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Rules for Ancient Wargames with Miniatures 500 BC to AD 200 by Simon MacDowall & Caoimhn Boru

n the fourth day both generals lead out their forces and drew them up for battle. Scipio adopted the regular Roman formation, placing the maniples of the hastati in the front line, then behind them the principes and last of all the

triarii. Of his cavalry he stationed the Italians on the right and the Numidians under
the centre opposite the Roman maniples, the Numidians on the left and the Carthaginians on the right. In the first charge Syphaxs Numidians were driven back by the Italian horse and the

Massinissa on the left. For their part Syphax and Hasdrubal placed the Celtiberians in

Carthaginians by Massinissa The Celtiberians, on the other hand, fought splendidly and held their ground against the Roman centre (but) when the wings gave way, the whole of their contingent was quickly encircled by the principes and triarii and cut down where they stood...
Pol ybi us of Mega lop olis descri bing the B attle of th e G rea t Pl ains in 203 B C.

Introduction 1. Getting Started
What You Need to Play Organising Troops Integral Infantry Armour Training and Experience Morale Basing Troop and Ground Scale The Javelin Throw Units Legions Special Troops Organising the Army Points Values 5 7 7 8 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15

2. Sequence of Play 3. Command and Control

Chain of Command Command Points (CPs) and Command Radius Leader Command Stands Command Point Allocation Control Tests Spontaneous Advance Looting Orders Risk to Leaders Visibility

17 19
19 19 19 20 21 21 21 22 22 23

4. Morale
Death, Disorder and Desertion Points (DPs) DP Removal Causes of DPs Shaken Units and Casualties Rallying Shaken Units Special Troops and DPs

25 25 25 26 26 26

5. Formation, Movement & Manoeuvre

Formations Unformed Troops Special Troops and Formation Unit Formations Changing Formation Command Formations Movement Move Distances March Moves Scythed Chariot Impetus Fatigue and Disorder Skirmishing Withdrawal

27 27 27 27 28 28 29 30 30 30 30 30

Effects of Terrain Manoeuvre Wheel Unit Formation Change Re-form Unformed Units About Face Refuse a Flank Deepen/Thin Ranks Side-step/Step-back Slow Walk Mount/Dismount Incline Interpenetrate Friends Legion Line Relief Passing a Gap Half Moves and Multiple Actions Leaving The Table

31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34

6. Shooting
Ranges and Targets Shooting Procedure Cover Long Range Missile Exchange Short Range Missile Exchange Infantry Shooting Overhead Shooting Sharing Long Range Shooting Hits

37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38

7. Combat
Combat Basics Charges Charge Declarations Restrictions on Charges Charge Moves Failure to Contact Charge Responses Evading a Charge Counter-charge Stand to Receive Infantry Shooting in Combat Melee Reinforcing a Melee Charging into a Melee Combat Resolution Opening up the Ranks Movement after Combat Follow-on Combats Free Hacks

39 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 44 44 44 44

8. Definitions Hoplite Battle Supplement

45 49

Civitates Bellantes is a set of wargames rules to simulate warfare in Europe, the near East and the Mediterranean region from about 500 BC to 200 AD, using miniature figures in all scales. The scope of the rules includes the wars of Greece and Persia, the Macedonian conquests and the successor Hellenistic states, and also those of Rome from the republic to early empire. The rules are the collaborative endeavour of Simon MacDowall and Caoimhn Boru, based on the mechanisms that Simon developed for Comitatus. This gives players the opportunity to use familiar systems across a much wider time span, while still retaining the special characteristics of each periods warfare. There is a good argument for dividing Civitates into three: an initial period covering the Greek and Persian wars; then the Macedonian and Punic wars; and finally and a later one focusing on the cohort legion and Imperial Rome. However, in the end we found that apart from having special rules to cover two basic types of legions and a supplement for Hoplite warfare, the mechanisms worked very well for the whole. Our intent has been to develop a game which both looks and feels like eyewitness accounts of ancient battles. The starting point therefore has not been to work out ground and figure scales or to compare the effects of various weapons against certain types of armour and formations, but rather to ensure that the game unfolds in the same way as the historical confrontation it is simulating. Civitates is not designed for wargamers who play competitively or who like to micro-manage small unit detail. Instead, we have designed Civitates for those who are fascinated by the grand sweep of battles in the Classical Age and who want to bring history to life with a game that is fun and relatively easy to play. Ancient battle was, by modern standards, somewhat stylised. This is reflected in the ritualistic feel of the game. The game is played using alternate movement with turns broken down into phases, which mirror the actions taken by troops in actual battles. It is important to keep your battle lines close together in order to command and control their constituent parts. Cavalry fights will be fast and fluid but when two heavy infantry battle lines clash, the combat may be more prolonged. A great deal of attention has been given to simulating and encouraging the actual tactics used in the period. Therefore players are able to simulate the actual ways in which Roman legions, Greek or Macedonian phalanxes, horse archers, Celtic chariots etc operated according to the ancient authors. We have also gone to some length developing mechanisms that replicate the the way Roman Legions operated. Unlike almost all other ancients rules, Civitates simply allows the player to use the legion as a single unit in multiple lines which are able to relieve each other in combat. We will continue to develop game scenarios and illustrate how various formations and tactics may be simulated at Simons website http://www.legio-wargames.com Development As a system for re-creating ancient battles, Simons initial version of Comitatus rules appeared in the late 1980s. It was the first set of ancients rules to introduce the stand as the basic playing piece instead of individual figures, and the first to classify troops according to battlefield behaviour rather than by their weapons and armour. These concepts have now become the standard for wargames set in the ancient period, and Simon's advocacy of deeper infantry stands has also become popular in recent times. Simon had always intended to expand the Comitatus principles to a set that covered the earlier period and had made some initial steps in that direction with a set of rules for 6mm ancients called Legio VI. These rules pioneered the idea of deploying the Roman legion as a single mulit-line unit. However, it was only when he started collaborating with Caoimhn, that a more complex and fully rounded rule set that fully matched Comitatus began to take shape. Civitates has been under development and play testing for over three years now and has gone through various stages: from Caoimhns speculative conversion of Comitatus concepts to the Classical period, on through simplification into a game system closer to Legio VI, slowly

re-adopting more Comitatus like mechanisms as smooth running improved, with this as the end result. Acknowledgement We would like to thank Andy Callan for having first come up with the concept of Disorder Points, which we have adapted for use in both Comitatus and Civitates. Simon MacDowall & Caoimhn Boru 2012

Tips and explanations of the rationale behind rule mechanisms appear throughout Civitates. They are highlighted in the Times font and marked with the compass symbol. Many key words used in Civitates have game meanings that have a significant bearing on the rules. Each key word shows in italics with a capital first letter the first time it appears in context, and is fully defined in the last section of the rules. It is important that all players have a common understanding of these key words and their definitions.

Important Rules
Rules and concepts that are essential to the game are highlighted like this.

1. Getting Started
WHAT YOU NEED TO PLAY Stands. These are the games basic playing pieces. Stands are pieces of cardboard or similar material cut out to a standard size, mounting a group of miniature figures (see the Javelin Throw on p12). Thick card is the most suitable material to use but be careful that it is thick enough not to warp when painted or textured. The addition of magnetic strips across the bottom of the card stand are useful for transporting the figures in metal or metal-lined boxes and can also help to prevent warping. It is possible to play just using stands as counters marked with symbols to distinguish the troops types (without figures), and new players might like to do this to experiment with the rules while they raise their armies of miniatures. There are also special command stands for leaders. Figures. Commercial figures are readily available in many different scales. These range between 54mm and 2mm, with the mm scale supposedly being the height of an average figure. In practice, the figures from various manufacturers vary considerably in size and proportions, with most figures being 2-3mm larger than their nominal scale. Figures are normally supplied unpainted but it is possible to buy painted figures. Although several individuals and companies offer painting services, raising and painting an army is one of the great attractions of this hobby and it gives the player a personal connection with the figures he uses. Measuring Sticks. Measuring sticks or tapes are used to measure distances and ranges. These can be cut from card or made from wood. They should be marked with gradations of half and full frontages of a troop stand (10/20mm, 20/40mm or 30/60mm). One troop stand frontage represents a javelin throw and is the basis for all measurements (see the Javelin Throw on p12) and ranges (see Ranges and Targets on p37). Dice. Several normal 6-sided dice (D6), and average dice (AvD) marked 2-3-3-4-4-5. If you do not have AvD, you can throw a D6 and count 1 as a 3, and 6 as a 4. Playing Area. A tabletop or other playing surface large enough to accommodate the number of units in use. A small battle in 15mm scale could be fought out on a 4x2 foot surface, while a 6x4 foot surface will handle most large battles in that scale. Games in 25mm scale will require at least a 6x4 foot table but 8x5 or larger will be better, especially if a lot of cavalry are involved. Dining room tables are usually too small for larger games, so you will most likely have to get hold of boards which can be laid on top to give a larger playing area. Chipboard or pressboard is the cheapest option, and easily obtainable from DIY stores. Terrain. You will need 3D terrain features to cover the battlefield. The easiest and most flexible method is to cover the playing surface with a green or brown cloth, creating hills by putting something underneath. Buildings and trees can be scratch built or bought from hobby or model shops. Roads are easily represented with masking tape and strips of blue cloth can serve as rivers. For those with the talent, more elaborate terrain can be built and sculpted terrain is also available commercially. Terrain features can include anything that would be found on an ancient battlefield and for game purposes are classified as one of the following: Linear Obstacles such as streams, rivers, ditches or fortifications. Hills (which can have gentle, uneven, steep and/or sheer slopes). Broken Ground such as open woods, vineyards or rough going. Difficult Terrain such as dense woods, marshes or towns. Roads, bridges or fords.

Disorder Markers. Small pebbles or pieces of gravel (easily obtainable from pet shops) can indicate each death, desertion and disorder point (DP) that a unit incurs. Units will accumulate and lose these points throughout the game. Pieces of gravel make especially good markers for this purpose since they can be easily handled and blend in well with the battlefield terrain. At 6mm scale or smaller, players may prefer to place a small D6 beside each unit to indicate

its DPs. Players may find it useful to use other markers, such as counters or individual figures to keep track of other troop status or leader actions (see Command Point Allocation on p20). ORGANISING TROOPS Civitates Bellantes classifies all troops according to their behaviour on the battlefield. There are four major categories of troops: Light Infantry (LI) Heavy Infantry (HI) Cavalry Special Troops

Cavalry, Scythed Chariots and Elephants may be collectively referred to as Mounted Troops. Light Infantry, Light Cavalry and Horse Archers may be collectively referred to Light Troops. Hoplite Spearmen and Phalangites are collectively referred to as Phalanx Infantry. Each category is further broken down into types, which define the characteristics and abilities of each troop type. These abilities are expressed as Attack (A) and Defence (D) factors, and Short-Range (S) and Long-Range (L) Missile Capability. Attack factors represent lan and willingness to close to combat, combined with weaponry and armour. Defence factors are similar but more represent staying power and unit cohesion. Whichever is used, this is the troop Combat Value (CV). A missile capability allows troops to inflict significant damage on an opponent at a distance. Under-strength (UnS) Heavy Infantry stands may represent about half the usual numbers of troops over the same frontage as a full strength stand of the same type. They reduce the Combat Value by one and halve the number of stands able to shoot. They are most useful to represent Roman triarii or dismounted cavalry stands on a one for one basis, though they can also be used to represent depleted or stretched units. Light Infantry. These are generally lightly armed men who fight in dispersed groups without formation, primarily with missile weapons. Some are able to fight closer. They are most useful for supporting heavier troops, delaying and harassing enemy, or operating in difficult terrain. Skirmishers. A1/D1/S Light armed men who are trained to harass the enemy with javelins while avoiding close combat. Stones might sometimes supplement the javelins. Missile Troops. A0/D1/S/L Lightly armed archers and/or slingers who are trained to skirmish while keeping a distance from the enemy. Javelinmen. A2/D2/S Javelin armed infantry that can fight in closer formation and hold their own in hand-to-hand combat if necessary, such as Samnites, Spanish scutarii, Greek peltasts or thureophoroi, mountain tribe warriors and some imperial Roman auxiliaries. Rabble. A2/D0/S Mobs of armed civilians or religious fanatics, rebellious slaves, bandits etc, fighting in a fluid mass with little or no cohesion and a mixture of weapons. Rabble can shoot, but only at half effect. Heavy Infantry. Infantry whose primary function is to fight in hand to hand combat and hold ground. They will often have large shields and some form of body armour. Shock Infantry. A3/D2 Infantry whose main job is to act offensively, relying on the prowess of individual warriors rather than unit cohesion, like Gauls, Celtiberians, Germans or Dacians. Most would be armed with close combat weapons such as swords and spears, but armour is rare. The effect of any hand hurled missiles is taken into account in the combat factors. Phalangites. A1/D1 Macedonian style infantry armed with a long pike (sarissa) held in both hands. Their defensive armour is typically lighter and their shields smaller than those used by hoplites. Phalangites fight in a tightly packed phalanx that presents an impenetrable hedge of spear points, at the cost of some tactical flexibility. Phalangite combat factors are deceptively low, because they derive most of their effectiveness from their formation.

Spearmen. A2/D2 Infantry trained to fight cohesively in close combat using spear and shield. They include many Carthaginian infantry, Roman triarii and early principes, some Italians and possibly Macedonian hypaspists. Hoplite Spearmen fight in a phalanx, sacrificing flexibility for greater resilience and aggression. Bowmen. A1/D2/S/L Primarily bow armed units who form up in a closer formation than Light Infantry. Their front ranks may wear armour or carry shields and spears, swords or axes, and are trained to fight in close combat. Persian Sparabara Bowmen in Line formation may count frontal shooting cover from their pavises (see Cover on p37). Swordsmen. A3/D3 Troops who fight at close quarters with swords, often supplemented by a volley of javelins or pila. This includes most Roman legionaries and their imitators, imperial Roman auxiliaries, or even well trained Spaniards and Gauls like those in Hannibal's army. Cavalry. Troops that are mounted, mobile and trained to fight from horses or camels. Cavalry also includes all chariots with armed fighting crews. Light Cavalry. A2/D0/S Unarmoured cavalry that mostly skirmish with javelins. Light Cavalry may include those also armed with short range bows, like Bactrians or Arabs. Horse Archers. A1/D0/S/L Mounted archer specialists such as Scythians and Parthians who shower their opponents with arrows and leave hand-to-hand combat to heavier troops. Light Chariots. Light war vehicles with fighting crews pulled by two to four horses. There are three basic types. The Celtic and Libyan types are rated A4/D2/S while the Indian types are rated A3/D1/S/L. The crews usually shoot whilst moving, then leap off to fight on foot. Heavy Chariots. A5/D2/S/L The largest and most grandiose eastern chariot types, as used by King Porus against Alexander. Despite being big and unwieldy, they have a lot more crew and are also more intimidating. Heavy Cavalry. A3/D1/S The majority cavalry type from this period, usually carrying javelins or spears and also swords. Some carry bows as well, but are not trained to shoot in volleys as in later periods. Shock Cavalry. A4/D1 Typically Macedonian style xystophoroi, Iazyges nobles etc. Although some also have weak bows, such troops are primarily armed with long two-handed lances. A few types might be spear and shield armed instead. All rely almost entirely on their charge. Cataphracts. A5/D1 Completely armoured cavalry who charge with long lances at the trot in a tightly packed mass. Their charge is formidable, but often hampered by the unwieldiness of their formation and heavy armour. Cataphracts always count as armoured. Special Troops. Troops and equipment which do not fit into any of the above categories. Artillery. A-/D-/L3 Light bolt-shooters such as scorpions or ballistae, sometimes used by the Greeks, Macedonians and Romans in the field. The number after the long range shooting capability is the Artillery stands range multiplier of normal bow range. Artillery always ignores target armour and cover. Elephants. Elephants come in two basic types. The Indian variety is larger and stronger with more crewmen, rated A5/D4 while the smaller, weaker north African variety is rated A4/D3 All Elephant stands include some infantry, but these are incorporated into the factors. Larger 'escorts' are fielded as Light Infantry units interspersed amongst the Elephant stands. Scythed Chariots. A0/D- Heavy four horse chariots with scythes on the wheels and spikes on the chassis, used by Persian, Seleucid and Pontic armies to break up enemy formations. Scythed Chariots are only useful when charging. Their Attack factor increases in increments as they build up impetus, and unless they break through they are destroyed. Unique Troop Types There is scope for players to create their own troop types and/or modify the existing ones for particular scenarios or nations and periods. Make sure that they approximate an existing type, and do not unbalance the game.

INTEGRAL INFANTRY Some Heavy Cavalry (such as early German) may have specially trained light infantry mixed among them, and thus mounted on the same stands. Integral Infantry give greater staying power in melee to cavalry classified as having them. ARMOUR Most of the above categories take into account varying degrees of protection in defining the combat factors. There are, however, a few exceptional cases where certain troops might wear considerably more armour than the norm for their troop type. Such troops count as Armoured when they are shot at or in combat. Classifying troops as armoured should be considered in a comparative way to give a benefit to troops who are significantly more heavily armoured than the majority of their counterparts. The minimum requirements to count as armoured are: Infantry. Troops must have a helmet, a large shield and relatively complete body armour that provides significantly more protection than the norm in that time period. Many Roman legionaries meet this requirement, as may Greek hoplites. Cavalry. Both riders and mounts must have armour. Mount armour could be full or partial metal, horn, fabric or leather, with the riders wearing helmets and extensive body armour. Cataphracts always count as armoured. Some Successor and Indo-Iranian cavalry might also meet these requirements. Special Troops. While scythed chariot or elephant models may be depicted with armour, this makes no difference in play and the stands do not count as armoured. Elephants will also ignore all enemy armour in melee.

Note on Shieldless Cavalry In the early period covered by these rules, cavalry usually did not carry shields. Shields were th rd introduced in the 4 -3 centuries BC until they became universal, except for cavalry with long lances. Since troop classifications are relative, there is no need to distinguish between cavalry with or without shields since in most cases they will all have them or all will not. TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE Troops from the period varied greatly in training, experience and discipline. To represent this, all units are given one of three following efficiency Grades at the start of the game: A Grade: The best trained, drilled and disciplined regular troops with a high proportion of veterans. They can execute complex manoeuvres by word of command and be expected to closely follow orders, such as high quality Macedonian/Successor troops or the best of early republican, and most late republican/imperial Roman legionaries. Elite auxiliaries or mercenaries, Persian Immortals and Spartans are also likely to qualify. B Grade: Less well experienced, disciplined or trained regulars, and also all professional irregulars. The nobles of most barbarian nations such as the Gauls, Thracians, Spanish and Germans would qualify, as would militia from the more belligerent Greek/Italian cities, republican Roman legionaries before 100 BC, and most imperial Roman auxiliaries. C Grade: All others with little or no training. This would include inexperienced militias and Persian or Hellenistic levies, as well as barbarians who are not from the warrior elite.

Shock Infantry cannot be A Grade. Rabble and all camel mounted cavalry must be C Grade. Special Troop stands have no grade. Note on Grading Cavalry When grading cavalry units, grade should be just as relevant to the mounts as to their riders. Therefore, imperial Roman equites cohortales may be B Grade compared to A Grade equites alares, while early German cavalry on their ungainly native ponies could be differentiated from Gallic cavalry by being C Grade as opposed to B, but with higher morale. MORALE Each unit is also assigned a Morale Value (MV), which reflects its enthusiasm. These are not tied to efficiency grades so it is quite possible to have B Grade troops with higher morale than


A Grade troops. Even C Grade troops might have exceptional morale, reflecting inspirational self-confidence (Spartacus' followers for example). The following Morale Values are possible: Exceptional Morale: Special elite or bodyguard units and others with complete confidence in their abilities. Also good troops that in a campaign have scored up a string of notable successes. Morale Value +2 High Morale: Above average troops inspired to go beyond the call of duty either due to semi-elite status (regulars with high lan or barbarian nobles would qualify), or as a result of campaign victories. Morale Value +1 Average Morale: Good, solid troops who usually do what is required of them without acts of suicidal bravery or abject cowardice. Includes elite units who have lost confidence, and normally poor quality units whose morale has been boosted by victories. Morale Value 0 Poor Morale: Demoralised, disenchanted or otherwise unenthusiastic troops, including all unpaid mercenaries and conscripts whose hearts are not in the fight. Includes normally good troops who have suffered a series of defeats. Morale Value -1

Special Troop stands have no Morale Value. BASING Figures and (elephant/chariot etc) models are mounted on bases or Stands, according to their troop type and the figure scale. Stand size is not critical, so long as all the stand frontages are the same in both armies. To conform to most current ancient wargames rules, the following stand sizes are recommended: Stand Size Scale of Figures 6mm 15mm 25mm Frontage 20mm 40mm 60mm Depth 20mm 30mm 40mm

Players using 20mm figures may use either the 15mm or 25mm scale for basing and ranges, reducing or increasing the number of figures per stand to fit. For 6mm scale figures players can use the 20mm square stands, or alternatively use 40mm stands but increase the number of figures. The same is true for 10mm or 2mm figures. Troop Types and Number of Figures The actual number of figures is for visual purposes only. They provide a ready reference as to troop types but do not have any actual effect on the game. In order to give the right visual appearance and to conform to other commonly used rule sets, the following arrangements are recommended (for 15 and 25mm figures, adjusting to fit for other scales): Light Infantry: 4-6 figures spaced out irregularly on the stand. Javelinmen could have 6 figures, to differentiate them from the more dispersed Skirmishers. Rabble might have up to 7 figures and a deeper stand. Heavy Infantry: Usually 8-9 figures at least 2 ranks deep. Some Bowmen might only have 6 figures. Stand depths can be increased to accommodate extra figures. Shock Infantry look better on deeper stands. UnS Heavy Infantry or dismounted cavalry: 4-6 figures possibly in a single rank. Stand depth might optionally be reduced or even halved. Light Cavalry or Horse Archers: 2 figures spaced out irregularly. Cataphracts: 3-4 figures side by side. Other Cavalry: 3 figures side by side, and 1-2 light infantry figures if with integral infantry.


Light/Heavy Chariots: 1 model, and 1-2 foot warriors or runners if it is appropriate. Celtic Chariots look good if the warrior figure is leaping off the back of the chariot or if the driver is running up the yoke. Scythed Chariots: 1 model. Elephants: 1 model, and possibly 2-3 light infantry escorts. Artillery: 1 model and 2-3 crewmen.

Depending on the manufacturer, 10mm, 6mm and 2mm figures could have double or more the number of figures or models indicated above per stand, with Heavy Infantry possibly being in 3 or even 4 ranks. The number of figures per base can be adjusted to fit the size and pose of the figures. Stand depths can also be increased to 40mm for 15mm scale, or 60mm for 25mm scale to allow for more active poses and more variation in the arrangement of irregular troops on the stands. Square stands are recommended for Shock Infantry and Rabble both for visual effect and to differentiate them from other troops at a glance. Square stands also make formation changes simpler to conduct. Even deeper stands may be necessary for elephants and chariots. An alternative arrangement for light troops that always fight unformed (see Unformed Troops on p27) is to mount them individually or in pairs on small round or irregularly shaped bases, where four (or two, for cavalry) figures are equal to one stand. Casualties There is no need to mount remaining figures on separate bases since a casualty will result in a complete stand being eliminated. TROOP AND GROUND SCALE Battles in the Classical era were often quite large compared to say the medieval period, which makes most battles ideally suited to 15mm or 6mm figure scales. However, given the fact that many armies are infantry based and therefore require less room for manoeuvre on table, it is still possible to fight most engagements in 25mm scale. Since Civitates has no fixed scale, a stand could represent any number of troops depending on the action being fought. But because an entire legion can be represented with a single unit of 5-12 stands, the normal scale is for each stand to represent several hundred men. Both armies do not have to tally exactly on a representational scale, but they should be fairly close. For manipular Roman armies a Legion unit (see p13) could be represented by 2 to 4 stands for each sub-unit (hastati, principes and triarii). This would give a scale of 300-600 men per hastati or principes stand and 150-300 per UnS triarii stand. For game purposes it is better to keep the triarii and other sub-units equal so that they cover the same frontage. The number of triarii could be increased by adding extra officer, standard bearer and musician figures since the Legions standards were kept in the rear line. A later cohort could also be represented by one stand, giving a scale of 400-500 men per stand. For particularly large battles where two Legions are brigaded together, each infantry stand might represent up to 1000 men. Hellenic, Persian and barbarian infantry units can be represented similarly, so that the armys stands are each around 500 or 1000 strong. Some players may wish to represent Skirmishers and Missile Troops at half that of other infantry stands to reflect their dispersed order, but this means that such Light Infantry become over-represented and have a disproportionate impact on the game, and for this reason the idea is discouraged. A Rabble stand on the other hand might easily represent 5-10 times the number of troops as a normal infantry stand. Cavalry however do benefit from being represented by about half the infantry scale, so 200500 per stand is a good troop scale for cavalry, depending on the size of the battle. Chariot, elephant and artillery stand representation is more arbitrary and depends on various factors such as the enemys perception of them as a threat, but 50-100 works well for most chariot stands, and 10-20 elephants, scythed chariots or artillery engines per Special Troop stand. The Javelin Throw All measurements in the game, regardless of the figure-man ratio or theoretical ground scale, are taken in multiples of base frontages (so 20mm for 6mm scale, 40mm for 15mm scale, and


60mm for 25mm scale). Missile ranges form the basis for measurement, with a javelin range being the same as one stand frontage (20, 40 or 60mm), and bow range being five times one stands frontage. For convenience, each of these segments are called Javelin Throws or JTs. Each movement die pip is however half a javelin throw. Players using alternative base sizes should measure distances in the multiples of whatever base frontages they use. Players using 6mm figures on 20mm stands may wish to use 15mm scale for all purposes (1 javelin throw = 40 mm) in order to produce more sweeping moves and faster action. Since ground scale is related to shooting ranges, players who are uncomfortable with the concept of flexible scales could consider javelin range to be about 40 metres and effective bow range about 200 metres, or 1cm on the games table = 10 metres in real life for 15mm figures. Although 40 metres is a long way to throw a javelin effectively, this distance is assumed to include a certain amount of running or riding up to a target, throwing, then darting back out of the way. UNITS Except for Special Troops, stands must be organised into Units. A unit is the smallest group capable of moving and acting independently under the rules and it is a tactical rather than administrative grouping. All stands in a non-Legion unit must be of the same troop type with the same efficiency grade and morale value. Except for a Legion, which may have up to three Sub-Units (see below), all stands in a unit must remain together for the duration of the game. A unit might contain any number of stands - but, apart from Legions (see below), 2-4 is the optimal number. Units that are too small may make the army brittle, but large units are difficult to manoeuvre. Players should decide on a theoretical scale for their armies (see suggestions under Troop and Ground Scale on p12) and try to organise their units along historical lines. Legions Roman and allied Legions (see Definitions on p47) are organised differently to other units and have special characteristics. A Legion is typically represented by a single unit of Heavy Infantry, 5-12 stands strong, divided into two or three sub-units. Legion stands must all have the same efficiency grade, but may vary in morale, armour and/or troop type. The cavalry and light infantry of a manipular Legion are organised into separate units. Legions are organised into one of two ways, depending on the historical period being represented: Manipular Legion (4 to 2 centuries BC). Organised into two or three equal size sub-units of hastati, principes, and maybe also triarii. The triarii should be understrength Spearmen while hastati and principes are normally Swordsmen, although principes may be full strength Spearmen up to around 250 BC. Morale and armour may differ between the sub-units. For example the triarii could have heavier armour and higher morale to reflect their veteran status. Cohort Legion (1 century BC to 2 century AD?). Organised into two or three subunits, but not necessarily of an equal size. All stands of the Legion are identically armed and equipped as Swordsmen. Usually morale and armour is also the same, although a case could be made for some variation within a Legion. In the imperial era, legionary vexillations become the norm and these are treated like normal units.
st nd th nd

A Legion of mixed troop types counts the majority type in contact with the enemy in combat (or the highest if equal). For shooting, apply the armour of the individual stands being shot at. Sub-units of a Legion must normally stay together but they have a unique formation (Acies see p27) in which each sub-unit forms a separate line and these lines are able to relieve each other (see p33). In order to represent the looser chequerboard formation used in the earlier period, the frontage of a formed manipular Legion is wider than for other Heavy Infantry (see Acies formation, p27). This gives the Legion a wider frontage at the expense of fewer stands in contact with the enemy. A Legion in Acies may detach a group of unengaged stands to form a new unit. The new unit acts independently of its parent Legion for the rest of the game, starting off with the same DPs as the Legion had when they separated. The unit may not later re-join with the Legion. A Legion reduced to less than 5 stands or a single sub-unit also cannot function as a Legion.


Special Troops Elephants, Scythed Chariots and Artillery are not organised into units. Instead they operate independently as individual stands. ORGANISING THE ARMIES To prepare for a game, players must organise their units into Commands. Each command should consist of a number of units and maybe Special Troop stands grouped together under a Leader, usually a subordinate Commander. As long as the command remains intact, these constituent parts act together, support each other and follow the same orders. A command must either be an Infantry, a Cavalry or an Elephant command: An infantry command may contain Special Troops and up to one unit of cavalry, as long as the majority of its units are infantry. A cavalry command must have at least as many cavalry units as there are of infantry, with a maximum of one Heavy Infantry unit and the remainder of any infantry in the command being Light Infantry. It may also contain Elephants and/or Scythed Chariots. An elephant command must contain some Elephant stands, but it may also contain up to double that number of Light Infantry stands.

In a large army, or one containing foreign allies, a number of commands could be combined into a Contingent under a Contingent Commander. An army containing foreign allies who are independently organised must place all those allies in an independent allied contingent. A contingent may contain a mix of infantry and cavalry commands but it may not be of more than one nationality. For example: a Spartan army containing an Athenian independent allied contingent cannot have Spartans in the Athenian contingent or vice versa. Mercenaries and subject or auxiliary troops are however considered to be of the same nationality as the nation employing them.


POINTS VALUES It may be useful to have a means of 'valuing' armies to balance a game scenario. Numerical values or points have for this reason been assigned to each stand and unit as follows:

Troop Points
Basic Troop Types Skirmisher, Missile Troop or Rabble stand Javelinmen stand Shock Infantry or Bowmen stand Phalangite, Spearmen or Swordsmen stand Light Cavalry or Horse Archer stand Cataphract or Heavy Chariot stand Other cavalry stand Special Troop stand Reduction for an under-strength HI stand Troop Point Extras Extra for an A Grade stand Extra for a B Grade stand Extra for a stand with exceptional morale Extra for a stand with high morale Reduction for a stand with poor morale Extra for a cavalry stand with integral infantry Extra for an armoured cavalry stand Extra for an armoured infantry stand Extra for a sparabara Bowmen stand Extra for an Indian Elephant stand Unit Points Each Legion unit Each other unit Command Points For the army General For each Contingent Commander Extra for an army second-in-command For each subordinate Commander Reduction for a leader on foot 100 75 +25 (maximum of one per army) 50 -20 20 10 +20 +5 +2 +10 +5 -3 +3 +3 (not cataphracts) +2 +1 +10 Points 4 6 6 8 8 15 10 35 ! basic cost



2. Sequence of Play
All actions in the game are conducted alternately, with both players completing each phase in sequence of play before moving to the next. Sometimes the scenario will designate the player who moves first in Turn 1. Thereafter, and in other circumstances, dice to determine who moves first with each player rolling 1 D6 and adding his General's command points (see Command Points on p19). Re-roll if the scores are equal. The player with the highest score decides whether to go first or second. Once this has been resolved, the players keep the same order for all phases in the turn. The player moving first is termed as 'the player with initiative', regardless of whether the initiative works to his advantage or not. All actions are carried out from right to left except that where unit moves intersect, the lead unit may move first. Combat is resolved simultaneously. Turn Sequence: 1. Command Phase.
Allocate the Command Points (CPs) for each leader, move any messengers and detached leaders. Take all required Control Tests.

2. Approach Phase.
Troops beyond bow range of the enemy may make march moves or manoeuvre, or start to rally. March movement must stop at bow range from visible enemy who are not broken (but formed troops can ignore unformed enemy light troops in the open that are not part of a Battle Line with other troops).

3. Long Range Missile Exchange.

Stands with a long-range missile capability may shoot at eligible targets beyond javelin range. Artillery may shoot out to three times bow range. No short range shooting is allowed in this phase.

4. Tactical Move Phase.

Conduct continuing rout, pursuit and rampage moves. Other troops may move, manoeuvre or continue to rally, stopping one javelin range from the enemy. Troops beyond bow range as in the Approach Phase above may move again in this phase.

5. Short Range Missile Exchange.

Stands with a short-range missile capability may engage eligible targets at javelin range. Additionally, Horse Archers and chariots with a long-range missile capability may engage enemy up to bow range, as may Bowmen or Missile Troops who remained stationary during the Tactical Move Phase.

6. Combat Phase.
In the following order: Declare charges, and the number of charge dice being used in each charge. Make charge and charge response moves. Resolve all Combat Phase shooting. Simultaneously resolve all combats in order, and apply any immediate morale DPs. Conduct all necessary after-combat moves. Resolve any follow on combats in the same order.

7. Recovery Phase.
Remove disorder points (DPs) from eligible units. Rally all shaken units that meet the criteria for rallying.

Tip: Deciding to move first or second can make a critical difference and it is not always immediately obvious which is best. In some cases it is advantageous to move first since the effects of the first players shooting will reduce the second players ability to shoot back. Moving first might also restrict the opponents movement options and/or force him to fight combats in an order not of his choosing. On the other hand, moving second allows a player to wait until his opponent has moved all his troops before moving himself, thereby exploiting any weaknesses and giving his opponent no opportunity to respond to his moves.



3. Command and Control

CHAIN OF COMMAND There are a number of leader figures represented on table. These are in order of seniority: The General who leads the entire army (there is only one per army). Contingent Commanders who are either subordinate to or allied to the General. They each lead a contingent (see p14). Not all armies have Contingent Commanders. A 'second-in-command' is a Contingent Commander who has no specific contingent. Commanders who are subordinate to the General, or to a Contingent Commander. Each leads a single command.

Leaders can only influence troops or subordinates who are assigned to them. For example, a Commander can have no influence over troops from another command. On the other hand, a Contingent Commander may influence all the troops and commands in his contingent, but not those in another contingent. The General influences all troops and commands in the army, except those in a contingent of Independent Allies. A second-in-command can also command other troops of his nationality if the General is out of reach, and becomes the new General if the latter is lost. In a large army the chain of command should be clearly established, typically with a sketch map or by listing who commands what and whom on a piece of paper. A superior may re-assign troops from one subordinate to another also under his command during the course of the game. This is done in the same way as changing orders (see p22), for example if a General orders one of his Commanders to send a unit to another command. COMMAND POINTS (CPs) AND COMMAND REACH Each leader is allocated 2-5 Command Points (CPs), that will allow him to carry out certain actions during the game. Commanders always have 3 CPs, but all others are given 1 CP for each number rolled on an AvD (+1 to this roll is allowed for historically exceptional Generals, up to a maximum of 5 CPs), unless their CPs are already given for the scenario. A leader with only 2 CPs is very limited in his options. Leaders can only exercise control over troops within their Command Reach, which is normally one javelin throw (1 JT). A 'control' command action allows command reach to be exercised. To count as being within command reach, the distance between the base edge of the command stand (see below) and the base edge of the nearest stand to be controlled must equal or be less than the command reach. Troops within 1 JT of any troops under the leaders direct command reach are also considered to be within command reach and they may in turn extend the reach on to others until the leaders control runs out. Leader Command Stands A leaders command stand is smaller and usually circular, oval or irregular, to distinguish it from the troop stands. Command stands should be easily distinguishable by rank as well. For example, if a Commander stand mounts just a single officer figure, Contingent Commander stands could mount two (maybe the man himself with a standard bearer or a musician), while the General would have all three. Mounted leaders need to be identifiable too, as they will be able to move around easier. One can also depict a leader on an elephant or chariot model. Leader stands are normally attached to a unit. An attached leader is in base-to-base contact with or within 1 JT of the unit. The leader will move and fight with the unit, and moves about at will within it (measuring distance for the leader can be taken from any point in the unit he is with). He may also attach to an Elephant stand as if it was a unit. A detached leader is not in base-to-base contact with a friendly unit, and therefore moves independently.


The command reach is an important game concept. When troops are within a leader's reach they will normally do what the player wishes - though there are exceptions to this. When troops are outside the command reach, a die roll determines their actions. This will often result in troops doing other than what the player would wish. Essentially this rule allows a degree of flexibility in the way players manoeuvre the troops in each command while keeping the command, rather than the unit, as the basic manoeuvre element. The relatively small individual command reach means that in order to control troops effectively it will be necessary to keep them together so that they can move and act collectively. B and C Grade troops are by and large reliant on a leader to accompany them into combat, to reflect the fact that even in the Classical era leaders were often compelled to lead from the front. COMMAND POINT ALLOCATION A leaders Command Points will determine the number of actions he may make each turn. Leaders may use up to their total number of CPs each turn to complete any combination of the following actions. Control Troops (costs 1-3 CPs). This action allows all the troops under the leaders command and within his command reach to move and act as the player wishes. If no leader in the chain of command allocates the CPs to do this, or if troops are beyond command reach, then those troops must take a Control Test (see p21) to determine their actions. The normal cost of this action is 1 CP. However, if any of the troops to be controlled are vulnerable to 'spontaneous advance' (see p21) and are within a bow range of the enemy then the cost increases to 2 CPs, or 3 if they are being shot at. Move (costs 1-2 CPs). This action allows a detached leader to make an independent move of up to 5 JTs in the Command Phase. He may take a double move, costing 2 CPs to move up to 10 JTs. A move action may include attaching to or detaching from a unit. When he attaches to friendly troops, he may move normally with them in the following phases. Leaders may not however detach from routing units. Attaching or detaching always requires a move action. Leaders on foot may only move 1 JT. Direct Shooting (costs 1 CP). This allows controlled units or Artillery stands within 1 JT of the leader to engage a target of the player's choice, rather than the nearest (see Ranges and Targets on p37). Steady Troops (costs 3 CPs). Immediately remove 2 DPs (see Death, Disorder and Desertion Points on p25) from any unshaken units the leader is within 1 JT of, or rally a single unit that is shaken (see Rallying Shaken Units on p26). A leader may instead use the action to influence the Control Tests of pursuing or looting units he is within 1 JT of towards a do as player wishes result (see Control Tests on p21). Inspire Troops (costs 2 CPs). The leader may increase the combat factors of the unit he is attached to in the Combat Phase. This is +1 if he has 2 or 3 CPs, +2 if he has 4 CPs, and +3 if he has 5 CPs. It also allows him to influence the Control Tests of units he is within 1 JT of (see p21). Special Troops may not be inspired. Give or Receive Orders (costs 2 CPs). This will normally only be required in multiplayer games involving a degree of role-play with players taking on the characters of Generals and Contingent Commanders. If however it becomes necessary to change the orders of an entire command (see p22), then the leader issuing the new orders must spend 2 CPs to either send a messenger, give a signal, or speak directly to the subordinate himself, it will also require the receiving leader to spend 2 CPs to listen to the order. This can result in humorous situations when the subordinate must choose whether of not to bother to allocate the CPs to hear what his boss has to say!

CPs must be allocated during the Command Phase. Unused CPs may not be carried over to the next turn. Players should place a marker beside each command stand in the Command Phase if the leader is inspiring (see under Appendix I, Markers). If a player forgets to allocate Command Points or does not specify what they are, it is assumed that the leader will control troops only.


The concept of Command Points should be understood as relating far more to a leader's military prestige, experience and expertise than to how 'brilliant' he is (a highly subjective term of reference that depends mainly on the player, and luck!). Therefore a 2 CP leader is typically an untried youth or a former civilian who has been elevated into a high military office, while 3-5 CPs indicates a relatively experienced leader with a variable level of competence and personal charisma. If one were to use the leaders at Cannae to illustrate as an example, Varro on the Roman side could have 3 or even 2 CPs to reflect his relative lack of experience, whereas his fellow consul Aemilius Paulus might have 4 CPs for being a seasoned campaigner who enjoys the comparative confidence of his men. Hannibal of course would have 5 CPs to reflect his extraordinary military skill and leadership, while his experienced cavalry commander Hasdrubal could have 4 CPs. Other (subordinate) leaders in the battle should only have the 'average' 3 CPs of competent military officers. CONTROL TESTS Troops will be required to take a control test in the Command Phase, in any of the following circumstances: If their leader, or his superior in the chain of command, did not allocate any CPs to control them, or if they are outside his command reach. If they are in pursuit or looting and the player wishes them to stop (see Leaving the Table on p35, and Movement after Combat on p44). In these circumstances they must take a test whether or not they are being controlled. Control Test: Roll 1 AvD for Artillery stands and A Grade, or 1 D6 otherwise. Results 1-2 Check for spontaneous advance. Looters and pursuers continue. Others halt. Act as the player wishes. Check for spontaneous advance. Others continue the last turn's action, if possible. Modifiers +1 +1 1 If charging, looting, or in pursuit. If a leader inspires within 1 JT (optional). If a leader steadies within 1 JT of pursuing or looting units (optional).

3-4 5-6

Units that are halted may shoot and/or adjust their facing or formation to face a threat, but they may not make other moves, nor may they initiate a charge. Troops that are looting or in pursuit will typically only cease doing those things if they get an act as player wishes result. If troops count as controlled in the Command Phase, they will remain technically under control throughout the entire turn, even if they move beyond their leaders reach in later turn phases. Spontaneous Advance Scythed Chariots and as yet unshaken Shock Infantry, B/C Grade Shock Cavalry, or Rabble that are not already pursuing or looting, must advance at full speed on and if possible charge the nearest visible enemy. If no such opportunity exists, treat as a normal Control Test result of the same type. See also the higher CP cost on p20 for keeping such troops under control. Looting In scenarios where there is enemy baggage or an unfortified camp, pursuers able to see and reach it become Looters unless they get an 'act as player wishes' result. Looters advance on the target at top speed, not stopping until they reach it or are prevented from doing so. Once the looters have made contact the target is captured (ie. it changes sides), and they remain with it until control is re-established. Special Troops cannot become looters. Baggage or a camp is passive and will be 'controlled' by the player who last contacted it, so it might potentially change hands two or more times in a game.


Tip: The Control Test will not bother most troops who are halted or intending to remain so, since with the exception of impetuous troops and looters, all possible results will keep the unit halted. Players should however make sure that if they wish a B or C Grade unit to make a new move that they do not force it to take a Control Test, since they only have a 2 in 6 chance of getting the desired result. ORDERS In most simple two-player games it will not be necessary to have written orders. However, multi-player games may require it. An independent ally Contingent Commander counts as the 'General' for his own contingent. In such cases each subordinate Contingent Commander receives an initial set of orders from his General that are applicable to all the troops under his command. These orders are best indicated on a sketch map and should be: 1. Advance towards and attack the enemy in front. 2. Move to and defend a specific position. 3. Defend the current position. Orders may only be changed by the leader who issued them. To do this, both superior and subordinate must allocate 2 CPs to change or to listen to orders. If the subordinate elects not to listen, he may still do so at a later time. This could represent for example a signal being made and a staff officer noting it, but being unable to get the leaders attention until greater priorities have been dealt with. Orders can be changed by the superior: Being in base-to-base contact with the subordinate. In this case, the subordinate must listen if he has the CPs to do so. By sending a messenger who will relay the message once in base-to-base contact with the subordinate. By a pre-arranged signal, as long as the leaders are within 10 JTs of and can see each other. The General can have a maximum of 1 pre-arranged signal per CP he has. The most commonly required order change would be to a contingent with orders to defend a position (Orders 2 or 3) to change to Order 1 and attack. It is worthwhile, therefore, having this as a pre-arranged signal. There is flexibility as to how orders are executed. For example the leader of a contingent with Order 1 may choose when and how to attack, and with which units. Likewise when defending a position, the subordinate may re-deploy his units to meet the local tactical situation and counter-attack any enemy who are threatening or who have taken the position. Commanders and the units in a command do not require individual orders. All units within the command reach of a leader who has received the new order may move and act as the player wishes, within the spirit of their orders, as long as the troops are under control. Units beyond command reach or whose leader(s) did not control their troops must take a Control Test in the Command Phase. The result of the test must be followed even if the result contradicts their new orders. Messengers sent by a mounted General may move up to 10 JTs per turn, conducted during the Command Phase as if the messenger was a detached leader. Messengers sent by a foot General are similar but only move 6 JTs per turn. Each messenger figure should be depicted as an unarmed horseman if he is mounted, or an unarmed runner if he is on foot. RISK TO LEADERS A leader is at risk of death or injury each time he is attached to a unit that suffers any DPs from shooting or combat, and for each casualty it takes in any circumstances. A leader is also at risk if he steadies a unit that is within 1 JT of the enemy. If and when any of these causes apply, roll a single die to determine the outcome. The rolls are made directly when the circumstance above occurs in the game. A result of 1 on any of these dice rolls indicates a 'Hit' on the leader.


Messengers that are within 1 JT of a friendly unit that takes a DP from shooting or combat, or a casualty in any circumstances, must also test to see if they take a Hit. To test if a leader is hit: Risk to Leaders Roll 1D6: 1 = a Hit. If 'Hit', roll again: 1 = Killed. 2-3 = Lose 2 CPs. 4-6 = Lose 1 CP. -1 to the second roll if from a combat result, and the leader was inspiring. It is possible to purchase dice that have skulls and crossbones in place of a '1'. These make useful 'dice of death' to throw when testing for risk to leaders. The loss of CPs represents bodyguards and staff officers becoming casualties, or actual wounds to the leader. The loss of his staff steadily reduces the leader's ability to exert influence over his troops, while the depleted bodyguard makes him more vulnerable to being killed.

Any leader who falls to 0 CPs is killed. Messengers that take a Hit are automatically killed and do not need to roll the second die. Detached leaders and mounted messengers beyond javelin range of friends may be shot at. If a Hit is scored, a leader must roll again as above. Cavalry who move into contact with a detached leader or messenger automatically capture him, unless he is within 1 JT of a friendly unit, which he will join. If otherwise advanced upon by an enemy that would make contact with him he withdraws before the enemy, retaining a 1 JT distance in front of them. If the unit to which the leader is attached is destroyed by enemy in contact or by an obstacle, roll a D6: 1-3 = The leader is killed. 4 = The leader is captured. 5-6 = The leader escapes and joins the nearest friendly A or B Grade unit that is not shaken or routing. If he cannot find one, he is lost and flees the battlefield. Captured or lost leaders are treated as if they had been killed. VISIBILITY Leaders and troops can only react to, or shoot at, what they can see. Visibility is restricted to line of sight and is normally unlimited by distance. Hill crest lines, towns, marshes and formed or 2+ rank deep unformed units block line of sight except that: Inside or into dense woods and towns, visibility is limited to 1 JT. Troops inside marshes, sand dunes or light cover such as vineyards or open woods are subject to similar visibility restrictions, except that they can be seen whenever they move, regardless. Troops on the boundary of dense woods, sand dunes, towns, marshes or light cover can see out but can only be seen from 1 JT away unless they move or shoot. If they move or shoot then they can be seen. Troops on a higher elevation (hill, fortress etc) can see over intervening troops who are at least 1 JT away. They cannot see into or over woods or towns, or enemy that are less than a bow range from the crest on the further side of lower hills. Troops on a lower or equal elevation can see over any obstructions on the lower level in between.

Special Troop stands, leaders and messengers do not block line of sight and they also have the same ability to see things as normal troops. Unformed units (see Unformed Troops on p27) in a single rank only partially block the line of sight. Anything up to 1 JT behind them that are otherwise visible can be seen.



4. Morale
DEATH, DISORDER AND DESERTION POINTS (DPs) During the course of the game units accumulate Death, Disorder and Desertion Points (called DPs). These are represented by placing a marker beside the unit for each DP incurred. The recommended marker is a piece of gravel as it can easily be picked up and does not look out of place on the battlefield. DPs can result from manoeuvre, shooting, combat and morale. A unit may accumulate up to 4 DPs. When a further DP is incurred, the unit becomes Shaken. An exceptional morale unit however can accumulate 5 DPs and only becomes shaken on the 6th DP, but a poor morale unit accumulates up to 3 DPs, becoming shaken on the 4th. Count the highest morale sub-unit in a Legion for determining when it becomes shaken. DP Removal If a unit is unshaken, not in combat and was stationary for the entire turn, it may remove DPs in the Recovery Phase as it tries to re-order itself. The ability to do this is determined by the units efficiency grade: A Grade: B Grade: C Grade: 1 per turn, +1 extra if not shot at and beyond 1 JT of the enemy. 1 per turn. 1 per turn, but only if not shot at and beyond 1 JT of the enemy.

Additional DPs can be removed in the Command Phase by leaders steadying units that are unshaken (see Command Point Allocation on p20). This can be done regardless of what the unit is doing at the time. A Legion in Acies formation may also remove a DP in the Tactical Move Phase if it can perform a line relief (see Legion Line Relief on p34). Causes of DPs If a unit Breaks it becomes shaken, regardless of number of DPs on the unit. A units good order and morale is further affected and DPs incurred by the following events: 1 DP Each friendly light troop or lower grade unit destroyed in combat or broken within bow range. This applies if the friendly unit breaks or makes a rout move that passes by within bow range. 1 DP Each friendly non-light troop unit of equal or higher grade that retires within bow range. Ignore this DP if the following event also applies. 2 DPs Each friendly non-light troop unit of equal or higher grade destroyed in combat or broken within bow range. 1 DP For cavalry that come within 1 JT of Elephants, unless there are Elephants in the cavalry units army. Also applicable to horse mounted cavalry confronted by camels in the same circumstances. The DP applies each new occasion a unit comes within 1 JT of the elephants or camels, but not for continuous proximity. 1 DP Surprised by seeing a previously hidden enemy that appears within bow range (or fresh enemy arriving from off table). 1 DP If a leader in the chain of command is killed, lost or routs within bow range. 2 DPs if he is the General. 1 DP If the only attached leader detaches from a unit in combat. 1-3 DPs For shooting Hits or combat results. 1-2 DPs For fatigue and disorder when moving, manoeuvring, or crossing some terrain types within bow range of the enemy. Not applicable if the unit already has 3+ DPs. Up to 4 DPs For crossing an obstacle. 1 DP For each evade move. 2 DPs If burst through by a stand of rampaging Elephants or Scythed Chariots. 1 DP only if the unit is a Legion able to 'open lanes' (see Opening the Ranks on p44).


2 DPs If a unit in line contacted by an enemy charge that originated from behind the units Flank/Rear, without it being able to turn to face the charge in time. 1 DP if charged by unformed troops only.

SHAKEN UNITS AND CASUALTIES Once a unit becomes shaken it should be marked with a shaken marker. A shaken marker could be a casualty figure or small counter. Shaken Legions cannot detach stands/sub-units. One Casualty will be removed for each further DP incurred by a shaken unit due to combat, morale, or from crossing an obstacle. Shaken units incur no further DPs or casualties for other movement, or shooting. A casualty results in the elimination of one complete stand. Rallying Shaken Units A shaken unit must Rally in order to lose its shaken status. This requires the unit to remain halted for one complete turn, beyond bow range of any non-broken enemy. While rallying, the unit may adopt any normally allowed formation, facing in whichever direction the player chooses. In the Recovery Phase after these conditions have been fulfilled, the shaken marker is removed and replaced with 3 DPs. From the start of the next turn the unit may act normally. If enemy move to within bow range of the shaken unit while it is attempting to rally, the shaken unit will have to withdraw the following turn beyond bow range and try again. Shaken units may additionally be rallied by the personal intervention of a leader who has expended 2 CPs to rally them (see Command Point Allocation on p20). Tips: Once a unit becomes shaken it will be ineffective. One must either steady it with a leader or take it out of reach of the enemy and rally it before it starts to suffer casualties. If allowed to remain in melee or where it can be charged, a shaken unit will just disintegrate. DPs are temporary, and even a shaken unit can be brought back up to full effectiveness. Casualties however are permanent and will reduce the units effectiveness for the duration of the game. It is quite important to reduce the number of DPs on a unit as it gets closer to enemy. Carrying several DPs before entering combat can end in disaster. It is often best to pause for a turn outside bow range to get rid of any accumulated DPs before approaching closer. Of course, the enemy may force the issue before you are ready. SPECIAL TROOPS AND DPs Special Troops do not accumulate DPs. But when a Special Troop stand takes a Hit from a shooting, combat, obstacle crossing or burst through result that would normally cause a DP, roll a D6 for each DP or Hit. A result of a 1 in combat, or of 1-2 from other causes indicates a Critical Hit: 1-2 3 4-6 Stand destroyed. Artillery or Scythed Chariot stand destroyed, Elephant rampages. Artillery stand destroyed, Scythed Chariot or Elephant rampages. 5-6
An Elephants rampage direction against all but enemy Special Troops. All other rampage directions.





A rampaging stand is first turned towards the cause of the result, indicated by the blue arrow in the diagram above and then makes an immediate move at full speed in a straight line in the direction determined by a D6 roll, indicated above by the red arrows. The stand continues to move in the same direction in each following Tactical Move Phase, diverting by the minimum required for any impassable terrain or obstacles. Before each succeeding rampage move however, the player throws 1 D6 per stand and if he rolls a 4-6 the stand is destroyed (ie. they disperse, chariots break up, elephants are killed by their mahouts/other troops etc). Rampaging stands will burst through any troops, friendly or enemy, in their path. This results in the Special Troop stand moving through the intervening troops, who take 1-3 DPs.


5. Formation, Movement and Manoeuvre

FORMATIONS Unformed Troops Units that move without trying to maintain formation are termed Unformed. Some troops are always unformed; others become so through an event or actions. Stands of unformed units should be spaced apart up to 1 JT and/or unaligned to indicate their state. As unformed units do not attempt to maintain any order, stands can be moved individually with no penalties for manoeuvre, as long as they end movement within 1 JT of each other. Except for their charge direction, these are considered to be facing all round and therefore have no flanks or rear. Circumstances in which units are unformed Chariot units are always unformed. Light troops are normally unformed as well, although Javelinmen may be either formed or unformed. Heavy Cavalry may also be formed or unformed. All evading, retiring, routing, pursuing or looting units are unformed for as long as they are in that state.

Other units or units in other circumstances must always try to maintain unit formation and may not voluntarily become unformed. Unformed shaken units are however not able to form up until after they have rallied. Special Troops and Formation Although Special Troops operate as single stands and have no formation, they do not classify as unformed. Unit Formations Formed units must adopt one of the following formations: Line: This is the main combat formation. The unit is in one to three ranks deep, except for Legions at least as many stands wide as it is deep, with all stands side by side in base-tobase contact. Normally they must face in the same direction, though a stationary unit may turn its back rank to face the rear, or bend its frontage to refuse a flank (see p32). Divide ranks as evenly as possible, with less in the rear rank in case of an odd number. Units in Line may bend their formation to conform to irregular terrain features. Wedge (Attack Column or Cuneus): An attack formation designed to deliver an offensive punch on a narrow frontage. The unit must be 2-6 stands strong, two or three ranks deep and one or two stands wide. Divide the ranks equally, with any odd stand in the centre of the front rank. Wedge may only be formed by Shock Cavalry, Cataphracts, Celtiberian/ German/Dacian Shock Infantry, and imperial Roman Swordsmen after 50 AD. Column: This is a marching formation designed for quick movement but not combat. The unit is in a single file with all stands one behind the other and facing in the same direction. Legions may however form a Column of multiple files to match the number of lines they have in Acies (see below). A Column should be able to turn 90 into Line, so if unit stand frontage is wider than the unit stand depth, then space the stands out accordingly. Acies: This formation may be used only by Legions (see p13) of 5-12 stands. The Legion is formed into two (duplex acies) or three (triplex acies) single ranked lines, with a ! JT gap between each line. The whole Legion then moves and fights as a single entity, but its stands/sub-units may detach to form new units. A stationary Legion in Acies may turn its back rank to face the rear, or bend its frontage to refuse a flank (see p32).

In order to represent the chequerboard or Quincunx version of Acies used by Legions before 100BC (see p13), a manipular Legion in Acies must also deploy with a ! JT gap between each stand in each line. This means that the frontage of the line should be 50% wider than


normal. Therefore a line of 3 stands of hastati in 15mm would cover a frontage of 180mm rather than 120mm (3 stands each 40mm wide plus 3 gaps of 20mm). For aesthetics, the gaps in each line might be staggered to give the chequerboard effect. Legions in Quincunx:

An example of two Roman Legions in quincunx. These are 6mm figures on 20mm square stands, set on magnetic trays for ease of movement. The actual trays, without legionary stands, are shown below.

When formed up independently, units of only a single stand must be specified as to whether they are in Line, Column, or unformed. Otherwise they are always assumed to be in the same formation as the other troops with whom they are operating. Changing Formation Units can change formation from Acies or single Line into Column by turning all stands 90, so that one stand at the end of the Line becomes the head of the Column. Alternatively, any unit in Line could change its formation to Column from anywhere in the unit, leading off with one stand which becomes the column head, with the other stands following on. Conversely, a unit in Column may turn all its stands 90 into Acies (if appropriate) or a single Line, or alternatively deploy into any form of Line by fanning out from the Column's head. All other formation changes are conducted on the spot from the unit's centre. Command Formations Troops of the same command that are within 1 JT of each other may adopt a command formation (the only exception is Orbis, which may incorporate more than one command). In this case movement and actions can be undertaken collectively by the group, or any defined part of the group, so long as leaders who command them spent enough CPs to control them during the Command Phase, and they are not moving through difficult terrain. Command formations take one of the following forms: Battle Line: A continuous body of several units in Line, Wedge or Acies and facing in the same or the direct opposite direction. It may also include unformed units and/or Special Troops. The formation may be up to four ranks deep, but it must be at least as wide as it is deep. March Column: A continuous file of several units, all of which are in Column and facing the same direction. It may however include unformed units and/or Special Troops.


Orbis: A single or double ranked Heavy Infantry formation of units in Line facing out in all directions to form a closed, hollow polygon or circle. Other troops may be deployed inside the hollow. Elephant stands may be part of the perimeter, if each stand is separate from the next. All stands face in the same direction when moving, but automatically turn to face outwards at the start of the Combat Phase and in the latter case the Orbis has no flanks or rear. An Orbis formation may be composed of multiple commands.

To move independent units into or out of a command formation, they will individually move the required distance. To change between command formations: March Column to Battle Line or Orbis: Formed units in a March Column may change their formation into Battle Line or Orbis either one after another or all together, facing to the right or left and/or adjusting formation as required for the new command formation. Battle Line or Orbis to March Column: Change one units formation to Column and move the lead stands in their facing direction as the head of the command formation with others following on, ensuring there are no gaps wider than 1 JT. Others troops may then change formation and link up as required to form the March Column. Battle Line to/from Orbis: The troops must adjust their current command formation to the new command formation in any way required that is also within their capabilities. In some cases it may take more than one turn to complete the change.

MOVEMENT Normally, move distance is randomised by rolling dice. The number of dice used are declared prior to rolling them. Units must move the full amount indicated by the dice rolled except: Troops intending to occupy a specific piece of terrain or a linear obstacle, or if intending to line up with troops of the same command, can halt their movement when they reach that place. Such an intention must be declared in advance. All troops must halt their movement 1 JT from the enemy. Units must initiate a charge to move in to contact with the enemy (see Charges on p39). Troops in Column or March Column do not roll dice. They instead move any amount up to the maximum allowed. Troops that move double (see below) must halt once they are 5 JTs from the enemy. Troops can halt short of the objective if the full move forces them to interpenetrate friendly troops or move into, out of or across, a terrain feature. In these cases they may halt up to 1 JT before reaching such a position, unless in spontaneous advance (see Spontaneous Advance on p21). Impassable terrain always stops movement short.

Troops that are part of a command formation and moving in the same direction may use the same die roll in all but difficult terrain; others roll individually. If the command formation has mixed troop types, use the dice of the highest grade troops in the moving body and the move rate of the slowest.


Move Distance Table: Move ! JT distance for each pip rolled on the movement dice. Normal Unit Move: 1 AvD for A-B Grade, D6 for others, plus one optional extra die (an AvD for A Grade, D6 otherwise) except for units in Orbis. Cavalry: Except for Cataphracts, cavalry may elect to roll an additional extra D6. Light Troops, Light Chariots, Shock Infantry: May add ! JT to each die, if they are unarmoured. Elephants: Move as infantry, or as cavalry when rampaging. Scythed Chariots: Move as cavalry. Also see Scythed Chariot Impetus below. Artillery: Move 1 JT, no dice required. Non-Combatant Mobile Baggage (wagons, herds etc): 1 AvD. Rout, Pursuit or Rampage: Use the maximum dice possible above, and always add any additions. Column/March Move: No dice are required. Infantry, Cataphracts and Special Troops may move up to 4 JTs, and other cavalry up to 6 JTs. Minimum Diced Move: 1 JT (a single D6 roll of '1' rounds up ! JT to 1 JT). Troops to the right move first except where two moves intersect, when the troops in front may move first. Only unformed light troops can move across the direct front of formed enemy in Line or Acies once within bow range. Other troops may only move directly towards or away from the enemy in these circumstances. A gap must be wider than 1 JT in order for troops to pass through it or between enemy troops. March Moves Troops over a bow range from the enemy may conduct a march move without rolling dice, using the distances given for column on the Move Distance Table above. Troops making a march move must however halt at bow range from visible enemy that are not routing. March moves are not permitted to troops that are out of player control. Scythed Chariot Impetus It takes time for Scythed Chariots to build up to their full impact against the enemy. Therefore, they increase speed by one die per continuous diced move that they make (including charge and break through moves). The incremental increase of speed is termed the stand's Impetus increasing its Attack factor by +2 per movement die it uses (up to three). At impetus 3 the stand can only move forward. If a stand reduces its move, its impetus reduces to the number of move dice rolled and if it halts or misses its normal move, then the stand falls to impetus 0. Scythed Chariot march moves are always made at a speed of impetus 1. Fatigue and Disorder Units in Line or Acies within 5 JTs of the enemy will incur 1 DP each time the move die result is a 5 or 6, except for Wedges and Legions in quincunx that incur a DP only on a 6. The DP reflects fatigue from moving and disorder in the ranks from trying to maintain dressing while moving fast. Other units and Special Troop stands do not incur fatigue DPs. Additional fatigue DPs may be incurred when units move through different terrain (see p31). Once a unit has incurred 3 DPs for whatever reason then it incurs no further movement DPs, except those for crossing linear obstacles. Skirmishing Withdrawal Unless they are Rabble, are in difficult terrain or defending an obstacle, unformed light troops must withdraw and maintain a 1 JT skirmishing distance in the face of an approach by formed enemy. This is performed during the relevant enemy movement phases and has no impact on previous or subsequent movement by the light troops. Light Chariots and unformed Heavy Cavalry may elect to withdraw in the same circumstances as is described for light troops above.


Effects of Terrain Most of the wargames table usually represents 'open' terrain without any major features. The bumps, depressions, crops, trees and bushes that cover open terrain are taken into account in the fatigue rolls above. Open terrain does not restrict movement or inhibit troops in any other way. 'Obstructive' terrain that could be represented on the table is classed as either: Difficult Terrain is terrain that seriously hinders movement. It can include dense woods, heavy scrub, towns, soft sand, marsh, steep hill slopes or rocky outcrops. Difficult terrain is impassable to Orbis formations, Special Troops, baggage and chariot or formed cavalry units. Halve mounted movement inside. A move in difficult terrain results in 1 DP on units in Line, Wedge or Acies. Soft sand counts as broken ground to cavalry on camels. Broken Ground such as open woods, light scrub, groves, flooded pasture, rough going or uneven slopes is impassable to all vehicles except for Celtic Light Chariots and increases the chance of formed units incurring fatigue (see below). It includes all light cover. Minor Linear Obstacles such as small rivers, banked streams and ditches are impassable to Orbis formations and Artillery. Crossing a minor obstacle also inflicts 2 DPs on chariots other than Celtic Light Chariots, and 1 DP on other troops that cross it. Casualty-inflicting defensive obstacles such as caltrops, stakes or concealed pits result in an additional DP to mounted troops that cross them on any move die result of 4+. Major Linear Obstacles include rampart and ditch fortifications and deep or strong flowing rivers. They are similar to minor obstacles except that they are impassable to all Artillery, chariots and baggage. Fortifications are also impassable to mounted, except through an open gate. Major obstacles inflict 2 DPs on all troops that cross them and reduce moves by half regardless of the size of the obstacle. Extreme Terrain includes sheer cliff faces, major waterways etc. Impassable to all except for unarmoured, unformed Javelinmen or Skirmishers. The latter can cross by expending a scenario specified number of turns to cross, incurring 1 DP per turn for the effort.

Formed Heavy Infantry and cavalry get a fatigue DP for a 4+ rolled on their move dice in any of the above features within 5 JTs of the enemy (see Fatigue and Disorder on p32), except for infantry Wedges and Legions in quincunx, that will incur a fatigue DP on a 5+. Gentle hill slopes have no effect on movement. Roads negate the effects of all surrounding terrain to troops on the road in Column. Infantry in Column on a road also move up to 5 JTs. Mounted troops do not get an increased move on a road. Troops in Column in a town are always assumed to be on a road. DPs for terrain and obstacles are inflicted from the moment the moving troops contact them. This means for example that a unit charging the defenders of a wood edge would take the DP for entering difficult terrain before the combat takes place. Some terrain may be marked on the table that has none of movement effects above. Smooth slopes with only a minimal rise and dried up or unusually shallow rivers might qualify, though these could still have an impact on shooting or combat. Units in Line may modify their formation to the irregular border of a terrain feature or obstacle that they are either attacking or defending, without having to change the formation. They must restore the original alignment of the unit Line once they cease to do so, however. Elephants incur no penalty if they cross a temporary man-made obstacle such as a barricade. If an Elephant stand crosses such an obstacle, it opens up a path 1 JT wide. MANOEUVRE Normal moves by formed units must be in the direction of the units facing with no more than 22 ! deviation off-centre. To do otherwise requires formed units to Manoeuvre. Unformed units and Special Troops move each single stand freely and independently (except Scythed Chariot impetus 3, see p30), without having to maintain alignment or order. Stands of the same unformed unit may not however be more than 1 JT from each other. Unformed units and Special Troops do not incur penalties for manoeuvre, except for mounting/dismounting.


Manoeuvre by formed units usually reduces the move and may cause the unit to accumulate DPs. Most manoeuvres can only be performed in one of the movement phases. An unshaken Legion in Acies may detach stands/sub-units free of cost (see Legions on p13). New units that detach from a Legion automatically form a Line or Column without having to make a formation change as described below. Wheel This is the usual method of changing the direction of a units facing. It is conducted as a normal move, first rolling dice to determine the move distance. The unit then pivots forward on one end of the line and the distance moved by the outside base is measured. If any distance is left over, the unit may move forwards normally up to the full allowance. It costs 1 DP in Wedge/Line/Acies within bow range of the enemy. A Battle Line in Line/Acies wheels as one body, but individual units wheel individually, as do units in Wedge. A unit in Column may wheel its front stand without restriction, with the succeeding stands following on. An Orbis cannot wheel. Unit Formation Change Re-arrange the units stands on the spot into the appropriate formation (Column into Line, Line into Column, Wedge/Acies into/out of Line or Column). All formation changes take ! a move and cause 1 DP to C Grade or phalanx infantry within bow range of the enemy. Re-form Unformed Units To re-form unformed troops into Line, Wedge, Acies or Column, the unit must first be free of whatever caused it to become unformed in the first place. This means that a shaken unit must rally and other units must have ceased evading or pursuing. If these conditions are met, the units stands may be re-arranged on the spot into a valid formation, taking one complete move. Alternatively, the unit may withdraw unformed from the enemy first, then re-form in a safer location. 1 DP is incurred for forming up only 1 JT from the enemy. A Legion re-forming into Acies cannot charge in the same turn that it forms up. About Face Units in Line, Acies or Column (but not Wedge) may turn around to face the rear, taking ! a move. A stationary unit in Line or Acies may turn its rear rank(s) in the opposite direction but keep its front facing. C Grade infantry and B/C Grade cavalry incur 1 DP if within bow range of the enemy. Turns to the flank are not possible from Line although a unit in Column could form Line by facing off to either flank, or vice versa, conducting such a move as a formation change (see above). It could use the rest of its move to change back into its original formation along a new facing. Such a double formation change takes a complete move and incurs the same 1 DP. Refuse a Flank Only allowed to A/B Grade infantry in Acies or in a single rank Line. It involves bending up to half the unit stands (round down) backwards up to 90, taking a whole movement phase. No dice are required. A unit with a refused flank cannot move normally. The refused flank can however be modified as the player desires, so there is no extra manoeuvre required for this. Deepen/Thin Ranks This is only allowed to units in Line. They may change the width or depth of the formation by increasing or decreasing the number or ranks by one. It takes ! a move per rank increase or decrease, and causes 1 DP for C Grade or phalanx infantry units in bow range of the enemy.


Distance to be measured.

Four units in Line under the same leader wheeling as one long Battle Line.

Units in Column wheel following the front stand with no penalty.


This manoeuvre may include a unit of UnS stands halving its size into full strength, or vice versa. The changes must conform to the depth limitations required by a Line formation. Side-step/Step-back This is only allowed to A Grade infantry in Line or Acies. It is conducted instead of a normal move, by moving up to 1 JT back or sideways. No dice are required. Slow Walk A Grade formed infantry in Line or Acies may move up to 1 JT forward without having to dice for movement. A Battle Line with a majority of A Grade infantry may choose to impose a slow walk on other troops that are part of the same Battle Line. Mount/Dismount Only Heavy Cavalry may dismount in the game, usually as Spearmen, but some dismount as Swordsmen or Bowmen instead if this is more compatible with their weaponry. Replace the mounted troops by figures on foot (or vice versa). This takes ! a move and 1 DP for all troops involved (including unformed). Two mounted stands become one stand when dismounted, or two UnS stands (but units with integral infantry dismount 1:1). Place a horse and horse-holder marker close to dismounted troops to indicate their status and location of their mounts. Mounted troops should rarely be dismounted, as cavalry combat is assumed to incorporate some dismounted fighting. Incline This is only allowed to A and B Grade infantry in Line or Acies. It is conducted as a normal move with the unit moving up to ! its allowance to the side and an equal amount forwards. It is possible to combine an incline with normal forward movement. Interpenetrate Friends No penalty for two bodies moving through each other if they are parallel to each other, one is stationary, and one unformed (but not routing) and not more than one stand deep. No penalty either for sub-units from the same Legion. Otherwise, inflict 1 DP on each formed unit within bow range of the enemy (or 2 DPs on phalanx infantry). 2 DPs on all that interpenetrate with moving Scythed Chariots at the same range. For rampage 'burst throughs', see p26. If a unit or stand runs out of movement before it can complete its interpenetration, it is placed on the far side of the troops it was interpenetrating with. Apart from in a Legion line relief (see below), units in combat are unable to interpenetrate. It is important to note that these rules are less tolerant of skirmish screens close to formed units that are dear to many other ancient wargame rules. Light troops in general did not have a role in a set-piece ancient battle except for covering deployment and/or for taking part in a post-battle pursuit. They might support formed troops, maybe operate in difficult terrain or assist the army's wings, but only close-screened formed troops where it was essential, say to counter elephants or scythed chariots. A 'screen' before a moving Battle Line is always a disorder risk. Legion Line Relief In the Tactical Move Phase, a Legion in duplex or triplex Acies may relieve the front line subunit with one of its rear line sub-units, even in combat. This results in 1 DP being removed. A Swordsmen sub-unit also gets a +1 in combat (see p42) when relieving a front line. A Legion sub-unit of Spearmen can however only replace the front line in combat after it falls back. Each sub-unit of a Legion that has not yet been in contact with the enemy (ie. it is fresh), can conduct a line relief once in the game. This is done by simply replacing the front sub-unit with the next fresh sub-unit behind it or noting that line relief has taken place in order to avoid the fiddle of moving the actual figures. No DPs can be incurred by this manoeuvre.


Passing a Gap A formed unit wishing to pass through a gap in terrain that is narrower than its frontage, or a gap at least 1 JT wide between friendly units in a like circumstance, must either: Reduce its frontage by up to half, pass through, and then expand immediately back into the original formation. This incurs 1 DP in bow range of the enemy and reduces most movement by !. Cavalry can however maintain full speed. Change the formation into Column and then pass through. Example of a four stand unit reducing its frontage by half to pass a gap:

Formed units may also perform the pass a gap manoeuvre in the Combat Phase, as part of a charge or a post-combat move. They may not use the manoeuvre to pass a gap in between enemy troops, however (for this, see p30). The gap must be in the terrain. HALF MOVES AND MULTIPLE ACTIONS When a ! move is specified, the unit must roll the dice then divide the total allowance by two and round up. DPs are incurred only once for each action. For example, a unit that wheels or starts crossing a major obstacle via a narrow bridge or a gate in Turn 1 and then continues the manoeuvre in Turn 2 only gets 1 DP for that one manoeuvre. LEAVING THE TABLE For most games, troops may not voluntarily leave the table. But if they charge, retire, evade or pursue off table they may dice to return from the following turns Command Phase once they come back under control (see Control Tests on p21). A leader with a group that left the table together is assumed to gather any units that pass the Control Test to within 1 JT of him so that they remain that way. Troops that were shaken when they left the table, and those that were followed off by a pursuing enemy may never return. Nor may Special Troops. When the player wants to re-enter his troops, roll a D6 for each off table unit or group. Once the die roll is made, all the units rolled for return if the roll succeeds, or all are lost if the roll is failed. Units from a group still out of control when the roll is made are always lost. Returning units re-enter within a bow range of their departure point, with the same DPs as when they left on a D6 roll of 4+. Add +1 to the roll if they have a leader with them who has 4+ CPs.


Summary of Fatigue, Terrain & Manoeuvre Penalties/Bonuses Action

4 rolled on a move die 5 rolled on a move die 6 rolled on a move die Each move in extreme terrain Each move in difficult terrain Each move in broken ground Each move across a major obstacle Each move across a minor obstacle Each move on a road Legion in Acies detaching a new unit Wheel Unit Formation Change Form up Unformed Troops About Face Refuse a Flank Deepen/Thin Ranks Mount/Dismount Interpenetrate Friends

Max. of 3 DP penalty, unless crossing an obstacle.

1 DP for mtd. over a casualty-inflicting obstacle and formed cavalry or non-quincunx/Wedge HI, 5 JTs from enemy in problem terrain. 1 DP as above, and Line or cohort Legions in Acies. Also for Wedges and Legions in quincunx Acies 5 JTs from enemy in problem terrain. 1 DP as above, for all units in Line, Wedge or Acies. 1 DP for unarmoured Javelinmen/Skirmishers. Otherwise impassable. 1 DP for units in Line, Wedge or Acies. Impassable to Special Troops, Orbis, chariot units and formed cavalry. Impassable to all chariots, except for Celtic. 2 DPs to all crossing troops. Impassable to Orbis, chariots and Artillery (fortifications too for cavalry). ! all moves. 2 DPs to non-Celtic chariots, 1 DP to all other crossing troops. Impassable to Orbis, Artillery. ! all moves. Must be in a single file Column. +1 JT for infantry moves. Ignore terrain or obstacles traversed. No cost. Not if shaken. 1 DP for units in Line/Wedge/Acies 5 JTs from enemy, Not for Orbis. 1 DP for C Grade/phalanx infantry if 5 JTs from enemy. ! move. 1 DP if 1 JT from enemy. 1 move (may withdraw from enemy first). Legions re-forming into Acies cannot charge in this turn. 1 DP for B/C Grade cavalry and C Grade infantry if 5 JTs from enemy. Not applicable for Wedge. ! move. A/B Grade infantry in Line/Acies only. 1 full move. Line only. 1 DP for C Grade/phalanx if 5 JTs from enemy. ! move. ! move for all cavalry. 1 DP for all. 1 DP for formed units (2 DPs for phalanx infantry) if 5 JTs from enemy, unless one participant is stationary and one is unformed, 1 rank deep and not routing. Also 2 DPs for all interpenetrating with moving Scythed Chariots, if 5 JTs from enemy. Remove 1 DP if the Legion is in Acies and has at least 1 fresh sub-unit. Not if shaken. 1 DP for formed units 5 JTs from enemy. ! move for infantry.

Legion Line Relief Pass a Gap



6. Shooting
ELIGIBILITY Troops with a missile capability (see p8) may shoot at targets within range and line of sight in a shooting exchange when they are permitted to shoot (see below), except that: Shaken units may not shoot. Artillery cannot shoot if they moved in this turn.

RANGES AND TARGETS Short (or javelin) range is 1 javelin throw (see The Javelin Throw on p12). Units with a shortrange missile capability (S) may shoot at targets within 1 JT range. Long or bow range is five times javelin range, or 5 JTs. Troops with a long-range missile capability (L) may shoot at targets beyond javelin range. Reduce long range by half (rounding up) if shooting from a lower elevation at a target on a higher one. Artillery range is three times bow range (3L), or 15 JTs. Unformed troops may shoot all round, in any direction. In other cases targets must be to the shooters front, within 45 of centre and in direct line of sight. Where several possible targets are available shooters must shoot at the nearest, but troops whose shooting is directed by a leader (see p20) may select a target of choice if no enemy are as yet within javelin range. Enemy stands actually engaged in combat with friends are not eligible targets, but all others are. Any stands in an unformed unit may shoot as long as they have a clear line of sight. Otherwise gaps must be at least 1 JT wide to shoot through, and only front rank stands may shoot unless allowed to shoot overhead (see Overhead Shooting on p38). Shooting Procedure Roll 1 D6 for each stand shooting. Halve the number of dice for all Rabble and UnS stands (round down). Halve again if not Artillery, and shooting at a target in cover. If the result is 6+, a Hit has been scored. Apply any modifiers which apply from the below: +1 Artillery shooting (+2 if the target is formed). +1 Others shooting at javelin range against unarmoured targets. Reduce the total number of dice by one for each DP on the shooting troops. One Hit = 1 DP up to a maximum of 2 per shooting phase on armoured units or on Legions in Acies, and a maximum of 3 on others. Once a unit is shaken, shooting has no further effect on it. Special Troops test for each Hit (see p26). Cover Troops that are in light cover, woods, scrub, behind fortifications etc count as being in cover for shooting, as do any unformed infantry in towns or rocky outcrops. Stationary sparabara Bowmen in Line also count as being in cover from their units front. Long Range Missile Exchange This is an exchange of missiles at long range. In this phase, all eligible targets beyond javelin range may be engaged. Short Range Missile Exchange In this phase, stands may engage targets at javelin range, but not normally beyond. However, Horse Archers and chariot units with a long-range missile capability may engage targets at up to bow range, as may Bowmen or Missile Troops that remained stationary in the Tactical Move Phase.


Shooting Arcs and Ranges:

Unformed troops may shoot all round, such as these Javelinmen stands (in red) who shoot only at short range (1 JT, in light red).

3x long range

Long range Formed units shoot within a frontal arc of 45. This unit of Bowmen in blue can shoot at long (5 JTs) and short (1 JT) range.

Short range

Examples of Shooting Eligibility:

This stand is not eligible as a target as it overlaps (is engaged with) friends who are in baseto-base contact with the enemy.

The Artillery stand in green shoots out to triple bow range (15 JTs) within an arc of 45. The facing of the model defines the stands arc. Artillery has the same effect at all ranges.

This stand is eligible as a target, as it is part of a rear rank and unengaged.

All stands in this unformed unit may shoot as long as they are in range, since they have a clear 1 JT wide line of sight to the target.

Both stands of the left hand unit may shoot. The 2nd rank stand of the right hand unit may shoot too, from overhead. As the gap between the units is less than 1 JT however, none of the stands from the rear unit may shoot.

INFANTRY SHOOTING Infantry who stand to receive can shoot in the Combat Phase if they did not shoot in the Short Range Missile Exchange (see p41). OVERHEAD SHOOTING Normally only stands in the front rank of a unit may shoot. However, overhead shooting is allowed in the following circumstances: Troops on a higher elevation may shoot and be shot at over the heads of others on lower ground. Higher hill levels and fortification parapets are considered to be higher elevation in this case. Troops shooting up from a lower elevation have their shooting penalised. A 2 rank of formed Bowmen can shoot over the heads of a front rank of formed infantry from the same command in base-to-base contact with them. At javelin range, unformed cavalry in a 2 rank can shoot over the heads of a front rank of unformed cavalry from the same command that are up to 1 JT in front of them. This represents circulating relays of fast moving shooters at close range, even though they may be stationary.
nd nd

Measure all overhead shooting ranges as if from the front rank. SHARING LONG RANGE SHOOTING HITS A unit in base-to-base contact with the rear of a single ranked unit which took more than 1 Hit from long range shooting, will take a share of its DPs. The total DPs are divided evenly between the target and the unit to its rear, with the extra going to the front unit in the case of an odd number. Disregard modifiers that would normally apply if the rear ranks were being directly shot at. Such a DP share applies to supporting enemies and friends in melee alike.


7. Combat
COMBAT BASICS Combat is divided into Charge and Melee. A charge is an aggressive movement intended to end in hand-to-hand fighting. Because a charge is as much governed by psychological factors as actual physical impact, the charge result may simulate one side or the other running out of nerve, giving ground or breaking up completely maybe even before their opponents make full contact. Once troops enter into melee however, they become locked into a sprawling mass of hand-to-hand combats with both sides pushing into each other. Unit cohesion is essential for winning a charge combat, whereas in melee this is less important. CHARGES A charge is the only way that troops can cross the distance separation barrier of a javelin throw into contact with an opponent. Any or all of the troops in a Battle Line that are controlled by the same leader may be combined into a single body (or bodies) to charge. Otherwise they must charge individually. Charges always progress through the sequence of stages below. Charge Declarations Each player must declare which of his units, Special Troop stands and Battle Lines will initiate a charge. This is done in turn from right to left by the first player, and then by the second. It is a good idea to signify each charge declaration with some sort of marker. Spontaneously advancing troops must charge the nearest enemy within charge reach that they are able to charge. After both players have made their declarations, determine charge responses and roll the dice for charge movement. Players may not voluntarily cancel any previously declared charges, nor may they add new ones based on their opponents charge responses or on the result of their movement dice. Restrictions on Charges The following troops cannot initiate a charge: Artillery cannot charge under any circumstances. Shaken troops may not initiate a charge. Nor may troops in Column or Orbis, or units that have a refused flank. Infantry that intend to shoot in the Combat Phase, and all Bowmen or Missile Troops that shot in the Short Range Missile Exchange, cannot initiate a charge.

Except for Rabble, chariots, spontaneously advancing units and pursuers, unformed may only initiate a charge against Special Troops, shaken or unformed units, or other formed units from behind an exposed flank or rear. All bodies, individual units and stands that declare a charge must also declare the number of move dice they will use for the charge. Scythed Chariots might be limited in this regard if they have not built up enough speed. To initiate a charge, troops must be at a minimum distance from the target of one javelin throw for charging infantry, two javelin throws for mounted, plus one javelin throw for each charge movement die selected. Units in spontaneous advance will always charge at the maximum speed they can manage. A charge is an attempted move into contact and may be made by eligible units even if they moved during the Tactical Move Phase. Charge Moves To conduct a charge move, regardless of the distance to be covered all troops must make a diced move forward from their current facing, taking DPs for fatigue, terrain and obstacles on the way up to the usual maximum. A Battle Line charging together rolls one set of dice for all units, while others roll individually. All troops that are in the same Battle Line as the chargers and facing in the same direction 1 JT behind them may choose to move forward together on the same dice with them, so that the Battle Line remains together and they maintain the same 1 JT proximity as before. They must of course apply the slowest and highest grade rule to do so. Charge movement by both sides starts from the right of the player with initiative.


The full distance rolled on the selected number of dice must be moved until contact is made. The move must be directly to the front if at a target within javelin range, deviating off centre no more than 22! if charging from further away. This will not negate the DP effect of a charge originating from behind the units flank or rear. Manoeuvres must have been completed in the previous phase. Mutual charge movement is conducted simultaneously. Failure to Contact If the chargers fail to contact because their opponent broke or evaded, they must continue their charge move up to the full distance rolled on the dice. Unless they are light troops or A Grade, they will automatically charge into any new opponents who are uncovered by the evading or breaking unit. A new target must react according to the normal charge responses if it is charged in these circumstances. Light and A Grade troops may instead choose to halt 1 JT away from the new target. If the chargers fail to make contact because they did not roll high enough on their movement dice, they may move normally next turn. If however they need to take a control test next turn, they count as charging or pursuing and if they get a continue last turns action result (see Control Tests on p21), they must advance on and charge the nearest enemy to their front. Charge Responses Troops being charged that are not already in combat or routing and did not declare a charge themselves will react according to their troop type and formation type. These responses are detailed in the Charge Response Chart below: Charge Response Chart Unformed Light Troops break if shaken. Other unformed Light Infantry can stand to receive if in difficult terrain or defending an obstacle, or if charged by Special Troops or unformed. Otherwise they must evade. Other unformed cavalry can countercharge cavalry or unformed infantry. Otherwise they must evade. Evading a Charge Units attempting to Evade are trying to move out of the way of an enemy charge. Units that are already routing cannot evade. If they all are able to evade, more than one unit may evade together on the same dice roll. The evaders make an unformed move directly away from the enemy charging them, causing each unit to receive 1 DP. Evaders may stop short of the full amount rolled on their movement dice once separated from the chargers by formed friendly troops or difficult terrain. Light Cavalry, Horse Archers and Light Chariots may also stop short as soon as they manage to outdistance the enemy by 1 JT. If shaken light troops evade, they will break at the moment the charge takes place. If other evading troops are caught in the back because they failed to move fast or far enough, they will break. The chargers immediately get a free hack (see p44). Counter-charge Troops that wish to (or have to) counter-charge roll move dice in exactly the same way as chargers do. They move forward, and as long as both have enough momentum, the countercharger will contact the charger half way into his charge move. A counter-charge may include a deviation of up to 22! if the enemy charge originated from beyond javelin range. This will not negate the DP effect of a charge originating from behind a units flank or rear. A countercharge is considered to be a charge when it comes to resolving the combat. Formed cavalry can counter-charge or stand to receive. With all other troop types or in all other circumstances, the target must stand to receive. Troops that are spontaneously advancing must always counter-charge wherever this is possible, if not then halt, and only evade as their last option.


Stand to Receive Troops that stand to receive a charge remain in place. They may 'about face' (see p32) any unengaged stands if allowed to face a charge from the rear, or they may 'refuse a flank' (see p32) if the charge commenced from beyond javelin range. An Orbis always faces out in time. A unit in Column instead breaks formation and becomes unformed as it receives the charge. Scythed Chariots that stand to receive a charge are immediately destroyed upon contact, as are Artillery. However, if an Artillery stand has a friendly infantry unit also in contact with the same enemy charge and that is within 1 JT of it, then it can survive as a non-contributing part of that combat until the unit falls back, retires or routs, when it will be destroyed. Infantry Shooting in Combat Infantry units with a short-range missile capability and that did not shoot in the Short Range Missile Exchange may shoot at enemy who are charging them in the Combat Phase, if they stand to receive. Shooting takes place once both sides are in contact, but is conducted as if at 1 JT range. MELEE Troops still in contact with each other from previous turns, except for those who are in contact with routers, are considered to be in melee. This is close combat with opposing forces fighting hand-to-hand and becoming intermingled and confused as they break into each others ranks. Melee often emphasises the individual rather than the clash of battle lines, though for troops who depend on keeping a solid front it represents the collective push or othismos referred to in Greek and Hellenistic tactical writings. Units in Wedge formation can expand their frontage by up to one stand on either flank as they enter melee if there is room to do so, using the stands that make up their rear ranks. Reinforcing a Melee In the Tactical Move Phase, a unit may be moved into base-to-base contact behind a friendly unit in melee in order to give it greater depth. Such a move must not take them into contact with the enemy however, as this would require a charge. Charging into a Melee If troops charge opponents that are in melee with friends from a previous turn, the combined charge/melee is worked out as an integrated combat. Count the factors that apply to a charge combat only for troops that charged or were contacted by the charge, and count the factors that apply in melee only for the troops that are involved in melee. At least one participant (the one in melee that has been charged) will need to take both into account. COMBAT RESOLUTION All stands in base-to-base contact with the enemy are considered to be in combat, and count as engaged. All engaged stands and likewise any stands giving them depth from behind are treated as part of the combat and cannot leave it (except new units detaching from a Legion). Per combat, roll 1 AvD for each A Grade unit and 1 D6 for each B/C Grade unit or Elephant or Scythed Chariot stand. Elephants may combine and roll a single D6 for all if they are within 1 JT of each other. Artillery does not count at all in combat. Add the factors below to each roll for each participant as applicable and compare. If stands of the same unit use different factors, use those of the majority type in contact with the enemy. For combats that involve multiple participants roll the dice as above, total each participant's factors and add the die result to the factors for each, total again and divide by the number of participants, before rounding up to the nearest whole number. Finally, compare both sides results. All troops that are involved in the same combat will also share in its outcome. Troops that adjoin a combat but do not have any of their stands directly engaged (they just count for overlap) do not share the combat result, however. Next turn they may either stay on the fringe of the same combat, or if an independent unit or a Special Troop stand, they might wheel round and charge into the exposed enemy flank, or else move freely. The morale effects of each individual combat result are inflicted immediately, before moving on to the next combat in sequence for that turn's player with initiative.


Combat Factor Table Basic Factors +? +? +? Combat Value (use the Attack factor if advancing; otherwise Defence) Morale Value Bonus of an inspiring leader attached to the unit

Tactical Factors +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -2 Advantage of ground Defending a fortification, or an obstacle vs mounted (add to advantage of ground) If deeper If Swordsmen vs Spearmen or Phalangites, or in a Legion line relief Heavy Cavalry with integral infantry in melee Other than Elephants, in melee whose opponents count as armoured Cavalry or Scythed Chariots vs Elephants (-3 if Cataphracts)

Momentum Factors +1 +1 +2 +2 -2 If following up or pursuing If phalanx infantry, and charging stationary enemy in the open Cavalry charging infantry that are also charging For each charge die used in Scythed Chariot impetus Unformed in a charge combat (not if Skirmishers/Missile Troops vs Special Troops)

Cohesion Factors +2 +2 +2 -1 -5 Formed Phalangites/Spearmen advancing or stationary, enemy in front contact only Phalangites in Line receiving a cavalry charge frontally Cavalry vs unformed infantry in the open (not if Cataphracts vs Light Infantry) Each DP (maximum of -4) and casualty, unless in melee Shaken, unless in melee

Outnumbering Factors (not cumulative) -1 -2 -3 Outnumbered Outnumbered at least 2:1 (not applicable to Special Troops, except vs Phalangites) Outnumbered at least 3:1 (not applicable to Special Troops)

Advancing/Stationary. Charging, pursuing or following up is considered to be advancing, while either receiving a charge or being halted in melee is counted as stationary. Advantage of Ground. This bonus can be awarded to troops that have clear advantage due to terrain. Advantage of Ground may include standing to receive or falling back uphill from the enemy, being behind an obstacle or defending the boundary of a difficult terrain feature. Fortifications. This should only be applied to troops defending substantial fortifications, and is always in addition to advantage of ground. Deeper. A unit counts deeper if it is infantry or cavalry with one more unshaken rank than the enemy infantry/cavalry in base-to-base contact. This can be from the same or another unit, but must be part of the Battle Line and have at least ! as many stands as the engaged rank. Non-chariot cavalry and Light Infantry count up to two ranks for depth, Heavy Infantry up to four. Non-chariot cavalry may count Light Infantry for depth, but may not themselves count as depth for infantry. Deeper infantry units (see the first bullet) may get an extra bonus while advancing.


To count for depth in combat, troops must not have enemy in flank or rear contact with them, must be in facing in the same direction and in base-to-base contact with the troops in front (except that Legion sub-units in Acies can offer depth to sub-units of the same Legion, even if separated by ! JT). Chariots and Special Troops can neither give depth, nor gain from it. Numbers. Count all engaged stands, plus up to one stand overlapping on each flank if they nd are from unshaken formed units, and unless in difficult terrain, also all stands in a 2 rank of Phalangites of the same grade or of units charging in Wedge formation, and if infantry, half rd th the stands in their 3 or 4 ranks (round up). Units contacted in their flank or rear only count stands in base-to-base contact with the enemy, and not any overlapping or deeper stands. The effectiveness of Phalangites, and to a lesser extent Spearmen, is decided by the formation bonuses awarded in the Combat Factor Table. When used by phalanx infantry, these factors may be referred to as their phalanx bonuses. Combat Results Table 5+ Victory. 0 DPs. Shaken troops and units in Orbis halt, as do defenders of obstacles, and A Grade infantry who stood to receive a charge. Unengaged sub-units of a Legion in Acies may also halt. Scythed Chariots break through enemy ranks and increase speed/impetus. Otherwise all victors pursue, or follow up if unable to do so, or if Phalangites. +2/+4 Success. 1 DP, except that shaken, or infantry who received a mounted charge take 0 DPs. Cavalry charging formed infantry retire, unless the latter break. Light/Heavy Chariots may halt instead of retiring. Scythed Chariots break through enemy ranks, and increase speed/impetus. Shaken infantry, defenders of obstacles, troops engaged on more than one facing, Missile Troops and Bowmen halt. Unengaged sub-units of a Legion in Acies may also halt. Other infantry who stood to receive halt. Other Phalangites follow up. In other cases, follow up opponents who fall back or pursue those who retire or rout.

+1/-1 Inconclusive. Scythed Chariots take 2 DPs then break through enemy ranks, but do not increase speed/impetus. Charging Wedges also take 2 DPs. Others take 1 DP each and: Infantry and Elephants halt. Cavalry who are in melee or in contact with the front of formed enemy infantry retire. Other cavalry halt.

-2/-4 Set-Back. Scythed Chariots take a critical hit. Already shaken units each take a casualty and break. Others take 2 DPs and: Formed infantry charged by cavalry or any troops charged by Scythed Chariots halt. Unformed troops and cavalry who are in melee retire. All others fall back.

-5/-6 Defeat. Scythed Chariots are destroyed, Elephants rampage. Units take a casualty and break from Scythed Chariots, if unformed or already shaken, fall back shaken if other phalanx infantry, or else retire shaken. -7 or less Rout. Special Troops are destroyed. All others take a casualty and break. Artillery are destroyed if they would be overrun by an enemy success or victory, but otherwise they remain in place.


Opening up the Ranks An A Grade infantry unit in a one rank Line that stood to receive a cavalry or Elephant charge frontally can open its ranks on an inconclusive or success result and force the mounted to break through the unit instead of retiring as the Combat Result Table orders. Legions in Acies formation may also do this, but only against Elephants. Shaken cavalry cannot break through enemy infantry that open up their ranks, however. To open their ranks, the infantry cannot be shaken, in melee, have enemy in flank/rear contact with their unit, nor have stands facing in any other direction but straight forward in the direction of the charge. The intention to open the ranks must be made as the intention to stand to receive is declared; then it will automatically take place if the criteria are fulfilled as above. See Break Through in Movement after Combat below for more details. Movement after Combat Once all charge/melee combat has been resolved, after combat movement from each combat is conducted in the same order with the losing participants moving first, and then the winning participants deciding which option(s) they will take after. In an inconclusive result, the player with initiative decides his options last. The possible results are: Halt. Remain in place. May move normally in the next turn if no longer in combat. Follow Up. Move forward to remain in combat with an opponent who fell back. Adjacent friendly troops that are part of the same Battle Line may also advance to maintain alignment with the troops following up. Fall Back. Move back 1 JT, facing the enemy. Units unable to fall back, due to impassable terrain, their formation or troops in the way, remain in place and receive 1 DP extra. Adjacent units that are part of the same Battle Line may also fall back to maintain alignment. Retire. Move back a full unformed move up to the maximum number of possible move dice. Retirers may halt short of the full move once separated from enemy by unshaken formed friends, difficult terrain or an obstacle. Units unable to retire, due to impassable terrain, their formation or troops in the way, remain in place and receive 1 DP extra. Retiring units break if caught by their pursuers, and the pursuers get an immediate free hack (see below). Break Through (Enemy Ranks). Break through and move forward as a pursuit move below on the far side of the opposing unit or body. This is an exception to the defeated troops move first rule above, as break through moves are conducted before the enemy make fall back, retire or break moves. Although this move is normally limited to Scythed Chariots, see also Opening the Ranks above. Break (Into Rout). Become shaken and make a full unformed move using the maximum possible move dice. Routers continue to rout until they are destroyed or leave the table. They may not rally. Units unable to make a rout move due to impassable terrain or troops in the way are immediately destroyed. Pursue. Make a full unformed move using the maximum possible move dice, in an attempt to remain in contact with an opponent who broke or retired. Except for light and A Grade troops, pursuers encountering new enemy in an after-combat move immediately enter into combat with them. This is worked out as a new charge. Light and A Grade pursuers have the option of halting 1 JT short of new enemy. In the following turns, pursuer charges against unbroken enemy are treated as normal charges. Follow on Combats Players may find that in some cases a new combat or a free hack (see below) follows on from a combat result. A maximum of one follow on combat can be fought, and then troops remain in contact until next turn. Free Hacks Routing stands do not fight back. Pursuers or chargers who catch routers immediately inflict a Free Hack, rolling 1 D6 for each of their engaged stands and removing a casualty for every die roll of 4 or more. The dice are rolled once each turn that they remain in contact. This is the same for evading or retiring units that break when they are caught.


8. Definitions
The following are key terms (organised A-Z), the meanings of which should be understood in the same way by all players. More key information can be found on the indicated pages. Acies. A special formation for Legions where the Legion is formed as a single unit, but in two (duplex Acies) or three (triplex Acies) separated lines. See pages 13, 27 and 33. Advantage of Ground. Troops that are uphill of the enemy or moving downhill against them, or that are defending an obstacle or a difficult terrain feature boundary, have an advantage in combat over their opponents. See page 42. Armoured. Troops who are unusually heavily armoured for their type and who therefore gain extra protection from light or simple missiles and likewise in melee, unless fighting against Elephants. Cataphracts always count armoured, while Elephants and Scythed Chariots never do regardless of whether the model is depicted as armoured or not. See page 10. AvD. An average die marked 2,3,3,4,4,5. A normal 6 sided die could be used, counting a 6 as a 4 and a 1 as a 3. Battle Line. A command formation of several units (and/or Special Troops) under the same leader, no more than three units deep. Units in a Battle Line formation can be in Line, Acies, Wedge, or unformed. See page 28. Break. The total collapse of internal unit cohesion, as troops run away in panic and rout. See page 44. This expression must not be confused with the after-combat break through move. Broken Ground. A less disruptive terrain category than 'difficult' that includes all light cover, rough going and uneven slopes. It impacts the movement of most chariots, and the fatigue die rolls of cavalry and most Heavy Infantry in Line or Acies formation. See page 31. Casualties. Once a unit becomes shaken it will remove any further DPs it suffers as whole stands, called casualties. See page 26. Cavalry. Troops that are both mounted and trained for mounted combat. This term mainly refers to horse mounted cavalry and does not include Elephants or Scythed Chariots, though it does include other chariots and camel cavalry. Charge. A deliberate attempt to enter into combat with the enemy. Combat resulting from a charge takes into account the psychological factors involved in two bodies of troops closing with each other rather than man-to-man fighting. See pages 39-41. Column. A unit formation no more than one file wide that is at least as deep as it is wide. See page 27. Combat Value (CV). A number (0-6) that values the relative effectiveness of troop types in combat. These usually include an: Attack Factor (A), which are used when the troops have forward momentum either from charging, following up or pursuing; and a Defence Factor (D), used when the troops are either stationary or moving back. Command. A group of units and possibly Special Troop stands operating together under a single leader in the chain of command. See page 14. Commander. An officer or war chief who leads several units that are grouped together into a single command. See page 19. Command Formation. A formation of more than one unit that is able to move together and is controlled by a single leader. The three permitted command formations are Battle Line, March Column, and Orbis. See pages 28-29. Command Points (CPs). A numerical value assigned to each leader which determines how many actions he can make each turn. CPs fall if a leader stand takes a Hit, and when they do they are modified immediately. See page 19.


Command Reach. The maximum reach of a leader for controlling troops under his command. See page 19. Contingent. A grouping of commands that operate together under a Contingent Commander. See page 14. Contingent Commander. A senior leader who commands a contingent of several commands or one or more commands of independent allies. See page 19. Control Test. The die roll required by troops that are out of command reach in the Command Phase. The modified test result determines their actions for that turn. See page 21. Critical Hit. The name given for a Hit on a Special Troop stand that causes it to be destroyed or rampage. See page 26. D6. A normal six-sided die. Difficult Terrain. Terrain that has an impact on troop movement, and also on order when the troops are formed in Line or Acies. This includes dense woods, urban areas, marshes, heavy scrub, steep hill slopes, soft sand etc. See page 31. Death, Desertion and Disorder Points (DPs). A means of measuring the cumulative effect of casualties, stress, fatigue and disorder on a unit. See page 25. Evade. An attempt by a unit to avoid being contacted by an enemy charge. See page 40. Extreme Terrain. Very difficult terrain such as the widest rivers, cliff faces etc, and which are impassable to all except Light Infantry. See page 31. Flank/Rear. The side or rear of a formed unit. The enemy charge must originate from at least partially behind the target units flank. Orbis formations and unformed units have no flank/rear. Units in Line, Acies and Wedge suffer DPs for a flank/rear charge if they cannot react in time, and units in Column will become unformed. See pages 25, 27, and 41. Formed. A unit drawn up in an orderly way that maintains alignment between ranks and files. A formed unit may be in Line, Column, Wedge, or if a Legion, in Acies. See page 27. General. The overall commander-in-chief of an army. See page 19. Grade. The classification which assigns a level of experience, discipline and training to a unit. For cavalry, this will also reflect the quality of the mounts. See page 10. Heavy Infantry. Infantry who are trained to fight relatively close together and who are usually best suited for holding ground or engaging the enemy in close combat. See pages 8-9. Hills. Ground that is high enough to be noticeable compared to the land roundabout. They will give troops advantage of ground for defending the higher ground in combat. Shooters on a hill can shoot overhead of intervening troops. A single hill may have multiple slopes, each of which might be gentle, uneven, steep or even sheer. Steep slopes count as difficult terrain for movement, while uneven slopes count as broken ground. Gentle slopes have no effect. Hit. A term used to describe a successful result in shooting, or on a leader. It is not the same as a Critical Hit, however. See page 37 for shooting Hits, and pages 22-23 for leader Hits. Impetus. The slow build up in movement dice of speed and terror by a Scythed Chariot stand as it advances. See page 30. Independent Allies. An allied contingent that has its own command structure, independent of the army General, and that treats its Contingent Commander as its own General. See pages 14 and 19. Integral Infantry. Specially trained light infantry who fight intermixed with Heavy Cavalry and that are depicted on the same stand, such as Roman equitata or Greek hamippoi. Javelin Throw (JT). A distance equal to a troop stand frontage (usually 20mm at 6mm figure scale, 40mm at 15mm scale, or 60mm at 25mm scale). This is also javelin range, and short range for missile weapons. It forms the basis for all measurements in the game. See page 12. Leader. A generic term for ranked officers at any level of command, including Commanders, Contingent Commanders, and Generals alike. See pages 14 and 19-20.


Legion. A unit of 5-12 stands, made up of Roman or allied Italian Heavy Infantry. Depending on the historical time period, the Legion will be further defined as either Manipular or Cohort. The term does not include imitation legionaries (for example, Hellenistic). See page 13. The aesthetic size of a Legion unit may vary according to the figure scale used. For example, a 25mm scale manipular Legion on 60mm frontage stands could be represented by as few as 6 stands, whereas a 6mm manipular Legion on 20mm frontage stands might be represented by 9 or 12 stands per Legion. Legion Line Relief. The manoeuvre whereby a Legion in duplex or triplex Acies replaces its front line sub-unit with the sub-unit behind it in a melee, feeding fresh troops into the combat. See page 33. Light Cover. Terrain features such as orchards, open woods, vineyards and light scrub that provide concealment to troops and cover from shooting, but do not provide an advantage in combat if defending the perimeter. Light Infantry. Lightly armed and equipped men on foot who either fight in loose formations, dispersed groups or mobs, and who for the most part rely on missile weapons. See page 8. Light Troops. Light Infantry, Light Cavalry and Horse Archers. Line. A unit formation no more than three stands deep and at least as wide as it is deep. The lines of a Legion in Acies have a slightly different meaning. See page 27. Linear Obstacles. Rivers, streams, ditches, palisades and other linear terrain features which impose a movement and/or DP penalty on troops crossing them. See page 31. Looters. Units that failed a Control Test and that are now engaged in looting. See page 21. Manoeuvre. Movement actions that are more complicated than just moving straight forward, such as wheels, interpenetrations and formation changes. See pages 31-34. March Column. A continuous command formation of several units under the same leader, all of which are themselves in Column or unformed and facing the same direction. See page 28. Melee. Close hand-to-hand combat between opponents who are in contact from the previous turn. See page 41. Morale Value (MV). A numerical value ranging from +2 to 1 quantifying the relative morale strength of a unit, with 0 being standard, average troops. See pages 10-11. Mounted Troops. Troops riding animals or on vehicles that drive teams of animals, including both cavalry and any other troops that move about on horses, camels or elephants. Orbis. A single or double ranked command formation all linked together and facing outwards. See pages 28-29. Phalanx Infantry. Heavy Infantry (hoplite Spearmen and Phalangites) that depend on a rigid, continuous formation of outstretched spear points and interlocked shields in combat. Their inflexibility is however also a source of strength, as they are very hard to break. Quincunx. The Acies formation as used by Roman manipular Legions. Each of the Legions stands must be regularly spaced ! a JT apart. See pages 27-28. Rally. The act of reforming a unit which has been shaken. It involves remaining stationary an entire turn beyond bow range of enemy. See page 26. Rampage. A move made by an Elephant or Scythed Chariot stand that has run amok due to wounds, casualties or fear. See page 26. Shaken. A state a unit reaches after severe casualties, stress and fatigue when it is no longer capable of fighting. See page 26. Shooting Capability. Represents the ability of troops to inflict ranged damage on opponents with missile weapons at short (S) or long (L) range. Spontaneous Advance. A Control Test result in which troops are obliged to advance on the nearest reachable enemy and charge them as soon as they are in range to do so. This can


only happen to Scythed Chariot stands, and as yet unshaken units of Rabble, Shock Infantry, or B-C Grade Shock Cavalry. See page 21. Stand. A standard sized base mounting a number of figures or models. The troop stand forms the basic playing piece of the game. There are also (smaller, differently shaped) Command Stands for mounting leaders. See pages 11-13, and page 19 for command stands. Sub-Units. Only Legions have sub-units. A sub-unit is a group of stands within a Legion that is not necessarily the same as the others. The sub-unit forms a 'line' in Acies formation which is capable of becoming fully independent as a separate unit, independent of the Legion. All sub-units of a Legion must be Heavy Infantry of the same grade, however. See page 13. Under-strength (UnS). Infantry units which are depleted in numbers for some reason. Often used to represent a manipular Legion's triarii, and also most dismounted cavalry stands on a one for one basis. See page 8. Unformed. A unit in a loose mass with no ordered formation, or that has broken down into dispersed groups of skirmishers. See page 27. Unit. An organised group of stands that operate together for the entire game. It is the smallest group of stands capable of moving and acting independently under the rules. See page 13. Wedge. A formation used by a unit of 2-6 stands that is two or three ranks deep and no more than two stands wide. It is limited to a few troop types and nations. See page 27.


Hoplite Battle Supplement

In the ritualised hoplite battles between classical Greek city states, the armies deployed into a single continuous line of hoplite Spearmen on an open plain, with possibly a few light troops and/or cavalry. In order to make such face-to-face heavy infantry grinds a bit more interesting, they can have their own special rules as outlined below. All commands in a hoplite army should be infantry commands, with their leaders on foot and attached to hoplite units. Independent allied contingents will typically feature heavily. Spartan citizens/neighbours/'new citizens', highly trained mercenaries and the Theban 'sacred band' should be A Grade. Many cities field B Grade hoplites, but the less warlike cities might only have C. Theban, Spartan and Athenian hoplites should typically have high morale. The best Spartan citizen troops or the Theban sacred band could have exceptional morale. In most games, each stand of hoplites in one rank should represent 8 ranks of men, with UnS stands (often used in Spartan armies) representing 4 ranks. This allows for visually satisfying, one stand deep lines on the table representing the standard 8 ranks of men, with any 4 rank sections being replaced by UnS stands and 12 rank sections by adding a UnS unit to the rear of a full strength unit. Units should not be too large either, with 4 stands being the 1,000 man lochos (each stand representing 250-300 men). For some games the real man depth of a stand might be 12 ranks instead, so say if one was re-fighting Leuctra in 371 BC, a 4 rank Battle Line of Thebans could represent their 50 shields deep attack column. Turn Sequence, Movement and Shooting There is no Approach Phase in a hoplite battle. The Tactical Move Phase becomes a single generalised Movement Phase and all moves require dice, unless in a Column or slow walking etc. March moves are not allowed. Fatigue DPs apply at any range from the enemy. The Long Range Shooting Phase comes before movement takes place. The Omens Players must divine the omens before the game starts. Each divining player has to roll a D6 to divine the omens: 1-2 3-4 5-6 Unfavourable omens. Ambiguous omens. Favourable omens.

A player with Spartans in his army gets a -1 penalty to this roll. Unfavourable omens means that the diviners army is apprehensive about the omens, which adds +1 to the CP cost of the General's inspiration actions for the game. He can choose to re-interpret the omens by rolling his CPs or under with another D6 roll. If he succeeds, he is not only relieved of the extra CP penalty but he also gets the 'favourable omens' bonus reroll below. However, if he fails, he and every leader in the army incurs the same penalty. Whether the second roll is made is always optional, however. Ambiguous omens means that there is enough ambiguity in the readings to balance out any impact on the troops and the General's prestige. The diviner suffers no penalty or bonus. Favourable omens means that the omens are potentially encouraging. The divining General gets to re-roll any one D6 roll that he would make in the course of the game. It is possible to use this rule in other (non-hoplite) battles as well. The Position of Honour One scenario designated contingent on each side may be eligible for the position of honour (on the far right flank). If present, a Spartan contingent is always eligible. So excepting hoplite units in the contingent that are late Theban, the hoplites automatically drop one Morale Value (minimum MV: -1) if denied their position of honour and deployed elsewhere!


Phalanx Vulnerability on the Right On any move directly towards the enemy phalanx front using two movement dice, or on any charge move, hoplite units in Line always 'drift' involuntarily 22! from their forward axis, and always in a rightward direction, unless they would collide with other formed troops. Increase the DPs for a hoplite unit taking a formed charge on its right flank to 3, and reduce the DPs if taking a formed charge on its left flank to 1. Overlaps in frontal combat in a charge on a hoplite unit in Line only count against its right flank, where overlap may be extended up to two stands. Overlaps in all other circumstances are as normal. Increased Risk for Hoplite Leaders Hoplite leaders roll twice (instead of once) in any risk roll incurred from a combat result. Raising The Paean 'Raising the paean' is a mechanism to account for the build up of phalanx charge momentum: At level 1 the hoplites are marching forward, accompanied by trumpets or flutes. At level 2 a choral song builds up, boosting the unit's aggressive fervour. At level 3 the above frenzy has reached a furious crescendo. Hoplite units in Line build a paean as they advance, replacing the phalanx momentum combat factor. They all start with a paean level of 0, to which they add or subtract as follows: Normal move forward with one die: Normal move forward with two dice: Charging (per die used): Reducing speed from previous dice rolled: Slow walk forward: Other manoeuvre: Halt or stand to receive a charge: Shaken: +1 level to maximum level 1 +1 level to maximum level 3 +1 level to maximum level 3 -1 from the total paean level above builds/maintains paean level 1 only fall back 1 level fall back to 0 paean level is always 0

No unit can build a higher paean level than the maximum of 3, or fall below 0. The movement dice of hoplites in Line can only increase by one per turn phase. For example a stationary unit may move one die and then charge with two dice, or if it does not charge it may move two dice in the following Movement Phase. A Grade hoplites can build or maintain a paean level of 1 on a slow walk forward, simulating the slow, grim advance of the Spartans. The paean level of a hoplite unit in Line is measured and adjusted after it has conducted all of its Movement Phase movement, and once again after the Combat Phase charge movement. A hoplite unit prevented from moving forward in the Movement Phase by an enemy advance to within 1 JT of its front facing before it can itself move, may maintain its current paean level on through to the charge. So unless it manoeuvres, it will not drop back to paean level 0. A units paean level applies if it is in Line and charging enemy that are not defending a terrain boundary or an obstacle. Add the units paean level to its other factors in the charge. 'Flinch' Test Against Spartans Before 371 BC, any other hoplite unit that charges an elite Spartan (MV +2) unit frontally must undergo a flinch test as it does so. Roll a D6, adding the unit's MV and superior difference in paean level to the Spartans. The unit must score 4+ to avoid becoming shaken. Theban Attack Column As from 371 BC, Thebans can form into a four rank deep hoplite Battle Line, and count it as if all the units comprising this 'attack column' are in a Wedge formation.