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Electromagne,c induc,on is the produc-on of an electric current across a conductor moving through a magne-c eld Discovered by M. Faraday in 1831

0 Moving the magnet (or the coil) produces an induced current An e.m.f is induced in a coil by moving it rela-ve to a magne-c eld

Electromagnetic induction
Lenzs Law: the direc-on of the induced current is always so as to oppose the change which causes the current The strength of the induced current (or induced e.m.f) depends on:
The number of coils in the wire How fast the magnet is moving How strong the magnet used is And what angle the magnet is moving rela-ve to the wire

Magnetic 1lux and magnetic 1lux density

Magne,c ux : the total number of magne-c eld lines

passing through a specied area in a magne-c eld

=0 =90

B = magne-c eld strength = magne-c ux density


= BA cos( )

Units: Tm2 = Weber (Wb)

Faradays Law of electromagnetic induction

For a single coil A = r2 For coil with N loops use A = Nr2 Magne,c ux linkage = N = NBAcos() = NBr2 cos() Faradays Law: the induced e.m.f in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of ux linkage through the circuit d = dt

a. A narrow coil of 10 turns and area 4 x 10-2 m2 is placed in a uniform magne-c eld of ux density 10-2 Tesla so that the ux links the turns normally. Calculate the average induced e.m.f in the coil if it is removed completely from the eld in 0.5s. b. If the same coil is rotated about an axis through its middle so that it turns through 60 in 0.2s in the eld B, calculate the average induced e.m.f.

The magne-c ux through a coil perpendicular to its plane is varying according to the rela-on = [4t 3 + 5t 2 + 8t + 5] Weber. What is the induced current through the coil at t=2s if the resistance of the coil is 3.1?

Direction of induced e.m.f. in moving straight conductor

For a straight conductor moving across a magne-c eld, we can get the direc-on of the induced current or e.m.f from Flemings right-hand rule

Use right-hand rule for induced current or e.m.f Use le6-hand rule for force on a current-carrying conductor

Calculation of e.m.f. in moving straight conductor

v A , I S B F L

e.m.f. = /t = BA/t = BSL/t = BvtL/t = BvL The e.m.f. induced in a rod of length L moving with speed v at right angles to a uniform magne-c eld B is given by = BvL Force on a current-carrying conductor F = B I L Work done = energy produced

FS = It BILS = It BILvt = It BvL =

A train travels at 30m/s due east. Calculate the induced emf between the ends of a horizontal axle CD of the train which is 1.5m long, assuming the Earths magne-c eld strength is 6x10-5 T and acts downwards at 65 to the horizontal. What is the magnitude of the induced emf? Which end of CD is at a higher poten-al?

Calculation of e.m.f. in spinning disc

A conduc-ng disk rota-ng in a magne-c eld generates an e.m.f.
S r B S v=r

If disk completes f revolu-ons per second: A=r2f Induced e.m.f. = Br2f


A circular metallic disc is placed with its plane perpendicular to a uniform magne-c eld of ux density B. The disc has a radius of 0.2m and is rotated at 5 revolu-ons per second about an axis through its center perpendicular to its plane. The e.m.f between the center and the rim of the disc is balanced by the p.d. across a 10 resistor when carrying a current of 1mA. What is the magne-c eld strength?


Calculation of e.m.f. in a rotating coil

Consider a coil with N turns, each of area A, rota-ng at right angles to a uniform magne-c eld B with angular speed Flux linkage = N = B NBAcos() But =t so =NBAcos(t) From Faradays Law:
Side view

d dt

d (cos( t)) dt = NBA sin( t)


0 = NBA


If a coil of 800 turns each with area 10-2 m2 performs 600 revolu-ons per minute in a magne-c eld of ux density 5x10-2T what is the maximum value of the induced e.m.f?


Maxwells equations
Gausss Law of electricity

Gausss Law of magne-sm

Faradays Law of Induc-on

Amperes Law

To Do
Read sec-ons 15.1 and 15.2 from the book [p.278-p.285 Electromagne-c induc-on] Homework Assignment wk4: ques-ons 14.1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.6, 15.1, 15.3 Hand it in no later than 4:00pm next Wednesday - LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED