.pdf
- Aero Introductory Physics
- Flow Simulation Report.pdf
- Fluid-structure Interaction and Multidisciplinary Design Analysis

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II YEAR - II SEMESTER

nd

nd

Imparting Value Based Education

www.biet.ac.in

What is Education ?

Education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man. The training by which the current and expression of will is brought under control and become fruitful is called education. [Education] may be described as a development of faculty, not an accumulation of words, or, as a training of individuals to will rightly and efficiently. The education which does not help the common mass of people to equip themselves for the struggle of life, which does not bring out the strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy, and the courage of a lion is it worth the name? To me the very essence of education is concentration of mind, not the collecting of facts. If I had to do my education over again, and had any voice in the matter, I would not study facts at all. I would develop the power of concentration and detachment, and then with a perfect instrument I could collect facts at will. ....no one can teach anybody. Vedanta says that within man is all knowledge -- even in a boy it so -and it requires only an awakening, and that much is the work of a teacher. Source of Knowledge Knowledge is inherent in man; no knowledge comes from outside; it is all inside; What we say a man knows, should, in strict psychological language, be what he discovers or unveils; what a man learns is really what he discovers, by taking the cover off his own soul, which is a mine of infinite knowledge.

An education that confines itself to imparting knowledge is not education. The various faculties of memory, judgement, imagination, perception, reasoning, which build the edifice of the thought and knowledge for the knower, must not only be equipped with their fit and sufficient tools and materials, but trained to bring fresh materials and use more skillfully those of which they are in possession.

Sri Aurobindo

We have taken the idea for granted that it is the past which determines the present and that the past and present will determine the future. But, in the light of Sri Aurobindo we may very well revise the idea and wonder if it is not the future which has made the past and the present. That is to say, there is a destiny which is in the process of realising itself and all that has happened and all that is happening are a part of that process.

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

TIME TABLE

DAY / TIME 09:20

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DAY / TIME 09:20

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04:00

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

1. What is the objective of providing this hand book to students? This handbook contains information that students may find useful during their stay in this college. It provides an exposure to key academic requirements and practices, extra and co curricular activities. 2. What are the rules related to attendance? (i) Students shall be counted in attendance if they are actually present in lecture/tutorial/practical class at the time the attendance is taken.

(ii) A student shall maintain their attendance as per JNTUH guidelines. The basic requirements are as follows: a). A student shall be eligible to appear for University examinations if he acquires a minimum of 75% of attendance in aggregate of all the subjects.

b). Shortage of Attendance below 65% in aggregate shall in NO case be condoned. c). Condonation of shortage of attendance in aggregate up to 10% (65% and above and below 75%) in each semester or I year may be granted by the College Academic Committee.

d). A student will not be promoted to the next semester unless he satisfies the attendance requirement of the present semester / I year, as applicable. They may seek re-admission for that semester / I year when offered next. e). Students whose shortage of attendance is not condoned in any semester / I year are not eligible to take their end examination of that class and their registration shall stand cancelled. A stipulated fee shall be payable towards condonation of shortage of attendance.

f).

(iii) Students shall have to attend Extra Classes, i.e bridge classes or remedial classes, Guest Lectures, Seminars, Symposia, etc. as and when these are organized in the college. (iv) The Principal has the right to detain any student from appearing in examination, if he/she falls short of attendance as per the JNTUH norms. 3. How will I be evaluated during the study of my course? Award of B.Tech. Degree: A student will be declared eligible for the award of the B. Tech. Degree if he fulfils the following academic regulations: I. Pursued a course of study for not less than four academic years and not more than eight academic years.

3

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

ii.

Register for 200 credits and secure 200 credits Students, who fail to fulfil all the academic requirements for the award of the degree within eight academic years from the year of their admission, shall forfeit their seat in B.Tech course.

The courses of the study and the subject of examinations shall be as approved by the Academic Council of JNTUH from time to time. The evaluation of student is done on the basis of the following two components: (i) Internal Assessment as per the guidelines of JNTUH.

(ii) External Exams (Theory/practical/viva-voce) that are conducted by JNTUH at the end of each semester 3.1. Distribution and Weightage of Marks i. The performance of a student in each semester / I year shall be evaluated subject wise with a maximum of 100 marks for theory and 75 marks for practical subject. In addition, Industry oriented mini-project, seminar and project work shall be evaluated for 50, 50 and 200 marks respectively. For theory subjects the distribution shall be 25 marks for Internal Evaluation and 75 marks for the End-Examination. For theory subjects, during the semester there shall be 2 midterm examinations. Each midterm examination consists of one objective paper, one subjective paper and one assignment. The objective paper is for 10 marks and subjective paper is for 10 marks, with a duration of 1 hour 20 minutes (20 minutes for objective and 60 minutes for subjective paper). Objective paper is set for 20 bits of multiple choice questions, fill-in the blanks, matching type questions for the 10 marks.

ii. iii.

Subjective paper of each semester shall contain 4 full questions (one from each unit) of which, the student has to answer 2 questions, each carrying 5 marks. First midterm examination shall be conducted for 1-4 units of syllabus and second midterm examination shall be conducted for 5-8 units. 5 marks are allocated for Assignments (as specified by the concerned subject teacher) first Assignment should be submitted before the conduct of the first mid, and the second Assignment should be submitted before the conduct of the second mid. The total marks secured by the student in each midterm examination are evaluated for 25 marks, and the better of the two midterm examinations shall be taken as the final marks secured by each candidate. However, for first year, there shall be 3 midterm examinations (each for 25 marks), along st with 3 assignments in a similar pattern as above [1 mid shall be from 1-2 units, 2nd mid from 35 units and 3rd mid shall be from 6-8 units], and the average marks of the best two examinations secured (each evaluated for a total of 25 marks) in each subject shall be considered as final marks for the internals / sessionals.

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

iv.

For practical subjects there shall be a continuous evaluation during the semester for 25 sessional marks and 50 end examination marks. Out of the 25 marks for internal, dayto-day work in the laboratory shall be evaluated for 15 marks and internal examination for practical shall be evaluated for 10 marks conducted by the concerned laboratory teacher. The end examination shall be conducted with external examiner and laboratory teacher. The external examiner shall be appointed from the cluster of colleges as decided by the University examination branch. For the subject having design and / or drawing, (such as Engineering Graphics, Engineering Drawing, Machine Drawing) and estimation, the distribution shall be 25 marks for internal evaluation (15 marks for day-to-day work and 10 marks for internal tests) and 75 marks for end examination. There shall be two internal tests in a Semester and the better of the two shall be considered for the award of marks for internal tests. However in the I year class, there shall be three tests and the average of best two will be taken into consideration. There shall be an industry-oriented mini-Project, in collaboration with an industry of their specialization, to be taken up during the vacation after III year II Semester examination. However, the mini project and its report shall be evaluated with the project work in IV year II Semester. The industry oriented mini project shall be submitted in report form and should be presented before the committee, which shall be evaluated for 50 marks. The committee consists of an external examiner, head of the department, the supervisor of mini project and a senior faculty member of the department. There shall be no internal marks for industry oriented mini project. There shall be a seminar presentation in IV year II Semester. For the seminar, the student shall collect the information on a specialized topic and prepare a technical report, showing his understanding over the topic, and submit to the department, which shall be evaluated by the Departmental committee consisting of Head of the department, seminar supervisor and a senior faculty member. The seminar report shall be evaluated for 50 marks. There shall be no external examination for seminar.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii. There shall be a Comprehensive Viva-Voce in IV year II semester. The Comprehensive Viva-Voce will be conducted by a Committee consisting of (i) Head of the Department (ii) two Senior Faculty members of the Department. The Comprehensive Viva-Voce is aimed to assess the students' understanding in various subjects he / she studied during the B.Tech course of study. The Comprehensive Viva-Voce is evaluated for 100 marks by the Committee. There are no internal marks for the Comprehensive vivavoce. ix. Out of a total of 200 marks for the project work, 50 marks shall be for Internal Evaluation and 150 marks for the End Semester Examination. The End Semester Examination (viva-voce) shall be conducted by the same committee appointed for industry oriented mini project. In addition the project supervisor shall also be included in the committee. The topics for industry oriented mini project, seminar and project work shall be different from each other. The evaluation of project work shall be conducted at the end of the IV year. The Internal Evaluation shall be on the basis of two seminars given by each student on the topic of his project.

5

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

x.

Laboratory marks and the sessional marks awarded by the College are not final. They are subject to scrutiny and scaling by the University wherever necessary. In such cases, the sessional and laboratory marks awarded by the College will be referred to a Committee. The Committee will arrive at a scaling factor and the marks will be scaled as per the scaling factor. The recommendations of the Committee are final and binding. The laboratory records and internal test papers shall be preserved in the respective institutions as per the University norms and shall be produced to the Committees of the University as and when the same is asked for.

3.2 Minimum Academic Requirements: The following academic requirements have to be satisfied in addition to the attendance requirements mentioned in the previous point. i. A student shall be deemed to have satisfied the minimum academic requirements and earned the credits allotted to each theory or practical design or drawing subject or project if he secures not less than 35% of marks in the end examination and a minimum of 40% of marks in the sum total of the internal evaluation and end examination taken together. A student shall be promoted from II to III year only if he fulfills the academic requirement of 37credits from one regular and one supplementary examinations of I year, and one regular examination of II year I semester irrespective of whether the candidate takes the examination or not. A student shall be promoted from third year to fourth year only if he fulfills the academic requirements of total 62 credits from the following examinations, whether the candidate takes the examinations or not. a. Two regular and two supplementary examinations of I year. b. Two regular and one supplementary examinations of II year I semester. c. One regular and one supplementary examinations of II year II semester. d. One regular examination of III year I semester. A student shall register and put up minimum attendance in all 200 credits and earn the 200 credits. Marks obtained in all 200 credits shall be considered for the calculation of percentage of marks. Students who fail to earn 200 credits as indicated in the course structure within eight academic years from the year of their admission shall forfeit their seat in B.Tech course and their admission shall stand cancelled.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

3.3. Course pattern: i. ii. The entire course of study is of four academic years. The first year shall be on yearly pattern and the second, third and fourth years on semester pattern. A student eligible to appear for the end examination in a subject, but absent at it or has failed in the end examination may appear for that subject at the supplementary examination.

6

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

iii.

When a student is detained due to lack of credits / shortage of attendance he may be readmitted when the semester / year is offered after fulfillment of academic regulations, whereas the academic regulations hold good with the regulations he was first admitted.

3.4. Award of Class: After a student has satisfied the requirements prescribed for the completion of the program and is eligible for the award of B. Tech. Degree he shall be placed in one of the following four classes:

Class Awarded First Class with Distinction First Class Below Second Class Below Pass Class % of marks to be secured 70% and above 70% but not less than 60% 60% but not less than 50% Below 50% but not less than 40% From the aggregate marks secured for the best 200 Credits.

(The marks in internal evaluation and end examination shall be shown separately in the marks memorandum) 3.5. Minimum Instruction Days: The minimum instruction days for each semester/I year shall be 90/180 clear instruction days. 3.6. General: i. ii. iii. The academic regulation should be read as a whole for the purpose of any interpretation. In the case of any doubt or ambiguity in the interpretation of the above rules, the decision of the Vice-Chancellor is final. The University may change or amend the academic regulations or syllabi at any time and the changes or amendments made shall be applicable to all the students with effect from the dates notified by the University.

3.7. What are the minimum marks to pass the year/semester exam. Course Criterion B.Tech 40% in each theory paper 40% in each practical/viva-voce examination 40% in the aggregate of sessional and examination for each theory & practical subject

Student should score min. of 26 marks out of 75 in the external exam and it is mandatory to score 40 marks (external+ internal) out of 100 to pass in each subject.

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

3.8 How can I monitor and improve my performance in academics before I flunk in Internal / External examinations? Special support is provided to students not performing up to the mark by organizing classes exclusively for such students. The College shall put up a list of students who, in its opinion, should attend these classes based on the marks scored in Mock Test after completion of each unit. Students whose names appear in this list are advised to take advantage of Bridge classes. The Subject wise Course Schedule specifies the week when the mock test will be conducted and the schedule of the Bridge Classes. 3.9 What is a Course Schedule? Course Schedule is a detailed session wise, week wise course delivery plan prepared for each subject. Students should refer the course schedule to prepare the topic of next class in advance for the participative teaching learning process in the class. 3.10 How can I monitor and improve my performance in academics after I flunk in External Examinations? After the university results are announced, list of subject wise failure students will be prepared and Remedial Classes will be conducted for them for previous semester subjects by senior faculty members of the department. It is mandatory for students with backlogs in the previous year/semester to attend these Remedial Classes and pass with good percentage. 4. Is there any Concept of Mentoring the students? For every 20 student one faculty is allocated as mentor (women faculty members exclusively for girls) appointed by the Head of the Department. The mentor maintains the data of progress of a student which includes the academic performance in the sessional exams, the attendance discipline etc. The mentor will update the parents every day about their wards attendance. The mentor monitors the student to ensure that he/ she is regular, punctual, attentive to class work and excel in the academics during his entire course in this institution. The mentor also gives time-to-time advice on matters of academics as well as personal concern. Students are advised to share any problem related to their academics or personal issues with the respective mentor for quick redress. 5. How are the parents expected to participate in mentoring the students? Parents should meet the mentor of their ward once in a month to know about the academic progress/ behavior of the students. The parents will be informed about the academic performance and shortage of attendance of their ward through phone call, SMS, Email and post. Therefore parents are advised to update the counselor/HOD of the dept regarding any change in communication details like phone numbers or residential address. Parents are expected to encourage their wards to follow the college rules and regulations and participate in various activities and training programmes.

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

6.

When do I have to pay Tuition fee? Students shall be required to pay the college fee within 15 days of the commencement of the academic year. Otherwise per day they have to pay Rs 50/- as fine. If students are not able to pay the college fee then they are not eligible to pay the exam fee.

7.

When do I have to pay Exam fee? Students shall be required to pay the fee in SEP/OCT for odd semester and FEB/MAR for even semester respectively i.e. prior to the start of University semester exams.

8.

8.1 Language Proficiency: The College lays great stress on Language Proficiency classes. These are conducted to augment student communication, group working and group learning skills. Experience shows that these skills contribute directly in improving job prospects of students in the best companies. These skills not only enhances better prospects for selection in interviews but it also leads to enhanced salary packages being offered. Students are expected to treat these classes with the same seriousness as regular classes. Marks for General Proficiency are awarded on the basis of evaluation of work done in these classes. The requirement of minimum attendance specified by JNTUH applies to General proficiency as well. 8.2 Campus Recruitment Training (CRT): To enhance employability skills of our students and to give them a competitive edge over others, the college organizes training programmes during vacation periods. Training programmes are organized at the end of second year and third year during the summer vacation. Students should be prepared to undergo all such training programmes with out any exemption. 8.3 Industry Academia Interaction: The College also makes arrangements for invited talks, guest lectures and seminars by eminent personalities drawn from academia and industry. The aim is to update the students about the latest technology and industrial practices and bridge the gap between academics & industry. Participation in such events is compulsory. 8.4 Center for Human Excellence: Swami Vivekananda Institute for Human Excellence has an in house centre in our campus, wherein human values are instilled in students through various lectures organized by experts in grooming students in life skills and preparing them to sustain the myriad challenges they may have to face in life. 8.5 Student club activities (Co curricular and Extracurricular activities): Employers in the globalized world look forward for exuberant and active employees besides the necessary technical skills. To niche an edge over other candidates, he/she is expected to enrich his/her profile which reflects an all round personality.

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

SCHEDULE FOR STUDENT CLUB ACTIVITIES Timings: 3.10 p.m. to 4.00 p.m

Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Name of the Club Singing Club Creative Writing / Scrabble Club Basket Ball Club Volley Ball Club Musical Instruments Club Painting Club Helping Hands Club College Magazine Students Voice / Press Throw Ball Club Debate Club Photography Club Athletic Club Department Technical Clubs Orators / Elocution Club Radio Club Tennis Shuttle Club Quiz Club Chess Club Table Tennis Club Poetry Club Shayari/ Ghazal Club Drama / Mimicry Club Dance Club Foot ball Club Cricket Club Science Club Day Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

II SEMESTER Commencement of class work I Spell of Instructions FRESHERS PARTY I YR TECHNOFLAIR Mock Test I REPUBLIC DAY CELEBRATION I Mid Examinations II Spell of Instructions Mock Test II BHAGAT SINGH COMMEMRATION DAY ANNUAL DAY CELEBRATIONS FAREWELL PARTY II Mid Examinations Preparations & Practical Examinations End semester Examinations Supplementary Examinations Summer vacation Commencement of class work for the A. Y. 2013-14 15.04.2013 22.04.2013 06.05.2013 20.05.2013 02.06.2013 01.07.2013 (Mon) 20.04.2013 (1w) 04.05.2013 (2w) 18.05.2013(2w) 01.06.2013(2w) 30.06.2013(4w) 07.01. 2013 26.01. 2013 11.02.2013 18.02.2013 18.03. 2013 23.03. 2013 16.02.2013(1w) 13.04.2013(8w) 23.03. 2013 05.01. 2013 12.01.2013 17.12.2012 17.12.2012 09.02.2013(8w)

COURSE STRUCTURE

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING II YEAR II SEMESTER

Code 54040 54041 54042 54043 54044 54045 54632 54633 Subject Aerodynamics -I Aircraft Production Technology Electrical and Electronic Engineering Aerospace Vehicle Structures - I Introduction to Space Technology Flight Mechanics -I Aircraft Production Technology Electrical and Electronic Engineering TOTAL

11

L 4 3 4 3 3 4 21

T/P/D 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 11

C 4 3 4 3 3 4 2 2 25

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

AERODYNAMICS I (54040)

COURSE PURPOSE : The purpose of the course is to introduce a very important field of aeronautics to the student. COURSE STRUCTURE: Review Of Fluid Mechanics Inviscid , Incompressible Flow Viscous Flow And Boundary Layers Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils Incompressible Flow Over Wings & Bodies Aerodynamic Characteristics Of Airfoils And Wings Propellers SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES: At the end of the course the student will be in a position to understand the basic and advanced concepts involved in aerodynamics. The course will equip him with the analyzing and experimental skills involved in aerodynamics. The course will strengthen the mathematics, physics and fluid engineering basics of the student. COURSE SYLLABUS: UNIT I: Review of Fluid Mechanics Aerodynamics-importance, the flow field, fundamental aerodynamic variables, aerodynamic force & moment co-efficient, dimensional analysis, flow similarity, classification of fluid flows. The continuity, momentum & energy equations in integral form and in differential form, Euler's equation. Methods of determination of flow-analytical and numerical methods. UNIT II: INVISCID, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW Angular velocity, vorticity and circulation. Kelvin's theorem. Irrotational flow. The velocity potential. Stream function for 2-D incompressible flow. Laplace's equation. Boundary conditions at infinity and at the wall. Elementary flows and their combinations, non-lifting flow over a circular cylinder, vortex flow, lifting flow over a cylinder. D'Alembert's paradox. Kutta Joukowski theorem and generation of lift. Non-lifting flows over arbitrary bodies- numerical source panel method. Real flow over circular cylinder. UNIT III: Viscous FLOW AND BOUNDARY LAYERS Role of viscosity in fluid flow. The Navier-Stoke's equation, boundary layer approximation. Boundary layer thickness, growth along a flat surface. Laminar boundary layers. Surface friction drag. Boundary layer separation. Transition. Turbulent boundary layers, turbulence modeling, eddy viscosity and mixing length concepts. The momentum integral equation. Approximate solutions for laminar, turbulent and mixed boundary layers-computational methods. Thermal boundary layer. Reynolds's analogy

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

12

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

UNIT IV: INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OVER AIRFOILS Theoretical solutions of low speed flow over airfoils-the vortex sheet representation. The kutta condition. Kelvin's circulation theorem and the starting vortex. The thin airfoil theory. The aerodynamic centre. Lifting flows over arbitrary bodies- the vortex panel numerical method. Airfoil design foe prescribed lift distribution. Real flow over an airfoil. Effect of boundary layer transition and surface roughness on the aerodynamic forces. UNIT V: INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OVER WINGS & BODIES-I Downwash and induced drag. The vortex filament- Biot-Stavart's law. Helmholtz's theorems. The starting bound and trailing vortices. Prandtl's classical lifting line theory for un-swept wings-determination of lift. Vortex induced drag. Nonlinear lifting-line, lifting surface and vortex lattice numerical methods. UNIT-VI: INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OVER WINGS & BODIES-II The mechanism of lift generation on delta wing in subsonic flow. Leading edge extensions to wings. 3-D flow-source, doublet, flow over sphere. General 3-D flows-panel techniques. Real flow over sphere. Asymmetric loads on fuselage at high angles of attack-asymmetric vortex shedding. Wake-like flows, Flow field about aircraft at high angles of attack. UNIT-VII: AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRFOILS AND WINGS Aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. The drag polar, The lift curve slope, maximum lift coefficient, minimum drag coefficient, lift drag ratio-effect of airfoil and wing geometry parameters, Reynolds's no., boundary layer transition and surface roughness. NACA airfoils, laminar flow airfoils, supercritical airfoils. Aerodynamics of drag reduction and lift augmentation methods-flap systems, leading edge devices, multi-element airfoils. Power augmented lift, circulation control, laminar flow control, winglets. UNIT-VIII: PROPELLERS Geometry of propeller, Rankine Froude momentum theory of propulsion, airscrew coefficients, thrust, torque, power coefficients, propulsive efficiency, activity factor, airscrew pitch; geometric pitch, experimental mean pitch, effect of geometric pitch on airscrew performance, blade element theory, the vortex system of an airscrew, rotational inflow and outflow, performance of a blade element, compressibility effects, use of propeller charts, propeller selection, propeller design. Course textbook and references: 1. Aerodynamics For Engineers, 4th edition bertin j.j., Pearson education,2002. 2. Fundamental Of Aerodynamics, Anderson Jr. J.D., International edition,2001 REFERENCES Mc Cormick, B.W. Aerodynamics, AERONAUTICS & FLIGHT MECHANICS, IInd edition. 1995

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

13

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

COURSE SCHEDULE: The course will proceed as follows for all sections. Please note that the week and the classes in each week are relative to each section.

Lecture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Week 2 Week Week 1 Topic UNIT 1 REVIEW OF FLUID MECHANICS Aerodynamics-importance, the flow field, fundamental aerodynamic variables Aerodynamic force & moment co-efficient, dimensional analysis Flow similarity, Classification of fluid flows. The continuity equations in integral form and in differential form. Momentum equations in integral form and in differential form. Energy equations in integral form and in differential form. Eulers equation. Methods of determination of flow-analytical and numerical methods GUEST LECTURE - 1 UNIT 2 INVISCID, INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW Angular velocity, vorticity and circulation. Kelvins theorem Irrotational flow. The velocity potential. Stream function for 2-D incompressible flow. Laplaces equation. Boundary conditions at infinity and at the wall. Elementary flows and their combinations, nonlifting flow over a circular cylinder Vortex flow, lifting flow over a cylinder. DAlemberts paradox. Kutta Joukowski theorem and generation of lift Non-lifting flows over arbitrary bodiesnumerical source panel method Real flow over circular cylinder. MOCK TEST I Bridge Class 1 Reference

FUNDAMENTAL OF AERODYNAMICS

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Week 3

Week 4

FUNDAMENTAL OF AERODYNAMICS

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

14

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

28. 29.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

UNIT 3 VISCOUS FLOW AND BOUNDARY LAYERS Week 5 Role of viscosity in fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equation, boundary layer approximation Boundary layer thickness, growth along a flat surface Laminar boundary layers. Surface friction drag. Boundary layer separation. Transition Turbulent boundary layers, turbulence modeling Bridge Class 2 Week 6 Eddy viscosity and mixing length concepts The momentum integral equation Approximate solutions for laminar, turbulent and mixed boundary layers-computational methods. Thermal boundary layer Reynoldss analogy Bridge Class 3 GUEST LECTURE - 2 UNIT 4 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OVER AIRFOILS Week 7 Theoretical solutions of low speed flow over airfoils-the vortex sheet representation The Kutta Condition. Kelvins Circulation Theorem Kelvins Circulation Theorem and the Starting Vortex. The Thin Airfoil Theory The aerodynamic centre Bridge Class 4 Week 8 Lifting flows over arbitrary bodies- the Vortex panel numerical method Airfoil design for prescribed lift distribution.

FUNDAMENTAL OF AERODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTAL OF AERODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTAL Real flow over an airfoil. OF Effect of boundary layer transition and surface AERODYNAMICS roughness on the aerodynamic forces. Effect of boundary layer transition and surface roughness on the aerodynamic forces Bridge Class 5 I Mid Examinations (Week 9) UNIT 5 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OVER WINGS & BODIES-I Week 9 Downwash and induced drag FUNDAMENTAL (3days) & The vortex filament B iotStavarts law OF 10 AERODYNAMICS The vortex filament Biot- Stavarts law -

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

15

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

Helmholtzs theorems The starting bound and trailing vortices Bridge Class 6 Week 11 Prandtls classical lifting line theory for un-swept wings-determination of lift Prandtls classical lifting line theory for un-swept wings-determination of lift Vortex induced drag Nonlinear lifting-line numerical methods. Lifting surface and vortex lattice numerical methods. Bridge Class 7 GUEST LECTURE - 3 UNIT 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OVER WINGS & BODIES-II Week 12 The mechanism of lift generation on delta wing in subsonic flow Leading edge extensions to wings 3-D flow-source, doublet flow over sphere General 3-D flows-panel techniques FUNDAMENTAL Bridge Class 8 OF Week 13 Real flow over sphere AERODYNAMICS Asymmetric loads on fuselage at high angles of attack-asymmetric vortex shedding Wake-like flows. Flow field about aircraft at high angles of attack MOCK TEST - II Bridge Class 9 UNIT 7 AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRFOILS AND WINGS Week 14 Aerodynamic force and moment coefficients The drag polar. The lift curve slope, Maximum lift coefficient, minimum drag coefficient, AERODYNAMICS Lift drag ratio-effect of airfoil and wing FOE ENGINEERS geometry parameters Reynoldss no., boundary layer transition and surface roughness Bridge Class 10

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

16

BHARAT INSTITUTIONS

Week 15

67.

68.

Week 16

Week-17

NACA airfoils Laminar flow airfoils, supercritical airfoils Aerodynamics of drag reduction and lift augmentation methods-flap systems, leading edge devices, multi-element airfoils Aerodynamics of drag reduction and lift augmentation methods-flap systems, leading edge devices, multi-element airfoils Power augmented lift, circulation control, laminar flow control, winglets. Bridge Class 11 GUEST LECTURE 4 UNIT 8 PROPELLERS Geometry of propeller, Rankine Froude momentum theory of propulsion Airscrew coefficients, thrust, torque power coefficients, propulsive efficiency, activity factor Airscrew pitch; geometric pitch, experimental mean pitch Effect of geometric pitch on airscrew performance Bridge Class 12 Blade element theory The vortex system of an airscrew Rotational inflow and outflow Performance of a blade element, compressibility effects, Use of propeller charts, propeller selection, propeller design. Bridge Class 13 II Mid Examinations (Week 18)

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17

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QUESTION BANK

1. Consider flow over an unsymmetrical airfoil at = 0o in a real fluid. What are the forces and moments developed on the airfoil in this configuration? Make use of aerodynamics and sketches to explain the answer. Show from dimensional analysis that the pitching moments M = f [, CM, Re, Ma] on an airfoil is proportional to the square of the free stream velocity. What are your comments on this result? Define the term circulation. Prove from the configuration of a rotating cylinder that the lift generated on the circular cylinder is given by l = U Sketch the pressure distribution in this case as well as the same for a stationary cylinder on one plot. Make use of the Complex Potential Function theory to obtain flow around a rotating circular cylinder. Work out its dimensions and streamlines over this object. Show that the pressure distribution over this object is given by Cp = [1(2Sin+ 2_Ua )2]. Does it get lifted up? Present your work out Make use of the thin airfoil theory to work out an expression for Cl and Cm for a flat plate of chord 450 mm. Obtain the results at =1.50 . Where does the centre of pressure lie in this case? What is CmLE in this case? A monoplane weighing 7.36104 N has elliptic wings with 15.23m span. For a speed of 90 m/s and at low level st. and level flight, find (a) the vortex (induced) drag, (b) the circulation round the sections halfway along the wings? Determine the downwash due to the equivalent HSV {with 0 determined from (b) above}one wing span down stream of the wing. Lifting surface theory predicts better lift distribution on a wing with a low aspect ratio and of a given platforms. Can you demonstrate the verification of the statement? (b) Compare the formulation in (a) above with that in the classical lifting line theory with details. A constant source distribution of strength (x) = = 57 is placed along x-axis (x1=1.0 to x2=3.5). Obtain the velocity potential (x,z) and velocity components (u,v) at(4.5,7.5). Represent the source panel and the point P on a diagram. Explain the situation like this occurring for a non lifting problem of your choice.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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9.

A 2-d point vortex of strength 60 units is located at G (2.5, 3.1). Develop an expression for velocity potential and that for velocity components (u,v) at P(5.5,5.5). Determine their numerical values as well.

10. What are the preliminary considerations required prior to establishing of a numerical method to work out solution of a lifting problem of a flat plate? Explain in details. 11. (a) Define lift, drag, lift coefficient and drag coefficient. (b) Define and describe various drag coefficients. 12. Explain briefly about the lift, drag and moment used in analysis of airplane 13. Derive the fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory,

Where the integration is carried out from the leading edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil and prove that the lift coefficient is proportional to angle of attack for a cambered airfoil. 14. Explain in detail Helmholtz's theorem and derive an expression for velocity induced at a point by a semi-infinite straight vortex _lament. 15. Derive and explain (a) Laplace's equation (b) Momentum equation. 16. A 2-D point source with a strength 50 units is located at T(1.0,1.57). Obtain the velocity potential (x,z) and velocity components(u,v) at P(3.5,2.5) 17. What are the preliminary considerations prior to establishing a numerical solution to an on lifting problem using \Source Panel" technique. Hence describe the types of boundary conditions to be satisfied by such a method 18. (a) Explain the basic principle of conformal transformation. (b) Explain the length ratios between corresponding elements in transformed planes. 19. A constant strength vortex panel of strength 50 units is located on the axis from X1=3.5 to X2=6.65. Determine the influence of this vortex panel at a point P (4.5, 4.5) to evaluate V (u, w).

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

20. Develop the expressions used for determining (a) Velocity potential (b) Velocity components. 21. (a) Describe a sub-sonic wind tunnel. (b) Describe a bank of manometers. (c) Describe how drag of a model can be obtained experimentally. 22. Describe the flows viscous, inviscid, compressible, incompressible, rotational and irrotational, and the effects on a wing. 23. A solution to the Laplace equation for incompressible potential flow and pressure distribution over a circular cylinder is sought by a numerical technique. Making use 24 numbers of constant source panels develop the procedure for obtaining pressure distribution over a given circular cylinder.

25. Derive how vortex panel method is used for expressing the kutta condition for panels immediately above and below the trailing edge 26. Consider a low aspect ratio wing planform with LE and TE taper. Make use of lifting surface theory to develop the following expression (present your work)

Where the terminology is standard for such work in aerodynamics 27. What is effective aspect ratio? Why does the effective angle of attack change at the local airfoil sections of a wing? Explain induced drag. 28. Explain Kutta-Zhukovsky transformation with the help of one example

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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COURSE PURPOSE : The purpose of the course is to study all the basics of production systems along with manufacturing of the components. COURSE STRUCTURE : Welding and Bonding Techniques Machining Sheet Metal Forming Unconventional Machining Heat Treatment And Surface Finishing Aircraft Assembly Quality Control And Assurance

SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES : At the end of the course the student will be in a position to understand the various production technologies, to manufacture a component of an aircraft or any other general basic components of various disciplines.

COURSE SYLLABUS : UNIT I: INTRODUCTION Classification and comparison (merits and limitations) of manufacturing process, Criterion for selection of a process, general principles of various Casting Processes-Sand casting, die-casting, Centrifugal casting, investment casting, shell molding types. UNIT II: WELDING AND BONDING TECHNIQUES Principles and equipment used in are welding, Gas welding, Resistance welding, Thermit welding, recent advance in welding technology, Soldering and brazing techniques UNIT III: MACHINING General principles of working and types Lathe. Shaper, Milling machines, Grinding, Drilling m/c, CNC machining and general principles, CNC machining and general principles

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

UNIT IV: SHEET METAL FORMING Sheet metal operations-shearing, Punching, drop stamp forming, Advanced metal forming (super plastic forming and diffusion bonding) , Bend correction for bending in single plane, Automation in bend forming and different operations in bending like stretch forming spinning etc. UNIT V: UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING Principles (with schematic diagram only) of working and applications of abrasive jet matching, Ultrasonic machining, Electric discharge machining, electro chemical machining, Laser beam/electron beam/plasma are machining. UNIT-VI: HEAT TREATMENT AND SURFACE FINISHING Heat treatment of Aluminum alloys, steels, case hardening, Initial stresses and the stress alleviation procedures, Corrosion prevention, protective treatment for aluminum alloys, Steels. Anodizing of titanium alloys, organic coating and thermal spray coating , Grinding and Polishing, Burnishing ,Lapping. UNIT-VII: AIRCRAFT ASEMBLY Aircraft Tooling Concepts, Jigs, Fixtures, Stages of assembly, Types and equipment for riveted joints, Bolted joints (only) UNIT-VIII: QUALITY CONTROL AND ASSURANCE Concepts and definitions of quality, Quality circles, Zero defect program, International standards, Six-sigma quality. Course textbook and references: TEXTBOOKS: Aircraft Production Techniques - Keshu Sc Ganapatghy Manufacturing Engineering and Technology- Kalpakajam REFERENCES: Production Technology R.K. Jain Production Technology Op Khanna

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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COURSE SCHEDULE: The course will proceed as follows for all sections. Please note that the week and the classes in each week are relative to each section.

Lecture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Topic Reference UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION Week 1 Classification (merits and limitations) of Aircraft Production Techniques - Keshu manufacturing process Sc Ganapatghy Comparison (merits and limitations) of manufacturing process. Manufacturing Criterion for selection of a process Engineering And General principles of various Casting Processes TechnologyWeek 2 Sand casting, die casting Kalpakajain Centrifugal casting, Investment casting, Shell molding types GUEST LECTURE - 1 UNIT 2 WELDING AND BONDING TECHNIQUES Week 3 Principles and equipment used in arc welding Aircraft Production Techniques - Keshu Principles and equipment used in arc welding Sc Ganapatghy Gas welding Resistance welding Manufacturing Week 4 Thermit welding Engineering And Recent advance in welding technology TechnologySoldering techniques Kalpakajain Brazing techniques MOCK TEST I Bridge Class 1 UNIT 3 MACHINING Week 5 General principles of working and types Aircraft Production Techniques - Keshu Lathe. Sc Ganapatghy shaper Milling machines Manufacturing Bridge Class 2 Engineering And Week 6 Grinding ,CNC machining TechnologyCNC general principles Kalpakajain Drilling m/c CNC machining and general principles Bridge Class 3 GUEST LECTURE - 2 Week

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

33.

34. 35. 36.

UNIT 4 SHEET METAL FORMING Week Sheet metal operations-shearing 7 Punching, drop stamp forming Aircraft Production Advanced metal forming (super plastic forming Techniques - Keshu and diffusion bonding) Sc Ganapatghy Manufacturing Bridge Class 4 Engineering And Week 8 Bend correction for bending in single plane TechnologyAutomation in bend forming Kalpakajain Different operations in bending Stretch forming spinning Bridge Class 5 I Mid Examinations (Week 9) UNIT 5 UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING Week Principles (with schematic diagram only) of Aircraft Production 10 working abrasive jet machining Techniques - Keshu Sc Ganapatghy Applications of abrasive jet machining Electric discharge machining Manufacturing Electro chemical machining Engineering And Bridge Class 6 TechnologyWeek Laser beam Kalpakajain 11 Electron beam Plasma arc machining Schematic diagram Bridge Class 7 GUEST LECTURE - 3 UNIT 6 HEAT TREATMENT AND SURFACE FINISHING Week Heat treatment of Aluminum alloys, Case Aircraft Production 12 hardening Techniques - Keshu Sc Ganapatghy Heat treatment of steels, Initial stresses and the stress alleviation Manufacturing procedures Corrosion prevention ,protective treatment for Engineering And Technologyaluminum alloys, Steels Kalpakajain Bridge Class 8 Week Anodizing of titanium alloys, organic coating 13 thermal spray coating Grinding and Polishing, Burnishing ,Lapping MOCK TEST - II Bridge Class 9

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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UNIT 7 AIRCRAFT ASEMBLY Week Aircraft Tooling Concepts 14 Jigs Fixtures Stages of assembly Bridge Class 10 Week Types of riveted joints 15 Bolted joints (only) Equipment for riveted joints Aircraft Tooling Concepts Bridge Class 11 GUEST LECTURE - 4 UNIT 8 QUALITY CONTROL AND ASSURANCE Week 16 Concepts of quality Definitions of quality Quality circles Zero defect program Bridge Class 12 Week-17 International standards Six-sigma quality Zero defect program , International standards Bridge Class 13 II Mid Examinations (Week 18)

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

QUESTION BANK

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What are the various moulding defects and how they are caused? (a) Describe briefly the metallurgical effects of the resistance welding. (b) Is pre-weld surface preparation important in resistance welding? Justify it. (a) What are the various types drilling machines? (b) Explain how the size of a drilling machine can be specified (a) Differentiate between direct pilots and indirect pilots? (b) Briefly explain combination dies and stretch press dies in sheet metal work. (a) Explain the applications of Ultrasonic Machining? (b) What are advantages and limitations of Ultrasonic Machining? (a) What is the purpose of Normalizing of steels? Explain? (b) Discuss various applications of Normalizing process. Discuss various precautions to be taken while manufacturing the Components of Jigs and Fixtures Explain, how holography technique records the three-dimensional image of a part Write short notes on the following: (a) Centrifugal casting (b) Die casting (c ) Slush casting.

10. (a) Explain the principle of atomic hydrogen welding and the role of hydrogen in this welding? (b) What metals are welded now a day by this process? 11. Describe the working principle of radial drilling machine with a neat block diagram. 12. List out various measuring tools and explain with neat sketches 13. Compare the Abrasive Jet Machining and Ultrasonic Machining? 14. (a) Explain the process of quenching of steel. (b) Discuss the microstructure and properties of steel after hardening. 15. With neat sketches, discuss the type of fixtures used for Bolted joints. 16. (a) What are the advantages of Quality Control? (b) Quality concentrates on customer satisfaction. Explain 17. Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of various types of furnaces used in foundry shops. 18. (a) What is the principle cause of cracks in weld metal? (b) What are the methods of controlling warping during welding?

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

26

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19. List and Explain various types of mandrels used in a lathe. 20. What are the various types of sheet metal operations and explain them with neat sketches? 21. (a) With neat schematic sketch, explain Principle of Electrical Discharge Machining Process? (b) What are disadvantages of Electrical Discharge Machining Process? 22. Discuss the surface hardening methods of steel. 23. Write short notes on: (a) Tool guiding elements (b) Wedge clamps (c ) Locking devices (d) Plastics as fixture component material. 24. (a) Differentiate between Quality and Reliability. (b) Compare the following: i. Inspection ii. Quality Control iii. Quality assurance. 25. How do you classify various manufacturing processes and compare their merits and demerits? 26. Describe in detail about the methods / procedures used for welding different materials. 27. How do you classify the grinding process in accordance with the type of surface to be ground and explain them with neat sketches? 28. (a) Differentiate between shearing and punching operations? (b) List out various operations that can be performed using a press in sheet metal work. 29. (a) What are the materials that can not be machined by Laser Beam Machining. Why? (b) Explain the metal removal mechanism in Laser Beam Machining. (c ) How Laser Beam is used for machining and welding applications? Explain. 30. Discuss various types of hardening methods. 31. Discuss various materials used for components of Jigs and Fixtures. 32. (a) What are the advantages of Quality Control? (b) Quality concentrates on customer satisfaction. Explain.

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

COURSE PURPOSE: To teach the Course Electrical and Electronics Engineering as prescribed by the JNTU to fulfill the requirements for the 2nd year 2nd semester AERO NAUTICAL students. COURSE STRUCTURE: This course introduces the basic concepts of circuit analysis which is the foundation for all subjects of the Electrical Engineering and Aero nautical discipline. The emphasis of this course is laid on the basic analysis of circuits and Machines, Electronics which includes Electrical circuits, dc Machines, Transformers, A.C Machines, Instruments, Diode and it's characteristics, Transistors, Cathode ray oscilloscope SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES: This subject deals with Electrical circuits, DC Machines, Transformers, A.C Machines, Instruments, Diode and its characteristics, Transistors, Cathode ray oscilloscope At the end of the course the student will be in a position to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Understand the concept of Electrical circuits How to analyse dc Machines, Transformers Understand the concept of A.C Machines Understand the concept of Instruments How to analyse Diode and it's characteristics Understand the concept of Transistors, Cathode ray oscilloscope

COURSE SYLLABUS: UNIT-I: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Basic definitions, Types of elements, ohm's Law, Resistive networks. Kirchhoff's Law's, Inductive networks, capacitive networks, series, parallel circuits and stardelta and delta-star transformations. UNIT-II: DC MACHINES Principle of operation of DC Generation-emf equation-types-DC motor types-torque equationapplications-three point starter. UNIT-III: TRANSFORMERS Principle of operation of single phase transformers-emf equation-losses-efficiency and regulation.

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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UNIT-IV: AC MACHINES Principle of operation of alternators-regulation by synchronous impedance method-principle of operation of induction motor-slip-torque characteristics-applications. UNIT-V: INSTRUMENTS Basic principle of indicating instruments permanent magnet moving coil and moving iron instruments. UNIT-VI: DIODE AND IT'S CHARACTERISTICS P-n junction diode, symbol, V-I Characteristics, Diode Applications, Rectifiers-Half wave and Bridge rectifiers (simple problems). UNIT-VII: TRANSISTORS PNP and NPN Junction transistor, Transistor as an amplifier, SCR characteristics and applications

UNIT-VIII: CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE Principle of CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), Deflection, sensitivity, Electrostatic and Magnetic deflection, Applications of CRO-voltage, current and frequency measurements. TEXT BOOKS: 1. 2. Essentials of Electrical and computer Engineering by David v.Kerns, JR.J.David Irwin/Pearson. Principles of Electrical and Electronics Engineering by V.K.Mehta S.Chand & Co

REFERENCES: 1. 2. Introduction to Electrical Engineering-M.S Naidu and S.Kamakshaiah, TMH Publ. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath, TMH Publications,2nd Edition.

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

Course Schedule: The course will proceed as follows for all sections. Please note that the week and the classes in each week are relative to each section Lecture Week Topic Reference UNIT-I: ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Week 1 Introduction to the Electrical Engineering Basic definitions Types of elements Ohms Law Resistive networks Kirchhoffs laws Inductive networks Problems Problems Capacitive networks Series, parallel circuits Star- delta and delta-star transformations. Problems Problems

1.Introduction to Electrical EngineeringM.S Naidu and S.Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

Week 2

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Week 3 Principle of operation of DC Generation Emf equation Generator types Problems Problems Problems Bridge Class 1

Week 4

DC motor types Torque equation Applications. Three point starter. Problems Problems

1.Introduction to Electrical EngineeringM.S Naidu and S.Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

Bridge Class 2 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Week 5 UNIT-III: TRANSFORMERS Principle of operation of single phase transformers Emf equation Losses Problems Problems Bridge class-2

30

1.Introduction to Electrical Engineering-M.S Naidu and S.Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

Week 6

36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

Week 7

Week 8

Week-9 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56.

Efficiency Regulation. Problems. Problems Bridge class-4 GUEST LECTURE-2 UNIT-IV: AC MACHINES Principle of operation of alternators Regulation by synchronous impedance method Principle of operation of induction motor Problems Problems, Problems Bridge class-5 Slip-torque characteristicsApplications. Problems Problems Problems Bridge class-6 MID-I EXAMS

1.Introduction to Electrical Engineering-M.S Naidu and S.Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

UNIT-V: INSTRUMENTS Introduction Basic principle of indicating instruments Problems 1.Introduction to Week 10 Problems Electrical Problems Engineering-M.S Bridge class-7 Naidu and Permanent magnet moving coil S.Kamakshaiah Moving iron instruments 2. Basic Electrical Problems Engineering by Week 11 Problems Kothari and Nagrath Problems Bridge class-8 GUEST LECTURE-3 UNIT-VI: DIODE AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS P-N junction diode 1.Introduction to Symbol Electrical Week -12 V-I Characteristics Engineering-M.S Diode Applications Naidu and Problems S.Kamakshaiah Bridge Class - 9

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Week - 13

Rectifiers Half wave Bridge Rectifiers Problems MOCK TEST - II Bridge Class - 10

66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73.

Week - 14

Week - 15

74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84.

Week - 16

Week - 17

Week - 18

PNP and NPN Junction Transistor Transistor as an amplifier Problems Problems Bridge Class - 11 SCR Characteristics Applications Problems Problems Bridge Class - 12 GUEST LECTURE - 4 UNIT - VIII CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE Principle of CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Deflection Sensitivity Electrostatic and Magnetic Deflection Problems Problems Bridge Class - 13 Applications of CRO Voltage Measurements Current Measurements Frequency Measurements Bridge Class - 14 MID-II EXAMS

1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering M.S. Naidu and S. Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering M.S. Naidu and S. Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering M.S. Naidu and S. Kamakshaiah 2. Basic Electrical Engineering by Kothari and Nagrath

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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QUESTION BANK

UNIT - I

1. 2. 3. 4. 5 Explain the types of elements and also ohm's Laws? Write short notes on a). Resistive elements b). Inductive elements c). capacitive elements

Derive the star-delta and delta-sart? Derive the series and parallel connections? (a) State the voltage current relationships for: I. Resistance ii. Inductance and iii. Capacitance (a) With neat diagrams explain the voltage-current relationships for: i. Inductance and ii. Capacitance, and also give their energy Consumption. (a) When two capacitances of values C1, C2 Farads are connected in series. Find its equivalent capacitance When a DC voltage is applied to a capacitor, the voltage across its terminals is found to build up in accordance with VC = 50(1-e 100t). After a lapse of 0.01 Seconds, the current low is equal to 2mA: (a) Find the value of capacitance. (b) How much energy is stored in the electric field by that time?

6.

7. 8.

UNIT-II

1. (a) Draw speed-torque characteristics of all types of dc motors. Mention industrial applications of each of these motors. (b) A 250 V dc shunt machine has line current of 80 A. It has armature and _eld resistances of 0.1 ohms and 125 ohms respectively. Calculate power developed in armature when running as i. Generator ii. Motor 2. (a) Write down the similarities and dissimilarities between motors and generators in principle of operation & applications point of veiw. (b) The power input to a 230V dc shunt motor is 8477 KW. The field resistance is 230 ohms and armature resistance is 0.28 ohms. Find the input current, armature current and back EMF.

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

3.

(a) Why is the shunt generator characteristic on load drooping and turns back as it is over loaded. What is meant by break point? (b) A 1500 KW, 600 V, 16 pole separately excited dc generator runs at 200 rpm It has 2500 lap connected conductors and full load copper losses are 25 KW. Calculate the useful flux per pole and the generated voltage.

4.

Write short notes on the following : (a) Classification of DC generators with examples (b) Internal & External characteristics of DC generators (c ) Self excitation mode of DC machine (d) Open circuit characteristics of a DC generator. Write short notes on the following: (a) Classification of DC generators with examples (b) Internal & External characteristics of DC generators (c ) Self excitation mode of DC machine (d) Open circuit characteristics of a DC generator.

5.

UNIT-III

1. 2. Explain the procedure for conducting OC and SC tests on a single phase transformer with neat diagrams & give the justification for each assumption. (a) The data obtained on 100 KVA, 1100V, 3-phase alternator is: DC resistance test: E between lines = 6V dc, I in lines = 10 A dc O.C test: field current = 12.5 A, Voltage between lines =420V SC test: field current = 12.5 A, line current = rated value. Calculate the voltage regulation of alternator at 0.8 power factor lagging. (b) A 3-phase star connected synchronous motor has synchronous reactance of 4 ohms per phase and is working on 1100 V bus bar. Calculate the power factor of this machine when taking 90 KW from the mains, the excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to an induced emf of 1200 V. Neglect armature resistance 3. (a) The data obtained on 100 KVA, 1100V, 3-phase alternator is: DC resistance test: E between lines = 6V dc, I in lines = 10 A dc O.C test: field current = 12.5 A, Voltage between lines =420V SC test: field current = 12.5 A, line current = rated value. Calculate the voltage regulation of alternator at 0.8 power factor lagging. (b) A 3-phase star connected synchronous motor has synchronous reactance of 4 ohms per phase and is working on 1100 V bus bar. Calculate the power factor of this machine when taking 90 KW from the mains, the excitation being adjusted to a value corresponding to an induced emf of 1200 V. Neglect armature resistance

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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4.

(a) A 200KVA 1-_ transformer is in circuit continuously for 8 hours in a day, the load is 160 kW at 0.8 power factor for 6 hours, the load is 80kw at unity power factor and for the remaining period of 24 hours it runs on no-load. Full-load copper losses are 3.02 kW and the iron losses are 1.6 kW. Find all-day efficiency. (b) The maximum efficiency of a 100 KVA, single phase transformer is 98% and occurs at 80% of full load. If the leakage impedance of the transformer is 5%, and the voltage regulation at rated load of 0.8 power factor lagging & at load 0.8 pf leading

5.

(a) Draw and explain no-load phasor diagram for a single phase Transformer. (b) A single phase transformer with 10:1 turn ratio and rated at 50 KVA, 2400/240 V, 50 Hz is used to step down the voltage of a distribution system. The low tension voltage is to be Kept constant at 240 V. Find the value of load impedance of the low tension side so that the transformer will be loaded fully. Find also the value of maximum flux inside the core if the low tension side has 23 turns.

UNIT-IV

1. 2. (a) Explain armature reaction in synchronous motors. (b) Name deferent methods of starting a synchronous motors. Write short notes on the following: (a) V & I curves of synchronous motor (b) Main characteristics of a synchronous motor (c ) Hunting (d) Damper windings. (a) The effective resistance of a 2200 V, 50 Hz, 440 KVA, 3-phase alternator is 0.5 ohms on short circuit a field current of 40 amps gives the full load Current of 200 A. The emf on open circuit with the same excitation is 1160V. (b) Explain the emf method for winding the regulation of an Alternator. 4. A 4-pole, 50 Hz induction motor has a full load slip of 5 %. Each rotor phase has a resistance of 0.3 ohms and a stand still reactance of 1.2 ohms. Find the ratio of the maximum torque to the full load torque and the speed at which the maximum torque occurs. Explain principle operation of alternator?

3.

5.

UNIT-V

1. Write short notes on the following: (a) Ideal transformer. (b) Transformation ratio. (c ) Practical transformer. (d) Temperature control of transformers.

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2.

(a) Explain the following terms : i. Absolute instruments ii. Secondary instruments. (b) i. ii. Explain the different e methods used in secondary instruments The full scale torque of a 5 A moving iron ammeter is 9.8 _106 N-m.

Estimate the rate of change of self inductance of the instrument at full Scale. 3. (a) Derive the equation for the capacitance connected in shunt for the compensation of frequency errors in moving iron instruments. (b) A dynamometer wattmeter reading power correctly on DC is used to measure power in a circuit consisting of a resistance of 2 ohms and an inductance of 0.25H. The supply is from a 100V, 50Hz mains. The Voltage circuit of the wattmeter has a resistance of 1000 ohms and an inductance of 5.6mH. What will be the reading of the watt meter on the 50Hz mains? Neglect the impedance of the current coil. The pressure coil is connected on the load side of the instrument. 4. (a) List the advantages of gravity control over spring control. (b) List the different types of materials used in components of spring and gravity control. (a) Explain Eddy current damping with neat diagram. (b) Derive the torque equation for induction type instruments. (a) Prove that the spring control gives you a linear scale and gravity control of a cramped scale. (b) Derive the equation of defecting torque in terms of inductance for a moving iron Instruments.

5. 6.

UNIT-VI

1. 2. (a) Derive the relations between IB, IE and Ic in CB configuration? (b) Explain the laboratory setup for obtaining the CC characteristics with neat diagram. In a full-wave rectifier, the voltage applied to each diode is 240 sin (377t), the load resistance is RL = 2000 and each diode has a forward resistance of 400. Determine : (a) peak value of current, (b) D.C. value of current, (c ) RMS value of current, (d) rectifier efficiency, (e) ripple factor and (f) output ripple frequency. In a bridge rectifier, the transformer is connected to 220 V, 60 Hz mains and the turns ratio of the step down transformer is 11:1. Assuming the diodes to be ideal, and (a) the voltage across the load, (b) Idc. And

36

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3.

DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

4. 5.

(a) Derive the relations between IB, IE and Ic in CB configuration? (b) Explain the laboratory setup for obtaining the CC characteristics with neat diagram Explain p-n junction diode and v-I characteristics?

UNIT-VII

1. Explain the following: (a) Firing angle (b) Conduction angle of an SCR. (c ) Once the SCR is triggered, the gate looses its control. (d) Equivalent circuit of SCR. (a) Define the term transition capacitance C of a PN diode and derive its equation. (b) Explain the term diffusion capacitance C of a forward biased diode and derive its equation. (a) Describe the action of PN junction diode under forward bias and reverse bias. (b) Explain V-l characteristics of a PN junction diode (a) Define the term transition capacitance Cr of a PN diode and derive its equation. (b) Explain the term diffusion capacitance C of a forward biased diode and deriveits equation. (a) An ideal Ge P-N junction diode has at a temperature of 1250C and reverse saturation current of 30 _A. Determine the dynamic resistance for 0.2V bias of forward bias. (b) Find the resistivity of intrinsic silicon at room temperature? (a) Derive the relationship between _ and _. (b) Why does the CE Configuration provide large current amplification while the Configuration does not? (c ) Draw the Input and Output characteristics of a transistor in CB configuration. (a) Draw the circuit symbol of an N-P-N transistor and indicate the reference directions for the three currents in the transistor and also the reference polarities of the three voltages.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

UNIT - VIII

1. 2. Give the construction of a Cathode Ray tube using electrostatic focusing and describe the functions of various constituents with neat diagrams. (a) Trace the path of an electron entering a uniform magnetic field. (b) Derive expression for the electrostatic defection sensitivity of a Cathode Ray Tube.

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

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3. 4.

Give the construction of a Cathode Ray tube using electrostatic focusing and defection systems and describe the functions of various constituents with neat diagrams (a) What are the special features of storage oscilloscopes? (b) An electron moving with initial velocity of 106 m/s enters an uniform magnetic field at an angle of 300 with it. Calculate the magnetic ux density required in order that the radius of helical path be 1m. Also, calculate the time taken by the electron for one revolution and the pitch of the helix. (a) Describe the method of electrostatic focusing in a cathode ray tube? (b) Write any four applications to CRO. (c ) Mention the source of electrons in a cathode ray tube. (a) Making use of the diagram showing the various electron and hole current components crossing each junction, obtain the expression for the collector current Ic. Define each symbol used in the expression, (b) Generalize the expression for Ic so that it is valid for a transistor not operating in the active region. (a) Define the term transition capacitance Cr of a PN diode and derive its equation. (b) Explain the term diffusion capacitance C of a forward biased diode and deriveits equation. (a) What are the special features of storage oscilloscopes? (b) An electron moving with initial velocity of 106 m/s enters an uniform magnetic field at an angle of 300 with it. Calculate the magnetic ux density required in order that the radius of helical path be 1m. Also, calculate the time taken by the electron for one revolution and the pitch of the helix. (a) Describe the method of electrostatic focusing in a cathode ray tube? (b) Write any four applications to CRO. (c ) Mention the source of electrons in a cathode ray tube. (a) Discuss the motion of an electron in a magneto - static field when it enters with i. Zero initial velocity into the field ii. An initial velocity `_0' parallel to the field. iii. An initial velocity `_0' perpendicular to the field. (b) An electron enters the uniform magnetic field of flux density 103 wb/m2 with a velocity of 108 m/sec normal to the field. Find the radius of the circular path of the electron.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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COURSE PURPOSE: The purpose of the course is to teach the principles of solid and structural mechanics that can be used to design and analyze aerospace structures. Structures fulfill a purpose in an aircraft, either simple or complex. Each sub-structure interfaces with the other structures in the same aircraft. Ultimately parts works together to accomplish safe flight. COURSE STRUCTURE: In this we will study about Redundant Structures Beams with elastic supports and initial curvature Stability of structures Theory of elasticity Energy principles and method Shear flow in closed sections

SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES: 1) 2) The Objective of this course is to give an introduction to aircraft structures and numerical methods to determine the behavior of materials under different loads. The scope of the subject is we will study the each and every component of the aircraft in detail.

COURSE SYLLABUS: UNIT I : Indeterminate structure and order of redundancy ,Introduction to redundant analysis, statically determinate models ,Use of free body diagrams to explain compatibility and redundant analysis principles, Matrix methods of redundant analysis utilizing equilibrium equations compatibility conditions ,Singularity method for uniform beams with various boundary and support conditions subjected to distributed/ discrete loads UNIT II : Direct solution of beams on elastic foundation, Deflection of beams with discrete elastic supports using singularity method and modeling concepts, Equation of equilibrium for curved beam stress and deflections of a typical curved beam (bulk head segments on fuselages)

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UNIT III : Stability of structural systems, Modes of instability of column, Euler's formula for critical loads of column, Effect of boundary conditions on mode shapes and critical loads, Column with initial curvature, effect of eccentricity, Longs, medium and short columns ranges, Rankine and Johnson's formulae, Eigen values and Eigen modes, Effect of intermediate supports. Concept of beam column UNIT IV: Equilibrium and compatibility conditions for elastic solids, 2D elasticity equations for plane stress, Plane strain and generalized plane strain, Airy's stress function, simple problems in plane stress/plane strain using Cartesian and polar coordinates, Superposition techniques E.g. panels subjected to a generalized plane strain Biaxial loading , Uniform/Linearly varying edge loads on elastic half plane, Thick cylindrical shells UNIT V: Stresses and strains on arbitrary planes, Transformations, Concept of principle planes, Stress and strains, Construction of Mohr's circle, Failure mechanism and fracture modes UNIT VI: Introduction to energy principles and methods, Principles of virtual displacement & virtual force, Castiglione's theorems, Maxwell's reciprocal theorem, Unit load method, Direct application of energy principles to beams and trusses UNIT VII: The displacement method(Rayleigh Ritz method) Admissible functions energy and work expressions, Redundant analysis of 1D structures, Various 1D structures subjected to complex loading, Stresses of errors and convergence. UNIT VIII: Bredt Batho formula, Single and multi-cell closed box structures, Semi monocoque and moncoque structures, approximate method for beams, Shear flow in single and multicell monocoque Semi moncoque box beams subject to torsion Course textbook and references: Text Books : 1) Theory of Elasticity- Timoshenko, 2) Aircraft structures - David J Peery, 3) Aircraft Structures for engineering students- Megson THG References : 1) Energy and Finite Elements methods Structural analysis, Shames I.H 2) Theory of Structures, S.Ramamrutham 3) Energy theorems and structural analysis, Argyris 4) Aircraft structures An Introduction, Donaldson.

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COURSE SCHEDULE : The course will proceed as follows for all sections. Please note that the week and the classes in each week are relative to each section.

Lecture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Week 4 Topic Reference UNIT-1 REDUNDANT STRUCTURES Indeterminate structure and order of redundancy Introduction to redundant analysis, statically determinate models WEEK 1 Theory of ElasticityUse of free body diagrams to explain Timoshenko, Aircraft compatibility and redundant analysis structures - David J Peery, Aircraft principles Structures- Megson Matrix methods of redundant analysis utilizing THG equilibrium equations compatibility conditions Week 2 Singularity method for uniform beams with various boundary and support conditions subjected to distributed/ discrete loads UNIT-2 BEAMS WITH ELASTIC SUPPORTS AND INTIAL CURVATURE Direct solution of beams on elastic foundation Week 3 Deflection of beams with discrete elastic supports using singularity method and modeling concepts Equation of equilibrium for curved beam stress and deflections of a typical curved beam (bulk head segments on fuselages) Mock Test-1 Bridge Class -1 UNIT -3 STABILITY Stability of structural systems, Modes of instability of column Euler's formula for critical loads of column. Effect of boundary conditions on mode shapes and critical loads Column with initial curvature, effect of eccentricity Bridge Class -2

Theory of ElasticityTimoshenko, Aircraft structures - David J Peery, Aircraft Structures- Megson THG

Week

16 17 18 19 Week 5

Theory of ElasticityTimoshenko, Aircraft structures - David J Peery, Aircraft Structures- Megson THG

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20 21 22 23

24 25 26 27 28 29

Longs, medium and short columns ranges Theory of ElasticityRankine and Johnsons formulae Timoshenko, Aircraft Eigen values and Eigen modes structures - David J Week 6 Peery, Aircraft Effect of intermediate supports. Concept of Structures- Megson beam column THG Bridge Class -3 UNIT-4 INTRODUCTION TO THEORY OF ELASTICITY -I Equilibrium and compatibility conditions for elastic solids. 2D elasticity equations for plane stress, Plane strain and generalized plane strain Week 7 Airy's stress function Simple problems in plane stress/plane strain Theory of Elasticityusing Cartesian and polar coordinates Timoshenko, Aircraft structures - David J Bridge Class-4 Superposition techniques E.g. Panels subjected to a generalized plane strain Biaxial loading Uniform/Linearly varying edge loads on elastic half plane Thick cylindrical shells Bridge Class -5 MID I EXAMINATIONS UNIT-5 THEORY OF ELASTICITY-II Stresses and strains on arbitrary planes Transformations Concept of principle planes Stress and strains Bridge Class -6 Construction of Mohr's circle Failure mechanism Fracture modes Revision of previous topics Bridge Class -7 UNIT-6 ENERGY PRINCIPLES AND METHODS-I

Theory of ElasticityTimoshenko, Aircraft structures - David J Peery, Aircraft Structures- Megson THG Peery, Aircraft Structures- Megson THG

Week 10

Theory of ElasticityTimoshenko, Aircraft structures - David J Peery, Aircraft Structures- Megson THG

40 41 42 43

Week 12

Introduction to energy principles Energy methods Principles of virtual displacement Virtual force Bridge Class -8

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44 45 46 47

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Castigliones theorems Maxwell's reciprocal theorem Unit load method Week 13 Direct application of energy principles to beams and trusses Mock Test- II Bridge Class -9 UNIT-7 ENERGY PRINCIPLES AND METHODS-II The displacement method Rayleigh Ritz method Week 14 Admissible functions work expressions Theory of ElasticityAdmissible functions energy expressions Timoshenko, Aircraft structures - David J Bridge Class -10 Peery, Aircraft Redundant analysis of 1D structures Structures- Megson Various 1D structures subjected to complex THG loading Week 15 Stresses of errors Stresses of convergence Bridge Class-11 UNIT- 8 SHEAR FLOW IN CLOSED SECTIONS Week 16 Bredt Batho formula Single and multi-cell closed box structures Semi monocoque Moncoque structures Bridge class-12 Approximate method for beams Shear flow in single Shear flow in multi-cell monocoque Semi moncoque box beams subject to torsion Bridge Class-13 MID II EXAMINATIONS

56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

Week 17

Week 18

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QUESTION BANK

1. 2 Derive all stress on an oblique section of a body subjected to direct stress in two mutually perpendicular directions. A tie bar is subjected to a tensile stress of 80MPa. Find the intensity of shear stress, normal stress and resultant stress on a plane. The normal of which is inclined at 300 to the axis of the bar. A tubular steel strut is of 65mm external diameter and 50 mm internal diameter. It is 2.5 m long and hinged at both ends. The load acting is eccentric. Find the maximum eccentricity for a crippling load of 0.75 of the Euler load, the yield stress being 330 MPa, E = 210 GPa. A semi infinite beam on elastic foundation is subjected to a concentrated load at the middle of the beam. Derive the expressions for slope, defection, bending moment and shear force and sketch their variations along the beam. (a) Explain with neat sketch basic modes of crack growth. (b) What is mean by S-N Curve and explain its significance in Fatigue failure? (a) Derive the principal stress equation and maximum shear stress with help of mohr's circle. b) An elemental cube is subjected to a tensile stress of 30N/mm^2 and 10N/mm^2 acting on a two mutually perpendicular planes and a shear stress of 10N/mm^2 on these planes. Draw mohrs circle of stresses and determine the magnitude and direction of principal stresses and also the greatest shear stress.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

(a) Explain with neat sketches, what is Beam, Frame, and Truss. (b) Explain what is statically determinate structures and statically indeterminate structures with neat sketches and examples.

8.

(a) Write short notes on Generalized Hook's law. (b) Derive the differential equations of equilibrium in 2D polar and coordinates in theory of elasticity.

9.

(a) prove that the shear stress is zero corresponding to principal stress. (b) Prove that the sum of two normal stress acting on two mutually perpendicular planes is constant.(stress invariant)

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10. (a) what are the assumptions made by Euler for columns theory. (b) Derive Euler's critical load formula for any two boundary (end) conditions 11. (a) when a body is subjected to two mutually perpendicular tensile stresses accompanied by a simple shear stress. Derive the principal stresses and maximum shear stress formula (b) The tensile a point across two mutually perpendicular planes are 120 N/mm^2 and 60N/mm^2. Determine the normal, tangential and resultant stress on a plane inclined at 30 deg to axis of minor stress. 12. (a) Derive equations of equilibrium. (b) Derive compatibility equations. 13. a hollow cylindrical cast iron of 150 mm external diameter and 15 mm thickness, 3m long and is hinged at one end and fixed at other. Find (a) The ratio of Euler and Rankin load. (b) For what length, the critical load by Eulers and Rankins formula will be equal. 14. (a) Explain with neat sketches, what is Beam, Frame, and Truss. (b) Explain what is statically determinate structures and statically indeterminate structures with neat sketches and examples. 15 A rectangular block of material is subjected to a tensile stress of 100N/mm2 on one plane and a tensile 50N/mm2 on a plane at right angles, together with shear stress of 60N/mm2 on the same planes. Find magnitude and direction, the magnitude of the greater shear stress. The direct tensile and compressive stress is 60N/mm2 and 40N/mm2 respectively are applied on planes at right angles to each other. If the maximum principal stress is limited to 75N/mm2 (tensile), find the shear stress that may be allowed on the planes. Also determine the minimum principal stress and the maximum shear stress.

16

17. A semi infinite beam on elastic foundation is subjected to a concentrated load at the middle of the beam. Derive the expressions for slope, deflection, bending moment and shear force and sketch their variations along the beam.

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DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL

18. (a) Explain torsional shear flow. (b) A tube is made of bronze and has a rectangular cross-section shown in Figure 2. If it is subjected to a torque of 35 N-m, determine the shear stress in the tube at points A and B. If the tube is having span of 2m and fixed at one end, what is the angle of twist at the free end where the torque is applied 38 * 109 N/m2.

19. Analyse the structure as shown in Figure 3 by strain energy method. Sketch the bending moment diagram.

20. A cantilever beam of length `l' carries uniformly distributed load of w per unit run over whole length. The free end of the cantilever beam is supported on a prop. If the prop sinks by `' find the prop reaction.

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21. A tubular steel strut is of 65mm external diameter and 50 mm internal diameter. It is 2.5 m long and hinged at both ends. The load acting is eccentric. Find the maximum eccentricity for a crippling load of 0.75 of the Euler load, the yield stress being 330 MPa, E = 210 GPa. 8. (a) What is an Airy's stress function in theory of elasticity? 22 Prove that the following are Airy's stress function and examine the stress distribution represented by them:

23. (a) Derive all stress on an oblique section of a body subjected to direct stress in two mutually perpendicular directions. (b) A tie bar is subjected to a tensile stress of 80MPa. Find the intensity of shear stress, normal stress and resultant stress on a plane. The normal of which is inclined at 300 to the axis of the bar. 24. Find the frequency of the spring shown in figure :

25. Explain the construction of all the four cases of Mohr's circle method and draw with neat sketch. 26. (a) Write short notes on Generalized Hook's law. (b) Derive the differential equations of equilibrium in 2D polar and coordinates in theory of elasticity. 27. A steel beam of length 2 m is resting on an elastic foundation and has free ends. The beam is 10 mm wide and 120 mm thick and carries two concentrated forces of 1kN, one at each end. Determine the maximum bending stresses developed in the beam. Assume E = 2_105 N/mm2, _ = 0.30 and modulus of foundation as 10.5 N/mm2.

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28. Derive secant formula for a column both ends hinged and loading P, eccentrically with an eccentricity e. 29. Derive Governing equations for deflection for any General Case of bending (not for simple bending) and also explain sign conventions with neat sketches. 30. A beam of simply supported with uniformly distributed load of whole span of length `l'. 31. (a) Write expression for the potential energy. (b) Determine the displacement u(x) using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Assume displacement field u(x)=a0+ a1x+a2x2 32. (a) Explain the torsional shear flow. (b) A structural Aluminum tuning of 60x100 mm rectangular cross section was fabricated by extrusion. Determine the shearing stress in the each of the four walls of such tubing when it is subjected to a torque of 2700 N-m(figure)

33. Calculate the nodal displacement in a system of four springs as shown in figure 6

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COURSE PURPOSE : The purpose of this course is to give detail about Space Technology in which we study about rocket propulsion, flight mechanics of rocket, Atmospheric reentry, Orbital mechanics, Orbital Maneuvers, Satellite Attitude Dynamics, and Space Mission Operations. COURSE STRUCTURE: Fundamentals of Rocket Propulsion Ascent Flight Mechanics of Rockets and Missiles Atmospheric Reentry Fundamentals of Orbital Mechanics Orbital Maneuvers Satellite Attitude Dynamics Space Operation Operations SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE: It enhances the knowledge of the student in the field of Space Technology, Space environment, Trajectory of Space Vehicles, Space Vehicle propulsion and Dynamic behavior. As we are concentrating on space missions, this subject gives brief knowledge about space missions. COURSE SYLLABUS: UNIT-I INTRODUCTION Space Mission, Types, Space Environment, Launch Vehicle Selection UNIT-II FUNDAMENTALS OF ROCKET PROPULSION Introduction to rocket propulsion, Fundamentals of solid propellant rockets, Fundamentals of liquid propellant rockets, Rocket equation UNIT-III ASCENT FLIGHT MECHANICS OF ROCKETS AND MISSILES Two-dimensional trajectories of rockets and missiles, Multi-stage rockets, Vehicle sizing, two stage, Multi-stage Rockets, Trade-off Ratios, Single Stage to Orbit, Sounding Rocket, Aerospace Plane-Gravity Turn Trajectories, Trajectories, Impact point calculation, Injection conditions, Flight dispersions.

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UNIT-IV ATMOSPHERIC REENTRY Introduction, Steep Ballistic Reentry, Ballistic Orbital Reentry, Skip Reentry, Double Dip Reentry, Aero-braking, Lifting Body Reentry UNIT-V FUNDAMENTALS OF ORBITAL MECHANICS: Two-body motion, Circular, Elliptic, Hyperbolic, Parabolic Orbits, Basic Orbital Elements, Ground Trace UNIT-VI ORBITAL MANEUVERS In-Plane Orbit changes, Hoh-Mann Transfer, Bi-elliptical Transfer, Plane Changes, Combined Maneuvers Propulsion for Maneuvers

UNIT-VII SATELLITE ATTITUDE DYNAMICS Torque free axisymmetric rigid body, Attitude Control for Spinning Spacecraft, Attitude Control for Non-spinning Spacecraft, The Yo-Yo Mechanism, Gravity, Gradient Satellite, and Dual Spin Spacecraft Attitude Determination

UNIT-VIII SPACE OPERATION OPERATIONS Supporting Ground System Architecture, Team Interfaces, Mission Phases, core operations, Team Responsibility, Mission Diversity, Standard Operations Practices Textbooks and References : Textbooks: 1) Spaceflight Dynamics- W.E. Wiesel 2) Rocket Propulsion and Space flight dynamics- Cornelisse 3) Fundamentals of Space Systems- Vincet L. Pisacane References: 1) Understanding Space- J.Sellers 2) Introduction to Flight- Francis J Hale 3) Spacecraft Mission Design- Charles D.Brown 4) Elements of space Technology- Meyer Rudolph X

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COURSE SCHEDULE: The course will proceed as follows for all sections. Please note that the week and the classes in each week are relative to each section.

Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Week/Days TOPIC References UNIT-I INTRODUCTION Space Mission Types of Space Vehicles WEEK 1 Space Environment Launch Vehicle Selection UNIT-II FUNDAMENTALS OF ROCKET PROPULSION Introduction to rocket propulsion Fundamentals of solid propellant rockets WEEK 2 Fundamentals of liquid propellant rockets Solid Rocket Moters Liquid propellant rocket Engines Rocket equation1 Rocket equation2 WEEK 3 MOCK TEST-1 Bridge class -1 UNIT-III ASCENT FLIGHT MECHANICS OF ROCKETS AND MISSILES

WEEK 4 Two-dimensional trajectories of rockets and missiles Multi-stage rockets Vehicle sizing Two stage Multi-stage Rockets

12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Bridge class -2

WEEK 5 Trade-off Ratios Single Stage to Orbit Sounding Rocket Aerospace Plane-Gravity Turn Trajectories

Bridge class -3

Trajectories Impact point calculation Injection conditions Flight dispersions

WEEK 6

Space flight Dynamics- W.E. Wiesel, Fundamentals of space systemsVincet L Pisacane, Rocket Propulsion and Space flight DynamicsCornelisse

24 25 26 27

28 29 30

WEEK 7

Bridge Class -5

WEEK 8 Double Dip Reentry Aero-braking Lifting Body Reentry

Bridge Class -6

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31 32 33 34

35 36 37

WEEK 10

Bridge class -7

WEEK 11 Parabolic Orbits Basic Orbital Elements Ground Trace

38 39 40

41 42 43

WEEK 12

Bridge class -8 UNIT-VI ORBITAL MANEUVERS In-Plane Orbit changes Hoh-Mann Transfer Bi-elliptical Transfer Bridge class -9

Plane Changes Combined Maneuvers Propulsion for Maneuvers MOCK TEST 2

WEEK 13

44 45 46 47 WEEK 14 Torque free Axi -symmetric rigid body Attitude Control for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Control for Non-spinning Spacecraft The Yo-Yo Mechanism ,Gravity Bridge class -11 Gradient Satellite Dual Spin Spacecraft Attitude Determination Bridge class -12

48 49 50

WEEK 15

51 52 53 54 WEEK 16 Supporting Ground System Architecture Team Interfaces Mission Phases core operations

55 56 57 WEEK 17 Team Responsibility Mission Diversity Standard Operations Practices

WEEK 18

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QUESTION BANK

1. 2. 3. 4. How Telecommunications are used to help in the satellite vehicle. List out the possible sources of error in injection that lead to orbit deviations. Discuss in detail Write about dual spin spacecraft. (a) A satellite is in an orbit with a semi-major axis of 7,500 km and an eccentricity of 0.1. Calculate the time it takes to move from a position 30 degrees past perigee to 90 degrees past perigee. (b) The satellite in the above problem has a true anomaly of 90 degrees at one instant. What will be the satellite's position, i.e. it's true anomaly, 20 minutes later? 5. (a) Explain how the thrust of a rocket develops. Derive the equation for the thrust. Differentiate between under-expanded and over-expanded nozzle performance. (b) Compare the various type of supersonic nozzles. 6. Write short notes on the following: (a) Radiation effects to an astronaut in a space vehicle traveling below Van Allen belt (b) Two possible methods to protect a space vehicle against the damage to it due to the radiation in space 7. A satellite is in a circular parking orbit with an altitude of 200 km. using a one-tangent burn; it is to be transferred to geosynchronous altitude using a transfer ellipse with a semi-major axis of 24,380 km. Calculate the total velocity change required and the time required to complete the transfer. What do you understand by Hohmann braking ellipses in the case of reentry? Obtain equations of motion for the down range trajectory as well as the altitude in terms of the Light path angle as an independent variable. Write short notes on the following: (a) Hohmann braking ellipses (b) Lifting body re-entry.

8.

9.

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10. (a) Write a brief note on Noise in satellite communication link. (b) Explain the procedure used to achieve desired performance in a satellite onboard transponder 11. (a) What do you understand by `Pitch over' phase of a launch vehicle. Why is it required? How is it achieved? (b) Write a short note on `Gravity Loss' pertaining to a launch vehicle 12. You are the engineer in charge of launching a satellite of 11,500 kg mass. The satellite will be placed in a circular sun - synchronous orbit, at an altitude of 800 km. What is the kinetic energy of the satellite? Compare this to the kinetic energy of a 400 kg lorry traveling on a straight road at 100 km/hour. Explain clearly whether the comparison is realistic. 13. Write a detailed note on various aspects of satellite injection bringing out the effects of orbit inclination, injection direction, etc. on the performance of satellite launch vehicles launched from selected sites. 14. (a) Describe the basic operating principles of a solid rocket motor. Give examples for their applications. (b) Explain how the shape of the propellant grain can affect the thrust propellant of a solid rocket motor. 15. Write briefly about Scientist challenges of CHANDRAYAAN-1 (The Indian lunar orbiter mission 16. Write about the attitude control of a non-spinning spacecraft ( I) using momentum wheel and (ii) using control moment gyros 17. (a) Define `Thrust' of a rocket and obtain the equation for the thrust in terms of rate of consumption of propellant and other parameters. Explain all the parameters in detail. (b) A small experimental rocket engine delivers an effective exhaust velocity of 1,800 m/s with a mass flow rate of 800 grams/second. What is the thrust developed by the rocket? 18. A satellite is launched into Earth orbit where its launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 250 km. At burnout the satellite's velocity is 7,900 m/s with a light path angle of one degree. Calculate the satellite's altitude at perigee and apogee and the eccentricity of the satellite. (Note: flight path angle is the angle between the local horizontal and the velocity vector)

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19. (a) How many sets of initial conditions can we use for solving the two body equation of motion? Give an example of one set of these. (b) Calculate the altitude needed for a circular geosynchronous orbit. 20. Is power generation possible continuously in a satellite? Consider (i) a polar sun-synchronous satellite and (ii) geostationary satellite and discuss. 21. (a) Discuss the necessity of developing a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicle for low Earth orbit missions. Explain the SSTO design constraints in detail. (b) Describe the methodology of optimizing multi-staging of a rocket assembly. 22. (a) Where does the Space begin? Which is the object strongly affecting the space environment and how does it affect? (b) iI) List out and describe the two forms of Sun's energy output. ii) Differentiate between `Solar Flares' and `Solar Winds'. 23. Starting from satellite attitude dynamics principles, explain briefly about yo-yo mechanisms. 24. Describe the two requirements (a high value and a low value) for the hypersonic drag coefficient of a re-entry space vehicle. 25. (a) Elaborate on the forces that act on a space vehicle re-entering Earth's atmosphere. (b) Define `Ballistic Coefficient of a space vehicle. How is it useful in describing the motion of an object through the atmosphere, in terms of the acceleration or deceleration of the object? 26. (a) A satellite is launched into a low Earth orbit an altitude of 400 km, velocity of 8,000 m/s with equal to 120. Calculate the satellite's altitudes at perigee and apogee.(f is the flight path angle, the angle between the local horizontal and the velocity vector) (b) Calculate the eccentricity of the orbit of the satellite in the above problem. 27. Write short notes on (a) Orbit Perturbations due to atmospheric Drag (b) Orbit perturbations from solar Radiation (c ) Orbit perturbation due non-spherical Earth. (d) Third body perturbation.

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28. Consider the motion of a rocket in free space and obtain Tsiolkovsky's equation to predict the velocity increment in the vehicle. Further, obtain expression for the velocity increment at its burnout condition. Discuss the ideal velocity variation for different mass ratios. 29. What is space craft power? Explain briefly about power generation and power storage in a satellite? 30. Exposure to charged particle radiation in space is known to influence the performance of a spacecraft. Explain in detail the primary sources for these particles and the damage caused to the space vehicle due to its exposure to such particles. 31. (a) Define the following quantities in rocket propulsion: i. Mass Ratio, ii. Propellant Mass Fraction, iii. Velocity Loss due to gravity, and iv. Altitude loss due to gravity. (b) A rocket has the following data: Propellant ow rate = 5 kg/s Nozzle exit diameter = 11 cm Nozzle exit pressure = 1.02 bar Ambient pressure = 1.013 bar Thrust = 7 kN Determine the effective exhaust jet velocity, actual exhaust jet velocity and specific impulse. 32. (a) Assume that the Earth station near the equator and the Earth station at a high latitude region are both observing distance variation of the same geo stationary satellite. How would these variations differ between these two Earth stations? (b) When walking on a circus tight rope, balance is achieved by stretching both the arms all way out by holding a long bar. Show that the stretched out arms or the bar correspond to a reaction wheel used in a zero momentum three axis stabilized satellite. 33. (a) Assume that the Earth station near the equator and the Earth station at a high latitude region are both observing distance variation of the same geostationary satellite. How would these variations differ between these two Earth stations? (b) When walking on a circus tight rope, balance is achieved by stretching both the arms all way out by holding a long bar. Show that the stretched out arms or the bar correspond to a reaction wheel used in a zero momentum three axis stabilized satellite.

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34. (a) Write the important features of a satellite in geostationary orbit. (b) The Virginia Tech earth station is located at 80.4380 longitudes and 37.2290N latitude. Calculate the look angles (azimuth and elevation angles) to a geosynchronous satellite whose sub-satellite point is located at 1210 W longitude. (c ) Why do signal losses occur in the earth's atmosphere for satellite communication? Write a note on ionospheric effects. 35. Consider the motion of a rocket in free space and obtain Tsiolkovsky's equation to predict the velocity increment in the vehicle. Further, obtain expression for the velocity increment at its burnout condition. Discuss the ideal velocity variation for different mass ratios. 36. Write short notes on the following: (a) Particle motion in a uniform gravity field (b) Solar constant (c ) Parking orbit (d) Geostationary orbit. 37. (a) Calculate the velocity of an artificial satellite orbiting the Earth in a circular orbit at an altitude of 200 km above the Earth's surface. (b) Calculate the period of revolution for the satellite in the above problem. 38. (a) What are the forces that act on a re-entry vehicle? Among these which is the dominant force during re-entry? Elucidate. (b) A vehicle attempting to aero-brake into orbit around Mars needs to achieve an equivalent Vretro of 2 km s 1. If the entire aero-braking maneuver lasts for 10 minutes, estimate the drag force acting on the vehicle in the process, in terms of g's. 39. (a) A satellite is launched into a low Earth orbit an altitude of 400 km, velocity of 8,000 m/s with _ equal to 120. Calculate the satellite's altitudes at perigee and apogee.(f is the flight path angle, the angle between the local horizontal and the velocity vector) (b) Calculate the eccentricity of the orbit of the satellite in the above problem. 40. Describe the rocket motion in a homogeneous gravitational field for two cases of pitch angles; (a) 900, and (b) less than 900.

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COURSE PURPOSE: The purpose of Flight Mechanics is to study vehicle trajectories (performance), Stability, aerodynamic control. The subject is divided into two parts: trajectory analysis and stability & control. In Flight mechanics-I we concentrate on Trajectory analysis (Performance). COURSE STRUCTURE: In This Subject we will study about: Introduction to aircraft performance The force system of the aircraft Cruise performance Climb and descent performance Aircraft maneuver performance Aircraft performance measurement and data handling Safety requirements- takeoff and landing performance planning The application of performance data SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES : 1) The Objective of this subject is to give details about the performance parameters of an aircraft. Study of each and every component performance which contribute to mission profile. Improving the performance of every component in the aircraft is the scope of the subject.

2)

COURSE SYLLABUS: UNIT I : The role and design mission of an aircraft, Specification of the performance requirements and mission profile, Importance of performance analysis, Estimation and measurement, Operational safety and economy, Scheduled performance and operational performance of aircraft, The standard atmosphere, Off standard and design atmosphere, Measurement of air data and air date computers. UNIT II : Equation of motion for performance, The aircraft force system, Total airplane drag, drag estimation, drag reduced methods, The propulsive forces- thrust producing engines ,power producing engines, Variation of thrust, propulsive power, Specific fuel consumption with altitude and flight speed, The minimum drag speed, minimum power speed, Aerodynamic relationships for a parabolic drag polar

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UNIT III : The maximum and minimum speeds in level flight, Range and endurance of aircraft with thrust producing engines, Cruise techniques- constant AOA, constant altitude, Constant Mach number methods, comparison of performance, The alternative fuel flow laws, Effect of weight, altitude& temperature on cruise performance, Cruise performance of aircraft with mixed power plants UNIT IV: Importance of climb and decent performance, Safety considerations, Climb and decent techniques, Generalized performance analysis of different power plants, Maximum climb gradient, climb rate, Energy height and specific excess power, Energy methods for optimal climbs, Minimum time climbs, minimum fuel climbs, Measurement of climb performance, Descent performance in aircraft operations, Effect of wind on climb and decent performance UNIT V: The general equations of accelerated motion of aircraft, The maneuver envelope, significance, Longitudinal aircraft maneuvers, The pull-up maneuver, Lateral maneuvers turn performance, Turn rates turn radius limiting factors for turning performance, instantaneous turns and sustained turns, specific excess power, The energy turns, The maneuver boundaries, Military aircraft maneuver performance, Transport aircraft maneuver performance UNIT VI: Purpose of performance measurement in flight, Flight testing principal performance variablesweight, Altitude and ambient temperature (WAT), Parametric performance data analysis, Dimensional analysis, Measurement of cruise performance, Climb take-off and landing performance data reduction, The equivalent weight method correction to cruise climb, Take-off and landing performance for weigh and temperature UNIT VII: Flight safety criteria, Performance classification of civil aircraft, Flight planning-performance planning and fuel planning, Estimation of take -off distances, The effect on the take -off distance of weight, Runway conditions ground effect, Take- off performance safety factors, Estimation of landing distance, The discontinued landing, Baulked landing, Air safety procedures and fuel planning, Fuel requirements trip fuel, Environmental effects reserves tankering. UNIT VIII: The Performance summary for fleet selection, the block performance, pay load, range diagram, Route analysis and optimization, Operational analysis procedure, Operational performance data for flight planning, Take off field performance, runway correction chart, WAT chart, determination of maximum take off weight.

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COURSE TEXTBOOK AND REFERENCES: Text Books: 1) Aircraft performance- theory and Practice, Eshelby 2) Introduction to Aeronautics-A design perspective, Brandt 3) Aircraft performance and design J.D. Anderson Reference Books: 1) Flight Theory and Aerodynamics, Dole, C.E 2) Fundamentals of flight, Shevel.R.S 3) Introduction to Aircraft Flight Mechanics, Yechout 4) Aerodynamics Aeronautics Flight Mechanics, McCormick, B.W Course Schedule: The course will proceed as follows for all sections. Please note that the week and the classes in each week are relative to each section.

Lecture Class Week TOPIC UNIT-I - INTRODUCTION TO AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE References

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Week 1

Week 2

The role and design mission of an aircraft Specification of the performance requirements and mission profile Importance of performance analysis Estimation and measurement Operational safety and economy Scheduled performance and operational performance of aircraft The standard atmosphere Off standard and design atmosphere Measurement of air data and air date computers

UNIT-II THE FORCE SYSTEM OF THE AIRCRAFT Equation of motion for performance The aircraft force system Total airplane drag, drag estimation, drag reduced methods The propulsive forces- thrust producing engines ,power producing eng Variation of thrust, propulsive power Specific fuel consumption with altitude and flight speed The minimum drag speed, minimum power speed Aerodynamic relationships for a parabolic drag polar MOCK TEST 1 BRIDGE CLASS-1

60

Week 3

Week 4

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18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Week 5

Week 6

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

UNIT-III -CRUISE PERFORMANCE The maximum and minimum speeds in level flight Range and endurance of aircraft with thrust producing engines Cruise techniques- constant AOA, constant altitude, BRIDGE CLASS-2 Constant Mach number methods, comparison of performance The alternative fuel flow laws Effect of weight, altitude& temperature on cruise performance Cruise performance of aircraft with mixed power plants BRIDGE CLASS-3 UNIT-IV - CLIMB AND DESCENT PERFORMANCE Importance of climb and decent performance Safety considerations Climb and decent techniques Generalized performance analysis of different power plants Maximum climb gradient, climb rate Energy height and specific excess power BRIDGE CLASS-4 Energy methods for optimal climbs Minimum time climbs, minimum fuel climbs Measurement of climb performance Descent performance in aircraft operations Effect of wind on climb and decent performance BRIDGE CLASS-5 MID-I EXAMS UNIT-V-AIRCRAFT MANOEUVRE PERFORMANCE

Week 10

Week 11

The general equations of accelerated motion of aircraft. The maneuver envelope, significance. Longitudinal aircraft maneuvers, Aircraft The pull-up maneuver, Performance Lateral maneuvers turn performance and DesignTurn rates turn radius limiting factors for turning performance J.D Anderson, BRIDGE CLASS-6 An Introduction instantaneous turns and sustained turns to aircraft specific excess power PerformanceThe energy turns. The maneuver boundaries. Yeachout Military aircraft maneuver performance Transport aircraft maneuver performance

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46 47 48 49 50 Week 12 Purpose of performance measurement in flight Flight testing principal performance variables-weight Altitude and ambient temperature (WAT) Parametric performance Data analysis

51 52 53 54 55

Week 13

BRIDGE CLASS-8 Dimensional analysis Measurement of cruise performance Climb take-off and landing performance data reduction The equivalent weight method correction to cruise climb Take-off and landing performance for weigh and temperature BRIDGE CLASS-9

UNIT-VII - SAFETEY REQUIREMENTS- TAKEOFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE PLANNING 56 Flight safety criteria 57 Performance classification of civil aircraft 58 Flight planning-performance planning and fuel planning Week 14 59 Estimation of take -off distances Aircraft 60 The effect on the take -off distance of weight Performance 61 Runway conditions ground effect and DesignBRIDGE CLASS-10 J.D Anderson, An 62 Take- off performance safety factors Introduction 63 Estimation of landing distance to aircraft 64 The discontinued landing Performance65 Baulked landing Week Yeachout 15 66 Air safety procedures and fuel planning 67 Fuel requirements trip fuel 68 Environmental effects reserves tankering BRIDGE CLASS-11 UNIT-VIII-THE APPLICATION OF PERFORMANCE DATA 69 The Performance summary for fleet selection Aircraft 70 The block performance, Performance pay load, range diagram Week and Design16 71 Route analysis and optimization J.D Anderson, 72 Operational analysis procedure An BRIDGE CLASS-12 Introduction 73 Operational performance data for flight planning to aircraft 74 Take off field performance, runway correction chart Week Performance17 WAT chart, Yeachout 75 determination of maximum take off weight BRIDGE CLASS-13 Week 18 MID-II EXAMS

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QUESTION BANK

1. Explain the factors to be considered in the estimation of performance of an aircraft and how the estimation is carried out a) b) a) b) Explain the different forces acting on an aircraft. Explain the components of drag in detail Derive the Breguet equation for the range of an aircraft. Derive an expression for the range of an aircraft following the method of constant angle of attack constant Mach number.

2.

3.

4.

Explain in detail, with relevant formulae, a) Energy height b) Specific excess power c) Minimum time climb d) Minimum fuel climb. Write notes on a) Instantaneous turns b) Sustained turns c) Military aircraft maneuver performance. a) b) State and explain Buckingham Pi theorem. Describe the parametric forms of aerodynamic and thrust forces.

5.

6.

7. 8.

Distinguish between flight planning, performance planning and fuel planning. Explain Payload-range diagrams. Also, explain the definitions of various limits on range, payload and weight of an aircraft. Explain the international atmospheric model. Explain the lift independent and lift dependent drag components. Find lift to drag ratio when drag coefficient at zero lift is 0.2, density of air at 10 km is 0.4135 kg/cubic meter and speed of the aircraft is 300 kmph. The mass of the aircraft is 5000 kg, area of the wing planform is 5 square meters and its aspect ratio is 6, and span efficiency factor is 1.

9.

10. a) b)

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11. a) b)

Derive the Breguet equation for the range of an aircraft. Derive an expression for the range of an aircraft following the method of constant angle of attack constant altitude.

12. Explain in detail, with relevant formulae, a) Climb rate b) Climb gradient c) Thrust producing engines d) Minimum fuel climb. 13. Write notes on a) Turning performance b) Turning radius 14. a) b) Explain the three main purposes of measuring flight data. Derive an expression for the correction to the measured equivalent air speed due to error in weight of the aircraft.

15. Describe the different phases of flights and the safety requirements during these phases. 16. Explain the procedure to determine the MTOW (maximum take off weight) of an aircraft. 17. Estimate the pressure of the atmosphere at an altitude of 10 km and calculate the Mach number of an aircraft travelling at 300 kmph at this altitude. 18. a) b) Derive an expression for the thrust of a jet engine. Explain the drag polar of an aircraft.

19. a) Derive the Breguet equation for the range of an aircraft. b) Derive an expression for the range of an aircraft in 'constant altitude constant Mach number' flight. 20. Describe the different climb and descent techniques. 21. a) b) Derive an expression for the pull-up maneuver of an aircraft. Find the load factor on an aircraft, when the radius of the maneuver is 700 m, climb gradient is 60 degrees and speed of the aircraft is 100 m/s.

22. Derive the equations necessary for performance data analysis of an aircraft with known test weight and standard weight, using the 'power equivalent weight - speed equivalent weight' method.

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23. Explain the following: a) Take off distance required, b) Maximum refusal speed c) TORA d) TODA. 24. a) b) 25. a) b) 26. a) b) Explain the operational analysis of an aircraft. Describe the flight path segments in a climb. Explain the difference between the performance of an aircraft and its airworthiness. Describe some typical mission profiles. Define Specific fuel consumption. Derive an expression for the 'Minimum drag speed' of an aircraft.

27. Assuming the fuel flow rate to be a function of the square root of temperature ratio of the atmosphere and the 'n'th power of Mach number of the aircraft, derive expressions for the optimal speeds of an aircraft corresponding to maximum range and maximum endurance. 28. a) b) Explain maximum climb gradient and maximum rate of climb of an aircraft. An aircraft with a wing loading of 1500 N/sq. m. is gliding from an altitude of 4 km. What is the glide angle corresponding to minimum rate of descent, if zero lift drag coefficient is 0.2? What is the equilibrium glide velocity associated with this descent?

29. Explain the V-n (Maneuver) diagram of an aircraft. 30. a) b) 31. a) b) Derive an expression for the correction to the measured equivalent air speed of an airplane due to error in temperature of the air. State an expression for the ground run distance and explain all the parameters clearly. Explain the current performance classifications. Discuss briefly the space available and space required for take-off of an aircraft.

32. Explain a) Block performance of an aircraft. b) Disposable load c) Performance summary d) Balanced take-off distance.

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NOTES

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NOTES

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NOTES

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Engineering andTechnology is a life time mission. I will work, work and succeed. Wherever I am, a thought will always come to my mind. That is what process or product I can innovate, invent or discover. I will always remember that "Let not my winged days, be spent in vain". I realize I have to set a great technological goal that will lead me to think high, work and persevere to realize the goal. My greatest friends will be great scientific and technological minds, good teachers and good books. I firmly believe that no problem can defeat me; I will become the captain of the problem, defeat the problem and succeed. I will work and work for removing the problems faced by planet earth in the areas of water, energy, habitat, waste management and environment through the application of engineering and technology. I will work for making the district in which I work as a carbon neutral district. My National Flag flies in my heart and I will bring glory to my nation.

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