1 views

Original Title: AdvancedElectromagnetism-Part4

Uploaded by Gua Rock Beriman

- aieee 2011 soltion by careerpoint
- Fiber Optic Lab Manual
- 43004
- Flux 10 New Features
- Paper Physics 2005
- Chapter 1
- 082474hgf
- Verification of Fresnels Laws
- Abrikosov-lecture_Type II Superconductors and Vortex Lattice
- Planing Radio Links
- UT_LEVEL_2_Part_1
- Introduction
- Water Fuel Cell
- 0213Bd01
- Chapter 1 Waves
- WAVE AND OSCILLATION QUESTIONS.docx
- Physics notes
- Refraction
- Application of SMES and Fuel Cell System Combined With Liquid Hydrogen Vehicle Station to Renewable Energy Control
- Wireless Communications Systems

You are on page 1of 35

Reection and Transmission of EM Waves

When plane waves are incident on a boundary between dierent

media, some energy crosses the boundary, and some is

reected.

We dene transmission and reection coecients to quantify

the transmission and reection of wave energy. These

coecients are properties of the two media.

The transmission and reection coecients are determined by

matching the electric and magnetic elds in the waves at the

boundary between the two media.

Advanced Electromagnetism 1 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Transmission of EM Waves

In this part of the course, we shall consider:

Boundary conditions on electric and magnetic elds.

Boundary conditions on elds at the surfaces of conductors.

Monochromatic plane wave on a boundary:

directions of reected and transmitted waves (laws of reection and

refraction);

amplitudes of reected and transmitted waves (Fresnels equations);

the special case of a boundary between two dielectrics;

the special case of the surface of a conductor.

Monochromatic plane wave on a boundary between two dielectrics:

polarisation by reection;

total internal reection.

Reection coecient for a conducting surface.

Advanced Electromagnetism 2 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 1: Normal Component of

B

We can use Maxwells equations to derive the boundary

conditions on the magnetic eld across a surface. Consider a

pillbox across the surface.

Advanced Electromagnetism 3 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 1: Normal Component of

B

Take Maxwells equation:

B = 0 (1)

integrate over the volume of the pillbox, and apply Gauss

theorem:

_

V

BdV =

_

S

B

dS = 0 (2)

where V is the volume of the pillbox, and S is its surface. We

can break the integral over the surface into three parts: over

the at ends (S

1

and S

2

) and over the curved wall (S

3

):

_

S

1

B

dS +

_

S

2

B

dS +

_

S

3

B

dS = 0 (3)

Advanced Electromagnetism 4 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 1: Normal Component of

B

In the limit that the length of the pillbox approaches zero, the

integral over the curved surface also approaches zero. If each

end has a small area A, then equation (3) becomes:

B

1n

A+B

2n

A = 0 (4)

or:

B

1n

= B

2n

(5)

In other words, the normal component of the magnetic eld

B

must be continuous across the surface.

Advanced Electromagnetism 5 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 2: Tangential Component of

E

Consider a loop spanning the surface.

Advanced Electromagnetism 6 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 2: Tangential Component of

E

Take Maxwells equation:

E =

B (6)

Integrate over the surface bounded by the loop and apply

Stokes theorem to get:

_

S

E

dS =

_

C

E

dl =

t

_

S

B

dS (7)

Now take the limit in which the width of the loop becomes

zero. The contributions to the integral around the loop C from

the narrow ends become zero, as does the integral of the

magnetic eld across the area bounded by the loop. We are

left with:

E

1t

l E

2t

l = 0 (8)

which means that:

E

1t

= E

2t

(9)

Therefore, the tangential component of the electric eld is

continuous across the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 7 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 3: Normal Component of

D

Consider a pillbox crossing the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 8 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 3: Normal Component of

D

Take Maxwells equation:

D = (10)

Integrate over the volume of the pillbox, and apply Gauss

theorem:

_

V

DdV =

_

S

D

dS =

_

V

dV (11)

Now we take the limit in which the height of the pillbox

becomes zero. We assume that there is a surface charge density

s

. If the at ends of the pillbox have (small) area A, then:

D

1n

A+D

2n

A =

s

A (12)

Dividing by the area A, we arrive at:

D

2n

D

1n

=

s

(13)

Note that if the surface charge density is zero, the normal

component of

D is continuous across the surface. However,

this is not true for the normal component of

E, unless the two

materials have identical permittivities.

Advanced Electromagnetism 9 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 4: Tangential Component of

H

Consider a loop across the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 10 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 4: Tangential Component of

H

Take Maxwells equation:

H =

J +

D (14)

Integrate over the surface bounded by the loop, and apply

Stokes theorem to obtain:

_

S

H

dS =

_

C

H

dl =

_

S

J

dS +

t

_

S

D

dS (15)

As before, take the limit where the lengths of the narrow edges

of the loop become zero. Then we nd that:

H

1t

l H

2t

l = J

s

l (16)

or:

H

1t

H

2t

= J

s

(17)

where J

s

represents a surface current density perpendicular to

the direction of the tangential component of

H that is being

matched.

Advanced Electromagnetism 11 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions 4: Tangential Component of

H

The concept of surface current density is analogous to that of

surface charge density: it represents a nite current in an

innitesimal layer of the material.

If the material has nite conductivity, then an innitesimal layer

of the material has innite resistance, and no current can ow

(if the electric eld is nite).

Therefore, for a material with nite conductivity, we have:

H

1t

= H

2t

(18)

That is, the tangential component of

H is continuous across

the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 12 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Summary of Boundary Conditions

The general conditions on electric and magnetic elds at the

boundary between two materials can be summarised as follows:

Boundary condition: Derived from... ...applied to:

B

2n

= B

1n

B = 0 pillbox

E

2t

= E

1t

E =

B loop

D

2n

D

1n

=

s

D = pillbox

H

2t

H

1t

= J

s

H =

J +

D loop

Advanced Electromagnetism 13 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions on Surfaces of Conductors

Static electric elds cannot persist inside a conductor. This is

simply because the free charges within the conductor will

re-arrange themselves to cancel any electric eld; this can

result in a surface charge density,

s

.

We have seen that electromagnetic waves can pass into a

conductor, but the eld amplitudes fall exponentially with

decay length given by the skin depth, :

(19)

As the conductivity increases, the skin depth gets smaller.

Since both static and oscillating electric elds vanish within a

good conductor, we can write the boundary conditions at the

surface of such a conductor:

E

1t

0 E

2t

0

D

1n

s

D

2n

0

Advanced Electromagnetism 14 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions on Surfaces of Conductors

Lenzs law states that a changing magnetic eld will induce

currents in a conductor that will act to oppose the change.

In other words, currents are induced that will tend to cancel

the magnetic eld in the conductor.

This means that a good conductor will tend to exclude

magnetic elds.

Thus the boundary conditions on oscillating magnetic elds at

the surface of a good conductor can be written:

B

1n

0 B

2n

0

H

1t

J

s

H

2t

0

Advanced Electromagnetism 15 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Boundary Conditions on Surfaces of Conductors

We can consider an ideal conductor as having innite

conductivity.

In that case, we would expect the boundary conditions to

become:

B

1n

= 0 B

2n

= 0

E

1t

= 0 E

2t

= 0

D

1n

=

s

D

2n

= 0

H

1t

= J

s

H

2t

= 0

Strictly speaking, the boundary conditions on the magnetic

eld apply only to oscillating elds, and not to static elds.

But it turns out that for superconductors, static magnetic

elds are excluded as well as oscillating magnetic elds. This is

not expected for classical ideal conductors.

Advanced Electromagnetism 16 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Superconductors and the Meissner Eect

Although superconductors have innite conductivity, they

cannot be understood in terms of classical theories in the limit

.

Superconductivity is a quantum phenomenon: one aspect of

this is the Meissner eect, which refers to the expulsion of all

magnetic elds (static as well as oscillating) from within a

superconductor.

In fact, even in a superconductor, the magnetic eld is not

completely excluded from the material but penetrates a small

distance (the London penetration depth, typically around

100 nm) into the material.

Advanced Electromagnetism 17 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Superconductors and the Meissner Eect

As long as the applied magnetic eld is not too large, a sample

of material cooled below its critical temperature will expel any

magnetic eld as it undergoes the phase transition to

superconductivity: when this happens, a magnet placed on top

of the sample will start to levitate.

Advanced Electromagnetism 18 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Superconductors and the Meissner Eect

The Meissner eect allows us to classify superconductors into

two distinct classes:

Type I superconductors: above a certain critical eld H

c

(which depends on the temperature), superconductivity is

abruptly destroyed.

Type II superconductors: above one critical eld value

H

c1

, the magnetic eld starts to penetrate, but the

electrical resistance remains zero. Above a second, higher

critical eld value H

c2

, superconductivity is abruptly

destroyed.

Advanced Electromagnetism 19 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Critical Fields in Niobium (Type II Superconductor)

R.A. French, Intrinsic Type-2 Superconductivity in Pure Niobium,

Cryogenics, 8, 301 (1968). Note: t = T/T

c

. The critical temperature for

niobium is T

c

= 9.2 K.

Advanced Electromagnetism 20 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Waves on Boundaries

We now apply the boundary conditions to an electromagnetic

wave incident on a boundary between two dierent materials.

We shall use the boundary conditions to derive the properties of

the reected and transmitted waves, for a given incident wave.

Consider a monochromatic wave incident at some angle on a

boundary. We must consider three waves: the incident wave

itself; the reected wave, and the transmitted wave on the far

side of the boundary.

The electric eld components for these waves can be written

(respectively):

E

I

(r, t) =

E

0I

e

j(

I

t

k

I

r)

(20)

E

R

(r, t) =

E

0R

e

j(

R

t

k

R

r)

(21)

E

T

(r, t) =

E

0T

e

j(

T

t

k

T

r)

(22)

Advanced Electromagnetism 21 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Waves on Boundaries

Advanced Electromagnetism 22 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Waves on Boundaries

Let us rst consider the time dependence of the waves. The

boundary conditions must apply at all times: for example, the

tangential component of the electric eld, E

t

, must be

continuous across the boundary at all points on the boundary

at all times.

This means that all waves must have the same time

dependence, and therefore:

I

=

R

=

T

= (23)

Reection at a boundary cannot change the frequency of an

incident monochromatic wave. Some surfaces reect some

wavelengths better than others, which is why they can appear

coloured under white light; but the frequency of the light does

not change.

Advanced Electromagnetism 23 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Laws of Reection and Refraction

Now let us consider the relationships between the directions in

which the waves are moving.

We shall nd that these relationships are just the laws of

reection and refraction that we are familiar with from basic

optics.

However, our goal is now to derive these laws from Maxwells

equations, by applying the boundary conditions on elds in

waves across boundaries.

Advanced Electromagnetism 24 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Laws of Reection and Refraction

We start from the fact that the boundary conditions must be

satised at all points on the boundary.

This means that the waves must all change phase in the same

way as we move from one point to another on the boundary.

Since the phase of each of the waves at a position r is given by

k r, where

k is the appropriate wave vector, we must have:

k

I

p =

k

R

p =

k

T

p (24)

where p is any point on the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 25 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Laws of Reection and Refraction

For simplicity, let us choose our coordinates so that the

boundary lies in the plane z = 0. Then any point p on the

boundary can be written:

p = (x, y, 0) (25)

Now we can (without loss of generality) further specify the

coordinate system so that

k

I

lies in the x z plane, i.e. the y

component of

k

I

is zero:

k

I

= (k

I

sin

I

, 0, k

I

cos

I

) (26)

where

I

is the angle between the direction of travel of the

incident wave and the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 26 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Laws of Reection and Refraction

Now let us apply equation (24):

k

I

p =

k

R

p =

k

T

p

to points on the boundary with x = 0, i.e. p = (0, y, 0). We

nd:

k

Iy

= k

Ry

= k

Ty

= 0 (27)

Therefore, the directions of the incident, reected and

transmitted waves all lie in the plane y = 0.

Advanced Electromagnetism 27 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Laws of Reection and Refraction

Now let us consider points on the boundary with y = 0, i.e.

p = (x, 0, 0). This time, using equation (24) gives:

k

Ix

= k

Rx

= k

Tx

= k

I

sin

I

(28)

which (since the vertical components of the wave vectors are

all zero) can be written:

k

I

sin

I

= k

R

sin

R

= k

T

sin

T

(29)

But since the incident and reected waves are travelling in the

same material with the same frequency, the magnitudes of the

wave vectors must be the same:

k

I

= k

R

(30)

Combining equations (29) and (30) we nd:

I

=

R

the law of reection (31)

sin

I

sin

T

=

k

T

k

I

the law of refraction (Snells law) (32)

Advanced Electromagnetism 28 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at a Boundary Between Dielectrics

As an example, consider a monochromatic wave incident on a

boundary between two dielectrics (e.g. air and glass).

Since the conductivity is zero on both sides of the boundary,

the wave vectors of all waves must be real.

Also, we have:

k

I

= v

1

,

k

T

= v

2

(33)

where v

1

is the phase velocity in medium 1, and v

2

is the phase

velocity in medium 2.

Then equation (32) gives us:

sin

I

sin

T

=

v

1

v

2

(34)

Advanced Electromagnetism 29 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at a Boundary Between Dielectrics

We dene the refractive index n of a material as the ratio of the

speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the material:

n =

c

v

(35)

Then equation (34) can be written:

sin

I

sin

T

=

n

2

n

1

(36)

This is the familiar form of Snells law.

Advanced Electromagnetism 30 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at the Surface of a Conductor

For a wave incident on a conductor,

k

T

will be complex:

k

T

= j

(37)

For a good conductor (i.e.

2

):

_

2

2

(38)

so:

k

T

=

_

2

+

2

=

2

(39)

Applying the law of refraction (32):

sin

I

sin

T

=

k

T

k

I

1

1 (40)

where we have assumed that

2

1

.

Since the largest value of sin

I

is 1, equation (40) tells us that

sin

T

0, so the direction of the transmitted wave in a good

conductor must be (close to the) normal to the surface.

Advanced Electromagnetism 31 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

Having derived the relationships between the directions of the

incident, reected and refracted waves, we turn now to the

amplitudes of the waves.

We can again apply the boundary conditions on the

electromagnetic elds at a boundary to derive relationships

between the wave amplitudes.

It turns out that the relative amplitudes and phases of the

waves depend on the electromagnetic impedances of the

materials on either side of the boundary.

The results we nd are summarised in a set of equations known

as Fresnels equations.

Advanced Electromagnetism 32 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

Consider an electromagnetic wave incident on a boundary with

the electric eld in the wave normal to the plane of incidence.

We call this N polarisation.

Advanced Electromagnetism 33 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

Since the tangential component of the electric eld is

continuous across the boundary (at any time and any point on

the boundary), we have:

E

0I

+

E

0R

=

E

0T

(41)

The tangential component of the magnetic eld must also be

continuous across the boundary:

H

0I

cos

I

H

0R

cos

I

= H

0T

cos

T

(42)

Advanced Electromagnetism 34 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

The ratio of the electric eld to the magnetic intensity in a

wave is given by the impedance of the medium:

E

0

H

0

= Z (43)

Substituting from (43) into (42) we get:

(E

0I

E

0R

)

Z

1

cos

I

=

E

0T

Z

2

cos

T

(44)

Advanced Electromagnetism 35 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

Now we solve equations (41) and (44) for the amplitudes of

the reected and transmitted waves, as fractions of the

amplitude of the incident wave:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

Z

2

cos

I

Z

1

cos

T

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

(45)

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

(46)

It is important to remember that equations (45) and (46) apply

only to the case that the incident wave is polarised with the

electric eld normal to the plane of incidence, i.e. for N

polarisation.

Advanced Electromagnetism 36 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at a Boundary Between Dielectrics

Consider equations (45) and (46) in the special case of a

boundary between two dielectrics.

Since the refractive index n of a dielectric is given by:

n =

c

v

=

0

(47)

we can write:

Z =

_

0

Z

0

n

(48)

For non-magnetic dielectrics, we have

1

=

2

=

0

, so that:

Z

1

=

Z

0

n

1

, Z

2

=

Z

0

n

2

(49)

Advanced Electromagnetism 37 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at a Boundary Between Dielectrics

Then, equations (45) and (46):

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

Z

2

cos

I

Z

1

cos

T

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

become:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

n

1

cos

I

n

2

cos

T

n

1

cos

I

+n

2

cos

T

(50)

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2n

1

cos

I

n

1

cos

I

+n

2

cos

T

(51)

The Fresnel equations above are frequently written in terms of

the refractive index rather than the impedance; but then the

equations are valid only for non-magnetic dielectrics.

Advanced Electromagnetism 38 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at the Surface of a Conductor

Now consider the special case of a plane wave incident on the

surface of a good conductor, again polarised so that the

electric eld is parallel to the surface.

Recall that the impedance of a conductor is given in general by:

Z = (1 +j)

_

2

(52)

If the conductor is non-magnetic, so that

0

, and if the

permittivity is also close to the permittivity of free space, then

for a good conductor with :

|Z| Z

0

_

Z

0

(53)

Advanced Electromagnetism 39 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at the Surface of a Conductor

If we assume that the wave is incident on a good conductor

from a dielectric with impedance of the same order of

magnitude as the impedance of free space, then we have:

Z

1

Z

0

, |Z

2

| Z

0

|Z

2

| Z

1

(54)

Then, equations (45) and (46) become:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

Z

2

cos

I

Z

1

cos

T

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

1 (55)

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

0 (56)

Therefore, there is nearly 100% reection from a metal surface,

with a phase change of 180

there is a cancellation between the tangential components of

the electric eld in the incident and reected waves.

Advanced Electromagnetism 40 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

Now consider the case of an monomchromatic wave incident on

a boundary, with the electric eld parallel to the plane of

incidence.

We call this P polarisation.

Advanced Electromagnetism 41 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

We apply the boundary conditions as before.

First, since the component of the electric eld tangential to the

boundary must be continuous across the boundary, we have:

E

0I

cos

I

+E

0R

cos

I

= E

0T

cos

I

(57)

Next, since the tangential component of the magnetic eld

must also be continuous across the boundary:

H

0I

H

0R

= H

0T

(58)

We can again express the magnetic intensity in terms of the

electric eld and the impedance:

E

0

H

0

= Z (59)

Advanced Electromagnetism 42 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Intensity of Reected and Refracted Waves

Proceeding as before, we nd for the ratios of the wave

amplitudes:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

=

Z

2

cos

T

Z

1

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

(60)

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

P

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

(61)

Equations (60) and (61) are valid for the electric eld in the

incident wave parallel (P) to the plane of incidence.

Compare equations (60) and (61) with (45) and (46):

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

Z

2

cos

I

Z

1

cos

T

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

Advanced Electromagnetism 43 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at a Boundary Between Dielectrics

When the materials on both sides of the boundary are

dielectrics, we can write equations (60) and (61) in terms of

the refractive indices n

1

and n

2

.

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

=

n

1

cos

T

n

2

cos

I

n

1

cos

T

+n

2

cos

I

(62)

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

P

=

2n

1

cos

I

n

1

cos

T

+n

2

cos

I

(63)

Advanced Electromagnetism 44 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection and Refraction at the Surface of a Conductor

When the wave is incident from a dielectric onto the surface of

a good conductor ( ), if we assume non-magnetic

materials with permittivity close to that of vacuum, we have:

Z

1

Z

0

, |Z

2

| Z

0

|Z

2

| Z

1

(64)

Then:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

=

Z

2

cos

T

Z

1

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

1 (65)

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

P

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

0 (66)

There is nearly 100% reection from a metal surface, with a

phase change of 180

polarisation.

Advanced Electromagnetism 45 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Fresnels Equations

The equations (45), (46), (60) and (61) are known as Fresnels

equations:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

Z

2

cos

I

Z

1

cos

T

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

I

+Z

1

cos

T

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

=

Z

2

cos

T

Z

1

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

P

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

Advanced Electromagnetism 46 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Fresnels Equations for Normal Incidence

For a wave incident normal to a boundary,

I

=

T

= 0, and

Fresnels equations (for electric elds both normal to, and

parallel to the plane of incidence) become:

E

0R

E

0I

=

Z

2

Z

1

Z

2

+Z

1

and

E

0T

E

0I

=

2Z

2

Z

2

+Z

1

(67)

Note that since the energy in a wave is proportional to the

square of its amplitude divided by the impedance of the

medium, we can easily show that energy is conserved in this

case:

E

2

0R

E

2

0I

+

Z

1

Z

2

E

2

0T

E

2

0I

=

(Z

2

Z

1

)

2

+4Z

1

Z

2

(Z

2

+Z

1

)

2

= 1 (68)

and hence:

E

2

0R

Z

1

+

E

2

0T

Z

2

=

E

2

0I

Z

1

(69)

Of course, energy is also conserved for general angles of

incidence, but the algebra is slightly more complicated.

Advanced Electromagnetism 47 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Wave Incident on a Boundary Between Dielectrics

There are two important phenomena associated with

electromagnetic waves incident on a boundary between two

dielectrics. These are:

Polarisation by reection.

Total internal reection.

Both of these eects can be understood from the relationships

between the angles and intensities of the incident, reected and

transmitted waves that we have derived. We shall discuss each

in turn.

Advanced Electromagnetism 48 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Wave Incident on a Boundary Between Dielectrics

Expressing Fresnels equations in terms of the refractive indices

n

1

and n

2

for the two dielectrics:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

=

n

1

cos

I

n

2

cos

T

n

1

cos

I

+n

2

cos

T

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

N

=

2n

1

cos

I

n

1

cos

I

+n

2

cos

T

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

=

n

1

cos

T

n

2

cos

I

n

1

cos

T

+n

2

cos

I

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

P

=

2n

1

cos

I

n

1

cos

T

+n

2

cos

I

The angles of incidence and transmission are related by the law

of refraction (32):

sin

I

sin

T

=

n

2

n

1

Advanced Electromagnetism 49 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Wave Incident on a Boundary Between Dielectrics

Advanced Electromagnetism 50 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Wave Incident on a Boundary Between Dielectrics

Since there are no imaginary terms in the ratios of the eld

amplitudes, E

0R

and E

0T

are either in phase with E

0I

(positive ratio) or out of phase (negative ratio).

For all n

1

and n

2

, E

0T

is always in phase with E

0I

.

If n

1

< n

2

(incident wave in low-density material, and

transmitted wave in high-density material):

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

N

< 0 (70)

so the reected and incident waves are always out of

phase.

Advanced Electromagnetism 51 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Polarisation by Reection

Depending on the values of

I

and n

2

/n

1

, the ratio

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

(71)

can be positive or negative. It is zero when:

n

2

cos

I

= n

1

cos

T

(72)

Using the law of refraction (32):

n

1

n

2

=

sin

T

sin

I

(73)

we nd that the condition (72) can be written:

sin

I

cos

I

sin

T

cos

T

= 0 (74)

Advanced Electromagnetism 52 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Polarisation by Reection

Using the trigonometric identity:

sin2A = 2sinAcos A (75)

equation (74) becomes:

sin2

I

sin2

T

= 0 (76)

Using a further trigonometric identity:

sinAsinB = 2cos

_

A+B

2

_

sin

_

AB

2

_

(77)

equation (76) becomes:

cos(

I

+

T

) sin(

I

T

) = 0 (78)

Therefore, the condition for zero reection (for the electric

eld parallel to the plane of incidence) becomes:

I

+

T

=

2

(79)

Advanced Electromagnetism 53 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Polarisation by Reection

Advanced Electromagnetism 54 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Polarisation by Reection

Substituting from equation (79) into the law of refraction (32),

we nd:

sin

T

sin

I

=

sin(

I

)

sin

I

=

cos

I

sin

I

=

n

1

n

2

(80)

The angle of incidence at which condition (80) is satised is

called the Brewster angle,

B

:

tan

B

=

n

2

n

1

(81)

When the angle of incidence is equal to the Brewster angle, a

wave with the electric eld parallel to the plane of incidence

has zero reected amplitude.

A wave with electric eld normal to the plane of incidence is

still reected. As a result, the wave becomes polarised.

Advanced Electromagnetism 55 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Polarisation by Reection

Polarisation by reection enables us to use polarising lters to

reduce the amount of glare from sunlight reecting o the

surface of a lake, or o a wet road...

Advanced Electromagnetism 56 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Total Internal Reection

Consider again the law of refraction (32):

sin

T

=

n

1

n

2

sin

I

(82)

If n

1

> n

2

, then for suciently large

I

, we apparently have:

sin

T

> 1 (83)

We interpret this as meaning that under these conditions, there

is no refracted wave: all the energy in the incident wave is

reected from the boundary.

The angle of incidence for which sin

T

= 1 is called the critical

angle,

c

:

sin

c

=

n

2

n

1

(84)

Advanced Electromagnetism 57 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Total Internal Reection

Advanced Electromagnetism 58 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

Finally (for this part of the lecture course), we shall consider in

a little more detail reection from the surface of a good

conductor.

Recall that we found previously that, for polarisation both

normal and parallel to the plane of incidence, the amplitudes of

the reected and transmitted waves were given approximately

by:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

P

=

Z

2

cos

T

Z

1

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

1

_

E

0T

E

0I

_

P

=

2Z

2

cos

I

Z

2

cos

T

+Z

1

cos

I

0

We shall try to take our analysis a stage further, so as to arrive

at a more accurate estimate for the amount of reected light.

For simplicity, we shall only consider normal incidence.

Advanced Electromagnetism 59 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

Consider a wave incident on the surface of a conductor at

normal incidence (

I

= 0). From Fresnels equations, the

amplitude of the reected wave is given by:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

=

Z

2

Z

1

Z

2

+Z

1

(85)

The impedance for the wave in the conductor is given, in

general, by:

Z

2

= (1 +j)

2

2

2

(86)

Assuming non-magnetic materials, and that the conductor

satises the good conductor condition

2

, we shall have:

|Z

2

| Z

1

(87)

Thus, we can write equation (85) for the reected wave

amplitude in terms of a small parameter x:

_

E

0R

E

0I

_

=

1 x

1 +x

, x =

Z

2

Z

1

, |x| 1 (88)

Advanced Electromagnetism 60 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

Since x is small, we can make a Taylor series expansion:

(1 +x)

1

= 1 x +O

_

x

2

_

(89)

Using this in our expression for E

0R

/E

0I

from equation (88),

we nd:

E

0R

E

0I

= (1 x)(1 +x)

1

= (1 x)(1 x +O(x

2

))

= (1 2x +O(x

2

)) (90)

We nd:

E

0R

E

0I

1 +2

Z

2

Z

1

= 1 +(1 +j)

2

2

2

(91)

By a similar calculation, we nd:

E

0T

E

0I

2

Z

2

Z

1

= (1 +j)

2

2

2

(92)

Advanced Electromagnetism 61 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

Let us dene the real parameter , given by:

=

2

2

2

1 (93)

In terms of , the reected and transmitted wave amplitudes

are:

E

0R

E

0I

1 +(1 +j) (94)

E

0T

E

0I

(1 +j) (95)

These expressions are convenient for drawing the phases and

amplitudes of the reected and transmitted waves, relative to

the incident wave...

Advanced Electromagnetism 62 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

E

0R

( 1 +j) E

0I

(96)

E

0T

( +j) E

0I

(97)

Advanced Electromagnetism 63 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

In the case of a plane wave incident on a good conductor, we

nd that:

The phase of E

0T

leads the phase of E

0I

by 45

.

The phase of E

0R

leads the phase of E

0I

by:

tan

1

_

1

_

(98)

As

2

, E

0T

0 and E

0R

E

0I

as expected.

As

2

0, we do not get the expected dielectric formulae:

this situation violates many of the assumptions we made.

Advanced Electromagnetism 64 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

We dene the reection coecient R to be the fraction of

energy reected from a surface. R is the ratio of the time

averaged Poynting vector,

S =

E

H, for the incident and

reected waves.

For a plane wave with normal incidence on a good conductor:

R =

S

R

S

I

E

R

H

R

E

I

H

I

E

0R

E

0I

2

(99)

Since, from equation (94) the amplitude of the reected wave

is given by:

E

0R

E

0I

= 1 +(1 +j) (100)

we nd that:

E

0R

E

0I

2

= (1 +(1 +j)) (1 +(1 j)) 1 2 (101)

where we have used the fact that || 1 to drop a term in

2

.

Advanced Electromagnetism 65 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

Therefore:

R 1 2 = 1 2

2

2

2

(102)

Consider the example of 3 cm microwave radiation at normal

incidence on copper:

frequency of radiation = 2 10

10

s

1

conductivity of copper

2

= 5.6 10

7

(m)

1

permeability

1

=

2

=

0

permittivity

1

=

0

Using equation (102), we nd:

R 1 2

2

2

2

0.99972 (103)

Therefore, 99.97% of the incident power is reected.

Advanced Electromagnetism 66 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Reection Coecient for a Good Conductor

From equation (102),

R 1 2

2

2

2

(104)

we observe that:

R gets closer to 1 at low frequencies.

Only at very high frequencies does the deviation from 1

become signicant for good conductors such as copper,

aluminium or silver.

We also note that since the skin depth is small, thin sheets of a

good conductor provide excellent shielding for long-wavelength

electromagnetic radiation.

Advanced Electromagnetism 67 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

Summary of Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

You should be able to:

Derive (from Maxwells equations) the boundary conditions on electric

and magnetic elds at the interface between two media.

Apply the boundary conditions on electric and magnetic elds to derive

the laws of reection and refraction.

Apply the boundary conditions to derive the relative amplitudes of the

reected and refracted waves for dierent polarisations (Fresnels

equations).

Apply Fresnels equations to boundaries between two dielectrics, and to

the surfaces of good conductors, to explain the behaviour of waves at

such boundaries.

Plot the variation in reected and refracted wave amplitudes as

functions of angle of incidence, for the boundary between two

dielectrics.

Explain the signicance of the Brewster angle and the critical angle,

and derive expressions for these angles, in terms of the refractive

indices of the media on either side of the boundary.

Advanced Electromagnetism 68 Part 4: Waves on Boundaries

- aieee 2011 soltion by careerpointUploaded bysaurav gupta
- Fiber Optic Lab ManualUploaded byregio122
- 43004Uploaded byMansoor Ar
- Flux 10 New FeaturesUploaded byDumi Bogdan
- Paper Physics 2005Uploaded byjoseph kunikina
- Chapter 1Uploaded byMilo Ice
- 082474hgfUploaded bySuzzanne Smith
- Verification of Fresnels LawsUploaded byUtkar Sh
- Abrikosov-lecture_Type II Superconductors and Vortex LatticeUploaded bypirlapirlachenonsipu
- Planing Radio LinksUploaded bymorozco1965
- UT_LEVEL_2_Part_1Uploaded byRobertRoy
- IntroductionUploaded byJasbir Singh Dhanoa
- Water Fuel CellUploaded byronachaif3191
- 0213Bd01Uploaded byRakesh Devarakonda
- Chapter 1 WavesUploaded byMNY
- WAVE AND OSCILLATION QUESTIONS.docxUploaded byAlok Chaturvedi
- Physics notesUploaded byRabia Aftab
- RefractionUploaded byMohamed Adnan
- Application of SMES and Fuel Cell System Combined With Liquid Hydrogen Vehicle Station to Renewable Energy ControlUploaded byvipinpilanku
- Wireless Communications SystemsUploaded bynandakishore.nalla
- preview physicsUploaded byapi-238188038
- Maxwell EquationsUploaded bydjbabu
- Comparision of Atomic Bonds-UTUploaded byMurali Krishnan Selvaraja
- refraction lessonUploaded byapi-302564009
- Detailed lesson planUploaded byJanine Gulmatico
- lec_2_2004Uploaded bySwati Sachan
- Design Questions Guides by LeongYPUploaded byPathmanathan Nadeson
- Appendixes 7Uploaded byMaharAl-hasan
- 10propertiesoflight-140123181500-phpapp02Uploaded byMaestro de Grapico
- NOE0415380416%2Ech039Uploaded byUmed Abd-alsatar

- Introduction Geostatistic for Mineral ResourcesUploaded byMahija_Handarbeni
- ESPEC Produktübersicht en 2017 KomprimiertUploaded byPulkit
- Digital Speedometer using FPGAUploaded byauike87
- HeavisideUploaded bykorangaprakash
- Critical Values of TUploaded byRam Singh
- Simple StrainUploaded byAngeloLorenzoSalvadorTamayo
- Climatological Summaries May 2008Uploaded byneeraj_greedharee
- Acid Catalysis by Heteropoly AcidsUploaded byBiodiesel Pala Fredricksen
- Scattering and ReflectionUploaded byMustafa Demircioğlu
- 3d printersUploaded byapi-329249285
- Durrett_Probability_Theory_and_Examples_Solutions_PDF___Measure_Theory___Analysis.txtUploaded byjigo
- MathematiciansUploaded byGener Cabacungan
- CENTRE OF MASS & CONSV OF MOMENTUM[NITIN M SIR].pdfUploaded bykisan singh
- 57522707-Chap-8-4[1]-Application of Thermal Analysis in Cement MnaufacturingUploaded byarylananyla
- Conventional DC Electrochemical TechniquesUploaded byKarla Caicedo
- Conducting Stability Studies - Recent Changes to Climatic Zone IVUploaded byHaider Ali Khan
- Chapter 13Uploaded byAnonymous lOMOpX3
- PFR lab reportUploaded byValentinoDullSatin
- mekanisme katarak 1Uploaded byVidini Kusuma Aji
- OMNUC Useries ManualUploaded bydinhngock6
- EGC Graphite Pressure Seal TestUploaded byMeanRat
- Entalpia EjerciciosUploaded byAlvaro Bastidas
- Emulsifiers used in food and drinkUploaded byDalome1234
- 02-101-183FinalUploaded byCarlos Esaú López Gómez
- cepstral analysisUploaded byPradeep Kumar Padarthi
- J. Nat. Prod. 2011, 74, 989–996Uploaded byWilly Coiote
- Cla-Val Pressure Relief R9-08Uploaded bymodat
- Simulation Theory ManualUploaded byBùi Văn Hợp
- Meng 2018Uploaded byWilliam Pol
- D7032.1213477-1.pdfUploaded byProm072A