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Microteaching

Microteaching is one of the most recent innovations to teacher-education programmes which aims to modify teachers behavior according to the specified objectives. According to Allen, Microteaching is scaled down teaching encounter in class size and time. Dr S Radhakrishnan says Until and unless we have dedicated committed teachers who take to teaching as a mission in their lives, we cannot have a good educational system. Teachers should be the best minds of the country, he said. The secondary education commission, India (1964-66) has aptly remarked of all the different factors which influence the quality of education and its contributions to national development the quality competence and character of teacher are undoubtedly the most significant. Indeed, a teacher occupies a central place in any scheme of work connected with education. If destiny of country is being shaped in its classrooms, the destiny maker is the teacher. Nothing can match the great task of building the future of the pupils at his/ her command. Dreams and hopes of modern world rest upon the quality of its teachers. The world whose teachers are unreformed, undeveloped is an unreformed world. Thus it is very essential that prospective teachers need to acquire requisite teaching skills and live upto the expectations of the modern world/ society. For this to happen there is a need for organizing workshop on miniature form of teaching for them. , i.e., Microteaching. Meaning of Microteaching Microteaching is a training technique in which a prospective teacher practices teaching with a single concept reduced number of pupils in a reduced period of time with emphasis on a narrow and specific teaching skill It is a controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specific teaching behavior in the student teaching training programme It is one of the innovations in teacher education that aims at modifying prospective teachers behavior according to the specific objectives. Here the teacher reviews the presentation of episode by prospective teachers after each session and finds out what has worked which aspects have fallen short and what needs to be done to boost their teaching techniques. Seeing the video and getting comments from the teacher and peer group provide the prospective teachers with a lot intense under the microscope view of their teaching. In addition microteaching is also a method of improving teaching skills scaled down teaching encounter designed develop new skills and refine existing one. It is invented in the mid 1960s at Stanford University by Dr. Dwight Allen

NCERT started microteaching in India in 1975. Passi, Singh and Jangira developed instructional materials which were used to train teacher educators.

Definitions of Microteaching Allen D.W.(1966): Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time. Allen D.W and Eve A. W(1968): Microteaching is a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate a specified teaching behavior and to practice teaching under controlled condition Bush R.N(1968) says Microteaching is a teacher education technique which allows teacher to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in a planned series of 5-10 minutes encounter with a small group of real students, often with an opportunity to observe the result on video tape. Dr Singh L.C.(1977) says Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of five pupils for a small period of 5-6 minutes. Such a situation offers a helpful setting for an experienced/ inexperienced teacher to acquire new teaching skills and to refine old ones It is basically Simplification of teaching skills Importance of Microteaching o It scales down the complexities of real teaching o It enables prospective teachers to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions. o It develops confidence away prospective teachers in teaching. o It helps to accomplish specific teacher competencies o It caters to the need of individual differences in the teacher training o It helps get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching o It offers the prospective teachers the opportunity to systematically analyze and evaluate his/ her teaching o It offers the prospective teachers opportunity to practice particular teaching skills until they are mastered before the complex real teaching situation is faced. o It provides each student with the opportunity to contribute meaningfully to the improvement of his/her fellow students an d at the same time puts a great deal of responsibility on his/ her shoulders. o The greatest value of microteaching is the changes it brings about in prospective teachers about their teaching. It hleps to have a greater grasp of teaching as a complex challenging profession, a greater interest and enthusiasm for teaching an increased self-confidence; a greater concern for improving and evaluating his/ her own teaching (Turney, et al, 1913)

Concept of microteaching Microteaching is an experiment in the field of education that has been integrated in the practice teaching schedules It is teacher training technique which helps the prospective teachers to master the training skills each at a time It is micro in the sense that it scales down the complexities of real teaching. It is highly individualized training technique that requires the prospective teacher to teach a single concept of content, using specified teaching skill for short time (6 minutes) to a very number of pupils(6-10) The prospective teacher are provided with the immediate feedback given by teacher or supervisor and peer group and also through video recording. Immediate feedbacks helps in giving motivation, fixing and improving learning. The prospective teachers practices the teaching skills in terms of definable, observable, measurable and controllable form with repeated cycles till he she attain mastery in the use of specified teaching skill Steps of Microteaching 1. Step 1: Particular skill to be practiced is explained to the prospective teachers in terms of the purpose and components of the skill with suitable examples 2. Step 2: The prospective teacher gives the demonstration of the skill in Microteaching is stimulated conditions to the teacher trainees. 3. Step 3: The prospective teacher plans a short lesson plan on the basis of the demonstrated skill for his/ her practice 4. Step 4: The prospective teacher teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils. His lesson is supervised by the supervisor and peers. 5. Step 5: On the basis of observation of a lesson, the supervisor gives feedback to the prospective teacher. The supervisor reinforces the instances of effective use of the skill and draws attention of the teacher trainee to the points where he could not do well 6. Step 6: In the light of the feedback given by the supervisor, the prospective teacher replans the lesson plan in order to use the skill I n more effective manner in the second trial. 7. Step 7: The revised lesson is taught to another comparable group of pupils 8. The supervisor observes the re-teach lesson and givens re-feed back to the prospective teacher with convincing reason. 9. Step 8: The teach-reteach cycle may be repeated several times till adequate mastery level is achieved by the prospective teachers. Microteaching cycle The six steps generally involved in microteaching cycle are Plan, teach, Feedback, replan, re-teach, re-feedback. There can be variations as per requirement of the objective of practice session.

Time duration of Microteaching Teach-6 minutes Feedback-6 minutes Re-plan-12 minutes Re-teach-6 minutes Re-feedback-6 minutes Phases of microteaching 1. Knowledge acquisition phase 2. Skill acquisition phase 3. Transfer phase of microteaching Limitation of Microteaching 1. It is very time consuming technique 2. As it is skill oriented, content is not properly emphasized 3. A large number of prospective teachers may not be given the opportunity of reteach and re-plan. 4. Requires special classroom setting 5. It covers only few specific skills 6. It may raise administrative problem while arranging micro lessons. Important Microteaching skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skill of writing instructional objectives Skill of introducing a lesson Skill of explanation Skill of illustrating with examples Skill of fluency in questioning Skill of probing questioning Skill of using blackboard Skill of stimulus variation Skill of reinforcement

10. Skill of increasing pupil participation 11. Skill of recognizing attending behavior 12. Skill of achieving closure Knowledge acquisition phase Provide knowledge about teaching skills Observe the demonstration of teaching skill Analyze and discuss the demonstration of teaching skill

Skill Acquisition phase Planning and preparation of microteaching lesson for a skill Practicing the skill Evaluation of the practiced skill(feedback) Re-plan, reteach and feedback till the desired level of skill is achieved.

Transfer phase( Post active phase) Giving opportunity to use the mastered skill in normal class room teaching. Integrate the different skills practiced.

Illustrating with examples How to win-

Measure Change Grow Believe Research

Practice Plan Listen. Introduction Need to give shape (concrete examples) to abstract ideas , concepts, laws etc in such a way to interest and curiosity of children is aroused and at the same time the same is clarified. Meaning It involves describe an idea, concept or principle by using various types of simple, relevant and interesting examples given through appropriate media keeping in view, the previous knowledge/ experience of the children. Importance 1. Takes the learners from known to unknown; familiar to unfamiliar; concrete to abstract; and simple to complex. 2. Helps to secure and sustain the attention of the children in the lesson. 3. Brings clarity, simplicity and interest in teaching 4. Simplifies complex concepts, laws, principles, ideas etch. Components 1. Formulating simple examples-for better understanding of the concept/ ideas/ principles formulate examples Keeping in view the previous experience, age, grade and maturity level, geographical region, culture etc of the children. 2. Formulating examples relevant to the concept/ rule/ principle-give only those examples where the concept/idea/ principles can be applied. 3. Formulating interesting examples- If examples given are according to the age group and maturity level of the children, then they can show interest in learning the concept/ idea/ principles. 4. Using appropriate Media for example A} Verbal media-oral(sometimes along with written communication) stories, analogies, situations, description etc. B} Non Verbal Media-Objects, models, pictures, diagrams, maps, experimental demonstration etc. Note: Employ both media for better illustration and employ the both media keeping in view the children and the nature of content to be taught. 5. Using examples by inductive-deductive approach Inductive approach-examples-commonality/ Conclusion/ generalization/ concept/ idea/ principle

Deductive approach-statement/ idea/ concept/ principle examples-verification/ application. 6. Pupil participation- Ensure pupil participation in terms of their attentiveness, interst, giving correcting responses involving in activities etc. Conclusion: This skill is very important for the teacher while teaching about abstract content that includes idea, concept, rule and principle. The teacher can use various types o f simple, relevant and interesting examples through appropriate media in the order of inductivedeductive approach keeping in view the previous experience of the children and there by ensuring their participation in teaching learning process.

Probing question
Questioning is very important tool of good teaching. Success in teaching is highly dependent on it. Teacher asks question to students: 1. To test the present status of knowledge about the subject 2. To enable them to recall something 3. To enable them to reason about something 4. To enable them to recognize something 5. To enable them to think over something 6. To elicit some information 7. To develop the subject in hand 8. To enable them to analyze the problems 9. To enable them to synthesize something 10. To enable them to apply their knowledge to specific area 11. To enable them to discuss different things 12. To enable them to evaluate different things. 13. To motivate them 14. To increase their participation 15. To arouse the urge of curiosity in them especially if it is lacking 16. To see if they are following what is being taught. Skill of probing questions Introduction-questioning is an important teaching skill or device. A good question should have the fluency in terms of structure, process and product(response) Meaning It is a skill which involves going deep/ probe into the pupil responses(products) by asking a number of questions about what they already know and to lead them to the correct response. Even if the response is correct, it may help the pupils to proceed further and view the response from a broad perspective Importance

Skillful questioning performs social, psychological and educational functions. Components/ Techniques 1. Prompting: Giving clues/ hints in case of no response, partially correct and wrong responses. 2. Seeking further information-It is used to bring the initial response to the expected level 3. Refocusing: it is used when there is need for comparison, parallel examples relating/ correlation similarities and dissimilarities in order to have broader perspective on the response given 4. Re-direction: It involves directing the same question to several pupils for response. It can be used along with prompting, seeking further information, refocusing and increasing critical awareness with condition. 5. Increasing critical awareness: Involves asking how and why etc. questions which help to promote rational thinking Conclusion This skill should be thoroughly planned and practices. The skill should be used with requisite flexibility. The prospective teacher should prefer more of the higher order questions/ understand/ application/ critical thinking and evaluation/ judgement) than lower order questions.

Skill of writing instructional objectives


Planned activity is successful and meaningful. In order to have meaningful teaching, we should have perfect knowledge. There should be focus on observable behavior. Teacher should judge himself. 1. General objective 2. Specific objective. General Objective-They are restricted to one unit and cannot be achieved in 1 period. Specific objective- can be achieved in one period by taking one specific concept Components of the skill 1. Making the objective well-stated 2. Making the objectives learning outcome specific 3. Maintaining relevancy of content 4. Providing adequate content coverage. Good instructional objectives should be a learner specific State performance behavioral terms Specifying condition in which performance occurs Prescribing the minimum expected learning performance.

Before writing any objective: Write: The student will be able to Making the objectives learning outcome specific. Specific learning outcome should be achieved by teacher. Learning outcome is nothing but behavioral changes in a student Learning outcome: 1. Lower level 2. Higher level Maintaining relevance of content Objectives should include content matter, It should include subject of the content. Teacher should check in check that objectives are relevant. Theme of content should be understood and simple which is well in manner Providing adequate content coverage The list of content written by teacher should cover the entire content, cover all the points to be taught in the classroom. Nearly 6 objectives have to be written. SCHEDULE

Teach session Components S. no Well stated 1 2 3 Learning outcome specific Relevant to content 11 1 1111 Teach Re-teach

Adequate content coverage

111

Festival of India 1. The student will be able to list the special things which they get during festival 2. The student will be able to list out the important festivals celebrated in India 3. If the calendar of year 2013 is given the student will be able to list the national festivals of dates celebrate in the school 4. The student will be able to describe how Pongal festival celebrate in Tamil Nadu 5. The student will be able to construct the sentences for the words like celebrate offered 6. The student will be able to read the lesson with proper pause, intonation and pronunciation.

Skill of Introduction (SVM-Maths)


The most important aspect of student teaching is that how he introduces a new topic. Good and interesting introduction wins half the battle, where as a dull and monotonous introduction paves the way for a failure of the lesson. Principles of curriculam transaction First ask questions about previous knowledge; if topic is fresh, fresh introduction needs to be given Only highlights needs to be written asked by students.

Starts with generalized questions: U had lunch Components of the skill 1. Using previous knowledge 2. Using appropriate devices Using previous knowledge 1. Refer to or elicit from what the students have learnt in previous classes 2. Refer to or elicit current events which the students must be aware of 3. Create a situation in the class and then refer to the relevant knowledge In this situation, a device refers to technique that are using while introducing a lesson, you can use following devices: 1. Example/ Similarities 2. Questioning 3. Lecturing/Describing/Narrating/Illustrating 4. Story telling 5. Role playing/ Dramatization 6. Audio-Visual Aids 7. Experimentation/ Demonstration. Remember the following points at the time of using appropriate devices 1. Select only appropriate device 2. Device should be suitable to students maturity, age, grade, interest, culture and experience. 3. The devices should be suitable to the nature of the content or subject matter to be taught. 4. More devices can be accommodated depending upon such requirements Teachers activity Question asked by teacher Pupils activity Assuming answer from student

Serial no

Components Beginning statement Using previous knowledge questions

Teach

Reteach

Questions followed by correct answers Usage of any other devices Lack of continuity Concluding statement

At the end of the introduction, you should write the topic. At the end, feedback needs to be taken. After feedback, reteach plan again needs to be made.

Skill of Explaining
It is a quite complicated skill and overlaps the other skills. A teacher who is excellent in explaining things will do well in making his lesson more interesting and effective. 1. Skill of fluency in question 2. Skill of using blackboard 3. Skill of reinforcement Skill of explaining-Set of interrelated statements used for the purpose is skill of explanation. It depends on use of inter-related statements to provide knowledge. Components of skill of explaining 1. Using explaining links 2. Using beginning and concluding statements 3. Testing students understandings. Using explaining link Explaining links After in order that As a result in order to Inspite of because Therefore before So that this is how Due to here after Hence because of That is why as a result of Using beginning and concluding statements. Teacher should use the beginning statements after each explanation the teacher should conclude the topic.

Testing students understanding This component includes asking question to the students if the students give correct answer by that teacher get to know whether lesson has been understood by the students. S no 1 2 3 4 5 Components Beginning statements Explaining link Concluding statements Questions to test pupils understanding Questions followed by pupil correct response. Teach 111 1111 1 1111 1 Reteach

Skill of using Blackboard


Use of the blackboard is one of the important skill that the teacher must learn Proper Use of blackboard helps a lot in making most difficult problems clear. If the black board writing is clear, systematic, methodical it makes the clarity of the thoughts in students. The work to be more effective, it should be planned a head by the teacher. Writing on the blackboard should be such that all the students in the class can see it clearly. Skill of using blackboard 1. Blackboard is visual resources 2. Blackboard is audio resources 3. Blackboard is audio-visual resources Advantage of a Good teacher The teachers handwriting should be ligible. Components of the skill 1. Legibility of handwriting 2. Neatness in the blackboard work 3. Appropriateness of written work on the board.

Features of legibility of Handwriting 1. Distincts/ difference between the letters 2. Spacing between the letter and words 3. Slantness of each letter- Position of each letter should be in a good manner 4. Size of the letter-Equal size should be maintained while writing the letters. 5. Size of the upper case and lower case letters 6. Thickness of the letter Neatness in the blackboard work 1. Straightness of the line 2. Spacing between lines 3. Avoidance of overwriting 4. Focusing on the relevant matter Appropriateness of work on the blackboard 1. Continuity in the points 2. Brevity and simplicity 3. Drawing attention and focusing 4. Using colored chalk piece. S no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Components Spacing between letter and words Size of the letter Slantness of the letter Space between lines The words overwritten Irrelevant words Continuity of points The extra words Using of colour chalk Underlined words. Teach Reteach

Geography 1. What is the name of our country 2. What is continent 3. Geographical features of India 4. Subdivided into four physical division

5. Coastal plain and island 6. What is peninsula

Skill of Reinforcement
This is again a skill which a good teacher should acquire. Here we mean only reinforcement that are positive, like saying very nice, good, fine, excellent, correct etc. Negative reinforcements like. no, poor, very poor, wrong, sneering, frowning etc., should be avoided as far as possible. Without motivation, without reinforcement one cannot get good answers. Components of the skill Desirable component behavior 1. Positive verbal reinforce 2. Use of positive non-verbal reinforce 3. Use of extra-verbal reinforce Undesirable component behavior 1. Use of negative verbal reinforce 2. Use of negative non-verbal reinforce 3. Inappropriate use of reinforce Positive Verbal Reinforcement 1. Continue 2. Correct 3. Excellent 4. Fantastic 5. Fine 6. Go ahead 7. Good 8. Right 9. Splendid 10. Thats good 11. Very good 12. Well done 13. Yes Face is the index of mind Negative non-verbal Sneering, frowning, scolding, expressions of annoyance, impatience etc. Negative verbal Comments like no, wrong, no good, poor, of course, not etc.

Highlight what you are doing I see, what you mean Yes, you have judged it correctly Now, explain it in detail Continue Carry on. Positive non-verbal reinforce Gestures, expressions like smiling, nodding of head, a delighted laugh, clapping, keeping eyes on the responding students, giving ear to the student, moving towards responding students. Use of verbal reinforce Hmmm, uh uh Undesirable components Use of negative verbal reinforcement. Discouraging words such as wrong, incorrect, Stop it, nonsense , no, Thats not Negative non-verbal reinforcement Raising the eyebrows, hard and disapproving, stares, tapping foot impatiently, moving away from the responding students. Observation schedule S no Components 1 Desirable behavior a) b) c) d) e) 2 a) b) Use of positive verbal reinforce Use of positive non-verbal reinforce Use of extra verbal reinforce Use of negative verbal reinforce Use of negative non-verbal reinforce Undesirable behavior Wrong use of reinforcement Inappropriate use of reinforcement Teach Reteach

Skill of stimulus variation


When we do a thing ourselves actively, we attend to it more than when we merely see things being done. So teachers who during their teaching show mobility, uses gestures, changes the pitch of their voice, changes the volume of their voice and hence inflection of voice, are able to attract the attention of the students better than others who do not show any variation in their teaching. Behavior will be changed according to the situation demands Components 1. Moving in the classroom from one place to another place 2. Using gestures 3. Change in speech pattern 4. Focusing attention 5. Change in interaction style 6. Pausing 7. Oral-visual switching Moving in the classroom from one place to another place. 1. It is very important, to control and manage the class. At secondary level, it is not easy to control the mischievous students. Meaningful and purposeful movement should be there. 2. To make the students attentive, it should be meaningful. While reading, one should not move. Movement For example, purposeful movement from one place to the other like moving to the black board, moving to look at childrens work, moving forward to talk to pupils. In brief, all the variations which attract attention of a student. 1. To explain a picture hung on the wall 2. To write important formula on the blackboard. (for secondary school. Only highlights need to be written. 3. To check whether the students are noting or observing it or not Using gestures If the teacher shows movement, emphasizing important experiences by moving his hands, etc. he is able to arrest the attention of a student. Expression, action, body language, attitude It brings interest amongst the students. The way our body speaks, By purposeful gesture, automatically the student relates to it.

1. Use head movements to direct attention and emphasize on direct attention. 2. To emphasize importance 3. Express emotion. 4. Use hand movement to direct attention 5. Use facial expressions to direct attention Expressions need to be changed according to the stages from start to end. To present any lesson beautifully is an art Teaching aid plays a very important role. Change in speech pattern 2 Intonations are there: Raising and falling Voice should be clear, audible, not too loud Stress: emphasize on, volume control, pause should be there. 1. Narrate certain sentences or some parts of sentences. 2. Expressing anger, disapproval or approval, happiness or anger. (Variation in the speech pattern, voice should be modulated according to the need of the lesson_ 3. Introduce sudden or radicle change of speech. Eg. While making diagram or any picture on the board, we can modulate our voice to control the class 4. Volume speed of the speech-It includes emphasis on particular words or phrases

Focusing attention 1. Verbal focusing. 2. Gestural focusing.3. Verbal and gestural focusing Verbal focusing- It is a behavior, which students need to notice. For eg. Notice, this is important Underline this Gestural focusing (Moving our body movements or language. Changing in interacting style Interaction and involvement both are very important Interaction 1. Teacher and group interaction 2. Teacher student interaction 3. Student and student interaction(Asking students only, teacher is there but only final conclusion is given by the teacher) Pause Giving a small break 1. Use a pause after each sentence or successive sentences 2. Use pause for few seconds immediately after asking a question. Use pause occasionally to give opportunity to the students to understand.

Oral-visual switching There should be balance between both. It is of three types: 1. Oral to oral-visual 2. Oral to visual 3. Visual to oral-visual

Skill of achieving closure


How the lesson is closed, leaves a lasting impression on the students. This requires a good knowledge of theories of learning on the part of the teacher. Closing stage 1. Achieving closure 2. Planned repetition 3. Giving assignments 4. Evaluating pupils progress 5. Diagnosing learning difficulties of pupils and taking remedial measures. Closure skill Review/ reinforce and summarize learning outcomes or objectives. Assess students understanding and students make conclusion Relate lesson with the next topic/ lesson Give appropriate reading and or/ written homework Social Affective values: Feeling of achievement and enjoyment of the lesson.

Bibliography Educational Technology

C V Myageri Technology of teaching and essentials of teaching learning (Educational Innovations) Four Authors