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DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER OPERATED IN BOOST MODE FOR

HIGH VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS

P. Sanjeevikumar

Abstract-The voltage lift technique is a are V1 and I1, out voltage and current are VO
popular method that is widely applied in and IO. Assuming no power losses during
electronic circuit design. Because of the the conversion process V1 x I1 = VO x IO.
effect of parasitic elements the output The voltage transfer gain is M, where
voltage and power transfer efficiency of DC- M=VO/V1. In case of conventional boost
DC converters are limited. The voltage lift converter it requires two controllers, hence it
technique opens a good way to improve becomes non economical for high voltage
circuit characteristics. In this paper the applications whereas the proposed DC-DC
voltage lift technique has been successfully boost converter requires only one closed
applied for DC-DC buck converters to loop controller.
operate as boost. This converter performs
positive DC-DC voltage increasing In this paper a new series of DC-DC
conversion with high power density, high converter topology analyzed which is
efficiency, low cost in simple structure. different from conventional converter. The
They are different from other existing DC- performance of this DC-DC converter is
DC step-up converters and possess many superior to conventional DC-DC with
advantages including a high output voltage reduced control scheme.
with small ripples. Therefore, these
converters will be widely used in computer ƒ It performs similar to conventional
peripheral equipments [1-3] and industrial DC/DC boost converter with
applications, especially for high output comparatively high voltage transfer
voltage projects. ratio.

ƒ Wide range of control with smooth


I. INTRODUCTION
ripple at the output voltage is an added
advantage of this proposed converter.
VOLTAGE LIFT (VL) technique is a
popular method widely used in electronic
circuit design. It has been successfully
ƒ High power density with high efficiency
employed in DC/DC converter applications
than conventional boost converter.
in recent years, and opened a way to design
high voltage gain converters. The output
ƒ Closed Loop controller requires only
voltage increases stage-by-stage along the
one sensor.
geometric progression. This paper
introduces positive output boost converters
In this paper, the basic operation of this
that implement the output voltage increase
topology is first described. A PWM
in a simple geometric progression. They also
algorithm is developed for the P-channel
effectively enhance the voltage transfer gain
MOSFET switch is illustrated for the boost
as per power-law terms. The circuit has only
operation. Finally system level simulation
one switch S, two inductors, and two
study is conducted using
capacitors and diodes. The conduction duty
MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify its output
ratio is k, switching frequency is f,
voltage performance with line and load
switching period is T = 1/f, the load is
disturbances.
resistive R. The input voltage and current
II. PROPOSED TOPOLOGY

FIG. 3 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH OFF

During the switch OFF condition voltage


across Co, Vo=V1+Vc will appear across R
for short duration of time. The inductor Lo
maintains the current direction even during
Fig. 1 illustrates the proposed Boost switch OFF. Thus the new series of DC-DC
Converter which is derived from Cuk or converter maintains current and high voltage
Zeta Converter and Luo-converter of at the output.
previous topology. The new series of DC-
DC boost converter provides better voltage Elementary equations of conventional DC-
transfer ratio compared to the previous DC converter are given below for the
topologies. performance comparison of the proposed
topology.
The circuit essentially consists of a P- K
O u t p u t V o lt a g e V o = V1
channel MOSFET switch triggered using the 1 -K
1 -K
PWM switching pulse with variable O u tp u tC u rre n t I O = I1
K
frequency and duty ratio k. The switch is K
operated in two modes with the incorporated V o lta g e T r a n s f e r G a in M =
1 -K
passive components C and L at the input A v e ra g e V o lta g e V C = V O
side. The purpose of capacitor C is to lift
the voltage of the Co during the switch ON A verage C urrent I LO = I O
time. The voltage across Co will be the K
I LO = IO
voltage across the load under steady 1-K
condition. Purpose of providing L is to lift
the voltage across C. During the charging III. ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED
period the voltage across Co will be V1+Vc CONVERTER
and this voltage is maintained even when
switch is off. The switching equivalent Under Steady state the average inductor
circuit of the fig.1 is shown in fig2&3. voltage over a period is zero hence,

VC 1 =VC O =VO

IL – increases when switch is ON-


corresponding Voltage across L =V1
IL – decreases when switch is OFF-
corresponding Voltage across L = -VC

Therefore KV1 = (1-K) VC


FIG. 2 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH ON
K
VC =
1-K V 1
During switch ON period the voltage across .
V1 + X 2 − X 4
CO is equal to the source voltage V1 plus the X3= (1)
voltage across C LO LO LO
.
X3 − X4
VCO = V1 +VC X4 =
C O RC O
K
V V O = V1 + V
1 -k 1
Similarly when the switch is open the State
1
VC O = V Space equation are:
1 -K 1 .
-X 2
Voltage transfer gain of Continuous
X1=
LO
Conduction Mode .
X1
VO VCO 1 V1 1
X2 =
M = = = = C
V1 V1 1 -K V 1 1 -K
(2)
Summary of Analysis .
X4
X3= −
Output Voltage V O = 1 LO
V1
1 -K .
Output Current X3 − X4
I O
= (1 -K ) I 1 X4 =
1 C O RC O
Voltage transfer gain M=
1 -K By using State Space averaging method, the
Average Voltage VC = K VO state space averaging equation of the
converter are given as
VC1 = VO
Average Current I LO = I O ⎡ 1-k ⎤
1 ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥
⎡k⎤
IL = I ⎢ L1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
1-K O
⎢ -(1-k) k ⎥ ⎢ L1 ⎥
IV. MODELING OF PROPOSED . ⎢ C 0 C 0 ⎥ ⎢0⎥
CONVERTER X= ⎢⎢ -k
⎥+
-1 ⎥ ⎢ k ⎥
X (3)
0 0 ⎢ ⎥
⎢ Lo Lo ⎥ ⎢ L0 ⎥
State Space Modeling of the proposed ⎢ ⎥
converter is [4] done for the design of PI ⎢ 0 1 -1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
0
controller under closed loop operation for its ⎢ ⎥
⎣ Co RCo ⎦
stability analysis with disturbances and the VO = X 4
analysis is given below:
T
Where X= ⎡⎣X1 X2 X3 X4⎤⎦ is the state vector
The State Variables X1, X2, X3 and X4 are
chosen as the current iL1, the voltage Vc, the Equation 3 represents the state space model
Current iLO and the voltage VO respectively. of the proposed DC-DC converter for
When the switch is closed, the State Space obtaining the optimum PI controller
equations are: parameter and hence the converter
. performance can be validated for the various
V1
X1= disturbance conditions. Generally, the
L1 control for DC-DC converters is to regulate
. the output voltage at desired level. Sliding
X3
X2 = mode controller often uses a sliding surface
C which ensures that output voltage reaches
the desired level once the system gets onto
the sliding surface [3]. [3] Derivative DC voltage of the load is fed back and
function S and state variable utilized for this compared with Vdc reference voltage and
converter is utilized are given below. the error is given to the PI controller to
stabilize the error and the signal obtained
In steady state, the system is kept on the from the controller is the modulating signal
sliding surface. for the PWM scheme.
Let the derivative of S as
S=G*X+V (1 1) Signal from the PI controller is compared
Where G = [g, g... gn] with high frequency ramp signal to produce
V is a constant. required pulse for the P-channel MOSFET
switch to obtain the reference DC voltage at
In this paper for the above model of the the load.
converter [3-9] using the Ziegler-Nichols
method 1 is (S-shaped curve technique) VI. SIMULATION RESULTS
applied to design the PI controller. Step
input is applied to the plant model above Simulation results are given below for the
equation [3] and the response is the S shaped performance characteristics of the proposed
curve. By drawing the tangent to the S- DC-DC Boost Converter. Inductance and
shaped curve at its inflection point with Capacitance values are same for both load
reference to X-axis, the time delay L and and lift part of the circuit.
time constant T is calculated. Using [10]
Ziegler-Nichols chart the value of the Kp and
Ti are calculated. The PI controller Simulation Parameters:
designed by the above method is tested
under different disturbance conditions and
results are provided for the feasibility. Input Voltage V1 = (10-11) volts
Inductance = 100µH
V. CLOSED LOOP CONTROLLER Capacitance =5µF
Load Resistance = (5-6) ohms.
Switching Frequency = 50 KHz.

FIG. 5 CLOSED LOOP CONTROLLER

Closed Loop control scheme for the FIG. 6 PI CONTROLLER OUTPUT


proposed DC-DC boost converter is shown
in the above figure consisting of only one
voltage sensor with simple control structure
when compared with conventional DC-DC
boost converter which requires both voltage
and current sensors.
FIG. 11a & 11b PWM PULSE AT STEADY STATE

FIG. 7 OUTPUT DC VOLTAGE

FIG. 12a & 12b CAPACITOR VOLTAGE, VCO DURING


FIG. 8 OUTPUT DC CURRENT SWITCING

Fig 6 shows the PI controller response to the


load and line variations. The PI controller
quickly responds to the line and load
disturbances to stabilize the output voltage
with maximum peak over shoot less than
20%.

Fig 7 shows the DC output voltage of the


proposed DC-DC boost converter
maintaining 30V under both line and load
disturbance. Hence the converter provides
FIG. 9 OUTPUT DC VOLTAGE high efficiency and stabilizes even under
distortion conditions. Line disturbance is
applied at 0.04 sec and Load disturbance is
applied at 0.06 sec.
Fig 8 shows the DC output current of the
proposed DC-DC boost converter
maintaining 5A under line disturbance and
increases to 6A as the load varies from 6Ώ
to 5Ώ.

Fig 9 shows the DC output voltage of the


proposed DC-DC boost converter
FIG. 10 OUTPUT DC CURRENT maintaining 30V under both line and load
disturbances at same instant. The converter
provides high efficiency and stabilizes the VIII. REFERENCE
output even under such distortion
conditions. Line disturbance and load 1. MEDLEY, K.M., and CUK, S.:
disturbance both are applied at 0.04 sec to ‘Dynamics of one cycle controlled Cuk
prove feasibility of the converter. The converter’, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
corresponding current variations are shown
1995, 10, (6), pp. 634-639.
in Fig 10.
2. LUO, F.L.: ‘Re-lift converter: design,
Fig 11a shows the modulating signal test, simulation and stability analysis’,
provided PI by the controller and carrier IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 1998,
signal for PWM generation. Fig 11b shows 145, (4), pp. 315-325.
PWM pulse for the P-channel MOSFET 3. LUO, F.L.: ‘Luo converters - voltage
switch. lift technique’. Proceedings ofthe IEEE
Power Electronics Special conference
Fig 12a shows switch ON and OFF instant IEEE-PESCP8, Fukuoka, Japan, 17-22
of the P-channel MOSFET correspondingly May 1998, pp. 1783-1789.
the charging and discharging of the
4. Y. He, LUO. F.L.”Study of Slide
Capacitor (Vco) are shown in fig 12b
mode Controller for DC-DC converter”.
illustrating even when the switch OFF the
average of 30V is maintained at the load. International conference 2004,
POWERCON 2004, Singapore
VII. CONCLUSION 5. LUO, F.L.: ‘Luo converters, a series
of new DC-DC step-up (boost)
Since the effect of parasitic elements of conversion circuits’. Proceedings of the
DC-DC converters limit their output IEEE international conference PEDS’97,
voltage and power transfer efficiency, Singapore, 26-29 May 1997, pp. 882-
the conduction duty ratio k usually 888.
should not be higher than 0.9. The paper 6. LUO, F.L.: ‘Re-lift circuit, a new DC-
provides successful application of the DC step-up (boost) converter’, Electrun.
Voltage lift technique in a DC-DC buck Lett. 1997, 33, (I).
converter to be operated in Boost mode 7. LUO, F.L., LEE, W.C., and LEE,
with a simple closed loop technique. The G.B.: ‘Self-lift circuit, a new DCDC
close controller has only one sensor converter’. Proceedings of the 3rd
which makes more suitable for high National Undergraduate Research
voltage applications. The technique Programmed (NRRP), Congress 97,
overcomes the effects of parasitic Singapore, 13 Sept. 1997.
elements and greatly increases the output 8. RASHID, M.H.: ‘Power electronics:
voltage of the DC-DC converters. It has circuits, devices and applications’
the characteristics of high efficiency, prentice-Hall, USA, 1993, 2nd edn.).
high power density and simple topology 9. Katsuhiko Ogata “Modern Control
with low cost and wide range of control Engineering” Second Edition Prentice-
with smooth current ripples. These Hall of India private Limited @New
converters can be used in computer Delhi, 1996.
peripheral circuits, medical equipments
and industrial applications with high
output voltage.
BIOGRAPHIES

P.Sanjeevikumar received Bachelor of


Engineering (Electrical & Electronics)
from the University of Madras and
Master of Technology (Electrical Drives
& Control) from Pondicherry University
in 2002, 2006. He worked as a Lecturer
in the Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering in IFET College
of Engineering, Tamilnadu, India (2002
– 2007). He also worked as Manager
Training at Edutech LLC, Dubai, Middle
East, UAE. His area of interest includes
alternate topology for Matrix converter,
Luo converters, soft switching PWM
schemes and power electronics
application towards power systems. He
has published papers in national,
international conferences and journals in
the field of power electronics.
Email ID: sanjeevi_12@yahoo.co.in.