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Introduction: Due to rapid industrialization, industrial workers are exposed to several types of hazards and accidents.

Every year lakhs of workers are injured due to mechanical, chemical, electrical a n d radiation hazards and it leads to partial or total disablement. So in recent years, greater attention is given to health and safety due to pressure from government, trade unions, labor laws and awareness of employers. The efficiency of workers depends to a great extends on the environment in which the work. Work environment consists of all the factors, which act and react on the body and mind of an employee. The primary aim is to create an environment, which ensures the greatest ease of work and removes all causes of worries. Occupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized fields. In its broadest sense, it should aim at: a) The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations. b) The prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions. c) The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health. d) The placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to physical and mental needs. e)The adaptation of work to humans. Successful occupational health and safety practice requires the collaboration and participation of both employers and workers in health and safety programmes, and involves the consideration of issues relating to occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology, education, engineering safety, ergonomics, psychology, etc. Occupational health issues are often given less attention than occupational safety issues because the former are generally more difficult to confront. However, when health is addressed, so is safety, because a healthy workplace is by definition also a safe workplace? The converse, though, may not be true - a so-called safe workplace is not necessarily also a healthy workplace. The important point is that issues of both health and safety must be addressed in every workplace. Work plays a central role in people's lives, since most workers spend at least eight hours a day in the workplace, whether it is on a plantation, in an office, factory, etc. Therefore, work environments should be safe and

healthy. Unfortunately some employers assume little responsibility for the protection of workers' health and safety. In fact, some employers do not even know that they have the moral and often legal responsibility to protect workers. Health of the workers: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of diseases. Its a positive and dynamic concept which means something more than the absence of illness. Statutory provisions: According to factories Act, 1948, the statutory provisions regarding the health of the workers are stated in the sections 11 to 20. They are Cleanliness (sec 11): Every factory shall be kept clean by daily sweeping or washing the floors and workrooms and by using disinfectants where every necessary. Walls, doors and windows shall be repainted or varnished at least once in every 5 years. Disposal of wastes and effluents (sec 12): The waste materials produced from the manufacturing process must be effectively disposed of wastes. Ventilation and temperature (sec 13): There must be provision for adequate ventilation for the circulation of fresh air. The temperature must be kept at a comfortable level. Hot parts of machines must be separated and insulated. The State Government may make rules for the keeping of thermometers in specified places and the adoption of methods which will keep the temperature low. Removal of Dust and fumes (sec 14): If the manufacturing process used gives off injurious or offensive dust and steps must be taken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. The exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines must be conducted outside the factory. Artificial humidification (sec 15): The water used for this purpose must be pure. The State Government can frame rules regarding the process of humidification etc. The water used for humidification shall be taken from a public supply or other source of drinking water and must be effectively purified before use. Overcrowding (sec 16):

There must be no overcrowding in a factory. In factories existing before the commencement of the Act there must be at least 9.9 cubic meters of space per worker. For factories built afterwards, there must be at least 4.2 cubic meters of space. The chief inspector of factories can also prescribe the maximum number of workers who can work in each work room. Lighting (sec 17): Factories must be well lighted. Effective measures must be adopted to prevent glare or formation of shadows which might cause eye strain. Drinking water (sec 18): Arrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. All supply points of such water must be marked drinking water. No such points shall be within 20 ft. (or 7.5 meters) of any latrine, washing place etc.Factories employing more than 250 workers must cool the water during the hot weather. Toilet facilities (sec 19): Every factory must provide sufficient number of latrines and urinals. There must be separate provisions for male and female workers. Latrines and urinals must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. In factories employing more than 250 workers, they shall be of prescribed sanitary types. Spittoons (sec 20): A sufficient number of spittoons must be provided at convenient places, in a clean and hygienic condition. The State Government may take rules regarding their number, location and maintenance. Safety of the workers: Safety is a measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. Statutory provisions: According to factories Act, 1948, the statutory provisions regarding the safety of the workers are stated in the sections 21 to 41. They are Fencing of machinery (Sec 21): In every factory, every dangerous part of any machinery, every moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to prime mover the head-race and

tail-race of every water wheel and water turbine, and every part of an electric generator, motor or rotary converter, every part of transmission machinery, must be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction. Work on or near machinery in motion (Sec 22): It is necessary to examine any part of the machinery while it is motion. The examination and lubrication of the machinery, while in motion, should be carried out only by a specially-trained adult worker wearing tight-fitting clothing. Employment of young persons on Dangerous machines (Sec 23): A young person should not be allowed to work at dangerous machines unless, has been sufficiently instructed and received sufficient training. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power (Sec 24): In every factory, suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance has to be provided, maintained and used to move driving belts. Self-acting machines (Sec 25): No travelling part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of 18 inches from any fixed structure which is not a part of the machine, if a person is liable to pass over the space over which it runs. Casing of new machinery (Sec 26): All machinery driven by power, every set-screw, bolt or key or any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion, spur, worm and other toothed or friction-gearing has to be properly encased or guarded in order to prevent danger to the workmen. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers (Sec 27): Women and child workers are prohibited to be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work. Hoists, lifts, lifting machines (Sec 28&29): Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles must be of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength and free from defects. They are to be properly maintained and thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every 6 months. Revolving machinery (Sec 30):

The maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel shall be permanently affixed. Safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket, flywheel, pulley or disc has also to be ensured. Pressure plant (Sec 31): In any factory operation is carried on at a pressure above the atmospheric pressure, effective arrangements shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure is not exceeded. Floors, stairs and means of access (Sec 32): In every factory all floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly kept and maintained. Pits, sumps, openings in floors (Sec 33): Every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor, which may be a source of danger shall be either securely covered or securely fenced. Excessive weights (Sec 34): No person is to be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as is likely to cause him injury. Protection of eyes (Sec 35): The state government may require the provision of effective screens or suitable goggles if the risk of injury to the eyes is caused from particles or fragments thrown off in the manufacturing process or from exposure to excessive light. Precautions against dangerous fumes (Sec 36): In any factory, no person shall be allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pipe, flue or other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely to be present to an extent involving risks to persons. Explosive or inflammable dust, gas (Sec 37): All practicable measures have to be taken to prevent explosion by, effective enclosure of plant and machinery, removal or prevention of the accumulation of dust, gas etc and exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition. Precaution in case of fire (Sec 38): Every factory has to be provided with adequate means of escape in case of fire. Effective and clearly audible means of giving warning in the case of fire have to be provided. A free passage-way giving access to each means of escape in case of fire has to be maintained.

Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability (Sec 39): The factory inspector to serve on the manager of a factory to furnish specifications of defective parts or he may order the manager to carry out tests as he may specify and to inform him of the results. Safety of buildings and machinery (Sec 40): Every factory should adopt the measures to ensure the safety of the buildings and machinery. The factory must employ the required safety officers according to the number of workers working in the factory. Power to make rules (Sec 41): The state government has the power to make rules to supplement the provisions relating to safety contained in the act. Occupational accidents/disease: Work-related accidents or diseases are very costly and can have many serious direct and indirect effects on the lives of workers and their families. For workers some of the direct costs of an injury or illness are: a) The pain and suffering of the injury or illness; b) The loss of income; c) The possible loss of a job; d) Health-care costs. It has been estimated that the Indirect costs of an accident or illness can be four to ten times greater than the direct costs, or even more. An occupational illness or accident can have so many indirect costs to workers that it is often difficult to measure them. One of the most obvious indirect costs is the human suffering caused to workers' families, which cannot be compensated with money. Identifying hazards in the workplace: Some occupational diseases have been recognized for many years, and affect workers indifferent ways depending on the nature of the hazard, the route of exposure, the dose, etc. Some well-known occupational diseases include: a) Asbestosis (caused by asbestos, which is common in insulation, automobile brake linings, etc.) b) Silicosis (caused by silica, which is common in mining, sandblasting, etc.) c) Lead poisoning (caused by lead, which is common in battery plants, paint factories, etc.)

d) Noise-induced hearing loss (caused by noise, which is common in many workplaces, including airports, and workplaces where noisy machines, such as presses or drills, etc.) Importance of management commitment on health and safety: Use a variety of sources for information about potential or existing hazards in your company. In order to develop a successful health and safety programme, it is essential that there be strong management commitment and strong worker participation in the effort to create and maintain a safe and healthy workplace. An effective management addresses all work-related hazards, not only those covered by government standards. All levels of management must make health and safety a priority. They must communicate this by going out into the worksite to talk with workers about their concerns and to observe work procedures and equipment. In each workplace, the lines of responsibility from top to bottom need to be clear, and workers should know who is responsible for different health and safety issues. Importance of training: A successful health and safety programme requires strong management commitment and worker participation. Workers often experience work-related health problems and do not realize that the problems are related to their work, particularly when an occupational disease, for example, is in the early stages. Besides the other more obvious benefits of training, such as skills development, hazard recognition, etc., a comprehensive training programme in each workplace will help workers to: a) Recognize early signs/symptoms of any potential occupational diseases before they become permanent conditions. b) Assess their work environment. c) Insist that management make changes before hazardous conditions can develop. Health and safety programmes: Effective workplace health and safety programmes can help to save the lives of workers by reducing hazards and their consequences. Health and safety programmes also have positive effects on both worker morale and productivity, which are important benefits. At the same time, effective programmes can save employers a great deal of money. For all of the reasons given below, it is crucial that employers, workers and unions are committed to health and safety. a) Workplace hazards are controlled - at the source whenever possible. b) Records of any exposure are maintained for many years. c) Both workers and employers are informed about health and safety risks in the workplace.

d) There is an active and effective health and safety committee that includes both workers and management. e) Worker health and safety efforts are ongoing. Welfare of Employees: Welfare is comfortable living and working conditions. Employee welfare means the efforts to make life worth living for workman.Welfare is comfortable living and working conditions. People are the most important asset of an organization, and the accounting profession has to assess and record the value and cost of people of an organization. Once this is accepted, the need for measuring the value for recording it in the books of accounts arises. The value of human assets can be increased substantially by making investment in their training and welfare activities in the same way as the value of repairs/overhauling, etc.While the cost on training, development, etc., can be recorded separately and to be within the eventual, the expenditure on welfare activities can be added to the investment and the returns judged. Unlike other assets which have depreciation value as years passes by, value of human assets appreciates with passing years. The value can depreciate by aging process which is generally hastened up by worries, unhealthy conditions, etc. once this process is slowed down, or at least if the employee is made to feel young in spirits the value of this asset appreciates considerably. Any investment constitutes the assets of a company and therefore, any investment for welfare of labor would constitute an extra investment in an asset. Industrial progress depends on a satisfied labor force and the importance of labor welfare measures was stressed as early as1931, when the Royal Commission on labor stated the benefits which go under this nomenclature, are of great importance to the worker and which he is unable to secure by himself. The schemes of labor welfare may be regarded as a wise investment which should and usually does bring a profitable return in the form of greater efficiency. The basic features of labor welfare measures are as follows: 1. Labor welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status. 2. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargaining 3. Labor welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the existing ones from time to time. 4. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by any social or charitable agency. 5. The purpose of labor welfare is to bring about the development of the whole personality of the workers to make a better workforce. The very logic behind

providing welfare schemes is to create efficient, healthy, loyal and satisfied labor force for the organization. The purpose of providing such facilities is to make their work life better and also to raise their standard of living. The important benefits of welfare measures can be summarized as follows: 1. They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a healthy work environment 2. Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation facilities for workers families help in raising their standards of living. This makes workers to pay more attention towards work and thus increases their productivity. 3. Employers get stable labor force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take active interest in their jobs and work with a feeling of involvement and participation. 4. Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote healthy industrial relations thereby maintaining industrial peace. The social evils prevalent among the labors such as substance abuse, etc are reduced to a greater extent by the welfare policies. The concept of labor welfare is flexible and elastic and differs widely with times, regions, industry, country, social values and customs, degree of industrialization, the general socioeconomic development of the people and the political ideologies prevailing at particular moments. It is also according to the age group, socio-cultural background, marital status, economic status and educational level of the workers in various industries. Types of Welfare Services: 1. Intramural: These services are provided within the establishment. These include latrines and urinals, washing and bathing facilities, creches, rest shelters, canteens, uniform, medical aud, recreation facilities, free to subsidised food. 2. Extra-mural: These services are provided outside the establishment. These consist of housing accommodation, transport, maternity benifits, childrens eduction, sports fields, family planning and child welfare, holiday homes, leave travel facilities, air price shops etc. Statutory Provisions Concerning Employee Welfare:

Employers are required to provide welfare facilities for workers under the following laws: 1.The Factories Act, 1948.The Welfare facilities provided under this act are as follows: 1. Adequate, suitable and clean washing facilities separately for male and female workers 2. Facilites for storing and drying clothes 3. Sitting Facilities for all the workers. 4. First Aid boxes or cupboards. 5. Canteen if more than 250 workes are employed. 6. Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms if there are more than 150 workers. 7. Creche where more than 30 women are employed. 8. Welfare officer, wherever more than 500 workers are employed. 2. The Plantation Labour Act, 1951.Welfare measures prescribed under this law are as follows. 1. A Canteen wherever 150 or more workers are employed 2. A Creche, if employing 50 or more women workers 3. Recreational Facilities for the workers and children. 4. Housing Facilities for the workers. 5. Medical Aid to the employees. 6. Sickness allowance and maternity allowance subject to any rules framed by the state government 7. Appoinment of the Welfare Officer. 3. The Mines Act, 1952.The Mine Owners are required to make provisions for: 1. Creches if 50 or more women are employed. 2.Shelters for taking food and rest, whenever 150 or more workers are employed

3. A Canteen wherever 250 or more workers are employed. 4. First aid boxes for first aid rooms in mines employing more than 150 workers. 5. Appointment of a welfare Officer for more than 150 workers. 4. The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961.It contains the following provisions for labour welfare: 1. Canteens of prescribed standards if employing 100 or more workers 2. Clean, Ventilated, Well lighted and comfortable rest rooms at every place where motor transport workers are required to halt at night. 3. Uniforms, raincoats to drivers, conductors and time checkers for protection against rain and cold 4. The prescribed of washing allowance to the above mentioned staff. 5. First aid facilities in every transport vehicle. 5. The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act 1970: It is obligatory on the part of the contractor to provide the following facilities: 1. A Canteen in every establishment employing 100 or more workers 2. Rest rooms or other suitable alternative accommodation where the contract labour is required to halt at night in connection with work of an establishment 3. Washing facilities. 4. First aid boxes with the prescribed contents.