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Chapter 3 Water & Fitness of the Environment

Effect of Waters Polarity Polarity of water causes hydrogen bonding o Water is made up of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen; held together by 1 covalent bond o Oxygen is slightly negative and hydrogen is slightly positive > polarity o Polarity causes hydrogen to be attracted to other oxygen molecules, creating hydrogen bonds; each molecule can be connected to 4 other molecules 4 properties of water o Waters cohesion o Stabilization of temperature o Expansion upon freezing o Versatility as a solvent Cohesion of water molecules o Hydrogen bonds keep water molecules sticking together - hydrogen bonds are very weak; they form and reform with great frequency o Cohesion: the process in which hydrogen bonds hold the substances together This allows the transportation of water in plants, against gravity o Adhesion: the clinging of one substance to another o Surface Tension: measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid this is because the hydrogen bond creates a thin film over the water Water moderates temperatures on Earth o Water can stabilize air temperature by absorbing heat from warm air and releasing it in cool air without much of a shift in its own temperature o Kinetic energy: energy of motion molecules are always moving o Heat: total amount of kinetic energy in a body of matter o Temperature: average kinetic energy of a molecule o Specific Heat: amount of heat absorbed or lost for 1g of the substance to change 1oC Water had a high specific heat of 1cal/g/oC, this is why its temperature stay stable while absorbing a lot of heat This is due to hydrogen bonding because heat must be absorbed to break a hydrogen bond and heat is released when a bond is created o Heat of Vaporization: the amount of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g to be converted from liquid to gaseous state o Evaporative Cooling: the surface of a liquid is cool after evaporation this happens because the hottest molecules have evaporated; only cool left Ice floats to oceans dont freeze solid o Sea life exists because ice is less dense than water, which stops the sea from freezing over When water freezes, the hydrogen bonds expand making ice less dense Water is the solvent of life o Solution: Homogenous mixture of two substances o Solute: substance being dissolved o Solvent: dissolving agent

o Aqueous Solution: when water is the solvent o Water is a versatile solvent b/c of its polarity The electric charges make is so all polar substances are attracted to either the oxygen or the hydrogen o Hydrophilic: substance that has an affinity to water o Hydrophobic: substance that repels water Dissociation of Water Molecules Hydrogen Ion: single proton with charge of 1+ Hydroxide Ion: water molecule with the lost ion (OH-) Acid: increases the H+ concentration Base: increases the OH- concentration